Sample records for tatara etsuji okamoto

  1. Secure Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network-Fujisaki Okamoto(FO) Authentication Scheme against Sybil Attack. (United States)

    Nirmal Raja, K; Maraline Beno, M


    In the wireless sensor network(WSN) security is a major issue. There are several network security schemes proposed in research. In the network, malicious nodes obstruct the performance of the network. The network can be vulnerable by Sybil attack. When a node illicitly assertions multiple identities or claims fake IDs, the WSN grieves from an attack named Sybil attack. This attack threatens wireless sensor network in data aggregation, synchronizing system, routing, fair resource allocation and misbehavior detection. Henceforth, the research is carried out to prevent the Sybil attack and increase the performance of the network. This paper presents the novel security mechanism and Fujisaki Okamoto algorithm and also application of the work. The Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) algorithm is ID based cryptographic scheme and gives strong authentication against Sybil attack. By using Network simulator2 (NS2) the scheme is simulated. In this proposed scheme broadcasting key, time taken for different key sizes, energy consumption, Packet delivery ratio, Throughput were analyzed.

  2. Visit of Professor Shigehiko Hasumi. President of Tokyo University, Japan, Professor Kazuo Okamoto, Head of Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, Professor Toshiteru Matsuura, Head of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez


    Visit of Professor Shigehiko Hasumi. President of Tokyo University, Japan, Professor Kazuo Okamoto, Head of Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, Professor Toshiteru Matsuura, Head of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

  3. Deviation from normal Boltzmann distribution of high-lying energy levels of iron atom excited by Okamoto-cavity microwave-induced plasmas using pure nitrogen and nitrogen–oxygen gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki


    This paper describes several interesting excitation phenomena occurring in a microwave-induced plasma (MIP) excited with Okamoto-cavity, especially when a small amount of oxygen was mixed with nitrogen matrix in the composition of the plasma gas. An ion-to-atom ratio of iron, which was estimated from the intensity ratio of ion to atomic lines having almost the same excitation energy, was reduced by adding oxygen gas to the nitrogen MIP, eventually contributing to an enhancement in the emission intensities of the atomic lines. Furthermore, Boltzmann plots for iron atomic lines were observed in a wide range of the excitation energy from 3.4 to 6.9 eV, indicating that plots of the atomic lines having lower excitation energies (3.4 to 4.8 eV) were well fitted on a straight line while those having more than 5.5 eV deviated upwards from the linear relationship. This overpopulation would result from any other excitation process in addition to the thermal excitation that principally determines the Boltzmann distribution. A Penning-type collision with excited species of nitrogen molecules probably explains this additional excitation mechanism, in which the resulting iron ions recombine with captured electrons, followed by cascade de-excitations between closely-spaced excited levels just below the ionization limit. As a result, these high-lying levels might be more populated than the low-lying levels of iron atom. The ionization of iron would be caused less actively in the nitrogen–oxygen plasma than in a pure nitrogen plasma, because excited species of nitrogen molecule, which can provide the ionization energy in a collision with iron atom, are consumed through collisions with oxygen molecules to cause their dissociation. It was also observed that the overpopulation occurred to a lesser extent when oxygen gas was added to the nitrogen plasma. The reason for this was also attributed to decreased number density of the excited nitrogen species due to collisions with oxygen

  4. Enhancement of the reproductive potential of Mallada boninensis Okamoto (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, a predator of red spider mite infesting tea: An evaluation of artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthakumar Duraikkannu


    Full Text Available Green lacewing Mallada boninensis is an important predator of various soft-bodied arthropods, including red spider mites in tea. Efforts were made to develop mass rearing technology for this predator in a cost effective manner. Three combinations of artificial diets (Protinex (AD1, egg yolk (AD2 and royal jelly (AD3 based were evaluated in comparison with standard diet (Protinex + Honey. All the tested diets influenced the egg-laying capacity of M. boninensis. The egg yolk-based diet resulted in more egg production than the other two diets. Survival of all life stages of M. boninensis was also observed on each diet and no significant difference was noticed. Results revealed that the egg yolk-based diet is the best of the three diet combinations tested in view of high fecundity and survival rate of M. boninensis.

  5. Easy come-easy go divisible cash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.; Tsiounis, Y. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Coll. of Computer Science; Frankel, Y. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Recently, there has been an interest in making electronic cash protocols more practical for electronic commerce by developing e-cash which is divisible (e.g., a coin which can be spent incrementally but total purchases are limited to the monetary value of the coin). In Crypto`95, T. Okamoto presented the first practical divisible, untraceable, off-line e-cash scheme, which requires only O(log N) computations for each of the withdrawal, payment and deposit procedures, where N = (total coin value)/(smallest divisible unit). However, Okamoto`s set-up procedure is quite inefficient (on the order of 4,000 multi-exponentiations and depending on the size of the RSA modulus). The authors formalize the notion of range-bounded commitment, originally used in Okamoto`s account establishment protocol, and present a very efficient instantiation which allows one to construct the first truly efficient divisible e-cash system. The scheme only requires the equivalent of one (1) exponentiation for set-up, less than 2 exponentiations for withdrawal and around 20 for payment, while the size of the coin remains about 300 Bytes. Hence, the withdrawal protocol is 3 orders of magnitude faster than Okamoto`s, while the rest of the system remains equally efficient, allowing for implementation in smart-cards. Similar to Okamoto`s, the scheme is based on proofs whose cryptographic security assumptions are theoretically clarified.

  6. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pedersen K S, Bendix J and Clerac R 2014 Chem. Commun. 50 4396. 14. Saitoh E, Miyajima H, Yamaoka T and Tatara G 2004. Nature 432 203. 15. Leuenberger M N and Loss D 2001 Nature 410 789. 16. Yamanouchi M, Chiba D, Matsukura F and Ohno H. 2004 Nature 428 539. 17. Bogani L and Wernsdorfer W 2008 Nat.

  7. Selective inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by alpha-zam, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by alpha-zam, a Nigella sativa seed formulation. Olufunmilayo G. Oyero, Masaaki Toyama, Naoki Mitsuhiro, Abdulfatah A. Onifade, Akemi Hidaka, Mika Okamoto, Masanori Baba ...

  8. 鞍谷川の水環境について


    辰巳, 佳次; Tatsumi, Yoshitsugu


    According to the Fukui Prefecture environmental report, Kuratani River BOD of the living environment item in the environmental standards, has always been ranked the worst 3. In this study, we conducted a survey and study its causes. As a result, the impact on the water quality of the Kuratani River, drainage from the paper mill near the Okamoto River has been suggested as the cause. It should be noted, Okamoto River is a tributary of the Kuratani River. Moreover, it was suggested that affects...

  9. Improvement in tensile properties of PVC–montmorillonite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figueras F et al 1990 Clays Clay Miner. 38 257. Gacitua William, Ballerini A and Zhang J 2005 Maderas. Ciencia y tecnologia 7 159. Gong Fl, Feng M, C Zhao, Zhang S and Yang M 2004 Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 84 289. Hussain Farzana, Hojjati Mehdi, Okamoto Masami and Gorga. Russell E 2006 J. Compos. Mater. 40 1511.

  10. 111-120

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is mainly nuclear (the magnetic contribution to its intensity is negligible (< 2%)). 14) S Komura, K. Tajima, H. Fujii, Y Ishikawa and T Okamoto, J. Magn. Magn. Mater: 15-18, 351. (1980). 15 C Wilkinson, R Wappling and K R A Ziebeck, J. Magn. Magn. Mater: 78,269 (1989). Pramana - J. Phys., Wol. 52, No. 1, January 1999 19 ...

  11. Stemcell Information: SKIP000232 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anabe A, Yamada Y, Morizane A, Takahashi J, Ayaki T, Ito H, Yoshikawa K, Yamawaki S, Suzuki S, Watanabe D, H...ioki H, Kaneko T, Makioka K, Okamoto K, Takuma H, Tamaoka A, Hasegawa K, Nonaka T, Hasegawa M, Kawata A, Yos

  12. Stemcell Information: SKIP000231 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tanabe A, Yamada Y, Morizane A, Takahashi J, Ayaki T, Ito H, Yoshikawa K, Yamawaki S, Suzuki S, Watanabe D, ...Hioki H, Kaneko T, Makioka K, Okamoto K, Takuma H, Tamaoka A, Hasegawa K, Nonaka T, Hasegawa M, Kawata A, Yo

  13. Stemcell Information: SKIP000229 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a Y, Morizane A, Takahashi J, Ayaki T, Ito H, Yoshikawa K, Yamawaki S, Suzuki S, Watanabe D, Hioki H, Kaneko... T, Makioka K, Okamoto K, Takuma H, Tamaoka A, Hasegawa K, Nonaka T, Hasegawa M, Kawata A, Yoshida M, Nakaha

  14. Stemcell Information: SKIP000228 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a Y, Morizane A, Takahashi J, Ayaki T, Ito H, Yoshikawa K, Yamawaki S, Suzuki S, Watanabe D, Hioki H, Kaneko... T, Makioka K, Okamoto K, Takuma H, Tamaoka A, Hasegawa K, Nonaka T, Hasegawa M, Kawata A, Yoshida M, Nakaha

  15. Stemcell Information: SKIP000230 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tanabe A, Yamada Y, Morizane A, Takahashi J, Ayaki T, Ito H, Yoshikawa K, Yamawaki S, Suzuki S, Watanabe D, ...Hioki H, Kaneko T, Makioka K, Okamoto K, Takuma H, Tamaoka A, Hasegawa K, Nonaka T, Hasegawa M, Kawata A, Yo

  16. Reference: 329 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moru et al. 2006 Mar. Plant Physiol. 140(3):1036-46. The NAR2 protein of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has no kn...36-46 16415212 2006 Mar Plant physiology Crawford Nigel M|Glass Anthony D M|Kumar Anshuman|Li Wenbin|Okamoto Mamoru|Siddiqi M Yaeesh|Wang Ye

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 4, 2012 ... Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia 63 239–246. Campos VF, Collares TV, Seixas FK, Deschamps JC, Marins. LFF, Okamoto MH, Sampaio LAN and Robaldo RB 2011b. NPY and sbGnRH gene expression in juvenile and adult male Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus. Ciencia. Rural 41 ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification, tissue distribution and evaluation of brain neuropeptide Y gene expression in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus. Vinicius F Campos Tiago Collares João C Deschamps Fabiana K Seixas Odir A Dellagostin Carlos Frederico C Lanes Juliana Sandrini Luis Fernando Marins Marcelo Okamoto Luís A ...

  19. Towards a Common Graphical Language for Learning Flows: Transforming BPEL to IMS Learning Design Level A Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Sampson, Demetrios


    P. Karampiperis and D. Sampson, "Towards a Common Graphical Language for Learning Flows: Transforming BPEL to IMS Learning Design Level A Representations", in J. M. Spector, D. Sampson, T. Okamoto, Kinshuk, S. A. Cerri, M. Ueno and A. Kashihara (Eds). Proc. of the 7th IEEE International Conference

  20. Polymorphisms in the hepatitis C virus core and its association with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Virginia Sedeño-Monge


    Jul 5, 2017 ... factor for the efficiency of viral particle assembly (Okamoto et al. 1992; Hope and McLauchlan 2000). ..... development obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), also activates AMP-activated protein kinase .... (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Argentina, USA, China, Japan,. Hong Kong and Taiwan) and reports that ...

  1. C Chang foliar co es in g applic owpea growth cation cultiva h and n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Montpellier, Montpellier, France. Yousif BS, Nguyen NT, Fukuda Y, Hakata H, Okamoto Y, Saneoka H. (2010). Effect of salinity on growth, mineral composition, photosynthesis and water relations of two vegetable crops; New. Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tretragonioides) and water spinach. (Ipomoea aquatica). Int. J. Agric.

  2. Preparation of polystyrene–clay nanocomposite by solution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ammonium bromide by ion-exchange reaction to render laponite miscible with hydrophobic PS. X-ray diffraction analysis in ... ever, aggregation and agglomeration occur at higher clay concentration. The molecular bond vibrational .... rate them resulting in more exfoliated structures (Ray and. Okamoto 2003). 3.2 X-ray ...

  3. Pedagogical Perspectives on Gendered Speech Styles in the Teaching and Learning of Japanese as a Foreign Language (United States)

    Bohn, Mariko Tajima


    This study examines student perspectives on gender differences in Japanese speech. Expanding on a small-scale survey by Siegal & Okamoto (2003) that investigated the views of eleven Japanese-language college teachers, this study analyzes 238 questionnaire responses from 220 Japanese-language students at four universities and a US government…

  4. (3- (trifluoromethyl)phenyl)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kirk K 2006 J. Fluor. Chem. 127 1013. 6. Sakairi K, Kogami M, Torii M, Makino M, Kataoka. D, Okamoto R, Miyazawa T, Inoue M, Takahashi N,. Harada S and Watanabe N 2012 Chem. Pharm. Bull. 60. 1093. 7. Parikh K and Joshi D 2013 Med. Chem. Res. 22 3688. 8. Amir M and Shikha K 2004 Eur. J. Med. Chem. 39. 535. 9.

  5. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology (United States)

    Ishioka, Sachio; Fujikawa, Kazuo


    Preface -- Committees -- Opening address / H. Fukuyama -- Welcoming address / N. Osakabe -- Special lecture. Albert Einstein: opportunity and perception / C. N. Yang -- Quantum information and entanglement. Quantum optics with single atoms and photons / H. J. Kimble. Quantum information system experiments using a single photon source / Y. Yamamoto. Quantum communication and quantum computation with entangled photons / A. Zeilinger. High-fidelity quantum teleportation and a quantum teleportation network for continuous variables / N. Takei, A. Furusawa. Long lived entangled states / H. Häffner ... [et al.]. Quantum non-locality using tripartite entanglement with non-orthogonal states / J. V. Corbett, D. Home. Quantum entanglement and wedge product / H Heydari. Analysis of the generation of photon pairs in periodically poled lithium niobate / J. Söderholm ... [et al.]. Generation of entangled photons in a semiconductor and violation of Bell's inequality / G. Oohata, R. Shimizu, K. Edamatsu -- Quantum computing. Decoherence of a Josephson junction flux qubit / Y. Nakamura ... [et al.]. Spectroscopic analysis of a candidate two-qubit silicon quantum computer in the microwave regime / J. Gorman, D. G. Hasko, D. A. Williams. Berry phase detection in charge-coupled flux-qubits and the effect of decoherence / H. Nakano ... [et al.]. Locally observable conditions for the successful implementation of entangling multi-qubit quantum gates / H. F. Hofmann, R. Okamoto, S. Takeuchi. State control in flux qubit circuits: manipulating optical selection rules of microwave-assisted transitions in three-level artificial atoms / Y.-X. Liu ... [et al.]. The effect of local structure and non-uniformity on decoherence-free states of charge qubits / T. Tanamoto, S. Fujita. Entanglement-assisted estimation of quantum channels / A. Fujiwara. Superconducting quantum bit with ferromagnetic [symbol]-Junction / T. Yamashita, S. Takahashi, S. Maekawa. Generation of macroscopic Greenberger

  6. Tamper Resilient Cryptography Without Self-Destruct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay


    is not upda ted, continuous tamper resilience is known to be impossible). For the case of ID schemes, we a lso show that if the underlying protocol is secure in the bounded retrieval model, then our compiler remains secure, even if the adversary can tamper with the computation performed by the device. In some...... the public paramet ers have been sampled. Our result covers pseudorandom functions, and many encryption and signature schemes. 2. We show that standard ID and signature schemes constructed from a large class of Σ- protocols (including the Okamoto scheme, for instance) are secur e even if the adversary can...... arbitrarily tamper with the prover’s state a bounded number of times and/or obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters. 3. We show a bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem...

  7. Modeling estimates of the effect of acid rain on background radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Sheppard, M.I.


    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially 226Ra and 137Cs, are among these materials. Okamoto is apparently the only researcher to date who has attempted to quantify the effect of acid rain on the background radiation dose to man. He estimated an increase in dose by a factor of 1.3 following a decrease in soil pH of 1 unit. We reviewed literature that described the effects of changes in pH on mobility and plant uptake of Ra and Cs. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will increase mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Thus, Okamoto's dose estimate may be too low. We applied several simulation models to confirm Okamoto's ideas, with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modeled a typical, acid-rain sensitive soil using meteorological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed essentially direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. This supports some of the assumptions invoked by Okamoto. We conclude that a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor of 2 or more. Our models predict that this will lead to similar increases in plant uptake and radiological dose to man. Although health effects following such a small increase in dose have not been statistically demonstrated, any increase in dose is probably undesirable

  8. Modeling estimates of the effect of acid rain on background radiation dose. (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Sheppard, M I


    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially 226Ra and 137Cs, are among these materials. Okamoto is apparently the only researcher to date who has attempted to quantify the effect of acid rain on the "background" radiation dose to man. He estimated an increase in dose by a factor of 1.3 following a decrease in soil pH of 1 unit. We reviewed literature that described the effects of changes in pH on mobility and plant uptake of Ra and Cs. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will increase mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Thus, Okamoto's dose estimate may be too low. We applied several simulation models to confirm Okamoto's ideas, with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modeled a typical, acid-rain sensitive soil using meteorological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed essentially direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. This supports some of the assumptions invoked by Okamoto. We conclude that a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor of 2 or more. Our models predict that this will lead to similar increases in plant uptake and radiological dose to man. Although health effects following such a small increase in dose have not been statistically demonstrated, any increase in dose is probably undesirable.

  9. Reference: 364 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sanori et al. 2006 May. Plant Physiol. 141(1):97-107. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) levels are regulated by... both biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. ABA 8'-hydroxylase is considered to be the key catabolic enzyme in many physio...psis. 1 97-107 16543410 2006 May Plant physiology Asami Tadao|Hirai Nobuhiro|Kamiya Yuji|Koshiba Tomokazu|Kushiro Tetsuo|Kuwahara Ayuko|Nambara Eiji|Okamoto Masanori|Seo Mistunori

  10. Temporal Causal Diagrams for Diagnosing Failures in Cyber Physical Systems (United States)


    et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2004), expert sys- tems (Talukdar, Cardozo, & Perry, 2007; Yang, Okamoto, Yokoyama, & Sekine, 1992), fuzzy - logic methods (W...Chen, Liu, & Tsai, 2000; Sun, Qin, & Song, 2004), Genetic Al- gorithm, search based techniques (Lin, Ke, Li, Weng, & Han, 2010), artificial neural ...Schulz, 2007) and Spacecraft (Poll et al., 2007; Daigle et al., 2010). A pioneering paper (Fukui & Kawakami, 1986) reports a rule- based or logic -based

  11. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [11] (a) C Chudoba, A Kummrow, J Dreyer, J Stenger, E T J Nibbering,. T Elsaesser and K A Zachariasse, Chem. Phys. Lett., Vol.309, p.357,. 1999. (b) H Okamoto, H Inishi, Y Nakamura, S Kohtani and R Nakagaki, J. Phys. Chem. A, Vol.105, p.4182, 2001. (c) C Ma, W M Kwok, P Matousek, A W Parker, D Phillips, W T Toner.

  12. Comment: 222 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 222.png Shinobu Okamoto (Kazusa DNA Research Institute ) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan シアノバクテリア 光学顕微鏡写真 撮影:岡本忍(かずさDNA研究所) bando 2010/02/15 15:28:38 2010/02/16 10:25:09 ...

  13. Comment: 223 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 223.png Shinobu Okamoto (Kazusa DNA Research Institute ) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan シアノバクテリア 電子顕微鏡写真 撮影:岡本忍(かずさDNA研究所) bando 2009/11/05 18:33:52 2010/02/16 10:25:27 ...

  14. Security Engineering (United States)


    Clarkson, Chong, and Myers, 2008; Fujioka and Okamoto, 1992] across a diverse set of redundant components. For example, an automobile brake control...e.g., a radio frequency spectrum analyzer embedded in a subsystem’s hardware chassis , and listening for a wireless triggering command at the time of...S. Checkoway, D. McCoy, B. Kantor, D. Anderson, H. Shacham, and S. Savage, Experimental security analysis of a modern automobile , IEEE Symposium on

  15. Jaapani kilpkonn kogub Lenini küljes emotsioone / Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosaar, Teet, 1963-


    Jaapani skulptor Atsuo Okamoto raius graniidist hiigelsuure kilpkonna, mille ta jagas 49-ks tükiks, mis peavad maailma eri paigus aasta jooksul selle piirkonna õhku, värve, emotsioone ja ajalugu koguma. Baltikumi esindab selles projektis Pärnu ja 5,5 kg graniiditükk kinnitati 31. jaan. Pärnus peata Lenini kuju külge. vt.

  16. Practical Education Support to Foster Engineers at Manufacturing and Engineering Design Center in Muroran Institute of Technology (United States)

    Kazama, Toshiharu; Hanajima, Naohiko; Shimizu, Kazumichi; Satoh, Kohki

    To foster engineers with creative power, Muroran Institute of Technology established Manufacturing and Engineering Design Center (MEDeC) that concentrates on Monozukuri. MEDeC consists of three project groups : i) Education Support Group provides educational support for practical training classes on and off campus and PDCA (plan-do-check-action) -conscious engineering design education related to Monozukuri ; ii) Fundamental Manufacturing Research Group carries out nurture research into fundamental and innovative technology of machining and manufacturing, and iii) Regional Cooperation Group coordinates the activities in cooperation with bureau, schools and industries in and around Muroran City. MEDeC has a fully integrated collection of machine tools and hand tools for manufacturing, an atelier, a tatara workplace, implements for measurement and related equipment designed for practically teaching state-of-the-practice manufacturing methods.

  17. Scaling law to determine peak forces in tapping-mode AFM experiments on finite elastic soft matter systems. (United States)

    Guzman, Horacio V


    Analytical equations to estimate the peak force will facilitate the interpretation and the planning of amplitude-modulation force microscopy (tapping mode) experiments. A closed-form analytical equation to estimate the tip-sample peak forces while imaging soft materials in liquid environment and within an elastic deformation regime has been deduced. We have combined a multivariate regression method with input from the virial-dissipation equations and Tatara's bidimensional deformation contact mechanics model. The equation enables to estimate the peak force based on the tapping mode observables, probe characteristics and the material properties of the sample. The accuracy of the equation has been verified by comparing it to numerical simulations for the archetypical operating conditions to image soft matter with high spatial resolution in tapping-mode AFM.

  18. Suppression of Prostate Tumor Progression by Bin 1 (United States)


    21. Lakso M, Pichel JG, Gorman JR, Sauer B, Okamoto Y, Lee E, et al. Efficient in vivo manipulation of mouse genomic sequences at the zygote stage...0.0419 7,8 1.0 i.v. 3x/week Cyclophosphamide Alkylating agent 0.81 ± 0.12 1.4 ± 0.18 0.0269 5,5 100 i.v. 3x/week Doxorubicin Antineoplastic ...of support. of establishing peripheral tolerance’ 9 [AU: Sentence very long. Please Combination drug treatment for cancer is the standard of care , but

  19. Dynamics of Flow in the Region of the Tsugaru Strait. (United States)


    level values obtained at nearby coastal stations, which verities the earlier work of Nomitsu and Okamoto (1927). The spatial distribution of steric...rch on buoyant outflow (e.g., Takano, 1954; Not 1978a, b; Beardslt-v and Hart , 1978) has primarily eaphasized deflec- tion and spreading of thc...possessed sufficient initial vrticity at a strait outlet. Beardslev and Hart (1978) pro- duced anal yr i c sol It i ons -t the out t low ci rcul at ion for a

  20. Relations between zeros of special polynomials associated with the Painleve equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.; Demina, Maria V.


    A method for finding relations of roots of polynomials is presented. Our approach allows us to get a number of relations between the zeros of the classical polynomials as well as the roots of special polynomials associated with rational solutions of the Painleve equations. We apply the method to obtain the relations for the zeros of several polynomials. These are: the Hermite polynomials, the Laguerre polynomials, the Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials, the generalized Okamoto polynomials, and the generalized Hermite polynomials. All the relations found can be considered as analogues of generalized Stieltjes relations

  1. Asymptotic gap probability distributions of the Gaussian unitary ensembles and Jacobi unitary ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulin Lyu


    The σ function, namely, the derivative of the log of the smallest eigenvalue distributions of the finite-n LUE or the JUE, satisfies the Jimbo–Miwa–Okamoto σ form of PV and PVI, although in the shift Jacobi case, with the weight xα(1−xβ, the β parameter does not show up in the equation. We also obtain the asymptotic expansions for the smallest eigenvalue distributions of the Laguerre unitary and Jacobi unitary ensembles after appropriate double scalings, and obtained the constants in the asymptotic expansion of the gap probabilities, expressed in term of the Barnes G-function valuated at special point.

  2. Central retinal artery occlusion resembling Purtscher-like retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etomi T


    Full Text Available Takuji Kurimoto1, Norio Okamoto2, Hidehiro Oku1, Yuko Kanbara1, Tomohiko Etomi1, Masahiro Tonari1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan; 2Okamoto Eye Clinic, Suita, Osaka, JapanAbstract: This paper reports three cases of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO with Purtscher-like retinopathy and good recovery of visual function. The three cases of CRAO had similar fundus changes, ie, cotton wool patches surrounding the optic disc and whitening of the retina surrounding the fovea with a cherry red spot. Fluorescein angiography showed a delay of arm-to-retina circulation time and a partial defect of choroid circulation. Although the three cases were treated by different regimens of steroid pulse therapy and antiplatelet therapy, visual function recovered well and all disturbances of the retinal and choroid circulations resolved. Although eyes with a CRAO normally have a poor visual prognosis, our three cases responded well to the treatments and recovered good visual function. Thus, cases showing fundus changes similar to our three cases may have a pathogenesis different from that of a complete CRAO.Keywords: central retinal artery occlusion, cotton wool patches, Purtscher retinopathy, steroid therapy

  3. Comparative study on contribution of charge-transfer collision to excitations of iron ion between argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma and nitrogen microwave induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Kozue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail:


    This paper describes an ionization/excitation phenomenon of singly-ionized iron occurring in an Okamoto-cavity microwave induced plasma (MIP) as well as an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP), by comparing the Boltzmann distribution among iron ionic lines (Fe II) having a wide range of the excitation energy from 4.76 to 9.01 eV. It indicated in both the plasmas that plots of Fe II lines having lower excitation energies (4.76 to 5.88 eV) were fitted on each linear relationship, implying that their excitations were caused by a dominant thermal process such as collision with energetic electron. However, Fe II lines having higher excitation energies (more than 7.55 eV) had a different behavior from each other. In the ICP, Boltzmann plots of Fe II lines assigned to the higher excited levels also followed the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels, even including a deviation from it in particular excited levels having an excitation energy of ca. 7.8 eV. This deviation can be attributed to a charge-transfer collision with argon ion, which results in the overpopulation of these excited levels, but the contribution is small. On the other hand, the distribution of the high-lying excited levels was non-thermal in the Okamoto-cavity MIP, which did not follow the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels. A probable reason for the non-thermal characteristics in the MIP is that a charge-transfer collision with nitrogen molecule ion having many vibrational/rotational levels could work for populating the 3d{sup 6}4p (3d{sup 5}4s4p) excited levels of iron ion broadly over an energy range of 7.6–9.0 eV, while collisional excitation by energetic electron would occur insufficiently to excite these high-energy levels. - Highlights: • This paper describes the excitation mechanism of iron ion in Okamoto-cavity MIP in comparison with conventional ICP. • Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron ionic lines of

  4. In situ assessment of morpho-physiological response of wheat (triticum aestivum L.) genotypes to drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raziuddin; Faratullah; Ullah, N.; Hassan, G.; Swati, Z.A.; Bakht, J.; Shafi, M.; Akmal, M.


    In situ studies were conducted to assess the morpho-physiological responses of wheat genotypes to PEG-induced water stress. Wheat genotypes were raised in hydroponic cultures where plants were nourished with half strength Hoagland solution. Plants were exposed to 00, 10, 20, 30 and 40% PEG-6000 at 4-leaf stage. PEG was applied in split doses at the rate of 10% with an interval of 15 days. Significant differences (p=0.05) were recorded for all the parameters studied due to genotypes and PEG concentrations. Wheat genotypes showed negative but variable response to PEG concentrations for shoot length, root length, root/ shoot ratio and root mass whereas PEG imposed stress had positive impact on proline content and abscisic acid (ABA). Genotype Khattakwal attained maximum shoot length in PEG induced stress. Maximum root/shoot ratio and root mass was recorded in Ghaznavi-98 while Tatara and Khattakwal attained maximum relative water content. Endogenous proline and ABA content increased up to 10 fold in response to 40% PEG. Maximum proline was accumulated by Khattakwal whereas maximum ABA by ICP-3. (author)

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of the Influence of Structural Parameters on Dynamic Behaviour of Highly Redundant Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Asgari


    Full Text Available The model tuning through sensitivity analysis is a prominent procedure to assess the structural behavior and dynamic characteristics of cable-stayed bridges. Most of the previous sensitivity-based model tuning methods are automatic iterative processes; however, the results of recent studies show that the most reasonable results are achievable by applying the manual methods to update the analytical model of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a model updating algorithm for highly redundant cable-stayed bridges that can be used as an iterative manual procedure. The updating parameters are selected through the sensitivity analysis which helps to better understand the structural behavior of the bridge. The finite element model of Tatara Bridge is considered for the numerical studies. The results of the simulations indicate the efficiency and applicability of the presented manual tuning method for updating the finite element model of cable-stayed bridges. The new aspects regarding effective material and structural parameters and model tuning procedure presented in this paper will be useful for analyzing and model updating of cable-stayed bridges.

  6. Stability of rust resistance and yield potential of some icarda bread wheat lines in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.J.A.; Khan, A.J.; Azam, F.; Mirza, J.I.; Atiq-ur-Rehman


    Thirty bread wheat lines resistant to Yellow rust (Yr) were selected after careful screening from two ICARDA nurseries during 1998 - 1999, Rabi season at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar under severe disease pressure. In the following crop cycle, these selections were again field evaluated for stability and effectiveness of Yr resistance at multilocations while their yield potential was ascertained at Tarnab in two different trials with Tatara as commercial check. Results revealed that uniformity was found in the potential behavior of 23 lines (77%) in both the cropping seasons against Yr. This included some high yielding (up to 7067 kg/ ha) and low yielding lines (up to 4333 kg / ha) when compared with the check (6089 kg / ha). Yield potential of some high yielding lines with stable Yr resistance should be further evaluated over sites and seasons for wide adaptability, under national uniform testing in order to select and deploy future varieties to combat Yr for acquiring food security in Pakistan.(author)

  7. Noh Creation of Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munakata Kuniyoshi


    Full Text Available This article contains select comments and reviews on Noh Hamlet and Noh Othello in English and Noh King Lear in Japanese. The scripts from these performances were arranged based on Shakespeare’s originals and directed on stage and performed in English by Kuniyoshi Munakata from the early 1980s until 2014. Also, the whole text of Munakata’s Noh Macbeth in English (Munakata himself acted as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in one play is for the first time publicized. The writers of the comments and reviews include notable people such as John Fraser, Michael Barrett, Upton Murakami, Donald Richie, Rick Ansorg, James David Audlin, Jesper Keller, Jean-Claude Saint-Marc, Jean-Claude Baumier, Judy Kendall, Allan Owen, Yoshio ARAI, Yasumasa OKAMOTO, Tatsuhiko TAIRA, Hikaru ENDO, Kazumi YAMAGATA, Hanako ENDO, Yoshiko KAWACHI, Mari Boyd, and Daniel Gallimore.

  8. Fingerprinting protocol for images based on additive homomorphic property. (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Minoru; Tanaka, Hatsukazu


    Homomorphic property of public-key cryptosystems is applied for several cryptographic protocols, such as electronic cash, voting system, bidding protocols, etc. Several fingerprinting protocols also exploit the property to achieve an asymmetric system. However, their enciphering rate is extremely low and the implementation of watermarking technique is difficult. In this paper, we propose a new fingerprinting protocol applying additive homomorphic property of Okamoto-Uchiyama encryption scheme. Exploiting the property ingenuously, the enciphering rate of our fingerprinting scheme can be close to the corresponding cryptosystem. We study the problem of implementation of watermarking technique and propose a successful method to embed an encrypted information without knowing the plain value. The security can also be protected for both a buyer and a merchant in our scheme.

  9. Fundamentals of optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Katsunari


    Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides is an essential resource for any researcher, professional or student involved in optics and communications engineering. Any reader interested in designing or actively working with optical devices must have a firm grasp of the principles of lightwave propagation. Katsunari Okamoto has presented this difficult technology clearly and concisely with several illustrations and equations. Optical theory encompassed in this reference includes coupled mode theory, nonlinear optical effects, finite element method, beam propagation method, staircase concatenation method, along with several central theorems and formulas. Since the publication of the well-received first edition of this book, planar lightwave circuits and photonic crystal fibers have fully matured. With this second edition the advances of these fibers along with other improvements on existing optical technologies are completely detailed. This comprehensive volume enables readers to fully analyze, design and simulate opti...

  10. Studies on micro plasto hydrodymic lubrication in metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Andreasen, Jan Lasson


    The influence of work piece surface topography on friction and lubrication and final surface quality in metal forming operations is well known and has been pointed out by many researchers, see Schey (1983) and Bay and Wanheim (1990). This is especially the case when liquid lubrication is applied...... characterization models the potential entrapment of a lubricant in closed reservoirs is used as a parameter to predetermine the formability of a sheet metal, Steinhoff et al. (1996), Geiger et al. (1997) and Schmoeckel et al. (1997). In experimental studies on friction in metal forming applying the strip drawing...... test, Kudo et al. (1976 and 1982) discovered that the friction stress increased with the product of lubricant viscosity and drawing speed in the mixed lubrication regime. Mizuno and Okamoto (1982) noticed the same phenomenon in compression-sliding experiments, and proposed the explanation...

  11. Bismuth mineral inclusions in gold-bearing magnetite from the giant Beiya gold deposit, SW China: insights into mineralization process (United States)

    Zhou, Haoyang; Sun, Xiaoming


    Bismuth minerals are commonly found in a wide range of gold deposits and could offer valuable information on the process of gold mineralization. This is because Bi minerals always show immediate association with gold and are sensitive to chemical-physical variations (Afifi et al., 1988). Specifically, native bismuth has a melting point of 271°C and could melt at lower temperatures when gold is added (Okamoto et al,, 1983). It has been verified that Bi melt could efficiently scavenge gold from hydrothermal fluids (Tooth et al., 2008, 2011). The Beiya deposit, situated in the Sanjiang Tethyan tectonic domain in the southwestern China, is one of the largest gold deposits in China 10.4 Moz Au @ 2.47g/t). Located along the contacts between a 36 Ma quartz syenite porphyry and the Triassic limestones, the deposit contains abundant massive Au-bearing magnetite ores, which are considered as a product of skarn mineralization. However, the pivotal processes accounting for the huge accumulation of gold resource at Beiya area are poorly constrained. In the massive magnetite ores, abundant native gold was observed to be present as submicron-scale inclusions hosted by magnetite (Zhou et al., 2017). We also noted that abundant Bi minerals occur within these ores (Zhou et al., 2016), which provide critical clues to reveal the processes of gold mineralization. An assemblage of Bi minerals, composed of native bismuth, maldonite and bismuthinite, is present as tiny inclusions in these Au-bearing magnetite grains. Mineralogical study illustrates the encapsulation of native bismuth and maldonite as melts during magnetite growth, which is also supported by the ore-forming temperatures over 300°C derived from previous fluid inclusions study (He et al., 2016). Our thermodynamic modeling demonstrates that Bi melts scavenged gold from hydrothermal fluids. Subsequently, sulfidation of Bi melts resulted in precipitation of gold, which was captured by growing magnetite. We thus propose that

  12. Simple ortho- and para-hydroquinones as compounds neuroprotective against oxidative stress in a manner associated with specific transcriptional activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Takumi; Saitoh, Sachie; Hosaka, Manami; Kosaka, Kunio


    Electrophilic compounds protect neurons through the activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and the induction of phase-2 enzymes [T. Satoh, S.A. Lipton, Redox regulation of neuronal survival by electrophilic compounds, Trends Neurosci. 30 (2007) 38-45; T. Satoh, S. Okamoto, J. Cui, Y. Watanabe, K. Furuta, M. Suzuki, K. Tohyama, S.A. Lipton, Activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway for neuroprotection by electrophilic phase II inducers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 (2006) 768-773]. Hydroquinone-type electrophilic compounds such as tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and carnosic acid (CA) have attracted special attention, because the oxidative conversion of 'hydroquinone' to 'quinone' is essential for the transcriptional activation of the above-mentioned enzymes [T. Satoh, K. Kosaka, K. Itoh, A. Kobayashi, M. Yamamoto, Y. Shimojo, C. Kitajima, J. Cui, J. Kamins, S. Okamoto, T. Shirasawa, S.A. Lipton, Carnosic acid, a catechol-type electrophilic compound, protect neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of specific cysteine, J. Neurochem. 104 (2008) 1161-1131; A.D. Kraft, D.A. Johnson, J.A. Johnson, Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-dependent antioxidant response element activation by tert-butylhydroquinone and sulforaphane occurring preferentially in astrocytes conditions neurons against oxidative insult, J. Neurosci. 24 (2004) 1101-1112]. In the present study, we examined the relationship between electrophilicity and the protective effects afforded by electrophilic compounds. Electrophilicity was assessed in terms of the ability of a compound to bind to a cysteine on bovine serum albumin, by which we found that neuroprotective hydroquinones [TBHQ (para-) and CA (ortho-)] had distinctive patterns of cysteine binding compared with other electrophilic compounds. Further, we found that isomers of simple ortho- and para-hydroquinones such as 2-methylhydroquinone (para-) and 4-methyl-catechol (ortho-) [not in abstract] had

  13. Stereodynamic tetrahydrobiisoindole “NU-BIPHEP(O”s: functionalization, rotational barriers and non-covalent interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golo Storch


    Full Text Available Stereodynamic ligands offer intriguing possibilities in enantioselective catalysis. “NU-BIPHEPs” are a class of stereodynamic diphosphine ligands which are easily accessible via rhodium-catalyzed double [2 + 2 + 2] cycloadditions. This study explores the preparation of differently functionalized “NU-BIPHEP(O” compounds, the characterization of non-covalent adduct formation and the quantification of enantiomerization barriers. In order to explore the possibilities of functionalization, we studied modifications of the ligand backbone, e.g., with 3,5-dichlorobenzoyl chloride. Diastereomeric adducts with Okamoto-type cellulose derivatives and on-column deracemization were realized on the basis of non-covalent interactions. Enantioselective dynamic HPLC (DHPLC allowed for the determination of rotational barriers of ΔG‡298K = 92.2 ± 0.3 kJ mol−1 and 99.5 ± 0.1 kJ mol−1 underlining the stereodynamic properties of “NU-BIPHEPs” and “NU-BIPHEP(Os”, respectively. These results make the preparation of tailor-made functionalized stereodynamic ligands possible and give an outline for possible applications in enantioselective catalysis.

  14. Molecularly targeted approaches herald a new era of non-small-cell lung cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneda H


    Full Text Available Hiroyasu Kaneda,1 Takeshi Yoshida,1 Isamu Okamoto2 1Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University, Osakasayama, Japan; 2Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan Abstract: The discovery of activating mutations in the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR gene in 2004 opened a new era of personalized treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. EGFR mutations are associated with a high sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Treatment with these agents in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients results in dramatically high response rates and prolonged progression-free survival compared with conventional standard chemotherapy. Subsequently, echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4–anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, a novel driver oncogene, has been found in 2007. Crizotinib, the first clinically available ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, appeared more effective compared with standard chemotherapy in NSCLC patients harboring EML4-ALK. The identification of EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangement in NSCLC has further accelerated the shift to personalized treatment based on the appropriate patient selection according to detailed molecular genetic characterization. This review summarizes these genetic biomarker-based approaches to NSCLC, which allow the instigation of individualized therapy to provide the desired clinical outcome. Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor, ALK rearrangement, gefitinib, erlotinib, crizotinib

  15. Development of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors and molecular diagnosis in ALK rearrangement-positive lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwama E


    Full Text Available Eiji Iwama,1,2 Isamu Okamoto,3 Taishi Harada,2 Koichi Takayama,2 Yoichi Nakanishi2,3 1Department of Comprehensive Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 2Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan Abstract: The fusion of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK was identified as a transforming gene for lung cancer in 2007. This genetic rearrangement accounts for 2%–5% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cases, occurring predominantly in younger individuals with adenocarcinoma who are never- or light smokers. A small-molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor of ALK, crizotinib, was rapidly approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on the basis of its pronounced clinical activity in patients with ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Next-generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib, LDK378, and AP26113, are also being developed in ongoing clinical trials. In addition, the improvement and validation of methods for the detection of ALK rearrangement in NSCLC patients will be key to the optimal clinical use of ALK inhibitors. We here summarize recent progress in the development of new ALK inhibitors and in the molecular diagnosis of ALK rearrangement-positive NSCLC. Keywords: ALK, rearrangement, NSCLC, ALK inhibitor, targeted therapy, diagnosis

  16. Distribution of strong ground motion from uppermost crustal structure. Comparison with disaster from the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake; Yaya fukai chika kozo no henka ni yoru kyoshindo bunpu. Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni yoru higai bunpu tono hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.; Okubo, R. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    It was intended to elucidate characteristics of distribution of damages caused by an earthquake which occurs directly below an urban area. Therefore, numerical simulation using the pseudo-spectral method was performed on characteristics of seismic wave propagation in non-homogenous media composed of rock beds and sediment beds, and of seismic wave amplitudes on ground surface. The simulation has utilized information on underground structures disclosed by using the latest physical exploration method. The underground structure model assumed a two-dimensional model hypothesizing presence of upper, middle and lower beds in the Osaka bed group on granite, using as reference the information on S-wave velocity underground structure revealed by the microtremor exploration method. With an objective to elucidate characteristics of distribution of collapse ratio in the area from 8-chome, Okamoto, Higashinada Ward, Kobe City to 2-chome of Sakanasaki Minamicho, as damages suffered from the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, a simulation has been performed varying the structure model based on the results derived by the microtremor exploration method and the reflection method. As a result, it was shown that the characteristics of the maximum amplitude distribution of displacement of ground surface, velocity and acceleration agree well with those of the collapse ratio distribution, and that the simulation using the pseudo-spectral method is an effective means to analyze the ground surface collapse ratio distribution. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Surface-nitriding treatment of steels using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shigeo; Arai, Yuuki; Yamashita, Noboru; Kojyo, Atsushi; Kodama, Kenji; Ohtsu, Naofumi; Okamoto, Yukio; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki


    A rapid surface-nitriding system using microwave-induced nitrogen plasma at atmospheric pressure was developed for modifying iron and steel surfaces. Since the conventional plasma nitriding technique requires a low-pressure atmosphere in the treatment chamber, the population of excited nitrogen molecules in the plasma is limited. Accordingly, several hours are required for nitriding treatment. By contrast, the developed nitriding system can use atmospheric-pressure plasma through application of the Okamoto cavity for excitation of nitrogen plasma. The high population of excited nitrogen molecules induced by the atmospheric-pressure plasma allowed the formation of a nitriding layer that was several micrometers thick within 1 min and produced an expanded austenite iron phase with a high nitrogen concentration close to the solubility limit on the iron substrate. In addition, the nitriding treatment on high-chromium steel was performed by introducing a reducing gas such as NH 3 and H 2 into the treatment chamber. While the nitriding reaction did not proceed in a simple N 2 atmosphere due to surface oxidation, the surface reduction induced by the NH 3 or H 2 gas promoted the nitriding reaction at the surface. These nitriding phenomena characteristics of the atmospheric-pressure plasma are discussed in this paper based on the effects of the specimen temperature and plasma atmosphere on the thickness, the chemical states, and the nitride compounds of the nitrided layer as investigated by X-ray diffraction, glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  18. Brain computed tomography findings of schizophrenia, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Yuzo; Hazama, Hidebumi


    The relationship between brain CT findings and the total dose of antipsychotic drugs was examined in 47 cases with schizophrenia ranging from 20 to 42 years in age (31 males and 16 females). The methods of Gyldensted et al. and Okamoto et al. were modified for CT measurements. The total dose during the entire course was converted into the dose of chlorpromazine (CPZ) for each case. For comparisons with CT findings, the total dose was classified into three types each for both sexes: ''less than'' 100 g, ''less than'' 500 g and ''more than'' 500 g for the males and ''more than'' 500 g, ''less than'' 1,000 g and ''more than'' 1,000 g for the females. For similar comparisons, the same subjects were matched for the age and sex distinction, and were divided into the ''less than'' and ''more than'' groups for 500 g and 800 g, respectively. In both the matched and non-matched cases, each measurement value of the ventricular system on CT tended to be higher in the ''more than'' groups than in the ''less than'' groups. The relationship between CT findings and the total dose was nogligible. (Chiba, N.)

  19. General pharmacology of the novel centrally acting antihypertensive agent moxonidine. (United States)

    Armah, B I; Hofferber, E; Stenzel, W


    Moxonidine (4-chloro-N-(4, 5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-methoxy-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinamine, BDF 5895) reduces blood pressure and heart rate in rats with genetic hypertension (SHR/Okamoto) and in rats with renovascular hypertension (Goldblatt 1 k/1 c). The hypotensive action was also confirmed in renal-hypertensive dogs. The hypotensive action is preceded by a reduction in plasma noradrenaline concentration, thus reflecting a reduction in sympathetic activity. In anesthetized cats, administration of moxonidine into the vertebral artery induces a greater hypotensive effect than i.v. injection of same doses, indicating the central nervous system as the site of hypotensive action. Similar to clonidine, the hypotensive action of moxonidine is abolished by pretreatment of the animals with a selective alpha 2-antagonist. Direct application of moxonidine into the cisterna magna of anesthetized rabbits revealed a 10-fold greater hypotensive potency than clonidine, in contrast to i.v. application where moxonidine was 10-fold less potent than clonidine. At least 10-fold higher doses of moxonidine were needed to cause side effects (sedation, inhibition of gastric secretion), when compared with clonidine. Interruption of presynaptic noradrenergic pathways completely abolished the hypotensive action of moxonidine. Thus moxonidine is endowed with a specific central site of action, presumably by stimulating central presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors. This specific central hypotensive action enables a greater dissociation between the antihypertensive effect on the one hand, and the side effects on the other.

  20. Long-range chemical order effects upon the magnetic anisotropy of FePt alloys from an ab initio electronic structure theory (United States)

    Staunton, J. B.; Ostanin, S.; Razee, S. S. A.; Gyorffy, B.; Szunyogh, L.; Ginatempo, B.; Bruno, Ezio


    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of bulk and thick films of FePt is calculated from a 'first-principles' theory. The starting point is a description from electronic density functional theory for systems of interacting electrons moving in lattices of ions. Relativistic effects such as spin-orbit coupling are included. FePt readily transforms into a CuAu-type (L 10) ordered phase and this coincides with the material's high anisotropy. Here we describe how to calculate the MCA of a partially ordered alloy and to extract its dependence on the long range chemical order parameter η. We present calculations of the MCA of FePt as a function of η and find excellent agreement with the experimental data of Okamoto et al (2002 Phys. Rev. B 66 024413) and others with respect to the magnetic easy axis, the magnitude of the MCA and its trend with decreasing η. We also study the paramagnetic phase of the ordered alloy using the 'disordered local moment' picture of metallic magnetism at finite temperatures. We calculate a Curie temperature of 935 K in reasonable agreement with experiment (710 K) and find the easy axis for the onset of ferromagnetic order to coincide with the magnetic easy axis found at low temperatures.

  1. Multiscale functions, scale dynamics, and applications to partial differential equations (United States)

    Cresson, Jacky; Pierret, Frédéric


    Modeling phenomena from experimental data always begins with a choice of hypothesis on the observed dynamics such as determinism, randomness, and differentiability. Depending on these choices, different behaviors can be observed. The natural question associated to the modeling problem is the following: "With a finite set of data concerning a phenomenon, can we recover its underlying nature? From this problem, we introduce in this paper the definition of multi-scale functions, scale calculus, and scale dynamics based on the time scale calculus [see Bohner, M. and Peterson, A., Dynamic Equations on Time Scales: An Introduction with Applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2001)] which is used to introduce the notion of scale equations. These definitions will be illustrated on the multi-scale Okamoto's functions. Scale equations are analysed using scale regimes and the notion of asymptotic model for a scale equation under a particular scale regime. The introduced formalism explains why a single scale equation can produce distinct continuous models even if the equation is scale invariant. Typical examples of such equations are given by the scale Euler-Lagrange equation. We illustrate our results using the scale Newton's equation which gives rise to a non-linear diffusion equation or a non-linear Schrödinger equation as asymptotic continuous models depending on the particular fractional scale regime which is considered.

  2. Making Pono Choices: a collaborative approach to developing a culturally responsive teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections prevention curriculum in Hawai'i. (United States)

    Manaseri, Holly; Uehara, Denise; Roberts, Kelly


    The overall extent of evidence-based culturally responsive health education programs targeting ethnic minority groups in Hawai'i is limited. The few that do exist were adapted from models developed with other majority ethnic groups in mind and may not always be appropriate for Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander youth (Okamoto et al. in J Alcohol Drug Educ 54(1):56-75, 2010; Helm and Baker in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 20(2):131-149, 2011; Po'a-Kekuawela et al. in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 18(3):242-258, 2009). The need for a culturally responsive, evidence-based health curriculum is clear considering the large disparities reported among Hawaiian youth in health, academic achievement, and other identified risk factors. School-based health interventions are an opportunity not only to improve the physical well being of students, but also to increase their ability to learn and succeed in school. The University of Hawai'i at Manoa-Center on Disability Studies (UH-CDS) received a highly competitive grant from the US Office of Adolescent Health to develop a teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention curriculum for Hawai'i middle school youth. The authors will detail a collaborative process that led to a culturally responsive sexual health curriculum for middle school youth designed to meet the rigorous standards of an evidenced-based review and more importantly reduce teen pregnancies and STI transmission.

  3. A new East-Asian species in the Chrysoperla carnea-group of cryptic lacewing species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) based on distinct larval morphology and a unique courtship song. (United States)

    Henry, Charles S; Brooks, Stephen J; Johnson, James B; Haruyama, Naoto; Duelli, Peter; Mochizuki, Atsushi


    Larval morphology and substrate-borne vibrational courtship songs have been hypothesized to distinguish and isolate Chrysoperla 'nipponensis-B' from true 'Type A' Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto), both of which occur sympatrically in eastern Asia. Here, we formally describe C. 'nipponensis-B' as Chrysoperla nigrocapitata sp.n., based on populations sampled throughout Japan and at two sites in South Korea. Behavioral playback experiments show that males and females of each species reject the duetting songs of non-conspecifics, supporting the existence in nature of strong premating reproductive isolation between the two species. Detailed morphological analysis substantiates that the adults of the two species are nearly identical. However, the dorsum of the larval head of C. nigrocapitata is usually darkly and heavily pigmented, in striking contrast to the condition seen in C. nipponensis; if available, it is probably the best trait for distinguishing the two species morphologically. Other aspects of life history, ecology, geographic distribution, and molecular systematics of the new species are briefly considered.

  4. Connection between quantum systems involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent and k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator related to Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquette, Ian, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Quesne, Christiane, E-mail: [Physique Nucléaire Théorique et Physique Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine CP229, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    The purpose of this communication is to point out the connection between a 1D quantum Hamiltonian involving the fourth Painlevé transcendent P{sub IV}, obtained in the context of second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics and third-order ladder operators, with a hierarchy of families of quantum systems called k-step rational extensions of the harmonic oscillator and related with multi-indexed X{sub m{sub 1,m{sub 2,…,m{sub k}}}} Hermite exceptional orthogonal polynomials of type III. The connection between these exactly solvable models is established at the level of the equivalence of the Hamiltonians using rational solutions of the fourth Painlevé equation in terms of generalized Hermite and Okamoto polynomials. We also relate the different ladder operators obtained by various combinations of supersymmetric constructions involving Darboux-Crum and Krein-Adler supercharges, their zero modes and the corresponding energies. These results will demonstrate and clarify the relation observed for a particular case in previous papers.

  5. Local Effects on Strain Seismograms at Matsushiro Seismological Observatory - 2. Rayleigh Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi Okamoto


    Full Text Available We evaluate local effects on strain seismograms for a Rayleigh wave observed at Matsushiro Seismological Observatory, Japan Meteorological Agency, central Japan, by applying a method proposed in a previous report (Okamoto et al. 2007. The method involves examination of polarization angles, local phase velocity, and accuracy of velocity seismograms. The results are as follows: 1 Polarization angles of observed strain seismograms agree with expected ones from those of velocity seismograms also observed at Matsushiro; 2 Local phase velocity estimated by comparison between strain and velocity seismograms is 54% larger than the theoretical value calculated from the PREM velocity model; 3 Velocity spectra observed at Matsushiro have almost the same amplitude as an average of those at F-net observation stations near Matsushiro. These results indicate that both EW and NS component strain seismograms observed at Matsushiro have been reduced by 35% in amplitude for a Rayleigh wave due to local heterogeneity. The local effects on a Rayleigh wave are quite different from that on a Love wave obtained in the previous report.

  6. Application of the τ-function theory of Painleve equations to random matrices: PIV, PII and the GUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, P.J.; Witte, N.S.


    Tracy and Widom have evaluated the cumulative distribution of the largest eigenvalue for the finite and scaled infinite Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) in terms of a Painleve IV and Painleve II transcendent respectively. We generalise these results to the evaluation of E N (λ;a) :(Π n l=1 χ (l) (-∞,λ) (λ - λ l ) a ), where χ (l) (-∞) = 1 for λ l E (- ∞,λ] and χ (l) (-∞,λ) = 0 otherwise, and the average is with respect to the joint eigenvalue distribution of the GUE, as well as to the evaluation of F N (λ;a) :(Π N l=1 (λ - λ l ) a ). Of particular interest are E N (λ;2) and F N (λ;2)X and their scaled limits, which give the distribution of the largest eigenvalue and the density respectively. Our results are obtained by applying the Okamoto τ-function theory of Painleve IV and Painleve II equations, for which we give a self contained presentation based on the recent work of Noumi and Yamada. We point out that the same approach can be used to study the quantities E N (λ; a) and F N (λ; a) for the other classical matrix ensembles

  7. Portable X-ray powder diffractometer for the analysis of art and archaeological materials (United States)

    Nakai, Izumi; Abe, Yoshinari


    Phase identification based on nondestructive analytical techniques using portable equipment is ideal for the analysis of art and archaeological objects. Portable(p)-XRF and p-Raman are very widely used for this purpose, yet p-XRD is relatively rare despite its importance for the analysis of crystalline materials. This paper overviews 6 types of p-XRD systems developed for analysis of art and archaeological materials. The characteristics of each system are compared. One of the p-XRD systems developed by the authors was brought to many museums as well as many archeological sites in Egypt and Syria to characterize the cultural heritage artifacts, e.g., amulet made of Egyptian blue, blue painted pottery, and Islamic pottery from Egypt, jade from China, variscite from Syria, a Japanese classic painting drawn by Korin Ogata, and oil paintings drawn by Taro Okamoto. Practical application data are shown to demonstrate the potential ability of the method for analysis of various art and archaeological materials.

  8. Genetic Parameters And Selection Response For Yield Traits In Bread Wheat Under Irrigated And Rainfed Environments (United States)

    Khalil, Iftikhar Hussain; at-ur-Rahman, Hiday; Khan, Imran


    A set of 22 F5:7 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars (Dera-98, Fakhr-e-Sarhad, Ghaznavi-98 and Tatara) were evaluated as independent experiments under irrigated and rainfed environments using a randomized complete block design at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2004-05. The two environments were statistically different for days to heading and spike length only. Highly significant genetic variability existed among the wheat lines (P<0.01) in the combined analysis across environments for all traits. Genotype×environment interactions were non-significant for all traits except 1000-grain weight indicating consistent performance of wheat genotypes across the two environments. Wheat lines and check cultivars were 2 to 5 days early in heading under rainfed environment compared to the irrigated. Plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight, biological and grain yields were generally reduced under rainfed environment. Genetic variances were of greater magnitude than environmental variances for most of the traits in both environments. The heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for days to heading, plant height, spike length, biological and grain yield, while medium (0.31 to 0.51) for 1000-grain weight. Selection differentials were negative for heading (-7.3 days in irrigated vs -9.4 days in rainfed) and plant height (-9.0 cm in irrigated vs -8.7 cm in rainfed) indicating possibility of selecting wheat genotypes with early heading and short plant stature. Positive selection differentials of 1.3 vs 1.6 cm for spike length, 3.8 vs 3.4 g for 1000-grain weight, 2488.2 vs 3139.7 kg ha-1 for biological yield and 691.6 vs 565.4 kg ha-1 for grain yield at 20% selection intensity were observed under irrigated and rainfed environments, respectively. Expected selection responses were 7.98 vs 8.91 days for heading, 8.20 vs 9.52 cm for plant height, 1.01 vs 1.61 cm for spike length, 2.12 vs 1.15 g for 1000-grain weight, 1655

  9. Development and reproductive biology of the egg-pupal parasite, Fopius arisanus in Anastrepha suspensa, a new tephritid host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Pauline O.; Harris, Ernest J.; Bautist, Renato C.


    Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan) (=Opius oophilus Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary egg parasite (parasitoid) that attacks tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs and first instars (Haramoto 1953, Clausen et al. 1965, Harris and Okamoto 1991). It completes its development within the host's larva and pupa and emerges from the latter as an adult and as such, is an egg-pupal endoparasite. F. arisanus is known to attack at least seven tephritid fruit fly species (Wharton and Gilstrap 1983) and appears to be the only egg-pupal parasite of tephritids in the Western Hemisphere. It is considered to be the most successful of the parasites that attack the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidmann) in Hawaii (Knipling 1995), resulting in 74-92% of total parasites recovered from both host species (Wong and Ramadan 1987). However, in Malaysia, Palacio et al. (1992) found that F. arisanus was outcompeted by the larval endoparasite, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in multiple parasitised B. dorsalis. While several larval parasites of tephritids had been cultured successfully in the laboratory (Ramadan 1991) and utilised in inundative release programmes, F. arisanus proved difficult to maintain in culture. In recent years, a laboratory strain of F. arisanus (termed the 'Harris strain') has been established on B. dorsalis (Harris and Okamoto 1991). Efforts are currently in progress to mass rear this strain on the Medfly and other tephritid pests. F. arisanus was first released into Florida from Hawaii in 1974-75 as a biological control agent against the Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) but this was unsuccessful (Baranowski et al. 1993). Interestingly, it was also introduced into Costa Rica from Hawaii and was subsequently reared from puparia of Anastrepha spp. (Wharton et al. 1981), indicating its

  10. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000 (United States)


    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  11. Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto H


    Full Text Available Hideki Okamoto,1,2 Masaomi Iyo,2 Keigo Ueda,1 Cheolsun Han,1 Yoshiro Hirasaki,1 Takao Namiki1 1Department of Japanese-Oriental (Kampo Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Japan Abstract: Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan’s original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract, and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM, a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san’s efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. Keywords: Yokukan-san-ka-chimpi-hange, Japanese traditional medicine, Asian medicine, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, Alzheimer’s disease, BPSD, Parkinson’s disease

  12. Efficacy of the combined use of a mild foaming cleanser and moisturizer for the care of infant skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto N


    Full Text Available Naoko Okamoto,1 Kaori Umehara,1 Junko Sonoda,1 Mitsuyuki Hotta,2 Hiroki Mizushima,1 Yutaka Takagi,1 Keiko Matsuo,3 Naoko Baba4 1Skin Care Products Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, 2Biological Science Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Tochigi, 3Office of the President, Kao Corporation, Tokyo, 4Department of Dermatology, Kanagawa Children’s Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan Objective: Despite the application of skin care treatments, many infants have skin problems such as dryness and erythema. We proposed a new combination skin care for infants which consisted of a foaming cleanser with lower surfactant activity and moisturizers that contained pseudo-ceramide. Subjects and methods: A total of 50 infants (age: 3–24 months with insignificant levels of dry skin were enrolled in this usage trial. The parents washed the infants with the test cleanser while bathing and then applied the moisturizer (lotion or cream containing pseudo-ceramide. Prior to and following the 4-week usage period, visual evaluation of the skin condition was conducted by a dermatologist, in addition to instrumental analysis. Results: Erythema and papule, accompanied by dryness, were commonly observed at week 0. However, by week 4, these symptoms significantly improved; the condition of none of the subjects deteriorated. The number of infants with lower cutaneous barrier function and higher skin pH decreased. The parents of the infants recognized improvements in the skin symptoms and were appreciative of the test materials. Conclusion: The combined usage of the foaming cleanser with lower surfactant activity and a moisturizer containing pseudo-ceramide may be effective in maintaining healthy infant skin and ameliorating the skin symptoms. Keywords: infant, cleanser, lotion, cream, dryness

  13. Differential activation of frontal and parietal regions during visual word recognition: an optical topography study. (United States)

    Hofmann, Markus J; Herrmann, Martin J; Dan, Ippeita; Obrig, Hellmuth; Conrad, Markus; Kuchinke, Lars; Jacobs, Arthur M; Fallgatter, Andreas J


    The present study examined cortical oxygenation changes during lexical decision on words and pseudowords using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Focal hyperoxygenation as an indicator of functional activation was compared over three target areas over the left hemisphere. A 52-channel Hitachi ETG-4000 was used covering the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the left inferior parietal gyrus (IPG) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). To allow for anatomical inference a recently developed probabilistic mapping method was used to determine the most likely anatomic locations of the changes in cortical activation [Tsuzuki, D., Jurcak, V., Singh, A.K., Okamoto, M., Watanabe, E., Dan, I., 2007. Virtual spatial registration of stand-alone fNIRS data to MNI space. NeuroImage 43 (4), 1506-1518. Subjects made lexical decisions on 50 low and 50 high frequency words and 100 pseudowords. With respect to the lexicality effect, words elicited a larger focal hyperoxygenation in comparison to pseudowords in two regions identified as the SFG and left IPG. The SFG activation difference was interpreted to reflect decision-related mechanisms according to the Multiple Read-Out Model [Grainger, J., Jacobs, A.M., 1996. Orthographic processing in visual word recognition: A multiple read-out model. Psychological Review 103, 518-565]. The greater oxygenation response to words in the left IPG suggests that this region connects orthographic, phonological and semantic representations. A decrease of deoxygenated hemoglobin was observed to low frequency in comparison to high frequency words in a region identified as IFG. This region's sensitivity to word frequency suggests its involvement in grapheme-phoneme conversion, or its role during the selection of pre-activated semantic candidates.

  14. The lack of age-pigments and the alterations in intracellular monovalent electrolytes in spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats as revealed by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, I.; Nagy, V.; Casoli, T.; Lustyik, G.


    Male, spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats established by Okamoto et al. were studied. About 80% of the males of this strain have a particularly short life span (33-41 weeks); they display a considerable hypertension (above 220 mmHg) and a tendency for plurifocal brain strokes. Hypertension and strokes can be provoked in an accelerated and synchronized fashion by supplementing 1% NaCl into their drinking water. Symptoms of the appearance of brain strokes can be judged from characteristic signs of motor disorders, and can be established also by pathohistology. Since hypertension and arteriosclerosis are frequently involved in aging, the question we intended to answer was whether these animals may represent a model of the normal aging process or not. Two approaches are described: (1) Accumulation of lipofuscin granules in their brain, liver and myocardium was followed by transmission electron microscopy before and after the appearance of strokes. It has been established that these tissues do not show any typical accumulation of lipofuscin granules, although submicroscopic signs of an enhanced damage of cell organelles (especially of mitochondria in liver and brain cells, but not in myocardium) were encountered. (2) The intracellular monovalent composition in the brain and liver was measured by using bulk-specimen X-ray microanalysis. The intracellular Na-content (mEq/kg water) was significantly higher (170-200%) in both the brain and liver cells, whereas the K-content increased only moderately (118-130%). The results suggest that although the SHRsp rats do not represent a direct model for the normal aging process from the point of view of lipofuscin accumulation, the shifts of the monovalent electrolyte contents in the brain and liver cells observed already in the youngest ages, are similar to those observed in aged normal rats

  15. Enantiomeric separation of iridium (III) complexes using HPLC chiral stationary phases based on amylose derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Seo, Na Hyeon; Hyun, Myung Ho [Dept. of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes formed with three identical cyclometalating (C-N) ligands (homoleptic) or formed with two cyclometalating (C-N) ligands and one ancillary (LX) ligand (heteroleptic) have been known as highly phosphorescent materials and, thus, they have been utilized as efficient phosphorescent dopants in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) 1–3 or as effective phosphorescent chemosensors. 4–7 Cylometalated iridium (III) complexes are chiral compounds consisting of lambda (Λ, left-handed) and delta (Δ, right-handed) isomers. Racemic cyclometa- lated iridium (III) complexes emit light with no net polarization, but optically active cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes emit circularly polarized light. 8,9 Circularly polarized light can be used in various fields including highly efficient three dimensional electronic devices, photo nic devices for optical data storage, biological assays, and others. 8,9 In order to obtain optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes and to determine the enantiomeric composition of optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes, liquid chromatogr aphic enantiomer separation method on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been used. For example, Okamoto and coworkers first reported the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) direct enantiomeric separation of two homoleptic cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on immobilized amylose tris(3,5- dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak IA), coated cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralc el OD), and coated cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) (Chiralce l OJ). 10 Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was also used by Bernhard and coworkers for the enantiomeric separation of cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on coated amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak AD-H). 8 However, the general use of the HPLC method for the direct enantiomeric separation of homoleptic.

  16. Enantiomeric separation of iridium (III) complexes using HPLC chiral stationary phases based on amylose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Seo, Na Hyeon; Hyun, Myung Ho


    Cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes formed with three identical cyclometalating (C-N) ligands (homoleptic) or formed with two cyclometalating (C-N) ligands and one ancillary (LX) ligand (heteroleptic) have been known as highly phosphorescent materials and, thus, they have been utilized as efficient phosphorescent dopants in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) 1–3 or as effective phosphorescent chemosensors. 4–7 Cylometalated iridium (III) complexes are chiral compounds consisting of lambda (Λ, left-handed) and delta (Δ, right-handed) isomers. Racemic cyclometa- lated iridium (III) complexes emit light with no net polarization, but optically active cyclometalated iridium (III) complexes emit circularly polarized light. 8,9 Circularly polarized light can be used in various fields including highly efficient three dimensional electronic devices, photo nic devices for optical data storage, biological assays, and others. 8,9 In order to obtain optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes and to determine the enantiomeric composition of optically active cylometalated iridium (III) complexes, liquid chromatogr aphic enantiomer separation method on chiral stationary phases (CSPs) has been used. For example, Okamoto and coworkers first reported the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) direct enantiomeric separation of two homoleptic cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on immobilized amylose tris(3,5- dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak IA), coated cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralc el OD), and coated cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) (Chiralce l OJ). 10 Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was also used by Bernhard and coworkers for the enantiomeric separation of cylometalated iridium (III) complexes on coated amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak AD-H). 8 However, the general use of the HPLC method for the direct enantiomeric separation of homoleptic

  17. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrically stimulated physical stress in bipolar disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Y


    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Tanaka, Yoshihiro Maruyama, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Aimi Kawano, Tomoko Ando, Rie Ikeda, Ayako Inoue, Junko Imanaga, Shizuko Okamoto, Masayuki Kanehisa, Taiga Ninomiya, Jusen Tsuru, Jotaro Akiyoshi Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama-Machi, Oita, Japan Background: Bipolar disorder (BP is often associated with a change in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis function change due to chronic stress. Salivary α-amylase (sAA levels increase in response to psychosocial stress and thus function as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system activity. However, sAA has been studied less often than salivary cortisol in BP patients. Method: We measured Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, heart rate variability, and salivary cortisol levels during electrical stimulation stress in 25 BP patients and 22 healthy volunteers. Results: Tension–anxiety, depression–dejection, anger–hostility, fatigue, and confusion scores in BP patients significantly increased compared with those of the healthy controls. In contrast, the vigor scores of BP patients significantly decreased compared with those of the healthy controls. Significant difference in the sAA levels was observed between BP patients and healthy controls. sAA of female patients was significantly higher than that of female healthy controls, and sAA in male patients tended to be higher than that of male healthy controls. No difference in salivary cortisol was observed between BP patients and the healthy controls. Only three time points were measured before and after the electrical stimulation stress. Furthermore, sAA secretion by BP patients increased before and after electrical stimulation. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that sAA may be a useful biological marker for BP patients. Keywords: HPA axis, bipolar disorder, α-amylase, cortisol, SAM activity

  18. Effects of deficiency of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 on skeletal organization: a mechanism for diminished nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 during osteoclastogenesis. (United States)

    Sakai, Eiko; Morita, Masanobu; Ohuchi, Masahiro; Kido, Mizuho A; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Tsukuba, Takayuki


    Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) binds to nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for antioxidant enzymes, to suppress Nrf2 activation. The role of oxidative stress in many diseases supports the possibility that processes that are associated with Nrf2 activation might offer therapeutic potential. Nrf2 deficiency induces osteoclastogenesis, which is responsible for bone loss, by activating receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated signaling; however, the effects of Keap1 deficiency remain unclear. By using Keap1-deficient newborn mice, we observed that talus and calcaneus bone formation was partially retarded and that osteoclast number was reduced in vivo without severe gross abnormalities. In addition, Keap1-deficient macrophages were unable to differentiate into osteoclasts in vitro via attenuation of RANKL-mediated signaling and expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key transcription factor that is involved in osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, Keap1 deficiency up-regulated the expression of Mafb , a negative regulator of NFATc1. RANKL-induced mitochondrial gene expression is required for down-regulation of IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8), a negative transcriptional regulator of NFATc1. Our results indicate that Keap1 deficiency down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1β and mitochondrial gene expression and up-regulated Irf8 expression. These results suggest that the Keap1/Nrf2 axis plays a critical role in NFATc1 expression and osteoclastogenic progression.-Sakai, E., Morita, M., Ohuchi, M., Kido, M. A., Fukuma, Y., Nishishita, K., Okamoto, K., Itoh, K., Yamamoto, M., Tsukuba, T. Effects of deficiency of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 on skeletal organization: a mechanism for diminished nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 during osteoclastogenesis. © FASEB.

  19. Effects of syntactic complexity in L1 and L2; an fMRI study of Korean-English bilinguals. (United States)

    Suh, Soyoung; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Lee, Seungbok; Chung, Jun-Young; Cho, Zang-Hee; Park, Hyunwook


    The neural mechanisms underlying the syntactic processing of sentence comprehension in Korean (L1) and English (L2) by late bilinguals were investigated using functional MRI. The Korean native speakers were asked to read sentences with different levels of syntactic complexity in L1 and L2 and respond to comprehension questions concerning the sentences. The syntactic complexity was varied using a center-embedded sentence "The director that the maid introduced ignored the farmer" or a conjoined sentence "The maid introduced the director and ignored the farmer". It was found that the major areas involved in sentence processing such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral inferior parietal gyrus, and occipital lobe including cuneus, and lingual gyrus were commonly activated during the processing of both L1 and L2. However, the pattern of activation was different for L1 and L2 in the left IFG. The amount of activation was greater for embedded sentences than for conjoined sentences in L1 while no difference was found in L2. These results suggest that the cortical areas involved with syntactic processing in L1 and L2 are shared, but that the underlying neural mechanisms are different. The findings of the present study are discussed in comparison with Hasegawa et al.'s (Hasegawa, M., Carpenter, P.A., Just, M.A., 2002. An fMRI study of bilingual sentence comprehension and workload. NeuroImage 15, 647-660.) and Yokoyama et al.'s (Yokoyama, S., Okamoto, H., Miyamoto, T., Yoshimoto, K., Kim, J., Iwata, K., Jeong, H., Uchida, S., Ikuta, N., Sassa, Y., Nakamura, W., Horie, K., Sato, S., Kawashima, R., 2006. Cortical activation in the processing of passive sentences in L1 and L2: An fMRI study. NeuroImage 30, 570-579.) studies which also found common areas of activation but different patterns of activation during the processing of L1 and L2.

  20. VEGF is a target molecule for peritoneal metastasis and malignant ascites in gastric cancer: prognostic significance of VEGF in ascites and efficacy of anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fushida S


    Full Text Available Sachio Fushida, Katsunobu Oyama, Jun Kinoshita, Yasumichi Yagi, Kouichi Okamoto, Hidehiro Tajima, Itasu Ninomiya, Takashi Fujimura, Tetsuo OhtaDepartment of Gastroenterological Surgery, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, JapanBackground: In gastric cancer, poor prognosis is associated with peritoneal dissemination, which often accompanies malignant ascites. We searched for a target molecule in peritoneal metastasis and investigated its clinical utility as a biomarker.Methods: Biopsy specimens from both primary lesions and peritoneal metastasis, and if possible, malignant ascites, were obtained from 40 patients with gastric cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: VEGF expression was seen in 70% of peritoneal samples. Of the 40 patients, 35 had malignant ascites. These 35 patients were divided into two groups: 15 with ascites found beyond the pelvic cavity (large group and 20 whose ascites were within the pelvic cavity (small group. The two groups did not significantly differ by serum VEGF levels, but ascites VEGF levels in the large group were significantly higher than in the small group (P < 0.0001. Serum VEGF and ascites VEGF levels were highly correlated in the large group (r = 0.686. A high ascites VEGF level was found to be a risk factor for survival (P = 0.045. We include a report of a patient with chemoresistant refractory gastric cancer and symptomatic ascites who obtained 8 months of palliation from systemic bevacizumab.Conclusion: Anti-VEGF therapies are promising, and the ascites VEGF level is an important marker in managing patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, malignant ascites, peritoneal metastasis, gastric cancer, bevacizumab

  1. The Association Between Commonly Investigated User Factors and Various Types of eHealth Use for Self-Care of Type 2 Diabetes: Case of First-Generation Immigrants From Pakistan in the Oslo Area, Norway. (United States)

    Tatara, Naoe; Hammer, Hugo Lewi; Andreassen, Hege Kristin; Mirkovic, Jelena; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg


    and self-assessment of health status; and gender, as being a female. With the exception of closed conversation with a few specific acquaintances about self-care of T2D (negatively associated, P=.02) and the use of ICT for relevant information-seeking by using search engines (not associated, P=.18), the knowledge component was positively associated with all the other dependent variables. The health component was negatively associated with the use of ICT for closed conversation with a few specific acquaintances about self-care of T2D (P=.01) but not associated with the other dependent variables. Gender component showed no association with any of the dependent variables. In our sample, knowledge, as a composite measure of education and digital skills, was found to be the main factor associated with eHealth use regarding T2D self-care. Enhancing digital skills would encourage and support more active use of eHealth for T2D self-care. ©Naoe Tatara, Hugo Lewi Hammer, Hege Kristin Andreassen, Jelena Mirkovic, Marte Karoline Råberg Kjøllesdal. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (, 05.10.2017.

  2. Effect of different pH-values on process parameters in two-phase anaerobic digestion of high-solid substrates. (United States)

    Lindner, Jonas; Zielonka, Simon; Oechsner, Hans; Lemmer, Andreas


    In many publications, primary fermentation is described as a limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of fibre-rich biomass [Eastman JA, Ferguson JF. Solubilization of particulacte carbon during the anaerobic digeston. J WPCF. 1981;53:352-366; Noike T, Endo G, Chang J, Yaguchi J, Matsumoto J. Characteristics of carbohydrate degradation and the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1985;27:1482-1489; Arntz HJ, Stoppok E, Buchholz K. Anaerobic hydroysis of beet pulp-discontiniuous experiments. Biotechnol Lett. 1985;7:113-118]. The microorganisms of the primary fermentation process differ widely from the methanogenic microorganisms [Pohland FG, Ghosh S. Developments in anaerobic stabilization of organic wastes-the two-phase concept. Environ Lett. 1971;1:255-266]. To optimize the biogas process, a separation in two phases is suggested by many authors [Fox P, Pohland GK. Anaerobic treatment applications and fundamentals: substrate specificity during phase separation. Water Environ Res. 1994;66:716-724; Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580]. To carry out the examination, a two-phase laboratory-scale biogas plant was established, with a physical phase separation. In previous studies, the regulation of the pH-value during the acid formation was usually carried out by the addition of sodium hydroxide [Cohen A, Zoetemeyer RJ, van Deursen A, van Andel JG. Anaerobic digestion of glucose with separated acid production and methane formation. Water Res. 1979;13:571-580; Ueno Y, Tatara M, Fukui H, Makiuchi T, Goto M, Sode K. Production of hydrogen and methane from organic solid wastes by phase separation of anaerobic process. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98:1861-1865; Zoetemeyer RJ, van den Heuvel JC, Cohen A. pH influence on acidogenic dissimilation of glucose in an anaerobic digestor. Water Res. 1982;16:303-311]. A new technology

  3. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology (United States)

    Ishioka, Sachio; Fujikawa, Kazuo


    Committee -- Obituary: Professor Sadao Nakajima -- Opening address / H. Fukuyama -- Welcoming address / N. Osakabe -- Cold atoms and molecules. Pseudopotential method in cold atom research / C. N. Yang. Symmetry breaking in Bose-Einstein condensates / M. Ueda. Quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates / M. Tsubota. Quantum degenerate gases of Ytterbium atoms / S. Uetake ... [et al.]. Superfluid properties of an ultracold fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region / Y. Ohashi, N. Fukushima. Fermionic superfluidity and the BEC-BCS crossover in ultracold atomic fermi gases / M. W. Zwierlein. Kibble-Zurek mechanism in magnetization of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate / H. Saito, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Ueda. Quasiparticle inducing Josephson effect in a Bose-Einstein condensate / S. Tsuchiya, Y. Ohashi. Stability of superfluid fermi gases in optical lattices / Y. Yunomae ... [et al.]. Z[symbol] symmetry breaking in multi-band bosonic atoms confined by a two-dimensional harmonic potential / M. Sato, A. Tokuno -- Spin hall effect and anomalous hall effect. Recent advances in anomalous hall effect and spin hall effect / N. Nagaosa. Topological insulators and the quantum spin hall effect / C. L. Kane. Application of direct and inverse spin-hall effects: electric manipulation of spin relaxation and electric detection of spin currents / K. Ando, E. Saitoh. Novel current pumping mechanism by spin dynamics / A. Takeuchi, K. Hosono, G. Tatara. Quantum spin hall phase in bismuth ultrathin film / S. Murakami. Anomalous hall effect due to the vector chirality / K. Taguchi, G. Tatara. Spin current distributions and spin hall effect in nonlocal magnetic nanostructures / R. Sugano ... [et al.]. New boundary critical phenomenon at the metal-quantum spin hall insulator transition / H. Obuse. On scaling behaviors of anomalous hall conductivity in disordered ferromagnets studied with the coherent potential approximation / S. Onoda -- Magnetic domain wall dynamics and spin related

  4. PREFACE: The 6th International Symposium on Measurement Techniques for Multiphase Flows (United States)

    Okamoto, Koji; Murai, Yuichi


    the participants and the contributors to the symposium, and also to the supporting organizations; The Japanese Society for Multiphase Flow, The Chinese Society for Measurement, National Natural Science Foundation of China, The Chinese Academy of Science, and University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan. Koji Okamoto Chair of 6th ISMTMF and proceedings editor The University of Tokyo, Japan Yuichi Murai Proceedings co-editor Hokkaido University, Japan

  5. Reversal of acute renal injury after peritoneal dialysis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Êmille Gedoz Guiot


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Guiot E.G., Guimarães-Okamoto P.T.C., Chacar F.C., Gomide P., Lourenço M.L.G. & Melchert A. [Reversal of acute renal injury after peritoneal dialysis in a dog.] Reversão da injúria renal aguda após diálise peritoneal em cão. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:153-157, 2015. Departamento de Clínica Cirúrgica de Pequenos Animais, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, UnespBotucatu, Distrito de Ribião Júnior, s/n, Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brasil. E-mail: Acute renal injury is characterized by a sudden injury in renal parenchyma that causes loss in its excretory, metabolic and endocrine function. The dialysis therapy has been instituted in the small animal clinic aimed at removing metabolic waste and correcting electrolyte disturbances of renal dysfunction. Peritoneal dialysis is a therapy based on the use of the peritoneum as a semipermeable membrane through which there is exchange of solutes and fluid between blood from the peritoneal capillaries and the dialysis solution. We describe a case of acute kidney injury refractory to drug therapy in a canine female mixed-breed, with 13 years old. The patient was presenting anorexia, vomiting, decubitus and anuria, had a history of prolonged treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, was azotemic and in metabolic acidosis. Anuria persisted after drug therapy (volume restoration, chemical and osmotic diuresis and renal vasodilation then starting to peritoneal dialysis (PD. Were performed three cycles of PD, during the second cycle patient left anuria and at the end of the third cycle showed clinical improvement, reduction of azotemia, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. PD has shown satisfactory results, reversing the anuria, reducing azotemia and electrolyte disturbances, thereby providing clinical improvement.

  6. Acceleration training for managing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh S


    Full Text Available Sechang Oh,1 Takashi Shida,1 Akemi Sawai,1 Tsuyoshi Maruyama,2 Kiyoshi Eguchi,2 Tomonori Isobe,1 Yoshikazu Okamoto,3 Noriko Someya,4 Kiyoji Tanaka,4 Emi Arai,1 Akiko Tozawa,5 Junichi Shoda1 1Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 2Department of Rehabilitation, Tsukuba University Hospital, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 5Protea Japan Co Ltd, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan Background: While aerobic training is generally recommended as therapeutic exercise in guidelines, the effectiveness of resistance training has recently been reported in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Acceleration training (AT is a new training method that provides a physical stimulation effect on skeletal muscles by increasing gravitational acceleration with vibration. AT has recently been indicated as a component of medicine. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of AT in the management of NAFLD in obese subjects.Methods: A total of 18 obese patients with NAFLD who had no improvement in liver function test abnormalities and/or steatosis grade after 12 weeks of lifestyle counseling were enrolled in an AT program. These patients attended a 20-minute session of AT twice a week for 12 consecutive weeks.Results: During the AT program, the NAFLD patients showed a modest increase in the strength (+12.6% and cross-sectional area (+3.1% of the quadriceps, coupled with a significant reduction in intramyocellular lipids (−26.4%. Notably, they showed a modest reduction in body weight (−1.9%, abdominal visceral fat area (−3.4%, and hepatic fat content (−8.7%, coupled with a significant reduction in levels of aminotransferase (−15.7%, γ-glutamyltransferase (−14.4%, leptin (−9.7%, interleukin-6 (−26.8%, and tumor necrosis factor-α (−17.9%, and a significant increase of adiponectin (+8.7%. On a health

  7. Correlation between obesity and metabolic syndrome-related factors and cecal intubation time during colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawasato R


    Full Text Available Ryo Kawasato,1 Shinichi Hashimoto,1 Tomohiro Shirasawa,1 Atsushi Goto,1 Takeshi Okamoto,1 Jun Nishikawa,2 Isao Sakaida1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2Department of Laboratory Science, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi, Japan Purpose: To investigate which colonoscopy (CS cases should be presided over by endoscopists in training, using factors including obesity and metabolic syndrome. Patients and methods: Items investigated were sex, age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, history of abdominal surgery (excluding colectomy, colon diverticulosis, prescription of antithrombotic agents, and quality of bowel preparation. Expert physicians were defined as those with at least 9 years of endoscopy experience; all other physicians were defined as being in training. In a retrospective analysis, cases in which a physician in training reached the cecum within 15 minutes without requiring the involvement of the supervising physician were defined as eligible cases over which a physician in training should preside, while other cases were defined as non-eligible. Results: Overall, 813 CS cases were analyzed. Males (P<0.0001, cases started by an expert physician (P<0.0001, cases of no fellow physician involvement (P<0.0001, and cases with good bowel preparation (P<0.0001 had significantly shorter cecal intubation times. Of the 562 cases presided over by a physician in training, 194 were deemed eligible and 368 non-eligible. The eligible cases had a higher proportion of males (P=0.017, younger age (P=0.033, higher BMI (P=0.034, and higher rates of hypertension (P=0.001 and good bowel preparation (P=0.001. In analysis by sex, males demonstrated significantly more eligible cases among younger patients (P=0.009 and those with good bowel preparation (P=0.008, while there were significantly more eligible cases among females with hypertension (P=0.004. Conclusion: It may be

  8. Attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara N


    Full Text Available Norio Sugawara,1–3 Norio Yasui-Furukori,2,3 Manabu Yamazaki,4 Kazutaka Shimoda,3,5 Takao Mori,4 Takuro Sugai,3,6 Hiroshi Matsuda,4 Yutaro Suzuki,3,6 Yoshitake Minami,4 Yuji Ozeki,3,5 Kurefu Okamoto,4 Toyoaki Sagae,7 Toshiyuki Someya3,6 1Aomori Prefectural Center for Mental Health and Welfare, Aomori, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 3Japanese Society of Clinical Neuropsychopharmacology, 4Japan Psychiatric Hospital Association, Tokyo, 5Department of Psychiatry, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, 6Department of Psychiatry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 7Department of Health and Nutrition, Yamagata Prefectural Yonezawa University of Nutrition Sciences, Yonezawa, Japan Background: Metabolic syndrome is a growing concern among patients with schizophrenia because metabolic abnormalities are widely regarded as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. The current study assessed attitudes toward metabolic adverse events among patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A brief questionnaire was constructed to investigate patient recognition of the following broad areas: dietary habits, lifestyle, self-monitoring, knowledge, and medical practice. Between January 2012 and June 2013, questionnaires were sent to patients associated with 520 outpatient facilities and 247 inpatient facilities belonging to the Japan Psychiatric Hospital Association. All of the participants (n=22,072; inpatients =15,170, outpatients =6,902 were diagnosed with schizophrenia based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, or the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision. Results: Approximately 55.0% (8,069/14,669 of inpatients and 44.8% of outpatients (2,978/6,649 reported that they did not exercise at all. Although 60.9% (4,116/6,760 of outpatients reported that they felt obese, only 35.6% (5

  9. Optical Investigation of Nanoconfined Crystal Growth (United States)

    Kohler, F.; Dysthe, D. K.


    . W. Scherer, Cement and Concrete Research, 34 (2004) 1613[3] Flatt, R. J. , Caruso, F., Sanchez, A. S. A. and Scherer, G. W., Nature Communications, 5 (2014) 4832 [4] Sekine, S., Okamoto, A.,Hayashi, American Mineralogist, 96 (2011) 101

  10. Accelerating Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation by Multi-GPUs (Invited) (United States)

    Okamoto, T.; Takenaka, H.; Nakamura, T.; Aoki, T.


    Simulation of seismic wave propagation is essential in modern seismology: the effects of irregular topography of the surface, internal discontinuities and heterogeneity on the seismic waveforms must be precisely modeled in order to probe the Earth's and other planets' interiors, to study the earthquake sources, and to evaluate the strong ground motions due to earthquakes. Devices with high computing performance are necessary because in large scale simulations more than one billion of grid points are required. GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) is a remarkable device for its many core architecture with more-than-one-hundred processing units, and its high memory bandwidth. Now GPU delivers extremely high computing performance (more than one tera-flops in single-precision arithmetic) at a reduced power and cost compared to conventional CPUs. The simulation of seismic wave propagation is a memory intensive problem which involves large amount of data transfer between the memory and the arithmetic units while the number of arithmetic calculations is relatively small. Therefore the simulation should benefit from the high memory bandwidth of the GPU. Thus several approaches to adopt GPU to the simulation of seismic wave propagation have been emerging (e.g., Komatitsch et al., 2009; Micikevicius, 2009; Michea and Komatitsch, 2010; Aoi et al., SSJ 2009, JPGU 2010; Okamoto et al., SSJ 2009, SACSIS 2010). In this paper we describe our approach to accelerate the simulation of seismic wave propagation based on the finite-difference method (FDM) by adopting multi-GPU computing. The finite-difference scheme we use is the three-dimensional, velocity-stress staggered grid scheme (e.g., Grave 1996; Moczo et al., 2007) for heterogeneous medium with perfect elasticity (incorporation of an-elasticity is underway). We use the GPUs (NVIDIA S1070, 1.44 GHz) installed in the TSUBAME grid cluster in the Global Scientific Information and Computing Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology and NVIDIA

  11. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19) (United States)

    Muraki, Koji; Takeyama, Shojiro


    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19) held in Fukuoka, Japan, from 1-6 August 2010. This conference was mainly sponsored by the Tokyo University-'Horiba International fund', which was donated by Dr Masao Horiba, the founder of Horiba Ltd. The scientific program of HMF-19 consisted of 37 invited talks, 24 contributed talks, and 83 posters, which is available from the conference homepage Each manuscript submitted for publication in this volume has been independently reviewed. The Editor is very grateful to all the reviewers for their quick responses and helpful reports and to all the authors for their submissions and patience for the delay in the editorial process. Finally, the Editor would like to express his sincere gratitude to all the individuals involved in the conference organization and all the attendees, who made this conference so successful. Koji Muraki Conference photograph Committees Chair Conference chairS Takeyama(ISSP-UT) Conference secretary T Machida (IIS-UT) Program chair K Muraki (NTT) Local organizing chair K Oto (Chiba Univ.) Advisory Committee International Domestic L Brey (ES) T Ando (TIT) Z H Chen (CN) Y Hirayama (Tohoku Univ.) S Das Sarma (US) G Kido (NIMS) L Eaves (GB) N Miura (JP) J P Eisenstein (US) J Nitta (Tohoku Univ.) K Ensslin (CH) T Takamasu (NIMS) J Furdyna (US) G M Gusev (BR) I Kukushkin (RU) Z D Kvon (RU) G Landwehr (DE) J C Maan (NL) A H MacDonald (US) N F Oliveira Jr (BR) A Pinczuk (US) J C Portal (FR) A Sachrajda (CA) M K Sanyal(IN) R Stepniewski(PL) Program Committee Chair: K Muraki(NTT) International Domestic G Bauer (AU) H Ajiki (Osaka Univ.) G Boebinger (US) H Aoki (Hongo, UT) S Ivanov (RU) K Nomura (RIKEN) K von Klitzing (DE) T Okamoto (Hongo, UT) R Nicholas (GB) T Osada (ISSP-UT ) M Potemski (FR) N Studart (BR) U Zeitler (NL

  12. Orengedoku-to augmentation in cases showing partial response to yokukan-san treatment: a case report and literature review of the evidence for use of these Kampo herbal formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto H


    Full Text Available Hideki Okamoto,1 Atsushi Chino,1 Yoshiro Hirasaki,1 Keigo Ueda,1 Masaomi Iyo,2 Takao Namiki11Department of Japanese-Oriental (Kampo Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Japan Background: Yokukan-san, a Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo prescription, has recently gathered increasing attention due to accumulating reports showing its remarkable efficacy in treating a wide variety of diseases refractory to conventional medicine as well as the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. As yokukan-san has become broadly integrated with conventional medicine, augmentation therapy with other Kampo prescriptions has become necessary when the yokukan-san has been only partially efficacious. In this paper, we report three cases in which the addition of orengedoku-to, another Kampo formula, to yokukan-san was remarkably effective.Cases: Case 1 was an 85-year-old man with Alzheimer-type dementia who had become aggressive during the past 2 years. Three milligrams of aripiprazole completely suppressed his problematic behaviors but had to be stopped because of extrapyramidal symptoms. In the second case, a 44-year-old man with methamphetamine-induced psychosis had suffered from serious tardive dystonia for 2 years. No conventional approach had improved his tardive dystonia. The third case was a 29-year-old engineer who often failed to resist aggressive impulses and was diagnosed with intermittent explosive disorder. He was prescribed 5 mg of olanzapine, which did not suppress his extraordinary anger and caused somnolence even though the dose was low.Interventions and outcomes: Yokukan-san was complementarily added to the patients' regular medication and exerted a definitive but partial effect in all cases. The addition of orengedoku-to to yokukan-san exerted the same efficacy as aripiprazole in controlling aggressiveness in Case 1

  13. Effects of aural stimulation with capsaicin ointment on swallowing function in elderly patients with non-obstructive dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo E


    Full Text Available Eiji Kondo,1,2 Osamu Jinnouchi,3 Hiroki Ohnishi,3 Ikuji Kawata,3 Seiichi Nakano,2 Masakazu Goda,1 Yoshiaki Kitamura,1 Koji Abe,1 Hiroshi Hoshikawa,4 Hidehiko Okamoto,5 Noriaki Takeda1 1Department of Otolaryngology, University of Tokushima School of Medicine, Tokushima, Japan; 2Department of Otolaryngology, Kochi National Hospital, Kochi, Japan; 3Department of Otolaryngology, Anan Kyoei Hospital, Anan, Japan; 4Department of Otolaryngology, Kagawa University School of Medicine, Kagawa, Japan; 5Department of Sensori-Motor Integration, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan Objective: In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the effects of aural ­stimulation with ointment containing capsaicin on swallowing function in order to develop a novel and safe treatment for non-obstructive dysphagia in elderly patients. Design: A prospective pilot, non-blinded, non-controlled study with case series evaluating a new treatment. Setting: Secondary hospitals. Patients and methods: The present study included 26 elderly patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. Ointment containing 0.025% capsaicin (0.5 g was applied to the external auditory canal with a cotton swab under otoscope only once or once a day for 7 days before swallowing of a bolus of colored water (3 mL, which was recorded by transnasal videoendoscopy and evaluated according to the endoscopic swallowing score. Results: After a single application of 0.025% capsaicin ointment to the right external auditory canal, the endoscopic swallowing score was significantly decreased, and this effect lasted for 60 minutes. After repeated applications of the ointment to each external auditory canal alternatively once a day for 7 days, the endoscopic swallowing score decreased significantly in patients with more severe non-obstructive dysphagia. Of the eight tube-fed patients of this group, three began direct swallowing exercises using jelly, which subsequently restored their oral

  14. From engineering to editing the rat genome. (United States)

    Meek, Stephen; Mashimo, Tomoji; Burdon, Tom


    Since its domestication over 100 years ago, the laboratory rat has been the preferred experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research (Lindsey and Baker The laboratory rat. Academic, New York, pp 1-52, 2006). Its physiology, size, genetics, reproductive cycle, cognitive and behavioural characteristics have made it a particularly useful animal model for studying many human disorders and diseases. Indeed, through selective breeding programmes numerous strains have been derived that are now the mainstay of research on hypertension, obesity and neurobiology (Okamoto and Aoki Jpn Circ J 27:282-293, 1963; Zucker and Zucker J Hered 52(6):275-278, 1961). Despite this wealth of genetic and phenotypic diversity, the ability to manipulate and interrogate the genetic basis of existing phenotypes in rat strains and the methodology to generate new rat models has lagged significantly behind the advances made with its close cousin, the laboratory mouse. However, recent technical developments in stem cell biology and genetic engineering have again brought the rat to the forefront of biomedical studies and enabled researchers to exploit the increasingly accessible wealth of genome sequence information. In this review, we will describe how a breakthrough in understanding the molecular basis of self-renewal of the pluripotent founder cells of the mammalian embryo, embryonic stem (ES) cells, enabled the derivation of rat ES cells and their application in transgenesis. We will also describe the remarkable progress that has been made in the development of gene editing enzymes that enable the generation of transgenic rats directly through targeted genetic modifications in the genomes of zygotes. The simplicity, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the CRISPR/Cas gene editing system, in particular, mean that the ability to engineer the rat genome is no longer a limiting factor. The selection of suitable targets and gene modifications will now become a priority: a challenge where

  15. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map (United States)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji


    . Collaboration with GCOM-W is not only limited to its participation to GPM constellation but also coordination in areas of algorithm development and validation in Japan. Generation of high-temporal and high-accurate global rainfall map is one of targets of the GPM mission. As a proto-type for GPM era, JAXA has developed and operates the Global Precipitation Map algorithm in near-real-time since October 2008, and hourly and 0.1-degree resolution binary data and images available at four hours after observation. The algorithms are based on outcomes from the Global Satellite Mapping for Precipitation (GSMaP) project, which was sponsored by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) under the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST) framework between 2002 and 2007 (Okamoto et al., 2005; Aonashi et al., 2009; Ushio et al., 2009). Target of GSMaP project is to produce global rainfall maps that are highly accurate and in high temporal and spatial resolution through the development of rain rate retrieval algorithms based on reliable precipitation physical models by using several microwave radiometer data, and comprehensive use of precipitation radar and geostationary infrared imager data. Near-real-time GSMaP data is distributed via internet and utilized by end users. Purpose of data utilization by each user covers broad areas and in world wide; Science researches (model validation, data assimilation, typhoon study, etc.), weather forecast/service, flood warning and rain analysis over river basin, oceanographic condition forecast, agriculture, and education. Toward the GPM era, operational application should be further emphasized as well as science application. JAXA continues collaboration with hydrological communities to utilize satellite-based precipitation data as inputs to future flood prediction and warning system, as well as with meteorological agencies to proceed further data utilization in numerical weather prediction

  16. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 (United States)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.


    dispersions for soft matter photonics I Muševič, M Škarabot and M Humar Solvation effects in phase transitions in soft matter Akira Onuki, Takeaki Araki and Ryuichi Okamoto Non-equilibrium dynamics of 2D liquid crystals driven by transmembrane gas flow Kazuyoshi Seki, Ken Ueda, Yu-ichi Okumura and Yuka Tabe Roles of bond orientational ordering in glass transition and crystallization Hajime Tanaka Shear banding in thixotropic and normal emulsions José Paredes, Noushine Shahidzadeh-Bonn and Daniel Bonn Effects of hydrodynamic interactions in binary colloidal mixtures driven oppositely by oscillatory external fields Adam Wysocki and Hartmut Löwen Onsager's variational principle in soft matter Masao Doi

  17. PREFACE Preface (United States)

    Takahashi, Migaku; Saito, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Satoru; Takanashi, Koki; Sahashi, Masashi; Tsunoda, Masakiyo


    IgarashiHitachi, CRL, JapanK TajimaAkita Univ., Japan H ItoKansai Univ., JapanM TakedaJAEA, Japan H IwasakiToshiba, JapanY TakemuraYokohama Nat'l Univ., Japan H KatoYamagata Univ., JapanM TanakaUniv. of Tokyo, Japan M KonotoAIST, JapanA TsukamotoNihon Univ., Japan H KubotaAIST, JapanS YabukamiTohoku Gakuin Univ., Japan Treasury Committee of ISAMMA 2010 M SahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, ChairS SaitoTohoku Univ., Japan K IshiyamaTohoku Univ., JapanT TanakaEhime Univ., Japan K NakagawaNihon Univ., JapanN TezukaTohoku Univ., Japan T OgawaTohoku Univ., Japan Executive Committee of ISAMMA 2010 M TakahashiTohoku Univ., Japan, ChairS SaitoTohoku Univ., Japan K TakanashiTohoku Univ., Japan, Vice-chairY SakurabaTohoku Univ., Japan K MiyakeTohoku Univ., JapanT ShimaTohoku Gakuin Univ., Japan T OgawaTohoku Univ., JapanN TezukaTohoku Univ., Japan S OkamotoTohoku Univ., JapanM TsunodaTohoku Univ., Japan M OoganeTohoku Univ., Japan We are grateful to all the participants for their valuable contributions and active discussions. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from 17 Japanese companies (ASAKA RIKEN CO., LTD, Fujikin Incorporated, Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd, Hitachi Metals, Ltd, IZUMI-TEC CO., LTD, Miwa Electric Industrial CO., LTD, MIWA MFG CO., LTD, NEOARK Corporation, Optima Corporation, PRESTO CO., LTD, SHOWA DENKO K.K., TAIYO YUDEN CO., LTD, TDK Corporation, TEIJIN LIMITED, Ube Material Industries, Ltd, ULVAC, Inc, and V TEX Corporation) and 7 foundations (SENDAI TOURISM & CONVENTION BUREAU, The Iwatani Naoji Foundation, Tohoku University Electro-Related Departments Global COE Program 'Center of Education and Research for Information Electronics Systems', The Murata Science Foundation, Research Foundation for Materials Science, Nippon Sheet Glass Foundation for Materials Science and Engineering, and Aoba Foundation for The Promotion of Engineering).

  18. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2007 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards (United States)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul


    Since 1991, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of this journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. The current breadth of topical areas that are covered by MST has made it advisable to expand the recognition of excellent publications. Hence, since 2005 the Editorial Board have presented 'Outstanding Paper Awards' in four subject categories: Fluid Mechanics; Measurement Science; Precision Measurements; and Sensors and Sensing Systems. 2007 Award Winners—Fluid Mechanics An adaptive sampling and windowing interrogation method in PIV R Theunissen, F Scarano and M L Riethmuller von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, 1640 Sint-Genesius Rode, Belgium and Department of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, PO Box 5058, 2600 GB Delft, The Netherlands The co-authored paper [1] has been selected as the Outstanding Paper in Fluid Mechanics for 2007. This paper provides a strategy whereby the placement and the size of the interrogation regions are adapted to the image signal strength (seeding density) and the spatial variations of the velocity magnitudes. Two, quite distinct, test cases demonstrate the efficacy of their method: a shockwave- boundary layer interaction and an aircraft vortex wake. The Selection Committee—Drs T Fansler, J Foss, I Marusic, S Morris, K Okamoto and M Wernet—selected this paper from a strongly competitive shortlist of four candidates. Their selection process was influenced by the perceived utility of the contribution to the numerous investigators who utilize PIV methods. 2007 Award Winners—Measurement Science Broadband single cell impedance spectroscopy using maximum length sequences: theoretical analysis and practical considerations Tao Sun, Shady Gawad, Catia Bernabini, Nicolas G Green and Hywel Morgan

  19. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2008 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2008 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards (United States)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul


    I Kalfas and Reza S Abhari Laboratory for Energy Conversion, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece The paper [2] describes the development of a probe for measuring time-resolved entropy fluctuations. The technique was developed for use in turbomachinery applications where knowledge of the unsteady entropy in the wake of a rotating blade row can provide significant insight into the loss (dissipation) generation mechanisms. There is no direct method to measure entropy; hence the authors use an approach where the stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature are measured on the same probe. The stagnation, or 'total', pressure has been the subject of several of the authors' papers in the last few years. The more significant challenge was the time-resolved measurement of total temperature. The high Mach numbers present in the flows of interest lead to significant temperature gradients in the probe itself which contaminate this type of measurement. The paper describes a novel probe design along with a detailed heat transfer calculation and uncertainty analysis. The fluid mechanics members of the MST Editorial and Advisory Boards—T Fansler, J Foss, M Koochesfahani, I Marusic, S Morris, K Okamoto, F Scarano, E Tomita and M Wernet—considered all papers in the Fluid Mechanics section and the others that related to fluid mechanics. In the final analysis, the strengths of this paper strongly recommended it for the Award. 2008 Award Winners—Precision Measurement Self-calibration of divided circles on the basis of a prime factor algorithm R Probst Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany This paper [3] describes a new method for the self-calibration of divided circles, which may be widely used for angle calibration of circular scales, precision polygons, indexing tables and angle encoders. In