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Sample records for taste phenotyping characterization

  1. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance - with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used - an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli.

  2. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M; Schumacher, Michael A; Matthis, Andrea L; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R; Hong, Christian I; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua; Helmrath, Michael A; Montrose, Marshall H

    2015-11-24

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5(+) cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells in the inner layers. Furthermore, characterization of the cell cycle of the taste bud progenitor niche reveals striking dynamics of taste bud development and regeneration. Using this taste bud organoid culture system and FUCCI2 transgenic mice, we identify the stem/progenitor cells have at least 5 distinct cell cycle populations by tracking within 24-hour synchronized oscillations of proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that stem/progenitor cells have motility to form taste bud organoids. Taste bud organoids provides a system for elucidating mechanisms of taste signaling, disease modeling, and taste tissue regeneration.

  3. Factors Influencing the Phenotypic Characterization of the Oral Marker, PROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly J. Tepper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last several decades, the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP has attracted considerable attention as a model for understanding individual differences in taste perception, and as an oral marker for food preferences and eating behavior that ultimately impacts nutritional status and health. However, some studies do not support this role. This review describes common factors that can influence the characterization of this phenotype including: (1 changes in taste sensitivity with increasing age; (2 gender differences in taste perception; and (3 effects of smoking and obesity. We suggest that attention to these factors during PROP screening could strengthen the associations between this phenotype and a variety of health outcomes ranging from variation in body composition to oral health and cancer risk.

  4. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  5. Sweet Taste Perception is Associated with Body Mass Index at the Phenotypic and Genotypic Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Liang-Dar; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Ong, Jue-Sheng; Breslin, Paul A S; Reed, Danielle R; MacGregor, Stuart; Gharahkhani, Puya; Martin, Nicholas G; Rentería, Miguel E

    2016-10-01

    Investigations on the relationship between sweet taste perception and body mass index (BMI) have been inconclusive. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis using a genetically informative sample of 1,576 adolescent Australian twins to explore the relationship between BMI and sweet taste. First, we estimated the phenotypic correlations between perception scores for four different sweet compounds (glucose, fructose, neohesperidine dihydrochalcone (NHDC), and aspartame) and BMI. Then, we computed the association between adolescent taste perception and BMI in early adulthood (reported 9 years later). Finally, we used twin modeling and polygenic risk prediction analysis to investigate the genetic overlap between BMI and sweet taste perception. Our findings revealed that BMI in early adulthood was significantly associated with each of the sweet perception scores, with the strongest correlation observed in aspartame with r = 0.09 (p = .007). However, only limited evidence of association was observed between sweet taste perception and BMI that was measured at the same time (in adolescence), with the strongest evidence of association observed for glucose with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.06 (p = .029) and for aspartame with r = 0.06 (p = .035). We found a significant (p sweet taste perception in adolescence can be a potential indicator of BMI in early adulthood. This association is further supported by evidence of genetic overlap between the traits, suggesting that some BMI genes may be acting through biological pathways of taste perception.

  6. Gut Microbiota and a Selectively Bred Taste Phenotype: A Novel Model of Microbiome-Behavior Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark; Fodor, Anthony A; Chapman, Clinton D; Martin, Gary G; Perez-Chanona, Ernesto; Jobin, Christian; Dess, Nancy K

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota-gut-brain axis is increasingly implicated in obesity, anxiety, stress, and other health-related processes. Researchers have proposed that gut microbiota may influence dietary habits, and pathways through the microbiota-gut-brain axis make such a relationship feasible; however, few data bear on the hypothesis. As a first step in the development of a model system, the gut microbiome was examined in rat lines selectively outbred on a taste phenotype with biobehavioral profiles that have diverged with respect to energy regulation, anxiety, and stress. Occidental low and high-saccharin-consuming rats were assessed for body mass and chow, water, and saccharin intake; littermate controls had shared cages with rats in the experimental group but were not assessed. Cecum and colon microbial communities were profiled using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and multivariate analysis of microbial diversity and composition. The saccharin phenotype was confirmed (low-saccharin-consuming rats, 0.7Δ% [0.9Δ%]; high-saccharin-consuming rats, 28.1Δ% [3.6Δ%]). Regardless of saccharin exposure, gut microbiota differed between lines in terms of overall community similarity and taxa at lower phylogenetic levels. Specifically, 16 genera in three phyla distinguished the lines at a 10% false discovery rate. The study demonstrates for the first time that rodent lines created through selective pressure on taste and differing on functionally related correlates host different microbial communities. Whether the microbiota are causally related to the taste phenotype or its correlates remains to be determined. These findings encourage further inquiry on the relationship of the microbiome to taste, dietary habits, emotion, and health.

  7. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Matthis, Andrea L.; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K.; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R.; Hong, Christian I.; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5+) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5+ cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells ...

  8. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... the flavor of substances such as foods and poisons. Humans perceive taste through sensory organs called taste buds concentrated on the upper tongue surface. Basic taste contributes to the sensation and flavor of foods in the mouth. Sourness is the taste that detects acidity. The sourness of substances is ...

  9. Polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and the taste bud trophic factor, gustin gene co-operate in modulating PROP taste phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Carla; Padiglia, Alessandra; Zonza, Andrea; Corrias, Laura; Contu, Paolo; Tepper, Beverly J; Barbarossa, Iole Tomassini

    2011-10-24

    The PROP taste phenotype varies greatly among individuals, influencing eating behavior and therefore may play a role in body composition. This variation is associated with polymorphisms in the bitter receptor gene TAS2R38 and the taste-bud trophic factor gustin gene. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between TAS2R38 haplotypes and the gustin gene polymorphism rs2274333 in modulating PROP taste phenotype. PROP phenotype was determined in seventy-six volunteers (29 males, 47 females, age 25±3 y) by scaling methods and threshold measurements. TAS2R38 and gustin gene genotyping was performed using PCR techniques. The lowest responsiveness in PROP nontasters is strongly associated with the AVI nontasting TAS2R38 variant and the highest responsiveness in supertasters is strongly associated to allele A and genotype AA of the gustin gene. These data support the hypothesis that the greater sensitivity of supertasters could be mediated by a greater taste-bud density. Polymorphisms in TAS2R38 and gustin gene, together, accounted for up to 60% of the phenotypic variance in PROP bitterness and to 40% in threshold values. These data, suggest that other unidentified factors may be more relevant for detecting low concentrations of PROP. Moreover, the presence of the PAV variant receptor may be important for detecting high concentrations of PROP, whereas the presence of allele A in gustin polymorphism may be relevant for perceiving low concentrations. These data show how the combination of the TAS2R38 and gustin gene genotypes modulate PROP phenotype, providing an additional tool for the evaluation of human eating behavior and nutritional status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  11. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of Salmonella and human pathogens in unpasteurized milk remains a public health hazard. The study reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Salmonella serotypes in cow raw milk, cheese and traditional yoghurt marketed for man's consumption in Nigeria. Isolation of Salmonella was done ...

  12. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  13. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: 615834652@qq.com [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2016-05-05

    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the

  14. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

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    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  15. Characterization and taste masking evaluation of microparticles with cetirizine dihydrochloride and methacrylate-based copolymer obtained by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelian Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Taste of a pharmaceutical formulation is an important parameter for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy. Cetirizine dihydrochloride (CET is a second-generation antihistamine that is commonly administered in allergy treatment. CET is characterized by extremely bitter taste and it is a great challenge to successfully mask its taste; therefore the goal of this work was to formulate and characterize the microparticles obtained by the spray drying method with CET and poly(butyl methacrylate-co-(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate 1:2:1 copolymer (Eudragit E PO as a barrier coating. Assessment of taste masking by the electronic tongue has revealed that designed formulations created an effective taste masking barrier. Taste masking effect was also confirmed by the in vivo model and the in vitro release profile of CET. Obtained data have shown that microparticles with a drug/polymer ratio (0.5:1 are promising CET carriers with efficient taste masking potential and might be further used in designing orodispersible dosage forms with CET.

  16. Neurochemical characterization of sea lamprey taste buds and afferent gustatory fibers: presence of serotonin, calretinin, and CGRP immunoreactivity in taste bud bi-ciliated cells of the earliest vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2008-12-01

    Neuroactive substances such as serotonin and other monoamines have been suggested to be involved in the transmission of gustatory signals from taste bud cells to afferent fibers. Lampreys are the earliest vertebrates that possess taste buds, although these differ in structure from taste buds in jawed vertebrates, and their neurochemistry remains unknown. We used immunofluorescence methods with antibodies raised against serotonin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin, and acetylated alpha-tubulin to characterize the neurochemistry and innervation of taste buds in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L. For localization of proliferative cells in taste buds we used bromodeoxyuridine labeling and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Results with both markers indicate that proliferating cells are restricted to a few basal cells and that almost all cells in taste buds are nonproliferating. A large number of serotonin-, calretinin-, and CGRP-immunoreactive bi-ciliated cells were revealed in lamprey taste buds. This suggests that serotonin participates in the transmission of gustatory signals and indicates that this substance appeared early on in vertebrate evolution. The basal surface of the bi-ciliated taste bud cells was contacted by tubulin-immunoreactive fibers. Some of the fibers surrounding the taste bud were calretinin immunoreactive. Lamprey taste bud cells or afferent fibers did not exhibit TH, GABA, glutamate, or NPY immunoreactivity, which suggests that expression of these substances evolved in taste buds of some gnathostomes lines after the separation of gnathostomes and lampreys. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Phenotypic and immunohistochemical characterization of sarcoglycanopathies

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    Ana F. B. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy presents with heterogeneous clinical and molecular features. The primary characteristic of this disorder is proximal muscular weakness with variable age of onset, speed of progression, and intensity of symptoms. Sarcoglycanopathies, which are a subgroup of the limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, are caused by mutations in sarcoglycan genes. Mutations in these genes cause secondary deficiencies in other proteins, due to the instability of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Therefore, determining the etiology of a given sarcoglycanopathy requires costly and occasionally inaccessible molecular methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify phenotypic differences among limb-girdle muscular dystrophy patients who were grouped according to the immunohistochemical phenotypes for the four sarcoglycans. METHODS: To identify phenotypic differences among patients with different types of sarcoglycanopathies, a questionnaire was used and the muscle strength and range of motion of nine joints in 45 patients recruited from the Department of Neurology - HC-FMUSP (Clinics Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo were evaluated. The findings obtained from these analyses were compared with the results of the immunohistochemical findings. RESULTS: The patients were divided into the following groups based on the immunohistochemical findings: a-sarcoglycanopathies (16 patients, b-sarcoglycanopathies (1 patient, y-sarcoglycanopathies (5 patients, and nonsarcoglycanopathies (23 patients. The muscle strength analysis revealed significant differences for both upper and lower limb muscles, particularly the shoulder and hip muscles, as expected. No pattern of joint contractures was found among the four groups analyzed, even within the same family. However, a high frequency of tiptoe gait was observed in patients with a-sarcoglycanopathies, while calf pseudo-hypertrophy was most common in

  18. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

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    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Conventional, Biodynamic, and Organic Purple Grape Juices by Chemical Markers, Antioxidant Capacity, and Instrumental Taste Profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, D.; Margraf, T.; Brotzakis, I.; Capuano, E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and

  20. Taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice characterized by sensory evaluation, chromatography analysis, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Jie; Tian, Huaixiang

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice, four types of bayberry juice sourced from different origins and varieties were analysed using sensory evaluation, chromatography, spectroscopy analysis and an electronic tongue (E-tongue). Nine organic acids and three sugars were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total polyphenols were measured by spectrophotometry. The overall taste profile was collected using the E-tongue. The four types of bayberry juice differed in the sensory attributes of sour, sweet, bitter, and astringent. The E-tongue responses combined with discriminant analysis were able to characterise the taste profiles of the juices. The relationships between the taste compounds and the sensory panel scores established by partial least squares showed that total polyphenols, quininic acid, maleic acid, fructose, citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid and sucrose made significant contributions to the taste characteristics of the Chinese bayberry juice.

  1. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... collected from different provinces of the Black Sea region in 2006 and 2007 and phenotypic ... Picture of the diversity fruit size, shape and color for Cucurbita maxima ... Fruit traits used winter squash (C. maxima Duch) population characterization. S/N ..... Group J: There were a total of 18 populations in this.

  2. Characterizing root response phenotypes by neural network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hatzig, Sarah V.; Schiessl, Sarah; Stahl, Andreas; Snowdon, Rod J.

    2015-01-01

    Roots play an immediate role as the interface for water acquisition. To improve sustainability in low-water environments, breeders of major crops must therefore pay closer attention to advantageous root phenotypes; however, the complexity of root architecture in response to stress can be difficult to quantify. Here, the Sholl method, an established technique from neurobiology used for the characterization of neural network anatomy, was adapted to more adequately describe root responses to osm...

  3. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel phenotype in pigs characterized by juvenile hairlessness and age dependent emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Camilla S.; Jørgensen, Claus B.; Bay, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Background: A pig phenotype characterized by juvenile hairlessness, thin skin and age dependent lung emphysema has been discovered in a Danish pig herd. The trait shows autosomal co-dominant inheritance with all three genotypes distinguishable. Since the phenotype shows resemblance to the integrin...... of musculi arrectores pili, and at puberty or later localized areas of emphysema are seen in the lungs. Comparative mapping predicted that the porcine ITGB6 and ITGAV orthologs map to SSC15. In an experimentall family (n=113), showing segregation of the trait, the candidate region was confirmed by linkage...... splicing of the ITGB6 pre-mRNA was detected. For both ITGB6 and ITGAV quantitative PCR revealed no significant difference in the expression levels in normal and affected animals. In a western blot, ITGB6 was detected in lung protein samples of all three genotypes. This result was supported by flow...

  4. Energy intake and diet selection during buffet consumption in women classified by the 6-n-propylthiouracil bitter taste phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaie, Yasmine; Koelliker, Yvonne; Hoffman, Daniel J; Tepper, Beverly J

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to a variety of energy-dense foods promotes increased energy intake and adiposity. Taste blindness to the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) has been associated with increased adiposity in women and might be linked to an increased energy intake and greater selection of dietary fat. We investigated whether PROP nontaster (NT) women would consume more fat and energy in a buffet setting than medium taster (MT) or supertaster (ST) women. Seventy-five non-diet-restrained, lean, young women [mean ± SEM BMI (in kg/m²): 21.5 ± 0.6; age: 26.1 ± 1.3 y) ate lunch and dinner in the laboratory for 3 consecutive days under the following 2 conditions: ad libitum control meals (CONTs) or high-variety buffet meals (BUFFs). A standard breakfast was consumed each day of the study (4 - d washout between conditions). NTs and MTs consumed more energy and fat (as the percentage of energy) from BUFFs than did STs (P daily energy intakes in these 2 groups of women during BUFFs (2149 ± 49 kcal/d for NTs and 2209 ± 48 kcal/d for MTs compared with 1933 ± 50 kcal/d for STs; P kcal/d during BUFFs than during CONTs. In addition, compared with STs, NTs and MTs consumed more added fats and sweets (servings/d; P daily energy than do ST women when eating in a buffet setting, which is a common type of dietary exposure. This increase in energy intake over time could contribute to a positive energy balance and increased adiposity previously reported in these women.

  5. Taste Reward Circuitry Related Brain Structures Characterize Ill and Recovered Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K.; Shott, Megan E.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The pathophysiology of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. Here we assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which might be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. Method We used structural magnetic resonance brain imaging to study gray and white matter volumes in individuals with restricting type currently ill (n = 19) or recovered-anorexia nervosa (n = 24), bulimia nervosa (n= 19) and healthy control women (n=24). Results All eating disorder groups showed increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manually tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and predicted taste pleasantness across all groups. The analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories: Ill and recovered-anorexia nervosa had increased right, while bulimia nervosa had increased left antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes compared to controls. Furthermore, dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in recovered-anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and predicted sensitivity to reward in the eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas when compared to healthy controls. Notably, the results held when controlling for a range of covariates (e.g., age, depression, anxiety, medications). Conclusion Brain structure in medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value. PMID:23680873

  6. How stereochemistry influences the taste of wine: Isolation, characterization and sensory evaluation of lyoniresinol stereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretin, Blandine N; Sallembien, Quentin; Sindt, Lauriane; Daugey, Nicolas; Buffeteau, Thierry; Waffo-Teguo, Pierre; Dubourdieu, Denis; Marchal, Axel

    2015-08-12

    Wine expresses its beauty by sending a sensory message to the taster through molecules coming from grapes, yeast metabolism or oak wood. Among the compounds released during barrel aging, lyoniresinol has been recently reported as a relevant contributor to wine bitterness. As this lignan contains three stereogenic carbons, this work aimed at investigating the influence of stereochemistry on wine taste by combining analytical and sensorial techniques. First, an oak wood extract was screened by Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry to target isomers separable in a symmetric environment and a diastereoisomer called epi-lyoniresinol was isolated for the first time. Then, an original racemic resolution based on natural xylose-derivatives was carried out to obtain lyoniresinol enantiomers. Chiroptical spectroscopic measurements associated with theoretical calculations allowed the unambiguous determination of their absolute configuration. The taste properties of all these stereoisomers revealed that only one lyoniresinol enantiomer is strongly bitter whereas the other one is tasteless and the diastereoisomer is slightly sweet. The presence of these three compounds was established in an oaked Bordeaux wine by chiral and non-chiral chromatography, suggesting the significant influence of stereochemistry on wine taste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the Binding Site of Aspartame in the Human Sweet Taste Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Emeline L; Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Mezei, Mihaly; Hecht, Elizabeth; Quijada, Jeniffer; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman; Max, Marianna

    2015-10-01

    The sweet taste receptor, a heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptor comprised of T1R2 and T1R3, binds sugars, small molecule sweeteners, and sweet proteins to multiple binding sites. The dipeptide sweetener, aspartame binds in the Venus Flytrap Module (VFTM) of T1R2. We developed homology models of the open and closed forms of human T1R2 and human T1R3 VFTMs and their dimers and then docked aspartame into the closed form of T1R2's VFTM. To test and refine the predictions of our model, we mutated various T1R2 VFTM residues, assayed activity of the mutants and identified 11 critical residues (S40, Y103, D142, S144, S165, S168, Y215, D278, E302, D307, and R383) in and proximal to the binding pocket of the sweet taste receptor that are important for ligand recognition and activity of aspartame. Furthermore, we propose that binding is dependent on 2 water molecules situated in the ligand pocket that bridge 2 carbonyl groups of aspartame to residues D142 and L279. These results shed light on the activation mechanism and how signal transmission arising from the extracellular domain of the T1R2 monomer of the sweet receptor leads to the perception of sweet taste. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes and phylogenetic analysis of bitter taste receptor genes in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As nontraditional model organisms with extreme physiological and morphological phenotypes, snakes are believed to possess an inferior taste system. However, the bitter taste sensation is essential to distinguish the nutritious and poisonous food resources and the genomic evidence of bitter taste in snakes is largely scarce. To explore the genetic basis of the bitter taste of snakes and characterize the evolution of bitter taste receptor genes (Tas2rs in reptiles, we identified Tas2r genes in 19 genomes (species corresponding to three orders of non-avian reptiles. Our results indicated contractions of Tas2r gene repertoires in snakes, however dramatic gene expansions have occurred in lizards. Phylogenetic analysis of the Tas2rs with NJ and BI methods revealed that Tas2r genes of snake species formed two clades, whereas in lizards the Tas2r genes clustered into two monophyletic clades and four large clades. Evolutionary changes (birth and death of intact Tas2r genes in reptiles were determined by reconciliation analysis. Additionally, the taste signaling pathway calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (Calhm1 gene of snakes was putatively functional, suggesting that snakes still possess bitter taste sensation. Furthermore, Phylogenetically Independent Contrasts (PIC analyses reviewed a significant correlation between the number of Tas2r genes and the amount of potential toxins in reptilian diets, suggesting that insectivores such as some lizards may require more Tas2rs genes than omnivorous and carnivorous reptiles.

  9. MicroRNAs in Muscle: Characterizing the Powerlifter Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Randall F.; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Zeng, Nina; Aasen, Kirsten M. M.; Raastad, Truls; Cameron-Smith, David; Mitchell, Cameron J.

    2017-01-01

    Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis of 15 national level powerlifters (25.1 ± 5.8 years) and 13 untrained controls (24.1 ± 2.0 years). The powerlifters were stronger than the controls (isokinetic knee extension at 60°/s: 307.8 ± 51.6 Nm vs. 211.9 ± 41.9 Nm, respectively P powerlifters and five having lower expression. Established transcriptionally regulated miR downstream gene targets involved in muscle mass regulation, including myostatin and MyoD, were also differentially expressed between groups. Correlation analysis demonstrates the abundance of eight miRs was correlated to phenotype including peak strength, fiber size, satellite cell abundance, and fiber type regardless of grouping. The unique miR expression profiles between groups allow for categorization of individuals as either powerlifter or healthy controls based on a five miR signature (miR-126, -23b, -16, -23a, -15a) with considerable accuracy (100%). Thus, this unique miR expression may be important to the characterization of the powerlifter phenotype. PMID:28638346

  10. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-05

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  11. [Phenotypic and molecular characterization of a Colombian family with phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélvez, Nancy; Acosta, Johana; López, Greizy; Castro, Derly; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Bermúdez, Martha; Tamayo, Marta L

    2016-09-01

    Phenylketonuria is a metabolic disorder characterized by severe neurological involvement and behavioral disorder, whose early diagnosis enables an effective treatment to avoid disease sequelae, thus changing the prognosis. Objective: To characterize a family with phenylketonuria in Colombia at clinical, biochemical and molecular levels. Materials and methods: The population consisted of seven individuals of a consanguineous family with four children with suggestive symptoms of phenylketonuria. After signing an informed consent, blood and urine samples were taken for colorimetric tests and high performance liquid and thin layer chromatographies. DNA extraction and sequencing of the 13 exons of the PAH gene were performed in all subjects. We designed primers for each exon with the Primer 3 software using automatic sequencing equipment Abiprism 3100 Avant. Sequences were analyzed using the SeqScape, v2.0, software. Results: We described the clinical and molecular characteristics of a Colombian family with phenylketonuria and confirmed the presence of the mutation c.398_401delATCA. We established a genotype-phenotype correlation, highlighting the interesting clinical variability found among the affected patients despite having the same mutation in all of them. Conclusions: Early recognition of this disease is very important to prevent its neurological and psychological sequelae, given that patients reach old age without diagnosis or proper management.

  12. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The interest of this paper is to position taste within the framework of time. This might seem peculiar given that taste, in its physical sense, is referred to as an ephemeral experience taking place in the mouth. Taste, however, is more than that. It is the transient experience that infiltrates...... may be bridged by story-telling or other ways of handing over historically embedded practices, but this leaves a more fundamental question unanswered. Namely, that given that all remembrance has individual recollection as the point of departure, then how does individual recollection of tastes...

  13. MicroRNAs in Muscle: Characterizing the Powerlifter Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall F. D'Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis of 15 national level powerlifters (25.1 ± 5.8 years and 13 untrained controls (24.1 ± 2.0 years. The powerlifters were stronger than the controls (isokinetic knee extension at 60°/s: 307.8 ± 51.6 Nm vs. 211.9 ± 41.9 Nm, respectively P < 0.001, and also had larger muscle fibers (type I CSA 9,122 ± 1,238 vs. 4,511 ± 798 μm2p < 0.001 and type II CSA 11,100 ± 1,656 vs. 5,468 ± 1,477 μm2p < 0.001. Of the 17 miRs species analyzed, 12 were differently expressed (p < 0.05 between groups with 7 being more abundant in powerlifters and five having lower expression. Established transcriptionally regulated miR downstream gene targets involved in muscle mass regulation, including myostatin and MyoD, were also differentially expressed between groups. Correlation analysis demonstrates the abundance of eight miRs was correlated to phenotype including peak strength, fiber size, satellite cell abundance, and fiber type regardless of grouping. The unique miR expression profiles between groups allow for categorization of individuals as either powerlifter or healthy controls based on a five miR signature (miR-126, -23b, -16, -23a, -15a with considerable accuracy (100%. Thus, this unique miR expression may be important to the characterization of the powerlifter phenotype.

  14. Phenotypic variation and characterization of mutant matting in shiitake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Mahmood; Azhar Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom that has many uses such as: pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries. In this study, we will induce Shiitake to create the genetic variation via exposing the spores of shiitake to gamma (γ) ray at different doses (0-700 Gy) then make the matting between two different monokaryon mycelium (MM). potato dextrose agar (PDA), this media will be used for spore germination and monokaryon mycelium subculturing during this study. The compatibility of the matting will be observed macroscopically (observing on the plates of PDA) and microscopically (by observing the clamps test under the microscope (Olympus brand)). The finding of this study, there is no significant changing in the growth performance of irradiated monokaryon mycelium in comparing with non-irradiated mycelium. From 108 matting only 15 were compatibles. This study, the physical mutagen will be used followed by mating as a normal stage of life cycle for creating potential strain of shiitake with alteration in phenotypic characterization of dikaryon mycelium (DM) as a compatible mating for two MM. (author)

  15. Autism beyond diagnostic categories : characterization of autistic phenotypes in schizophrenia :

    OpenAIRE

    Kästner, A.; Begemann, M.; Michel, T.; Everts, S.; Stepniak, B.; Bach, C.; Poustka, L.; Becker, J.; Banaschewski, T.; Dose, M.; Ehrenreich, H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Behavioral phenotypical continua from health to disease suggest common underlying mechanisms with quantitative rather than qualitative differences. Until recently, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia were considered distinct nosologic entities. However, emerging evidence contributes to the blurring of symptomatic and genetic boundaries between these conditions. The present study aimed at quantifying behavioral phenotypes shared by autism spectrum disorders and schi...

  16. Phenotypic characterization of glioblastoma identified through shape descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddad, Ahmad; Desrosiers, Christian; Toews, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes quantitatively describing the shape of glioblastoma (GBM) tissue phenotypes as a set of shape features derived from segmentations, for the purposes of discriminating between GBM phenotypes and monitoring tumor progression. GBM patients were identified from the Cancer Genome Atlas, and quantitative MR imaging data were obtained from the Cancer Imaging Archive. Three GBM tissue phenotypes are considered including necrosis, active tumor and edema/invasion. Volumetric tissue segmentations are obtained from registered T1˗weighted (T1˗WI) postcontrast and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI modalities. Shape features are computed from respective tissue phenotype segmentations, and a Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to select features capable of classification with a significance level of p < 0.05. Several classifier models are employed to distinguish phenotypes, where a leave-one-out cross-validation was performed. Eight features were found statistically significant for classifying GBM phenotypes with p <0.05, orientation is uninformative. Quantitative evaluations show the SVM results in the highest classification accuracy of 87.50%, sensitivity of 94.59% and specificity of 92.77%. In summary, the shape descriptors proposed in this work show high performance in predicting GBM tissue phenotypes. They are thus closely linked to morphological characteristics of GBM phenotypes and could potentially be used in a computer assisted labeling system.

  17. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  18. Characterization of the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priyal D.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Kennel, Allison; Mutch, P. Jane; Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Hanks, Camille E.; Lewin, Adam B.; Storch, Eric A.; Toufexis, Megan D.; Dadlani, Gul H.; Rodriguez, Carina A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a subtype of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) marked by an abrupt onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms. We aim to characterize the phenotypic presentation of youth with PANS. Methods: Forty-three youth (ages 4–14 years) meeting criteria for PANS were assessed using self-report and clinician-administered measures, medical record reviews, comprehensive clinical evaluation, and laboratory measures. Results: Youth with PANS presented with an early age of OCD onset (mean=7.84 years) and exhibited moderate to severe obsessive compulsive symptoms upon evaluation. All had comorbid anxiety and emotional lability, and scored well below normative means on all quality of life subscales. Youth with elevated streptococcal antibody titers trended toward having higher OCD severity, and presented more frequently with dilated pupils relative to youth without elevated titers. A cluster analysis of core PANS symptoms revealed three distinct symptom clusters that included core characteristic PANS symptoms, streptococcal-related symptoms, and cytokine-driven/physiological symptoms. Youth with PANS who had comorbid tics were more likely to exhibit a decline in school performance, visuomotor impairment, food restriction symptoms, and handwriting deterioration, and they reported lower quality of life relative to youth without tics. Conclusions: The sudden, acute onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms, high frequency of comorbidities (i.e., anxiety, behavioral regression, depression, and suicidality), and poor quality of life capture the PANS subgroup as suddenly and severely impaired youth. Identifying clinical characteristics of youth with PANS will allow clinicians to diagnose and treat this subtype of OCD with a more strategized and effective approach. PMID:25314221

  19. Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodo, Kornélia

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes...... amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets....

  20. Newly identified CHO ERCC3/XPB mutations and phenotype characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybanská, Ivana; Gurský, Ján; Fašková, Miriam; Salazar, Edmund P.; Kimlíčková-Polakovičová, Erika; Kleibl, Karol; Thompson, Larry H.; Piršel, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a complex multistage process involving many interacting gene products to repair a wide range of DNA lesions. Genetic defects in NER cause human hereditary diseases including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), trichothiodystrophy and a combined XP/CS overlapping symptom. One key gene product associated with all these disorders is the excision repair cross-complementing 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB) DNA helicase, a subunit of the transcription factor IIH complex. ERCC3 is involved in initiation of basal transcription and global genome repair as well as in transcription-coupled repair (TCR). The hamster ERCC3 gene shows high degree of homology with the human ERCC3/XPB gene. We identified new mutations in the Chinese hamster ovary cell ERCC3 gene and characterized the role of hamster ERCC3 protein in DNA repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced and oxidative DNA damage. All but one newly described mutations are located in the protein C-terminal region around the last intron–exon boundary. Due to protein truncations or frameshifts, they lack amino acid Ser751, phosphorylation of which prevents the 5′ incision of the UV-induced lesion during NER. Thus, despite the various locations of the mutations, their phenotypes are similar. All ercc3 mutants are extremely sensitive to UV-C light and lack recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS), confirming a defect in TCR of UV-induced damage. Their limited global genome NER capacity averages ∼8%. We detected modest sensitivity of ercc3 mutants to the photosensitizer Ro19-8022, which primarily introduces 8-oxoguanine lesions into DNA. Ro19-8022-induced damage interfered with RRS, and some of the ercc3 mutants had delayed kinetics. All ercc3 mutants showed efficient base excision repair (BER). Thus, the positions of the mutations have no effect on the sensitivity to, and repair of, Ro19-8022-induced DNA damage, suggesting that the ERCC3 protein is not involved in BER. PMID:19942596

  1. Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gustatory (taste nerve) cells are clustered in the taste buds of the mouth and throat. They react to ... that can be seen on the tongue contain taste buds. These surface cells send taste information to nearby ...

  2. Phenotypic Characterization of the Bunaji Cattle Breed in Oyo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STD), body length (BLT), heart girth (HTG), height at withers (HTW), canon circumference (CCR), tail length (TLT), horn length (HLT) and ear length (ELT). Phenotypic traits such as dewlap, coat color, horn type, ear type, hump type and navel flap ...

  3. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Botrytis cinerea isolates from tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanovska Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty-three isolates of Botrytis cinerea were collected from 7 different areas in the Republic of Macedonia, where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. Based on the mycelial formation, intensity of sporulation and sclerotial production, 9 different phenotypes were detected: 4 mycelial and 5 sclerotial. One sclerotial morphological type has not been previously reported. The presence or absence of two transposable elements, boty and flipper, was detected by PCR. Out of 123 isolates, 20 had two transposable elements, boty and flipper (transposa genotype, 48 had neither of these elements (vacuma genotype and 55 had only the flipper element (flipper genotype. Isolates that contain only boty element were not detected. No relationship between the phenotypes, origin of isolates and the presence/absence of transposable elements, boty and flipper, was found.

  4. Characterizing visible and invisible cell wall mutant phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpita, Nicholas C.; McCann, Maureen C.

    2015-04-06

    About 10% of a plant's genome is devoted to generating the protein machinery to synthesize, remodel, and deconstruct the cell wall. High-throughput genome sequencing technologies have enabled a reasonably complete inventory of wall-related genes that can be assembled into families of common evolutionary origin. Assigning function to each gene family member has been aided immensely by identification of mutants with visible phenotypes or by chemical and spectroscopic analysis of mutants with ‘invisible’ phenotypes of modified cell wall composition and architecture that do not otherwise affect plant growth or development. This review connects the inference of gene function on the basis of deviation from the wild type in genetic functional analyses to insights provided by modern analytical techniques that have brought us ever closer to elucidating the sequence structures of the major polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall.

  5. Autism beyond diagnostic categories: characterization of autistic phenotypes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Anne; Begemann, Martin; Michel, Tanja Maria; Everts, Sarah; Stepniak, Beata; Bach, Christiane; Poustka, Luise; Becker, Joachim; Banaschewski, Tobias; Dose, Matthias; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2015-05-13

    Behavioral phenotypical continua from health to disease suggest common underlying mechanisms with quantitative rather than qualitative differences. Until recently, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia were considered distinct nosologic entities. However, emerging evidence contributes to the blurring of symptomatic and genetic boundaries between these conditions. The present study aimed at quantifying behavioral phenotypes shared by autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia to prepare the ground for biological pathway analyses. Specific items of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were employed and summed up to form a dimensional autism severity score (PAUSS). The score was created in a schizophrenia sample (N = 1156) and validated in adult high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients (N = 165). To this end, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Autism (AQ) and Empathy Quotient (EQ) self-rating questionnaires were applied back to back with the newly developed PAUSS. PAUSS differentiated between ASD, schizophrenia and a disease-control sample and substantially correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Patients with ADOS scores ≥12 obtained highest, those with scores genetic constellations modulating autistic phenotypes.

  6. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggu Cai

    Full Text Available Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2 and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3. Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  7. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  8. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Cheled-Shoval

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors—ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems and in-vivo (behavioral detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1, caffeine (ggTas2r2, erythromycin and (+-catechin (ggTas2r7, and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.

  10. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Behrens, Maik; Korb, Ayelet; Di Pizio, Antonella; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Uni, Zehava; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-05-17

    Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors-ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems) and in-vivo (behavioral) detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1), caffeine (ggTas2r2), erythromycin and (+)-catechin (ggTas2r7), and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs) were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.

  11. Biochemical enrichment and biophysical characterization of a taste receptor for L-arginine from the catfish, Ictalurus puntatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spielman Andrew I

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is invested with a high density of cutaneous taste receptors, particularly on the barbel appendages. Many of these receptors are sensitive to selected amino acids, one of these being a receptor for L-arginine (L-Arg. Previous neurophysiological and biophysical studies suggested that this taste receptor is coupled directly to a cation channel and behaves as a ligand-gated ion channel receptor (LGICR. Earlier studies demonstrated that two lectins, Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA-I and Phaseolus vulgaris Erythroagglutinin (PHA-E, inhibited the binding of L-Arg to its presumed receptor sites, and that PHA-E inhibited the L-Arg-stimulated ion conductance of barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Results Both PHA-E and RCA-I almost exclusively labeled an 82–84 kDa protein band of an SDS-PAGE of solubilized barbel taste epithelial membranes. Further, both rhodamine-conjugated RCA-I and polyclonal antibodies raised to the 82–84 kDa electroeluted peptides labeled the apical region of catfish taste buds. Because of the specificity shown by RCA-I, lectin affinity was chosen as the first of a three-step procedure designed to enrich the presumed LGICR for L-Arg. Purified and CHAPS-solubilized taste epithelial membrane proteins were subjected successively to (1, lectin (RCA-I affinity; (2, gel filtration (Sephacryl S-300HR; and (3, ion exchange chromatography. All fractions from each chromatography step were evaluated for L-Arg-induced ion channel activity by reconstituting each fraction into a lipid bilayer. Active fractions demonstrated L-Arg-induced channel activity that was inhibited by D-arginine (D-Arg with kinetics nearly identical to those reported earlier for L-Arg-stimulated ion channels of native barbel membranes reconstituted into lipid bilayers. After the final enrichment step, SDS-PAGE of the active ion channel protein fraction revealed a single band at 82–84 k

  12. Phenotypical and molecular characterization of portuguese usher syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Jóni Luís Soares

    2015-01-01

    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina (Oftalmologia), apresentado à Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. Introduction: Usher syndrome (USH) is a recessive inherited disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (HL), visual loss due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. This syndrome is the most common cause that affects those two major senses, vision and hearing and encompasses three clinical sub-types (USH1, USH2 a...

  13. Characterizing cellular mechanical phenotypes with mechano-node-pore sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghyun; Han, Sewoon; Lei, Andy; Miyano, Masaru; Bloom, Jessica; Srivastava, Vasudha; Stampfer, Martha M.; Gartner, Zev J.; LaBarge, Mark A.; Sohn, Lydia L.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical properties of cells change with their differentiation, chronological age, and malignant progression. Consequently, these properties may be useful label-free biomarkers of various functional or clinically relevant cell states. Here, we demonstrate mechano-node-pore sensing (mechano-NPS), a multi-parametric single-cell-analysis method that utilizes a four-terminal measurement of the current across a microfluidic channel to quantify simultaneously cell diameter, resistance to compressive deformation, transverse deformation under constant strain, and recovery time after deformation. We define a new parameter, the whole-cell deformability index (wCDI), which provides a quantitative mechanical metric of the resistance to compressive deformation that can be used to discriminate among different cell types. The wCDI and the transverse deformation under constant strain show malignant MCF-7 and A549 cell lines are mechanically distinct from non-malignant, MCF-10A and BEAS-2B cell lines, and distinguishes between cells treated or untreated with cytoskeleton-perturbing small molecules. We categorize cell recovery time, ΔTr, as instantaneous (ΔTr ~ 0 ms), transient (ΔTr ≤ 40ms), or prolonged (ΔTr > 40ms), and show that the composition of recovery types, which is a consequence of changes in cytoskeletal organization, correlates with cellular transformation. Through the wCDI and cell-recovery time, mechano-NPS discriminates between sub-lineages of normal primary human mammary epithelial cells with accuracy comparable to flow cytometry, but without antibody labeling. Mechano-NPS identifies mechanical phenotypes that distinguishes lineage, chronological age, and stage of malignant progression in human epithelial cells. PMID:29780657

  14. Phenotypic Characterization of Genetically Lowered Human Lipoprotein(a) Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Connor A.; Khera, Amit V.; Natarajan, Pradeep; Klarin, Derek; Won, Hong-Hee; Peloso, Gina M.; Stitziel, Nathan O.; Nomura, Akihiro; Zekavat, Seyedeh M.; Bick, Alexander G.; Gupta, Namrata; Asselta, Rosanna; Duga, Stefano; Merlini, Piera Angelica; Correa, Adolfo; Kessler, Thorsten; Wilson, James G.; Bown, Matthew J.; Hall, Alistair S.; Braund, Peter S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; McPherson, Ruth; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Willer, Cristen; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Felix, Janine F.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Lander, Eric; Rader, Daniel J.; Danesh, John; Ardissino, Diego; Gabriel, Stacey; Saleheen, Danish; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genomic analyses have suggested that the LPA gene and its associated plasma biomarker, lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), represent a causal risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). As such, lowering Lp(a) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy. Beyond target identification, human genetics may contribute to the development of new therapies by defining the full spectrum of beneficial and adverse consequences and by developing a dose-response curve of target perturbation. OBJECTIVES We attempted to establish the full phenotypic impact of LPA gene variation and to estimate a dose-response curve between genetically altered plasma Lp(a) and risk for CHD. METHODS We leveraged genetic variants at the LPA gene from 3 data sources: individual-level data from 112,338 participants in the UK Biobank; summary association results from large-scale genome-wide association studies; and LPA gene sequencing results from cases with and controls free of CHD. RESULTS One standard deviation genetically lowered Lp(a) level was associated with 29% lower risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69 to 0.73), 31% lower risk of peripheral vascular disease (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.80), 13% lower risk of stroke (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.96), 17% lower risk of heart failure (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.94), and 37% lower risk of aortic stenosis (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.83). We observed no association with 31 other disorders including type 2 diabetes and cancer. Variants that led to gain of LPA gene function increased risk for CHD whereas those that led to loss of gene function reduced CHD risk. CONCLUSIONS Beyond CHD, genetically lowered Lp(a) is associated with a lower risk of peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and aortic stenosis. As such, pharmacological lowering of plasma Lp(a) may impact a range of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:28007139

  15. Gaucher disease types 1 and 3: Phenotypic characterization of large populations from the ICGG Gaucher Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Gregory A; Zimran, Ari; Ida, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Study of the natural history of Gaucher disease has revealed marked phenotypic variation. Correlations to genotypes could provide insight into individual susceptibility to varying disease severity, which may impact whole-life medical care, reproductive decisions, and therapeutic choices for affected families. Importantly, pre-symptomatic or prospective interventions or the use of therapies with significant risk require accurate risk-benefit analyses based on the prognosis for individual patients. The body of international data held within the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG) Gaucher Registry provides an unprecedented opportunity to characterize the phenotypes of Gaucher disease types 1 and 3 and to appreciate demographic and ethnic factors that may influence phenotypes. The diversity of GBA gene mutations from patients with Gaucher disease represented in the ICGG Gaucher Registry database and in the literature provides the basis for initial genotype/phenotype correlations, the outcomes of which are summarized here. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cellular and Phenotypic Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Legare, Jamie Bush, Amanda K. Ashley, Taka Kato, William H. Hanneman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and human osteosarcoma (OSA have many similarities, with the majority of reported cases occurring in the appendicular skeleton, gender predominance noted, high rate of metastasis at the time of presentation, and a lack of known etiology for this devastating disease. Due to poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OSA, we have characterized seven different OSA canine cell lines: Abrams, D17, Grey, Hughes, Ingles, Jarques, and Marisco and compared them to U2, a human OSA cell line, for the following parameters: morphology, growth, contact inhibition, migrational tendencies, alkaline phosphatase staining, heterologous tumor growth, double-strand DNA breaks, and oxidative damage. All results demonstrated the positive characteristics of the Abrams cell line for use in future studies of OSA. Of particular interest, the robust growth of a subcutaneous tumor and rapid pulmonary metastasis of the Abrams cell line in an immunocompromised mouse shows incredible potential for the future use of Abrams as a canine OSA model. Further investigations utilizing a canine cell model of OSA, such as Abrams, will be invaluable to understanding the molecular events underlying OSA, pharmaceutical inhibition of metastasis, and eventual prevention of this devastating disease.

  17. Fast Disintegrating Combination Tablet of Taste Masked Levocetrizine Dihydrochloride and Montelukast Sodium: Formulation Design, Development, and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare fast disintegrating combination tablet of taste masked Levocetrizine dihydrochloride and Montelukast sodium by using direct compression method. To prevent bitter taste and unacceptable odour of the Levocetrizine dihydrochloride drug, the drug was taste masked with ion exchange resins like Kyron-T-104 and Tulsion-412. Among the two resins, Kyron-T-104 was selected for further studies because of high drug loading capacity, low cost, and better drug release profile. An ion exchange resin complex was prepared by the batch technique and various parameters; namely, resin activation, drug: resin ratio, pH, temperature, and stirring time, and swelling time were optimized to successfully formulate the tasteless drug resin complex (DRC. The tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH 102 as diluent along with crospovidone (CP, croscarmellose sodium (CCM, and sodium starch glycolate (SSG as a superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, disintegration time (DT, and dissolution study and it was concluded that the tablet formulation prepared with 2% SSG + CCS showed better disintegration time in comparison with other formulation and good drug release. The stability studies were carried out for the optimized batch for three months and it showed acceptable results.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of glucose repression mutants of Saccharomyce cerevisiae usinge experiments with C-13-labelled glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayendran, Raghevendran; Gombert, A.K.; Christensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    techniques, which do not provide information about the integrated response a specific genetic modification has on the cellular function. In this study we have performed phenotypic characterization of several mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the use of experiments with C-13-labelled...

  19. ALG11-CDG : Three novel mutations and further characterization of the phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regal, L.; Van Hasselt, P. M.; Foulquier, F.; Cuppen, I.; Prinsen, Hcmt; Jansen, K.; Keldermans, L.; De Meirleir, L.; Matthijs, G.; Jaeken, J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on two novel patients with ALG11-CDG. The phenotype was characterized by severe psychomotor disability, progressive microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, therapy-resistant epilepsy with burst suppression EEG, cerebral atrophy with, in one of them, neuronal heterotopia, and early

  20. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Piscirickettsia salmonis from Chilean and Canadian salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterlei, Alexander; Brevik, Øyvind J; Jensen, Daniel; Duesund, Henrik; Sommerset, Ingunn; Frost, Petter; Mendoza, Julio; McKenzie, Peter; Nylund, Are; Apablaza, Patricia

    2016-03-15

    The study presents the phenotypic and genetic characterization of selected P. salmonis isolates from Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout suffering from SRS (salmonid rickettsial septicemia) in Chile and in Canada. The phenotypic characterization of the P. salmonis isolates were based on growth on different agar media (including a newly developed medium), different growth temperatures, antibiotics susceptibility and biochemical tests. This is the first study differentiating Chilean P. salmonis isolates into two separate genetic groups. Genotyping, based on 16S rRNA-ITS and concatenated housekeeping genes grouped the selected isolates into two clades, constituted by the Chilean strains, while the Canadian isolates form a branch in the phylogenetic tree. The latter consisted of two isolates that were different in both genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The phylogenies and the MLST do not reflect the origin of the isolates with respect to host species. The isolates included were heterogeneous in phenotypic tests. The genotyping methods developed in this study provided a tool for separation of P. salmonis isolates into distinct clades. The SRS outbreaks in Chile are caused by minimum two different genetic groups of P. salmonis. This heterogeneity should be considered in future development of vaccines against this bacterium in Chile. Two different strains of P. salmonis, in regards to genetic and phenotypic characteristics, can occur in the same contemporary outbreak of SRS.

  1. Sensory perception of and salivary protein response to astringency as a function of the 6-n-propylthioural (PROP) bitter-taste phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Melania; Yousaf, Neeta Y; Mattes, Mitchell Z; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Crnjar, Roberto; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Tepper, Beverly J

    2017-05-01

    Individual differences in astringency perception are poorly understood. Astringency from tannins stimulates the release of specific classes of salivary proteins. These proteins form complexes with tannins, altering their perceived astringency and reducing their bioavailability. We studied the bitter compound, 6-n-propylthioural (PROP), as a phenotypic marker for variation in astringency perception and salivary protein responses. Seventy-nine subjects classified by PROP taster status rated cranberry juice cocktail (CJC; with added sugar) supplemented with 0, 1.5 or 2.0g/L tannic acid (TA). Saliva for protein analyses was collected at rest, or after stimulation with TA or cranberry juice (CJ; without added sugar). CJC with 1.5g/L tannic acid was found to be less astringent, and was liked more by PROP non-taster males than PROP taster males, consistent with the expectation that non-tasters are less sensitive to astringency. Levels of acidic Proline Rich Proteins (aPRPs) and basic Proline Rich Proteins (bPRPs) decreased after TA, while levels of aPRPs, bPRPs and Cystatins unexpectedly rose after CJ. Increases in bPRPs and Cystatins were only observed in PROP tasters. The PROP phenotype plays a gender-specific, but somewhat limited role in the perceived astringency of tannic-acid supplemented, cranberry juice cocktail. The PROP phenotype (regardless of gender) may also be involved in the release of salivary proteins previously implicated in oral health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotypic, Molecular, and Pathological Characterization of Colletotrichum acutatum Associated with Andean Lupine and Tamarillo in the Ecuadorian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconi, C.; Visser, R.G.F.; Heusden, van A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose is a serious problem of both Andean lupine and tamarillo in Ecuador. Morphological features, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and host specificity were used to characterize Colletotrichum isolates from lupine and tamarillo. Based on phenotypic and molecular characterization,

  3. Breadth of Tuning and Taste Coding in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomchik, Seth M.; Berg, Stephanie; Kim, Joung Woul; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    A longstanding question in taste research concerns taste coding and, in particular, how broadly are individual taste bud cells tuned to taste qualities (sweet, bitter, umami, salty, and sour). Taste bud cells express G-protein-coupled receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami tastes but not in combination. However, responses to multiple taste qualities have been recorded in individual taste cells. We and others have shown previously there are two classes of taste bud cells directly involved in gu...

  4. Molecular characterization of adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase--the key enzyme responsible for the umami taste of nori (Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Seiko; Sato, Minoru; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Koji

    2011-12-01

    The enzyme adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD, EC 3.5.4.6) catalyzes the conversion of adenosine 5'-monophosphate to inosine 5'-mononucleotide (IMP). IMP is generally known as the compound responsible for the umami taste of the edible red alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda that is known in Japan as nori. Therefore, we suspect that AMPD plays a key role in providing a favorable nori taste. In this study, we undertake the molecular characterization of nori-derived AMPD. The nori AMPD protein has a molecular mass of 55 kDa as estimated from both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The calculated molecular mass from the amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA is 57.1 kDa. The isoelectric point is 5.71. The coding region of AMPD consists of 1,566 bp encoding 522 amino acids and possesses a transmembrane domain and two N-glycosylation sites. The sequence identity of nori AMPD in human and yeast AMPDs was found to be less than 50% and 20% in DNA and amino acid sequences, respectively. Proline in the conserved motif of [SA]-[LIVM]-[NGS]-[STA]-D-D-P was found to be converted to glutamate. These results indicate that nori AMPD is a novel type of AMPD.

  5. Evolutionary conservation and network structure characterize genes of phenotypic relevance for mitosis in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Ostaszewski

    Full Text Available The impact of gene silencing on cellular phenotypes is difficult to establish due to the complexity of interactions in the associated biological processes and pathways. A recent genome-wide RNA knock-down study both identified and phenotypically characterized a set of important genes for the cell cycle in HeLa cells. Here, we combine a molecular interaction network analysis, based on physical and functional protein interactions, in conjunction with evolutionary information, to elucidate the common biological and topological properties of these key genes. Our results show that these genes tend to be conserved with their corresponding protein interactions across several species and are key constituents of the evolutionary conserved molecular interaction network. Moreover, a group of bistable network motifs is found to be conserved within this network, which are likely to influence the network stability and therefore the robustness of cellular functioning. They form a cluster, which displays functional homogeneity and is significantly enriched in genes phenotypically relevant for mitosis. Additional results reveal a relationship between specific cellular processes and the phenotypic outcomes induced by gene silencing. This study introduces new ideas regarding the relationship between genotype and phenotype in the context of the cell cycle. We show that the analysis of molecular interaction networks can result in the identification of genes relevant to cellular processes, which is a promising avenue for future research.

  6. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  7. Phenotypic and molecular characterizations of Yersinia pestis isolates from Kazakhstan and adjacent regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Zhansarina, Aigul; Yockey, Brook; Meka-Mechenko, Tatyana; Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Atshabar, Bakyt; Nekrassova, Larissa; Tashmetov, Rinat; Kenghebaeva, Kuralai; Chu, May C; Kosoy, Michael; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2007-01-01

    Recent interest in characterizing infectious agents associated with bioterrorism has resulted in the development of effective pathogen genotyping systems, but this information is rarely combined with phenotypic data. Yersinia pestis, the aetiological agent of plague, has been well defined genotypically on local and worldwide scales using multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), with emphasis on evolutionary patterns using old isolate collections from countries where Y. pestis has existed the longest. Worldwide MLVA studies are largely based on isolates that have been in long-term laboratory culture and storage, or on field material from parts of the world where Y. pestis has potentially circulated in nature for thousands of years. Diversity in these isolates suggests that they may no longer represent the wild-type organism phenotypically, including the possibility of altered pathogenicity. This study focused on the phenotypic and genotypic properties of 48 Y. pestis isolates collected from 10 plague foci in and bordering Kazakhstan. Phenotypic characterization was based on diagnostic tests typically performed in reference laboratories working with Y. pestis. MLVA was used to define the genotypic relationships between the central-Asian isolates and a group of North American isolates, and to examine Kazakh Y. pestis diversity according to predefined plague foci and on an intermediate geographical scale. Phenotypic properties revealed that a large portion of this collection lacks one or more plasmids necessary to complete the blocked flea/mammal transmission cycle, has lost Congo red binding capabilities (Pgm-), or both. MLVA analysis classified isolates into previously identified biovars, and in some cases groups of isolates collected within the same plague focus formed a clade. Overall, MLVA did not distinguish unique phylogeographical groups of Y. pestis isolates as defined by plague foci and indicated higher genetic diversity among older biovars.

  8. Comparison of Molecular and Phenotypic Methods for the Detection and Characterization of Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somily, Ali M; Garaween, Ghada A; Abukhalid, Norah; Absar, Muhammad M; Senok, Abiola C

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid dissemination of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). This study aimed to compare phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and characterization of CRE isolates at a large tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. This study was carried out between January 2011 and November 2013 at the King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Saudi Arabia. Determination of presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance was in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Phenotypic classification was done by the MASTDISCS(TM) ID inhibitor combination disk method. Genotypic characterization of ESBL and carbapenemase genes was performed by the Check-MDR CT102. Diversilab rep-PCR was used for the determination of clonal relationship. Of the 883 ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae detected during the study period, 14 (1.6%) isolates were carbapenem resistant. Both the molecular genotypic characterization and phenotypic testing were in agreement in the detection of all 8 metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL) producing isolates. Of these 8 MBL-producers, 5 were positive for blaNDM gene and 3 were positive for blaVIM gene. Molecular method identified additional blaOXA gene isolates while MASTDISCS(TM) ID detected one AmpC producer isolate. Both methods agreed in identifying 2 carbapenem resistant isolates which were negative for carbapenemase genes. Diversilab rep-PCR analysis of the 9 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates revealed polyclonal distribution into eight clusters. MASTDISCS(TM) ID is a reliable simple cheap phenotypic method for detection of majority of carbapenemase genes with the exception of the blaOXA gene. We recommend to use such method in the clinical laboratory.

  9. A platform for high-throughput bioenergy production phenotype characterization in single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Glenn, Honor; Anderson, Clifford; Messner, Jacob; Lee, Kristen B.; Song, Ganquan; Houkal, Jeff; Su, Fengyu; Zhang, Liqiang; Tian, Yanqing; Wang, Hong; Bussey, Kimberly; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by an increasing number of studies demonstrating its relevance to a broad variety of disease states, the bioenergy production phenotype has been widely characterized at the bulk sample level. Its cell-to-cell variability, a key player associated with cancer cell survival and recurrence, however, remains poorly understood due to ensemble averaging of the current approaches. We present a technology platform for performing oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification measurements of several hundreds to 1,000 individual cells per assay, while offering simultaneous analysis of cellular communication effects on the energy production phenotype. The platform comprises two major components: a tandem optical sensor for combined oxygen and pH detection, and a microwell device for isolation and analysis of single and few cells in hermetically sealed sub-nanoliter chambers. Our approach revealed subpopulations of cells with aberrant energy production profiles and enables determination of cellular response variability to electron transfer chain inhibitors and ion uncouplers. PMID:28349963

  10. Microarray-based mutation detection and phenotypic characterization in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cinoo; Kim, Kwang Joong; Bok, Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Dong-Joon; Oh, Ji Hee; Park, Sung Pyo; Shin, Joo Young; Lee, Jong-Young

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate microarray-based genotyping technology for the detection of mutations responsible for retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to perform phenotypic characterization of patients with pathogenic mutations. Methods DNA from 336 patients with RP and 360 controls was analyzed using the GoldenGate assay with microbeads containing 95 previously reported disease-associated mutations from 28 RP genes. Mutations identified by microarray-based genotyping were confirmed by direct sequencing. Segregation analysis and phenotypic characterization were performed in patients with mutations. The disease severity was assessed by visual acuity, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, and kinetic perimetry. Results Ten RP-related mutations of five RP genes (PRP3 pre-mRNA processing factor 3 homolog [PRPF3], rhodopsin [RHO], phosphodiesterase 6B [PDE6B], peripherin 2 [PRPH2], and retinitis pigmentosa 1 [RP1]) were identified in 26 of the 336 patients (7.7%) and in six of the 360 controls (1.7%). The p.H557Y mutation in PDE6B, which was homozygous in four patients and heterozygous in nine patients, was the most frequent mutation (2.5%). Mutation segregation was assessed in four families. Among the patients with missense mutations, the most severe phenotype occurred in patients with p.D984G in RP1; less severe phenotypes occurred in patients with p.R135W in RHO; a relatively moderate phenotype occurred in patients with p.T494M in PRPF3, p.H557Y in PDE6B, or p.W316G in PRPH2; and a mild phenotype was seen in a patient with p.D190N in RHO. Conclusions The results reveal that the GoldenGate assay may not be an efficient method for molecular diagnosis in RP patients with rare mutations, although it has proven to be reliable and efficient for high-throughput genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The clinical features varied according to the mutations. Continuous effort to identify novel RP genes and mutations in a population is needed to improve the efficiency and

  11. Algorithmic Mapping and Characterization of the Drug-Induced Phenotypic-Response Space of Parasites Causing Schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Beasley, Rachel; Long, Thavy; Caffrey, Conor R

    2018-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases, especially those caused by helminths, constitute some of the most common infections of the world's poorest people. Amongst these, schistosomiasis (bilharzia or 'snail fever'), caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, ranks second only to malaria in terms of human impact: two hundred million people are infected and close to 800 million are at risk of infection. Drug screening against helminths poses unique challenges: the parasite cannot be cloned and is difficult to target using gene knockouts or RNAi. Consequently, both lead identification and validation involve phenotypic screening, where parasites are exposed to compounds whose effects are determined through the analysis of the ensuing phenotypic responses. The efficacy of leads thus identified derives from one or more or even unknown molecular mechanisms of action. The two most immediate and significant challenges that confront the state-of-the-art in this area are: the development of automated and quantitative phenotypic screening techniques and the mapping and quantitative characterization of the totality of phenotypic responses of the parasite. In this paper, we investigate and propose solutions for the latter problem in terms of the following: (1) mathematical formulation and algorithms that allow rigorous representation of the phenotypic response space of the parasite, (2) application of graph-theoretic and network analysis techniques for quantitative modeling and characterization of the phenotypic space, and (3) application of the aforementioned methodology to analyze the phenotypic space of S. mansoni - one of the etiological agents of schistosomiasis, induced by compounds that target its polo-like kinase 1 (PLK 1) gene - a recently validated drug target. In our approach, first, bio-image analysis algorithms are used to quantify the phenotypic responses of different drugs. Next, these responses are linearly mapped into a low- dimensional space using Principle

  12. Taste disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.

  13. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Taste sensing FET (TSFET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K.; Yasuda, R.; Ezaki, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-20

    Taste can be quantified using a multichannel taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes. Its sensitivity and stability are superior to those of humans. A present study is concerned with the first step of miniaturization and integration of the taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes using FET. As a result, it was found that gate-source voltage of the taste sensing FET showed the same behaviors as the conventional taste sensor utilizing the membrane-potential change due to five kinds of taste substances. Discrimination of foodstuffs was very easy. A thin lipid membrane formed using LB technique was also tried. These results will open doors to fabrication of a miniaturized, integrated taste sensing system. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  16. The taste in a polyparadigmal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova G. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available modern spiritual situation is determined as a transfer from a united cultural paradigm to a poliparadigmal cultural space. It is characterized by an unlimited diversity of unlinked spiritual structures, ideas, theories, styles and direction. Polyphony, eclecticism, subjective assembling, inlaid, and omnivorous are perceived as a norm today. Total impact of cultural specimen, intensified by an industry of informational technologies deform valuable aesthetic orientations of a personality, including taste. Individual experience in the taste becomes unified and social. Tastes differentiated before (aesthetic, artistic, mass, elite, etc. became homogenous. Cultural reflection may be a purposeful preservation of elite valuable cultural orientation.

  17. Tasting with Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we eat and drink something, we experience the sense of taste. We attribute the sense of taste to gustation without doubt, but it is not true. The olfaction is the most important component of the flavor. On the other hand, the gustation (basic tastes is affected strongly by the olfaction; when participants tasted solutions containing odors without any tastants, they reported there were some tastes. Odors of the foods and beverages show interaction with (potentiate and/or inhibit basic tastes, and determined the flavor of them. Here, some experiments exploring about the role of the vision in the sense of taste are shown: The color of sushi distorted (enhanced or eliminated the perception of fishy, the color of the packages of chocolate distorted the perception of taste, the color of syrup determined the participants' ability of identification of the flavor, and so on. These results show the vision is an important component of the sense of taste. These visual effects on taste are supposed to be mediated by the olfaction. It is because there are many studies showing the vision affects the olfaction, but studies showing the vision affects gustation are very little and inconsistent with each other.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of thymic prelymphoma cells of B10 mice treated with split-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, M.; Kubo, E.; Kamisaku, H.; Sado, T.

    1990-01-01

    Using an intrathymic injection assay on B10 Thy-1 congenic mice, it was demonstrated that thymic prelymphoma cells first developed within the thymuses from 4 to 8 days after split-dose irradiation and were detected in more than 63% of the test donor thymuses when examined at 21 and 31 days after irradiation. Moreover, some mice (25%) at 2 mo after split-dose irradiation had already developed thymic lymphomas in their thymuses. To characterize these thymic prelymphoma cells, the thymocytes from B10 Thy-1.1 mice 1 mo after irradiation were stained with anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 mAb and were sorted into four subpopulations. These fractionated cells were injected into the recipient thymuses to examine which subpopulation contained thymic prelymphoma cells. The results indicated that thymic prelymphoma cells existed mainly in CD4- CD8- and CD4- CD8+ thymocyte subpopulations and also in CD4+ CD8+ subpopulation. T cell lymphomas derived from CD4- CD8- prelymphoma cells had mainly CD4- CD8- or CD4- CD8+ phenotypes. T cell lymphomas developed from CD4- CD8+ prelymphoma cells mainly expressed CD4- CD8+ or CD4+ CD8+ phenotype. T cell lymphomas originating from CD4+ CD8+ prelymphoma cells were mainly CD4+ CD8+ but some CD4- CD8+ or CD4+ CD8- cells were also present. These thymic prelymphoma cells were further characterized phenotypically in relation to their expression of the marker defined by the mAb against J11d marker and TL-2 (thymus-leukemia) Ag, which is not expressed on normal thymocytes of B10.Thy-1.2 or B10.Thy-1.1 strain, but appears on the thymocytes of lymphomagenic irradiated mice. The results indicated that the prelymphoma cells existed in J11d+, TL-2+ cells

  19. Metabolic Phenotype Characterization of Botrytis cinerea, the Causal Agent of Gray Mold

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    Han-Cheng Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea, which causes gray mold, is an important pathogen in four important economic crops, tomato, tobacco, cucumber and strawberry, in China and worldwide. Metabolic phenomics data on B. cinerea isolates from these four crops were characterized and compared for 950 phenotypes with a BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArray (PM. The results showed that the metabolic fingerprints of the four B. cinerea isolates were similar to each other with minimal differences. B. cinerea isolates all metabolized more than 17% of the tested carbon sources, 63% of the amino acid nitrogen substrates, 80% of the peptide nitrogen substrates, 93% of the phosphorus substrates, and 97% of the sulfur substrates. Carbon substrates of organic acids and carbohydrates, and nitrogen substrates of amino acids and peptides were the significant utilization patterns for B. cinerea. Each B. cinerea isolate contained 94 biosynthetic pathways. These isolates showed a large range of adaptabilities and were still able to metabolize substrates in the presence of the osmolytes, including up to 6% potassium chloride, 10% sodium chloride, 5% sodium sulfate, 6% sodium formate, 20% ethylene glycol, and 3% urea. These isolates all showed active metabolism in environments with pH values from 3.5 to 8.5 and exhibited decarboxylase activities. These characterizations provide a theoretical basis for the study of B. cinerea in biochemistry and metabolic phenomics and provide valuable clues to finding potential new ways to manage gray mold.

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of some lactic Acid bacteria isolated from bee pollen: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Hani; Harzallah, Daoud; Bouamra, Dalila; Khennouf, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; Ghadbane, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133.

  1. Discrimination of taste qualities among mouse fungiform taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Miyauchi, Aya; Yasuo, Toshiaki; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Murata, Yoshihiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Ueno, Hiroshi; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2009-09-15

    Multiple lines of evidence from molecular studies indicate that individual taste qualities are encoded by distinct taste receptor cells. In contrast, many physiological studies have found that a significant proportion of taste cells respond to multiple taste qualities. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy and to identify taste cells that underlie each taste quality, we investigated taste responses of individual mouse fungiform taste cells that express gustducin or GAD67, markers for specific types of taste cells. Type II taste cells respond to sweet, bitter or umami tastants, express taste receptors, gustducin and other transduction components. Type III cells possess putative sour taste receptors, and have well elaborated conventional synapses. Consistent with these findings we found that gustducin-expressing Type II taste cells responded best to sweet (25/49), bitter (20/49) or umami (4/49) stimuli, while all GAD67 (Type III) taste cells examined (44/44) responded to sour stimuli and a portion of them showed multiple taste sensitivities, suggesting discrimination of each taste quality among taste bud cells. These results were largely consistent with those previously reported with circumvallate papillae taste cells. Bitter-best taste cells responded to multiple bitter compounds such as quinine, denatonium and cyclohexamide. Three sour compounds, HCl, acetic acid and citric acid, elicited responses in sour-best taste cells. These results suggest that taste cells may be capable of recognizing multiple taste compounds that elicit similar taste sensation. We did not find any NaCl-best cells among the gustducin and GAD67 taste cells, raising the possibility that salt sensitive taste cells comprise a different population.

  2. Morphological and immuno phenotypic characterization of mammary carcinomas in relation to family history of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualco, G.; Ortega, V.; Musto, M.; Delgado, L.

    2004-01-01

    a phenotype CMF tumor similar to that observed in tumors associated with BRCA2 mutations, or more ratio BRCA2 mutations and / or genes of unknown susceptibility. these results are in agreement with the prevalence of BRCA2 mutations in Uruguayan families recently reported by our group. Within the group with the CME under 40 pts years of diagnosis had a tumor phenotype similar to the tumor-associated BRCA1, so even in the absence of family history of CM, the investigation would be justified Germ line mutations in this gene. Conclusions: phenotypic characterization of breast carcinomas can contribute to selection of pts for conducting genetic tests in our population

  3. Taste in holon paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available in this research the authors tried to investigate and generalize theoretic and applied studies of aesthetic taste, as well as, opportunities of its productivity distribution in terms of socio-cultural, person-professional and psychological levels. The article deals with traditional outlooks upon the origin of taste and its relationship with art and its current situation of taste functioning in terms of increasing globalization, virtualization and informatization of modern society.

  4. Video: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Anette; Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed; Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...

  5. Abstract: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Hoffmeyer, Agnete

    of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...

  6. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Klebsiella spp. isolates causing community-acquired infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Garza-Ramos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella spp. isolates from community-acquired infections were characterized. A total of 39 Klebsiella spp. isolates were obtained from outpatients at four rural hospitals in Mexico (2013–2014. The biochemical tests identified all as being K. pneumoniae. The molecular multiplex-PCR test identified 36 (92.4% K. pneumoniae isolates and one (2.5% K. variicola isolate, and phylogenetic analysis of the rpoB gene identified two isolates (5.1% belonging to K. quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae and K. quasivariicola. The last one was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of six-loci concatenated genes. Mostly the isolates were multidrug resistant; however, a minority were extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing (10.2%. The extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15 gene was identified in these isolates. Analysis of biofilm production and the hypermucoviscosity phenotype showed a total of 35 (92.3% and seven (17.9% of the isolates were positive for these phenotypes respectively. The K2 (4/39, 10.2%, K5 (2/39, 5.1% and K54 (1/39, 2.5% serotypes were identified in seven (17.9% of the isolates, and only 28.5% (2/7 hypermucoviscous isolates were positive for the K2 and K5 serotypes. In general, the sequence type (ST analysis and phylogenetic analysis of seven multilocus sequence typing loci were heterogeneous; however, ST29 was the most prevalent ST in the analysed isolates, accounting for 19% (4/21 of the total isolates. Two of the four ST29 isolates had the hypermucoviscosity phenotype. The virulence factors for fimbriae were the most prevalent, followed by siderophores. Community-acquired infections are caused by various species from Klebsiella genus, with different profiles of antibiotic resistance and heterogeneous virulence factors. Keywords: Antimicrobial susceptibility, Bacterial resistance, Cephalosporin resistance, Community infection, ESBL, Hypermucoviscosity

  7. Molecular cytogenetic and phenotypic characterization of ring chromosome 13 in three unrelated patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah-Bouhjar, Inesse B.; Mougou-Zerelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Gmidène, Abir; Labalme, Audrey; Soyah, Najla; Sanlaville, Damien; Saad, Ali; Elghezal, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    We report on the cytogenetic and molecular investigations of constitutional de-novo ring chromosome 13s in three unrelated patients for better understanding and delineation of the phenotypic variability characterizing this genomic rearrangement. The patient’s karyotypes were as follows: 46,XY,r(13)(p11q34) dn for patients 1 and 2 and 46,XY,r(13)(p11q14) dn for patient 3, as a result of the deletion in the telomeric regions of chromosome 13. The patients were, therefore, monosomic for the segment 13q34 → 13qter; in addition, for patient 3, the deletion was larger, encompassing the segment 13q14 → 13qter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed these rearrangement and array CGH technique showed the loss of at least 2.9 Mb on the short arm and 4.7 Mb on the long arm of the chromosome 13 in patient 2. Ring chromosome 13 (r(13)) is associated with several phenotypic features like intellectual disability, marked short stature, brain and heart defects, microcephaly and genital malformations in males, including undescended testes and hypospadias. However, the hearing loss and speech delay that were found in our three patients have rarely been reported with ring chromosome 13. Although little is known about its etiology, there is interesting evidence for a genetic cause for the ring chromosome 13. We thus performed a genotype-phenotype correlation analysis to ascertain the contribution of ring chromosome 13 to the clinical features of our three cases. PMID:27625853

  8. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Processing umami and other tastes in mammalian taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potential to shape the final signal output that taste buds transmit to the brain. The following paragraphs summarize current thinking about how taste signals generally, and umami taste in particular, are processed in taste buds.

  10. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Novel Variants in Six Italian Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarossi, Giancarlo; Bertelli, Matteo; Maltese, Paolo Enrico; Gusson, Elena; Marchini, Giorgio; Bruson, Alice; Benedetti, Sabrina; Volpetti, Sabrina; Catena, Gino; Buzzonetti, Luca; Ziccardi, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a complex disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Here, we report the results obtained on the spectrum of genetic variations and correlated phenotypes found in a cohort of Italian FEVR patients. Eight probands (age range 7-19 years) were assessed by genetic analysis and comprehensive age-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Genetic testing investigated the genes most widely associated in literature with FEVR: FZD4 , LRP5 , TSPAN12 , and NDP . Clinical and genetic evaluations were extended to relatives of probands positive to genetic testing. Six out of eight probands (75%) showed a genetic variation probably related to the phenotype. We identified four novel genetic variants, one variant already described in association with Norrie disease and one previously described linked to autosomal dominant FEVR. Pedigree analysis of patients led to the classification of four autosomal dominant cases of FEVR (caused by FZD4 and TSPAN12 variants) and two X-linked FEVR probands ( NDP variants). None of the patients showed variants in the LRP5 gene. This study represents the largest cohort study in Italian FEVR patients. Our findings are in agreement with the previous literature confirming that FEVR is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder, even when it manifests in the same family.

  11. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of manufacturing seeds for a tetravalent dengue vaccine (DENVax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Y-H Huang

    Full Text Available We have developed a manufacturing strategy that can improve the safety and genetic stability of recombinant live-attenuated chimeric dengue vaccine (DENVax viruses. These viruses, containing the pre-membrane (prM and envelope (E genes of dengue serotypes 1-4 in the replicative background of the attenuated dengue-2 PDK-53 vaccine virus candidate, were manufactured under cGMP.After deriving vaccine viruses from RNA-transfected Vero cells, six plaque-purified viruses for each serotype were produced. The plaque-purified strains were then analyzed to select one stock for generation of the master seed. Full genetic and phenotypic characterizations of the master virus seeds were conducted to ensure these viruses retained the previously identified attenuating determinants and phenotypes of the vaccine viruses. We also assessed vector competence of the vaccine viruses in sympatric (Thai Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors.All four serotypes of master vaccine seeds retained the previously defined safety features, including all three major genetic loci of attenuation, small plaques, temperature sensitivity in mammalian cells, reduced replication in mosquito cell cultures, and reduced neurovirulence in new-born mice. In addition, the candidate vaccine viruses demonstrated greatly reduced infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and are not likely to be transmissible by these mosquitoes. This manufacturing strategy has successfully been used to produce the candidate tetravalent vaccine, which is currently being tested in human clinical trials in the United States, Central and South America, and Asia.

  12. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Novel Variants in Six Italian Patients with Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Iarossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR is a complex disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature. Here, we report the results obtained on the spectrum of genetic variations and correlated phenotypes found in a cohort of Italian FEVR patients. Eight probands (age range 7–19 years were assessed by genetic analysis and comprehensive age-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Genetic testing investigated the genes most widely associated in literature with FEVR: FZD4, LRP5, TSPAN12, and NDP. Clinical and genetic evaluations were extended to relatives of probands positive to genetic testing. Six out of eight probands (75% showed a genetic variation probably related to the phenotype. We identified four novel genetic variants, one variant already described in association with Norrie disease and one previously described linked to autosomal dominant FEVR. Pedigree analysis of patients led to the classification of four autosomal dominant cases of FEVR (caused by FZD4 and TSPAN12 variants and two X-linked FEVR probands (NDP variants. None of the patients showed variants in the LRP5 gene. This study represents the largest cohort study in Italian FEVR patients. Our findings are in agreement with the previous literature confirming that FEVR is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disorder, even when it manifests in the same family.

  13. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human mammary stem/progenitor cells in long term culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaveena Dey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells exhibit close resemblance to normal stem cells in phenotype as well as function. Hence, studying normal stem cell behavior is important in understanding cancer pathogenesis. It has recently been shown that human breast stem cells can be enriched in suspension cultures as mammospheres. However, little is known about the behavior of these cells in long-term cultures. Since extensive self-renewal potential is the hallmark of stem cells, we undertook a detailed phenotypic and functional characterization of human mammospheres over long-term passages. METHODOLOGY: Single cell suspensions derived from human breast 'organoids' were seeded in ultra low attachment plates in serum free media. Resulting primary mammospheres after a week (termed T1 mammospheres were subjected to passaging every 7th day leading to the generation of T2, T3, and T4 mammospheres. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that primary mammospheres contain a distinct side-population (SP that displays a CD24(low/CD44(low phenotype, but fails to generate mammospheres. Instead, the mammosphere-initiating potential rests within the CD44(high/CD24(low cells, in keeping with the phenotype of breast cancer-initiating cells. In serial sphere formation assays we find that even though primary (T1 mammospheres show telomerase activity and fourth passage T4 spheres contain label-retaining cells, they fail to initiate new mammospheres beyond T5. With increasing passages, mammospheres showed an increase in smaller sized spheres, reduction in proliferation potential and sphere forming efficiency, and increased differentiation towards the myoepithelial lineage. Significantly, staining for senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity revealed a dramatic increase in the number of senescent cells with passage, which might in part explain the inability to continuously generate mammospheres in culture. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the self-renewal potential of human breast stem cells is

  14. Phenotypic evaluation and characterization of 21 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, In Iok; Turner, Timothy Lee; Kim, Heejin; Kim, Soo Rin; Jin, Yong-Su

    2018-02-01

    Microorganisms have been studied and used extensively to produce value-added fuels and chemicals. Yeasts, specifically Saccharomyces cerevisiae, receive industrial attention because of their well-known ability to ferment glucose and produce ethanol. Thousands of natural or genetically modified S. cerevisiae have been found in industrial environments for various purposes. These industrial strains are isolated from industrial fermentation sites, and they are considered as potential host strains for superior fermentation processes. In many cases, industrial yeast strains have higher thermotolerance, increased resistances towards fermentation inhibitors and increased glucose fermentation rates under anaerobic conditions when compared with laboratory yeast strains. Despite the advantages of industrial strains, they are often not well characterized. Through screening and phenotypic characterization of commercially available industrial yeast strains, industrial fermentation processes requiring specific environmental conditions may be able to select an ideal starting yeast strain to be further engineered. Here, we have characterized and compared 21 industrial S. cerevisiae strains under multiple conditions, including their tolerance to varying pH conditions, resistance to fermentation inhibitors, sporulation efficiency and ability to ferment lignocellulosic sugars. These data may be useful for the selection of a parental strain for specific biotechnological applications of engineered yeast. © FEMS 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Characterizing Protein Interactions Employing a Genome-Wide siRNA Cellular Phenotyping Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratanee, Apichat; Schaefer, Martin H.; Betts, Matthew J.; Soons, Zita; Mannsperger, Heiko; Harder, Nathalie; Oswald, Marcus; Gipp, Markus; Ramminger, Ellen; Marcus, Guillermo; Männer, Reinhard; Rohr, Karl; Wanker, Erich; Russell, Robert B.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the activating and inhibiting effect of protein-protein interactions (PPI) is fundamental to gain insight into the complex signaling system of a human cell. A plethora of methods has been suggested to infer PPI from data on a large scale, but none of them is able to characterize the effect of this interaction. Here, we present a novel computational development that employs mitotic phenotypes of a genome-wide RNAi knockdown screen and enables identifying the activating and inhibiting effects of PPIs. Exemplarily, we applied our technique to a knockdown screen of HeLa cells cultivated at standard conditions. Using a machine learning approach, we obtained high accuracy (82% AUC of the receiver operating characteristics) by cross-validation using 6,870 known activating and inhibiting PPIs as gold standard. We predicted de novo unknown activating and inhibiting effects for 1,954 PPIs in HeLa cells covering the ten major signaling pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and made these predictions publicly available in a database. We finally demonstrate that the predicted effects can be used to cluster knockdown genes of similar biological processes in coherent subgroups. The characterization of the activating or inhibiting effect of individual PPIs opens up new perspectives for the interpretation of large datasets of PPIs and thus considerably increases the value of PPIs as an integrated resource for studying the detailed function of signaling pathways of the cellular system of interest. PMID:25255318

  16. Isolation of stem-like cells from spontaneous feline mammary carcinomas: Phenotypic characterization and tumorigenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Federica; Wurth, Roberto [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy); Ratto, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Vito, Guendalina [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle D' Aosta, National Reference Center of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Piazza Borgo Pila, 16129, Genova (Italy); Thellung, Stefano [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy); Daga, Antonio [Laboratory of Translational Oncology, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino - IST- Istituto Nazionale Ricerca sul Cancro, L.go R. Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova Italy (Italy); Cilli, Michele [Animal Facility, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino - IST- Istituto Nazionale Ricerca sul Cancro, L.go R. Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova Italy (Italy); Ferrari, Angelo [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle D' Aosta, National Reference Center of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Piazza Borgo Pila, 16129, Genova (Italy); Florio, Tullio, E-mail: tullio.florio@unige.it [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Current carcinogenesis theory states that only a small subset of tumor cells, the cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), are responsible for tumor formation and progression. Human breast cancer-initiating cells have been identified as CD44-expressing cells, which retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell-like properties. Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is an aggressive cancer, which shows biological similarities to the human tumor counterpart. We report the isolation and phenotypic characterization of FMC-derived stem/progenitor cells, showing in vitro self-renewal, long-lasting proliferation and in vivo tumorigenicity. Twenty-one FMC samples were collected, histologically classified and characterized for the expression of Ki67, EGFR, ER-{alpha} and CD44, by immunohistochemistry. By culture in stem cell permissive conditions, we isolated, from 13 FMCs, a CD44-positive subpopulation able to survive and proliferate in vitro as mammospheres of different sizes and morphologies. When injected in NOD/SCID mice, FMC stem-like cells initiate tumors, generating cell heterogeneity and recapitulating the original histotype. In serum-containing medium, spheroid cells showed differentiation properties as shown by morphological changes, the loss of CD44 expression and tumorigenic potential. These data show that stem-defined culture of FMC enriches for TICs and validate the use of these cells as a suitable model for comparative oncology studies of mammary biology and testing therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating TICs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Feline mammary carcinoma contain a sub-population of stem-like cells expressing CD44 Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These grow as spheres in serum-free medium and self-renew Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated stem-like cancer cells initiate tumor in immunodeficient mice Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xenografted tumors are phenotypically similar to the original tumor Black

  17. Isolation of stem-like cells from spontaneous feline mammary carcinomas: Phenotypic characterization and tumorigenic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, Federica; Wurth, Roberto; Ratto, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Vito, Guendalina; Thellung, Stefano; Daga, Antonio; Cilli, Michele; Ferrari, Angelo; Florio, Tullio

    2012-01-01

    Current carcinogenesis theory states that only a small subset of tumor cells, the cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), are responsible for tumor formation and progression. Human breast cancer-initiating cells have been identified as CD44-expressing cells, which retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell–like properties. Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is an aggressive cancer, which shows biological similarities to the human tumor counterpart. We report the isolation and phenotypic characterization of FMC-derived stem/progenitor cells, showing in vitro self-renewal, long-lasting proliferation and in vivo tumorigenicity. Twenty-one FMC samples were collected, histologically classified and characterized for the expression of Ki67, EGFR, ER-α and CD44, by immunohistochemistry. By culture in stem cell permissive conditions, we isolated, from 13 FMCs, a CD44-positive subpopulation able to survive and proliferate in vitro as mammospheres of different sizes and morphologies. When injected in NOD/SCID mice, FMC stem-like cells initiate tumors, generating cell heterogeneity and recapitulating the original histotype. In serum-containing medium, spheroid cells showed differentiation properties as shown by morphological changes, the loss of CD44 expression and tumorigenic potential. These data show that stem-defined culture of FMC enriches for TICs and validate the use of these cells as a suitable model for comparative oncology studies of mammary biology and testing therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating TICs. -- Highlights: ► Feline mammary carcinoma contain a sub-population of stem-like cells expressing CD44 ► These grow as spheres in serum-free medium and self-renew ► Isolated stem-like cancer cells initiate tumor in immunodeficient mice ► Xenografted tumors are phenotypically similar to the original tumor ► Upon differentiation, cells grow as monolayers, loosing the tumorigenic potential

  18. Olfaction, taste, and cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouby, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    .... The book is conveniently divided into sections, including linguistic representations, emotion, memory, neural bases, and individual variation. Leading experts have written chapters on many facets of taste and smell, including odor memory, cortical representations, psychophysics and functional imaging studies, genetic variation in taste, and ...

  19. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Are Taste Buds? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Are Taste Buds? ...

  20. Characterization of in vitro phenotypes of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei strains potentially associated with persistent infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhards, R C; Cote, C K; Amemiya, K; Waag, D M; Klimko, C P; Worsham, P L; Welkos, S L

    2017-03-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Burkholderia mallei (Bm), the agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, are Tier 1 biothreats. They infect humans and animals, causing disease ranging from acute and fatal to protracted and chronic. Chronic infections are especially challenging to treat, and the identification of in vitro phenotypic markers which signal progression from acute to persistent infection would be extremely valuable. First, a phenotyping strategy was developed employing colony morphotyping, chemical sensitivity testing, macrophage infection, and lipopolysaccharide fingerprint analyses to distinguish Burkholderia strains. Then mouse spleen isolates collected 3-180 days after infection were characterized phenotypically. Isolates from long-term infections often exhibited increased colony morphology differences and altered patterns of antimicrobial sensitivity and macrophage infection. Some of the Bp and Bm persistent infection isolates clearly displayed enhanced virulence in mice. Future studies will evaluate the potential role and significance of these phenotypic markers in signaling the establishment of a chronic infection.

  1. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  2. Phenotypic characterization of the bone marrow stem cells used in regenerative cellular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias Abraham, Consuelo; Valle Perez, Lazaro O del; Baganet Cobas, Aymara

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a novel therapeutic method with broad potential for the treatment of various illnesses, based on the use of bone marrow (BM) stem cells, whose phenotypic characterization is limited. The paper deals with the expression of different cell membrane markers in mononuclear BM cells from 14 patients who underwent autologous cell therapy, obtained by medullary puncture and mobilization to peripheral blood, with the purpose of characterizing the different types of cells present in that heterogeneous cellular population and identifying the adhesion molecules involved in their adhesion. A greater presence was observed of adherent stem cells from the marrow stroma in mononuclear cells obtained directly from the BM; a larger population of CD90 +c ells in mononuclear cells from CD34 -/ CD45 -p eripheral blood with a high expression of molecules CD44 and CD62L, which suggests a greater presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in mobilized cells from the marrow stroma. The higher levels of CD34 +c ells in peripheral blood stem cells with a low expression of molecules CD117 -a nd DR -s uggests the presence of hematopoietic stem cells, hemangioblasts and progenitor endothelial cells mobilized to peripheral circulation. It was found that mononuclear cells from both the BM and peripheral blood show a high presence of stem cells with expression of adhesion molecule CD44 (MMC marker), probably involved in their migration, settling and differentiation

  3. Origin and differential selection of allelic variation at TAS2R16 associated with salicin bitter taste sensitivity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael C; Ranciaro, Alessia; Zinshteyn, Daniel; Rawlings-Goss, Renata; Hirbo, Jibril; Thompson, Simon; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Froment, Alain; Rucker, Joseph B; Omar, Sabah A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Nyambo, Thomas; Belay, Gurja; Drayna, Dennis; Breslin, Paul A S; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-02-01

    Bitter taste perception influences human nutrition and health, and the genetic variation underlying this trait may play a role in disease susceptibility. To better understand the genetic architecture and patterns of phenotypic variability of bitter taste perception, we sequenced a 996 bp region, encompassing the coding exon of TAS2R16, a bitter taste receptor gene, in 595 individuals from 74 African populations and in 94 non-Africans from 11 populations. We also performed genotype-phenotype association analyses of threshold levels of sensitivity to salicin, a bitter anti-inflammatory compound, in 296 individuals from Central and East Africa. In addition, we characterized TAS2R16 mutants in vitro to investigate the effects of polymorphic loci identified at this locus on receptor function. Here, we report striking signatures of positive selection, including significant Fay and Wu's H statistics predominantly in East Africa, indicating strong local adaptation and greater genetic structure among African populations than expected under neutrality. Furthermore, we observed a "star-like" phylogeny for haplotypes with the derived allele at polymorphic site 516 associated with increased bitter taste perception that is consistent with a model of selection for "high-sensitivity" variation. In contrast, haplotypes carrying the "low-sensitivity" ancestral allele at site 516 showed evidence of strong purifying selection. We also demonstrated, for the first time, the functional effect of nonsynonymous variation at site 516 on salicin phenotypic variance in vivo in diverse Africans and showed that most other nonsynonymous substitutions have weak or no effect on cell surface expression in vitro, suggesting that one main polymorphism at TAS2R16 influences salicin recognition. Additionally, we detected geographic differences in levels of bitter taste perception in Africa not previously reported and infer an East African origin for high salicin sensitivity in human populations.

  4. Drugs and taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug

  5. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Thai isolates of Plasmodium falciparum after an artemisinin resistance containment project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thita, Thunyapit; Jadsri, Pimrat; Thamkhantho, Jarupatr; Ruang-Areerate, Toon; Suwandittakul, Nantana; Sitthichot, Naruemon; Mahotorn, Kittiya; Tan-Ariya, Peerapan; Mungthin, Mathirut

    2018-05-15

    In Thailand, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 1995. Unfortunately, artemisinin resistance has been reported from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries since 2003. Malarone ® , a combination of atovaquone-proguanil (ATQ-PG), has been used to cease artemisinin pressure in some areas along Thai-Cambodia border, as part of an artemisinin resistance containment project since 2009. This study aimed to determine genotypes and phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Cambodia border after the artemisinin resistance containment project compared with those collected before. One hundred and nine of P. falciparum isolates collected from Thai-Cambodia border from Chanthaburi and Trat provinces during 1988-2016 were used in this study. Of these, 58 isolates were collected after the containment. These parasite isolates were characterized for in vitro antimalarial sensitivities including chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), mefloquine (MQ), piperaquine (PPQ), artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), ATQ and PG and genetic markers for drug resistance including the Kelch13 (k13), Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes. Mean CQ, QN, MQ, PPQ and AS IC 50 s of the parasite isolates collected from 2009 to 2016 exhibited significantly higher than those of parasites collected before 2009. Approximately 57% exhibited in vitro MQ resistance. Approximately 94% of the isolates collected from 2009 to 2016 contained the pfmdr1 184F allele. Mutations of the k13 gene were detected in approximately 90% of the parasites collected from 2009 to 2016 which were significantly higher than the parasite isolates collected before. No ATQ-resistant genotype and phenotype of P. falciparum were found among the isolates collected after the containment project. Although the containment project had been

  6. Phenotypic, ultra-structural, and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Sei

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c-. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC, and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle.

  7. What is taste and how do we teach taste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    students to learn about taste. This section presents a systematic division of taste into its four main dimensions: The dimension of good taste, the dimension of healthy taste, the dimension of perceived taste, and the dimension of moral taste. The second section comprises taste as an instrument of teaching....... Here, the intention is to use ‘taste’ as a means to teach home economics and food education. This section answers the question of how to teach in a way that enables the students to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the four dimensions of taste. In this section four knowledge types...... and argument forms are presented, each related to one of the four taste dimensions, because they provide a basis for structuring an appropriate curriculum of taste. The final aim is to enable students to make well-reasoned food decisions with ‘taste’ as the compass of judgment....

  8. Homogeneous Subgroups of Young Children with Autism Improve Phenotypic Characterization in the Study to Explore Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Tian, Lin H; Levy, Susan E; Rice, Catherine; Lee, Li-Ching; Schieve, Laura; Pandey, Juhi; Daniels, Julie; Blaskey, Lisa; Hepburn, Susan; Landa, Rebecca; Edmondson-Pretzel, Rebecca; Thompson, William

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify homogenous classes of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve phenotypic characterization. Children were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development between 2 and 5 years of age. 707 children were classified with ASD after a comprehensive evaluation with strict diagnostic algorithms. Four classes of children with ASD were identified from latent class analysis: mild language delay with cognitive rigidity, mild language and motor delay with dysregulation, general developmental delay, and significant developmental delay with repetitive motor behaviors. We conclude that a four-class phenotypic model of children with ASD best describes our data and improves phenotypic characterization of young children with ASD. Implications for screening, diagnosis, and research are discussed.

  9. Taste, terroir, and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKWine drinkers have long acknowledged the link between taste and terroir, the often unmistakable connection between the flavor of a wine and the particular patch of ground in which the vines were grown. But the science behind the connection, indeed the whole concept of taste and terroir, has long been disputed. New technological developments in both "neuroenology" – how the brain creates the taste of wine1 – and in wine chemistry2 have offered more insight into the science.

  10. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Dunaliella (Chlorophyta) from Indian salinas and their diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Dunaliella (Class – Chlorophyceae) is widely studied for its tolerance to extreme habitat conditions, physiological aspects and many biotechnological applications, such as a source of carotenoids and many other bioactive compounds. Biochemical and molecular characterization is very much essential to fully explore the properties and possibilities of the new isolates of Dunaliella. In India, hyper saline lakes and salt pans were reported to bloom with Dunaliella spp. However, except for the economically important D. salina, other species are rarely characterized taxonomically from India. Present study was conducted to describe Dunaliella strains from Indian salinas using a combined morphological, physiological and molecular approach with an aim to have a better understanding on the taxonomy and diversity of this genus from India. Results Comparative phenotypic and genetic studies revealed high level of diversity within the Indian Dunaliella isolates. Species level identification using morphological characteristics clearly delineated two strains of D. salina with considerable β-carotene content (>20 pg/cell). The variation in 18S rRNA gene size, amplified with MA1-MA2 primers, ranged between ~1800 and ~2650 base pairs, and together with the phylogeny based on ITS gene sequence provided a pattern, forming five different groups within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Superficial congruency was observed between ITS and rbcL gene phylogenetic trees with consistent formation of major clades separating Indian isolates into two distinct clusters, one with D. salina and allied strains, and another one with D. viridis and allied strains. Further in both the trees, few isolates showed high level of genetic divergence than reported previously for Dunaliella spp. This indicates the scope of more numbers of clearly defined/unidentified species/sub-species within Indian Dunaliella isolates. Conclusion Present work illustrates Indian Dunaliella strains

  11. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    and gastrophysicists), and social sciences (anthropologists) as well as educators (preschool, elementary, secondary and vocational schools, colleges and universities) and chefs. Through interdisciplinary research collaboration and communication we attempt to span the perceived chasm separating food-sensory science......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...... teach pupils, students and the broader public in educational institutions and festivals about and through taste, we also study their use of taste, taste preferences, and learning processes by gathering empirical data for anthropological, sensory and pedagogical research. At the conference, we wish...

  12. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  13. Distribution of α-Gustducin and Vimentin in premature and mature taste buds in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Payne, Jason; Goodfellow, Forrest; Wang, Zhonghou; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Stice, Steven; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The sensory organs for taste in chickens (Gallus sp.) are taste buds in the oral epithelium of the palate, base of the oral cavity, and posterior tongue. Although there is not a pan-taste cell marker that labels all chicken taste bud cells, α-Gustducin and Vimentin each label a subpopulation of taste bud cells. In the present study, we used both α-Gustducin and Vimentin to further characterize chicken taste buds at the embryonic and post-hatching stages (E17-P5). We found that both α-Gustduci...

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in Argentinean dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta C Lasagno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Streptococcus uberis isolated from subclinical mastitis (SCM cases, and to examine the possible association between both characteristics. A total of 32 S. uberis were isolated from 772 quarter milk samples (SCM > 250,000 cells/ml collected from 195 cows selected randomly from 18 dairy farms located in Argentina. The S. uberis strains were characterized phenotypically by the presence of virulence factors as plasminogen activator factor (PAF, hyaluronidase (HYA, capsule (CAP and CAMP factor, and were further characterized genotypically by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. S. uberis strains expressed plasminogen activator factor, hyaluronidase or capsule (65.5 %, 56.3 %, 59.4 %, respectively, but only 25 % of isolates were CAMP factor positive. Thirteen different virulence profiles were identified on the basis of the combination of virulence factors. Eighteen PFGE patterns with 90% of similarity were identified among 32 S. uberis. A great diversity of virulence profiles and PFGE patterns were present among dairy farms. S. uberis strains with the same PFGE pattern showed different virulence profiles. Bovine S. uberis strains causing SCM included in the present study showed heterogeneity in regard to their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and the PFGE patterns are not associated with the virulence profiles.Caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de Streptococcus uberis aislados de mastitis bovina subclínica en tambos de Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de Streptococcus uberis aislados de casos de mastitis subclínica (MSC y examinar la posible asociación entre ambas características. Un total de 32 cepas de S. uberis fueron aisladas de 772 muestras de leche de cuartos mamarios (MSC > 25 0000 células/ml colectadas de 195 vacas seleccionadas al azar pertenecientes a 18 tambos

  15. Taste as feeling

    OpenAIRE

    Highmore, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This article is premised on two presumptions. The first is, I think, uncontroversial, the second less so. The first presumption is that today, serious discussions about taste usually start out by rehearsing Pierre Bourdieu’s contribution to our understanding of how taste preferences operate in society. This, then, is merely to recognize that when Bourdieu first published books such as The Love of Art (1969, written with Alain Darbel) and Distinctions: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Tas...

  16. Type III Cells in Anterior Taste Fields Are More Immunohistochemically Diverse Than Those of Posterior Taste Fields in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Courtney E; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2017-10-31

    Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking. Here, we compare Type III cells in four taste fields: fungiform, soft palate, circumvallate, and foliate in terms of reactivity to four canonical markers of Type III cells: polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1), synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25), serotonin (5-HT), and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Our findings indicate that while PKD2L1, 5-HT, and SNAP25 are highly coincident in posterior taste fields, they diverge in anterior taste fields. In particular, a subset of taste cells expresses PKD2L1 without the synaptic markers, and a subset of SNAP25 cells lacks expression of PKD2L1. In posterior taste fields, GAD67-positive cells are a subset of PKD2L1 expressing taste cells, but anterior taste fields also contain a significant population of GAD67-only expressing cells. These differences in expression patterns may underlie the observed functional differences between anterior and posterior taste fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Saccharomyces spp. strains isolated in distillery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Juan F; Chacón-Ocaña, Maria; Díaz-Hellín, Patricia; Ramírez-Pérez, Hector; Briones, Ana

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the biodiversity and some interesting phenotypic properties of Saccharomyces wild yeasts isolated in distilleries, at least 100 years old, located in La Mancha (Spain), were determined. Strains were genetically characterized by RFLP-mtDNA, which confirmed a great genetic biodiversity with 73% of strains with different mtDNA profiles, highlighting the large variability found in sweet and fermented piquette substrata. The predominant species identified was S. cerevisiae, followed by S. paradoxus and S. bayanus Due to the residual sugar-alcohol extraction process using warm water, a great number of thermophilic Saccharomyces strains with a great cell vitality were found to have potential use as starters in distillery plants. Interesting technological properties such as cell vitality and growth rate at different temperatures were studied. The thermal washing process for the extraction of alcohol and reducing sugars of some raw materials contributes to the presence of Saccharomyces strains with technologically interesting properties, especially in terms of vitality and resistance to high temperatures. Due to the fact that fermentation is spontaneous, the yeast biota of these environments, Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces, is very varied so these ecological niches are microbial reserves of undoubted biotechnological interest. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. An extensive phenotypic characterization of the hTNFα transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugusheva Marina

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα is implicated in a wide variety of pathological and physiological processes, including chronic inflammatory conditions, coronary artery disease, diabetes, obesity, and cachexia. Transgenic mice expressing human TNFα (hTNFα have previously been described as a model for progressive rheumatoid arthritis. In this report, we describe extensive characterization of an hTNFα transgenic mouse line. Results In addition to arthritis, these hTNFα transgenic mice demonstrated major alterations in body composition, metabolic rate, leptin levels, response to a high-fat diet, bone mineral density and content, impaired fertility and male sexual function. Many phenotypes displayed an earlier onset and a higher degree of severity in males, pointing towards a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in response to deregulated expression of TNFα. Conclusion These results highlight the potential usefulness of this transgenic model as a resource for studying the progressive effects of constitutively expressed low levels of circulating TNFα, a condition mimicking that observed in a number of human pathological conditions.

  19. Characterization of G6PD genotypes and phenotypes on the northwestern Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Bancone

    Full Text Available Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD gene result in red blood cells with increased susceptibility to oxidative damage. Significant haemolysis can be caused by primaquine and other 8-aminoquinoline antimalarials used for the radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria. The distribution and phenotypes of mutations causing G6PD deficiency in the male population of migrants and refugees in a malaria endemic region on the Thailand-Myanmar border were characterized. Blood samples for G6PD fluorescent spot test (FST, G6PD genotyping, and malaria testing were taken from 504 unrelated males of Karen and Burman ethnicities presenting to the outpatient clinics. The overall frequency of G6PD deficiency by the FST was 13.7%. Among the deficient subjects, almost 90% had the Mahidol variant (487G>A genotype. The remaining subjects had Chinese-4 (392G>T, Viangchan (871G>A, Açores (595A>G, Seattle (844G>C and Mediterranean (563C>T variants. Quantification of G6PD activity was performed using a modification of the standard spectrophotometric assay on a subset of 24 samples with Mahidol, Viangchan, Seattle and Chinese-4 mutations; all samples showed a residual enzymatic activity below 10% of normal and were diagnosed correctly by the FST. Further studies are needed to characterise the haemolytic risk of using 8-aminoquinolines in patients with these genotypes.

  20. Rewiring the taste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojoon; Macpherson, Lindsey J; Parada, Camilo A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2017-08-17

    In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission. Here we show that bitter and sweet TRCs provide instructive signals to bitter and sweet target neurons via different guidance molecules (SEMA3A and SEMA7A). We demonstrate that targeted expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A in different classes of TRCs produces peripheral taste systems with miswired sweet or bitter cells. Indeed, we engineered mice with bitter neurons that now responded to sweet tastants, sweet neurons that responded to bitter or sweet neurons responding to sour stimuli. Together, these results uncover the basic logic of the wiring of the taste system at the periphery, and illustrate how a labelled-line sensory circuit preserves signalling integrity despite rapid and stochastic turnover of receptor cells.

  1. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strains from a Pediatric Tertiary Care Hospital in Serbia.

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    Haowa Madi

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an environmental bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen usually associated with healthcare-associated infections, which has recently been recognized as a globally multi-drug resistant organism. The aim of this study was genotyping and physiological characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolated in a large, tertiary care pediatric hospital in Belgrade, Serbia, hosting the national reference cystic fibrosis (CF center for pediatric and adult patients.We characterized 42 strains of cystic fibrosis (CF and 46 strains of non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF origin isolated from 2013 to 2015 in order to investigate their genetic relatedness and phenotypic traits. Genotyping was performed using sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE and Multi locus sequencing typing (MLST analysis. Sensitivity to five relevant antimicrobial agents was determined, namely trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tetracycline. Surface characteristics, motility, biofilm formation and adhesion to mucin were tested in all strains. Statistical approach was used to determine correlations between obtained results.Most of the isolates were not genetically related. Six new sequence types were determined. Strains were uniformly sensitive to all tested antimicrobial agents. The majority of isolates (89.8% were able to form biofilm with almost equal representation in both CF and non-CF strains. Swimming motility was observed in all strains, while none of them exhibited swarming motility. Among strains able to adhere to mucin, no differences between CF and non-CF isolates were observed.High genetic diversity among isolates implies the absence of clonal spread within the hospital. Positive correlation between motility, biofilm formation and adhesion to mucin was demonstrated. Biofilm formation and motility were more pronounced among non-CF than CF isolates.

  2. Characterization and differential gene expression between two phenotypic phase variants in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

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    Sheila K Patterson

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 798 has previously been shown to undergo phenotypic phase variation. One of the phenotypes expresses virulence traits such as adhesion, while the other phenotype does not. Phenotypic phase variation appears to correlate with the ability of this strain to cause persistent, asymptomatic infections of swine. A new method to detect cells in either phenotypic phase was developed using Evans Blue-Uranine agar plates. Using this new assay, rates of phenotypic phase variation were obtained. The rate of phase variation from non-adhesive to adhesive phenotype was approximately 10(-4 per cell per generation while phase variation from the adhesive to the non-adhesive phenotype was approximately 10(-6 per cell per generation. Two highly virulent S. Typhimurium strains, SL1344 and ATCC 14028, were also shown to undergo phase variation. However, while the rate from adhesive to non-adhesive phenotype was approximately the same as for strain 798, the non-adhesive to adhesive phenotype shift was 37-fold higher. Differential gene expression was measured using RNA-Seq. Eighty-three genes were more highly expressed by 798 cells in the adhesive phenotype compared to the non-adhesive cells. Most of the up-regulated genes were in virulence genes and in particular all genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 were up-regulated. When compared to the virulent strain SL1344, expression of the virulence genes was approximately equal to those up-regulated in the adhesive phenotype of strain 798. A comparison of invasive ability demonstrated that strain SL1344 was the most invasive followed by the adhesive phenotype of strain 798, then the non-adhesive phenotype of strain 798. The least invasive strain was ATCC 14028. The genome of strain 798 was sequenced and compared to SL1344. Both strains had very similar genome sequences and gene deletions could not readily explain differences in the rates of phase variation from non

  3. Research on the Phenotypic Characterization of Mrsa Strains Isolated from Animals

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    Iulia Maria BUCUR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Keywords: chromogen, methicillin, MRSA, resistance Introduction: Currently, both in staphylococci isolated from animals with different diseases, as well as in humans, the MRSA strains (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus are monitored, as the methicillin resistance is associated with the resistance to other antibiotic groups. Methicillin resistance is encoded by mec staphylococcal chromosomal cassettes (SCCmec, which are islands of resistance. These strains can be identified by molecular biology tests and tests that reveal several phenotypic characteristics. The research was made in order to characterize and identify phenotypically the MRSA staphylococci strains isolated from animals. Materials and Methods: Researches were made on 240 coagulase positive and coagulase negative strains of staphylococci. Mannitol fermentation was tested on Champan medium, free coagulase was revealed on Baird-Parker medium and to identify S. aureus subsp. aureus was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic Staph. Methicillin-resistant strains were detected by disc diffusion method, using biodiscs with methicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin. Also, to identify the MRSA strains, was used the chromogenic medium Chromatic MRSA. Results: The isolates were positive to mannitol and produced complete haemolysis or were unhaemolytic. A total of 44 strains produced free coagulase on Baird-Parker medium, considered coagulase positive strains, while 196 were coagulase negative strains. The isolates conducted differently to methicillin: 22,08% of strains were resistant, 51,25% of strains were susceptible and 26,66% had intermediate resistance, while the resistant strains to oxacillin were 42,91%. The increased frequency of methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci and, particularly, MRSA strains, determined using the cefoxitin disk diffusion test, which is more reliable than methicillin and oxacillin. On the MRSA chromogenic medium, the methicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci

  4. Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Yeast Biosensor for Deep-space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Diana B.; Santa Maria, Sergio; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The BioSentinel mission was selected to launch as a secondary payload onboard NASA Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018. In BioSentinel, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae will be used as a biosensor to measure the long-term impact of deep-space radiation to living organisms. In the 4U-payload, desiccated yeast cells from different strains will be stored inside microfluidic cards equipped with 3-color LED optical detection system to monitor cell growth and metabolic activity. At different times throughout the 12-month mission, these cards will be filled with liquid yeast growth media to rehydrate and grow the desiccated cells. The growth and metabolic rates of wild-type and radiation-sensitive strains in deep-space radiation environment will be compared to the rates measured in the ground- and microgravity-control units. These rates will also be correlated with measurements obtained from onboard physical dosimeters. In our preliminary long-term desiccation study, we found that air-drying yeast cells in 10% trehalose is the best method of cell preservation in order to survive the entire 18-month mission duration (6-month pre-launch plus 12-month full-mission periods). However, our study also revealed that desiccated yeast cells have decreasing viability over time when stored in payload-like environment. This suggests that the yeast biosensor will have different population of cells at different time points during the long-term mission. In this study, we are characterizing genomic and phenotypic changes in our yeast biosensor due to long-term storage and desiccation. For each yeast strain that will be part of the biosensor, several clones were reisolated after long-term storage by desiccation. These clones were compared to their respective original isolate in terms of genomic composition, desiccation tolerance and radiation sensitivity. Interestingly, clones from a radiation-sensitive mutant have better desiccation tolerance compared to their original isolate

  5. Phenotypic plasticity, QTL mapping and genomic characterization of bud set in black poplar

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    Fabbrini Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic control of important adaptive traits, such as bud set, is still poorly understood in most forest trees species. Poplar is an ideal model tree to study bud set because of its indeterminate shoot growth. Thus, a full-sib family derived from an intraspecific cross of P. nigra with 162 clonally replicated progeny was used to assess the phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation of bud set in two sites of contrasting environmental conditions. Results Six crucial phenological stages of bud set were scored. Night length appeared to be the most important signal triggering the onset of growth cessation. Nevertheless, the effect of other environmental factors, such as temperature, increased during the process. Moreover, a considerable role of genotype × environment (G × E interaction was found in all phenological stages with the lowest temperature appearing to influence the sensitivity of the most plastic genotypes. Descriptors of growth cessation and bud onset explained the largest part of phenotypic variation of the entire process. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were detected. For the four selected traits (the onset of growth cessation (date2.5, the transition from shoot to bud (date1.5, the duration of bud formation (subproc1 and bud maturation (subproc2 eight and sixteen QTL were mapped on the maternal and paternal map, respectively. The identified QTL, each one characterized by small or modest effect, highlighted the complex nature of traits involved in bud set process. Comparison between map location of QTL and P. trichocarpa genome sequence allowed the identification of 13 gene models, 67 bud set-related expressional and six functional candidate genes (CGs. These CGs are functionally related to relevant biological processes, environmental sensing, signaling, and cell growth and development. Some strong QTL had no obvious CGs, and hold great promise to identify unknown genes that affect bud set

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico: First detection of VanB phenotype-vanA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Flores-Treviño, Samantha; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge; Martínez-Landeros, Erik Alan; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Calzada-Güereca, Andrés; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Garza-González, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm production, and clonal relatedness of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico. Consecutive clinical isolates (n=56) were collected in two tertiary care hospitals in Mexico from 2011 to 2014. VREF isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). VREF isolates were highly resistant to vancomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, high-level streptomycin, and teicoplanin, and showed lower resistance to tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. None of the isolates were resistant to linezolid. The vanA gene was detected in all isolates. Two VanB phenotype-vanA genotype isolates, highly resistant to vancomycin and susceptible to teicoplanin, were detected. Furthermore, 17.9% of the isolates were classified as biofilm producers, and the espfm gene was found in 98.2% of the isolates. A total of 37 distinct PFGE patterns and 6 clones (25% of the isolates as clone A, 5.4% as clone B, and 3.6% each as clone C, D, E, and F) were detected. Clone A was detected in 5 different wards of the same hospital during 14 months of surveillance. The high resistance to most antimicrobial agents and the moderate cross-transmission of VREF detected accentuates the need for continuous surveillance of E. faecium in the hospital setting. This is also the first reported incidence of the E. faecium VanB phenotype-vanA genotype in the Americas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization and phenotypical study of β-thalassemia in Tucumán, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarte, Sandra S; Mónaco, María E; Haro, Ana C; Jiménez, Cecilia L; Ledesma Achem, Myriam E; Issé, Blanca A

    2014-01-01

    The main hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorder in Argentina is β-thalassemia (β-thal). Molecular studies performed in the center of the country exhibited a marked prevalence of the codon 39 (C > T) and IVS-I-110 (G > A) mutations. The northwest region of Argentina has a different demographic history characterized by an important Spanish influx. Seventy-one β-thal carriers attending the Instituto de Bioquímica Aplicada, Tucumán, Argentina, were investigated for β-globin gene mutations by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To examine the genotype-phenotype relationship, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and Hb A2 were measured. In order to recognize β-thal, Mentzer Index, Shine & Lal and Red Cell Distribution Width Index (RDWI), were calculated. The ethnic background of subjects revealed that 82.0% of the population was of Italian, Spanish and Arab origin. Seven mutations were detected: codon 39 (45.0%), IVS-I-1 (G > A) (22.5%), IVS-I-110 (16.3%), IVS-II-1 (G > A) (4.1%), IVS-I-1 (G > T) (2.0%), IVS-I-6 (T > C) (2.0%) and IVS-II-745 (G > C) (2.0%). In three families (6.1%), β-thal mutations were not determined. These results differed from other Argentinian studies because at present codon 39 and IVS-I-1 are the most prevalent; MCV, MCH and Hb A2 did not correlate with the type of mutation (β(0)/β(+)). Values of MCV (67.0 fL) and Hb A2 (4.85%) were unable to discriminate between them. Significant differences (p Argentina. Differences might represent the influence of Spanish immigration.

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of four factor VII deficiency patients from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Hua-Fang; Cheng, Zhi-peng; Wang, Qing-yun; Hu, Bei; Zeng, Wei; Wu, Ying-ying; Guo, Tao; Tang, Liang; Hu, Yu

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary coagulation factor VII deficiency (FVIID) is a rare autosomal, recessive inherited hemorrhagic disorder related to a variety of mutations or polymorphisms throughout the factor VII (FVII) gene (F7). The aims of this study were to characterize the molecular defect of the F7 gene in four unrelated patients with FVIID and to find the genotype-phenotype correlation. All nine exons, exon-intron boundaries, and 5' and 3'-untranslated regions of the F7 gene were amplified by PCR and the purified PCR products were sequenced directly. Suspected mutations were confirmed by another PCR and sequencing of the opposite strand. Family studies were also performed. A total of five unique lesions were identified, including three missense mutations (c.384A>G, c.839A>C, c.1163T>G, predicting p.Tyr128Cys, p.Glu280Ala and p.Phe388Cys substitution, respectively) and two splice junction mutations (c.572-1G>A, c.681+1G>T), among which two (p.Glu280Ala, p.Phe388Cys) were novel. A previously reported mutation p.Tyr128Cys was seen in the homozygous state in two unrelated patients. The other two cases were both compound heterozygotes of a missense mutation and a splicing site mutation. Multiple sequence alignment using DNAMAN analysis showed that all the missense mutations were found in residues that highly conserved across species and vitamin K-dependent serine proteases. Online software Polyphen and SIFT were used to confirm the pathogenic of the missense mutation. p.Tyr128Cys seems to be a hotspot of the F7 gene in ethnic Han Chinese population.

  9. Phenotypic characterization and colistin susceptibilities of carbapenem-resistant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Srujana; Maurya, Vijeta; Gaind, Rajni; Deb, Monorama

    2013-11-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobcter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens and carbapenem resistance is an emerging threat. Therapeutic options for infections with these isolates include colistin. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream isolates, phenotypically characterize the resistance mechanisms and evaluate the in vitro activity of colistin. Consecutive 145 (95 P.aeruginosa and 50 Acinetobacter spp.) non-repeat isolates were included. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed per CLSI guidelines. MIC for carbapenems and colistin was performed using Etest. Isolates showing reduced susceptibility or resistance to the carbapenems were tested for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production using imipenem-EDTA combined disk and MBL Etest. Carbapenem resistance was observed in 40% P. aeruginosa and 66.0% Acinetobacter spp. Carbapenem-resistant (CA-R) isolates were significantly (p carbapenem-susceptible isolates. Approximately half of the CA-R strains were multidrug-resistant, and 3.1-5.5% were resistant to all antibiotics tested. MBL was found in 76.3% and 69.7% of the P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., respectively. Colistin resistance was observed in three (6.0%) Acinetobacter isolates and eight (8.4%) P. aeruginosa. MIC50 for carbapenems were two to four times higher for MBL-positive compared to MBL-negative isolates, but no difference was seen in MIC for colistin. Carbapenem resistance was observed to be mediated by MBL in a considerable number of isolates. Colistin is an alternative for infections caused by CA-R isolates; however, MIC testing should be performed whenever clinical use of colistin is considered.

  10. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Indigenous Lactobacillus Community from Traditional Istrian Ewe's Cheese

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    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the diversity of indigenous cultivable community of the lactobacilli associated with the production of traditional Istrian cheese and to get a collection of well characterized strains. Raw milk and cheese samples were collected from three different farms in Istria during ripening. A total of 212 mesophilic and thermophilic Lactobacillus isolates as well as bulk colonies (consortia were investigated using culture-dependent approach combining phenotyping and genotyping. Biochemical fingerprinting with PhenePlate-LB system preliminary grouped 212 isolates in 16 distinct PhP types. Only one representative isolate from each PhP cluster was further analyzed by genotyping for a reliable identification at the genus and species level by employing PCR techniques and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed the presence of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Lactobacilli were screened for possible resistance against seven selected antibiotics: ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, rifampin, clindamycin, erythromycin and vancomycin. Although there was no clear pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility to most tested antibiotics, all representative isolates were resistant to vancomycin. The analysis of bulk colonies by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE identified Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis as predominant members of Lactobacillus population. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Streptococcus sp. and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were also detected as part of the analysed consortia. The prevalence of identified species and community members of lactobacilli agrees with other studies of raw milk cheese and represents a useful base for further selection.

  11. Simultaneous characterization of metabolic, cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes of lean and obese SHHF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clément P J; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frédéric; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF(+/?) regrouping (+/+) and (+/cp) rats) and obese (SHHF(cp/cp), "cp" defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHF(cp/cp )but not SHHF(+/?) rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF(+/?) rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF(+/?) rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHF(cp/cp) rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHF(cp/cp) rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF(+/?). In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHF(cp/cp) rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHF(cp/cp) rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

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    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  13. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility) of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of β-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses exhibiting a diversity of

  14. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Muyang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of β-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses

  15. A potential sex dimorphism in the relationship between bitter taste and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Emma Louise; Duesing, Konsta; Boyd, Lyndell; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Lucock, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Bitterness is an innate aversive taste important in detecting potentially toxic substances, including alcohol. However, bitter compounds exist in many foods and beverages, and can be desirable, such as in beer. TAS2R38 is a well-studied bitter taste receptor with common polymorphisms. Some have reported relationships between TAS2R38 genotypes, bitter taste phenotype and alcohol intake, however results have been mixed. These mixed results may be explained by the varying taste properties of different alcoholic beverages or a sex dimorphism in responses. Bitter taste phenotype was assessed using PROP taste test and TAS2R38-P49A genotype was assessed by RFLP-PCR. Alcohol intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and classified by beverage type (beer, wine, spirits or mixed drinks). The relationships between bitter taste phenotype and carriage of the P allele of the TAS2R38-A49P gene and alcohol intake were assessed adjusted for and stratified by sex, and the interaction between taste and sex was evaluated. The relationship between alcohol intake and bitter taste phenotype varied by beverage type, with significant results for beer, spirits and mixed drinks, but not wine. When stratified, results varied by sex, and were only significant in males. Significant interactions were found for taster phenotype and sex (total alcohol intake and intake of beer and spirits). Results were similar for carriage of the TAS2R38-P49A P allele. Sex-specific interactions between bitter taste phenotype, TAS2R38 genotype and alcohol intake may explain variance in previous studies and may have implications for sex-specific disease risk and public health interventions.

  16. Processing Umami and Other Tastes in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen D.; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potentia...

  17. Taste isn't just for taste buds anymore

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is a discriminative sense involving specialized receptor cells of the oral cavity (taste buds) and at least two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptor molecules that detect nutritionally important substances or potential toxins. Yet the receptor mechanisms that drive taste also are utilized by numerous systems throughout the body. How and why these so-called taste receptors are used to regulate digestion and respiration is now a matter of intense study. In this article we provi...

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Finnish fish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Hanninen, M.L.; Hirvela-Koski, V.

    2001-01-01

    Finnish isolates (n = 37) of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from farmed salmonids were studied using phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The characteristics of isolates were compared with the characteristics of Swedish and Estonian F. psychrophilum isolates and the type strain, F...

  19. Tasting in mundane practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic investigation into practices of tasting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in various Western Europe settings in which people sensually engaged with food and drinks, the chapters show how tasting is done by research subjects in sensory science laboratories; guests...... response to a food object, leading on to a multi-sensory experience of its qualities, that do not just emerge from the food but are co-shaped by the context and that give rise to sensorial knowledge. By investigating specificities, articulating alternatives, showing construction processes, and typecasting...... particular practices, the chapters unpack each of these assumptions. What emerges is an alternative, composite understanding of tasting as variously done in varied mundane practices....

  20. Fungiform taste bud degeneration in C57BL/6J mice following chorda-lingual nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardo, Nick A; Hill, David L

    2007-09-10

    Taste buds are dependent on innervation for normal morphology and function. Fungiform taste bud degeneration after chorda tympani nerve injury has been well documented in rats, hamsters, and gerbils. The current study examines fungiform taste bud distribution and structure in adult C57BL/6J mice from both intact taste systems and after unilateral chorda-lingual nerve transection. Fungiform taste buds were visualized and measured with the aid of cytokeratin 8. In control mice, taste buds were smaller and more abundant on the anterior tip (taste buds were smaller and fewer on the side of the tongue ipsilateral to the transection and continued to decrease in both size and number until 15 days posttransection. Degenerating fungiform taste buds were smaller due to a loss of taste bud cells rather than changes in taste bud morphology. While almost all taste buds disappeared in more posterior fungiform papillae by 15 days posttransection, the anterior tip of the tongue retained nearly half of its taste buds compared to intact mice. Surviving taste buds could not be explained by an apparent innervation from the remaining intact nerves. Contralateral effects of nerve transection were also observed; taste buds were larger due to an increase in the number of taste bud cells. These data are the first to characterize adult mouse fungiform taste buds and subsequent degeneration after unilateral nerve transection. They provide the basis for more mechanistic studies in which genetically engineered mice can be used. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Novel Strategy for Phenotypic Characterization of Human B Lymphocytes from Precursors to Effector Cells by Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Clavarino

    Full Text Available A precise identification and phenotypic characterization of human B-cell subsets is of crucial importance in both basic research and medicine. In the literature, flow cytometry studies for the phenotypic characterization of B-lymphocytes are mainly focused on the description of a particular cell stage, or of specific cell stages observed in a single type of sample. In the present work, we propose a backbone of 6 antibodies (CD38, CD27, CD10, CD19, CD5 and CD45 and an efficient gating strategy to identify, in a single analysis tube, a large number of B-cell subsets covering the whole B-cell differentiation from precursors to memory and plasma cells. Furthermore, by adding two antibodies in an 8-color combination, our approach allows the analysis of the modulation of any cell surface marker of interest along B-cell differentiation. We thus developed a panel of seven 8-colour antibody combinations to phenotypically characterize B-cell subpopulations in bone marrow, peripheral blood, lymph node and cord blood samples. Beyond qualitative information provided by biparametric representations, we also quantified antigen expression on each of the identified B-cell subsets and we proposed a series of informative curves showing the modulation of seventeen cell surface markers along B-cell differentiation. Our approach by flow cytometry provides an efficient tool to obtain quantitative data on B-cell surface markers expression with a relative easy-to-handle technique that can be applied in routine explorations.

  2. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic experiment. Four finger eating experts and three novices sat down for a hot meal and ate with their hands. Drawing on the technique of playing with the familiar and the strange, our aim was not to explain our responses, but to articulate them. As we seek...... words to do so, we are compelled to stretch the verb "to taste." Tasting, or so our ethnographic experiment suggests, need not be understood as an activity confined to the tongue. Instead, if given a chance, it may viscously spread out to the fingers and come to include appreciative reactions otherwise...

  3. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  4. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a sign...

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC β-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates

  6. Isolation, Identification and Phenotypic Characterization of Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria from Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, A.; Mou, X. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Erie, the smallest and warmest lake among the Laurentian Great Lakes, is known for its problem of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs). One major harmful effect of CyanoHABs is the production of cyanotoxins, especially microcystins. Microcystins (MC) are a group of hepatotoxins and the predominant variant of them is MC-LR. Field measurements and lab experiments indicate that MC degradation in Lake Erie is mainly carried out by indigenous bacteria. However, our knowledge on taxa involved in this process is very limited. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap using a culture-dependent approach. Water and surface sediment samples were collected from Lake Erie in 2014 and 2015 and enriched with MC-LR. Cells were plated on a number of culturing media. The obtained pure bacterial cultures were screened for MC degrading abilities by MT2 BIO-LOG assays and by growing cells in liquid media containing MC-LR as the sole carbon source. In the latter experiment, MC concentrations were measured using HPLC. Isolates showing positive MC degradation activities in the screening steps were designated MC+ bacteria and characterized based on their phenotypic properties, including colony pigmentation, elevation, opacity, margin, gram nature and motility. The taxonomic identity of MC+ bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene full-length DNA sequencing. The presence of mlrA, a gene encoding MC cleavage pathway, was detected by PCR. Our culturing efforts obtained 520 pure cultures; 44 of them were identified as MC+. These MC+ isolates showed diversity in taxonomic identities and differed in their morphology, gram nature, colony characteristics and motility. PCR amplification of mlrA gene yield negative results for all MC+ isolates, indicating that the primers that were used may not be ubiquitous enough to cover the heterogeneity of mlrA genes or, more likely, alternative degradative genes/pathways were employed by Lake Erie bacteria

  7. Phenotypic characterization of naturalized swine breeds in Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric data was collected on 859 naturalized swine in Brazil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro and Rabo de Peixe, Colombia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño and Casco de Mula and Uruguay (Mamellado, both on farm and in published material. Information was collected on breed, sex and age, as well as various morphometric measurements. Analysis of variance was carried out using PROC MIXED of SAS ® on phenotypic data. The coefficients of variance varied between 11.50 and 83.81%, and the coefficient of determination was medium to high. Females were in general smaller for most measurements than males, showing sexual dimorphism. The Moura was the closest naturalized breed to the commercial breeds, followed by the Piau, while the Monteiro was the furtherest. The dendrogram obtained from morphological information showed a division of the pigs into three groups. Characterization was possible using morphological and morphometric data.Foram colhidos dados morfométricos de 859 suínos naturalizados do Brasil (Piau, Tatu, Nilo, Caruncho, Casco de Burro, Moura, Monteiro e Rabo de Peixe, Colômbia (Criolla Zungo, Sanpedreño e Casco de Mula e Uruguai (Mamellado Dados sobre raça, sexo e idade foram coletados, assim como varias avaliações morfométricas. A análise de variância foi realizada utilizando-se o procedimento PROC GLM do SAS sobre os dados morfométricos. Os coeficientes de variância oscilaram de 11,50 a 83,81% e o coeficiente de determinação foi de moderado a alto. As fêmeas foram em geral menores na maioria das avaliações em relação aos machos, indicando dimorfismo sexual. A Moura foi a raça naturalizada mais próxima das raças comerciais, seguida da Piau, enquanto a Monteiro apresentou-se mais distante. O dendograma obtido a partir de informações morfológicas apresentou divisão dentro de três grupos. A caracterização foi possível utilizando-se dados morfológicos e morfométricos.

  8. Phenotypic characterization of the Komeda miniature rat Ishikawa, an animal model of dwarfism caused by a mutation in Prkg2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Atsuko; Yokoi, Norihide; Namae, Misako; Fuse, Masanori; Masuyama, Taku; Sasaki, Masashi; Kawazu, Shoji; Komeda, Kajuro

    2008-12-01

    The Komeda miniature rat Ishikawa (KMI) is a spontaneous animal model of dwarfism caused by a mutation in Prkg2, which encodes cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII). This strain has been maintained as a segregating inbred strain for the mutated allele mri. In this study, we characterized the phenotype of the KMI strain, particularly growth traits, craniofacial measurements, and organ weights. The homozygous mutant (mri/mri) animals were approximately 70% to 80% of the size of normal, heterozygous (mri/+) animals in regard to body length, weight, and naso-occipital length of the calvarium, and the retroperitoneal fat of mri/mri rats was reduced greatly. In addition, among progeny of the (BNxKMI-mri/mri)F1xKMI-mri/mri backcross, animals with the KMI phenotype (mri/mri) were easily distinguished from those showing the wild-type phenotype (mri/+) by using growth traits such as body length and weight. Genetic analysis revealed that all of the backcrossed progeny exhibiting the KMI phenotype were homozygous for the KMI allele in the 1.2-cM region between D14Rat5 and D14Rat80 on chromosome 14, suggesting strongly that mri acts in a completely recessive manner. The KMI strain is the first and only rat model with a confirmed mutation in Prkg2 and is a valuable model for studying dwarfism and longitudinal growth traits in humans and for functional studies of cGKII.

  9. Distribution of α-Gustducin and Vimentin in premature and mature taste buds in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Payne, Jason; Goodfellow, Forrest; Wang, Zhonghou; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Stice, Steven; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-10-14

    The sensory organs for taste in chickens (Gallus sp.) are taste buds in the oral epithelium of the palate, base of the oral cavity, and posterior tongue. Although there is not a pan-taste cell marker that labels all chicken taste bud cells, α-Gustducin and Vimentin each label a subpopulation of taste bud cells. In the present study, we used both α-Gustducin and Vimentin to further characterize chicken taste buds at the embryonic and post-hatching stages (E17-P5). We found that both α-Gustducin and Vimentin label distinct and overlapping populations of, but not all, taste bud cells. A-Gustducin immunosignals were observed as early as E18 and were consistently distributed in early and mature taste buds in embryos and hatchlings. Vimentin immunoreactivity was initially sparse at the embryonic stages then became apparent in taste buds after hatch. In hatchlings, α-Gustducin and Vimentin immunosignals largely co-localized in taste buds. A small subset of taste bud cells were labeled by either α-Gustducin or Vimentin or were not labeled. Importantly, each of the markers was observed in all of the examined taste buds. Our data suggest that the early onset of α-Gustducin in taste buds might be important for enabling chickens to respond to taste stimuli immediately after hatch and that distinctive population of taste bud cells that are labeled by different molecular markers might represent different cell types or different phases of taste bud cells. Additionally, α-Gustducin and Vimentin can potentially be used as molecular markers of all chicken taste buds in whole mount tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tasting the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in sociology of art indicates an increasing heterogeneity and openness in cultural taste and consumption. This tendency also appears to be sanctified by developments in the arts and aesthetic theory of the last decades. Compared to former more exclusive and elitist cultures of tas...

  11. The taste looks good

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Young, T.; Schrauwers, A.

    2005-01-01

    For over two decades, fruit and other agricultural products have been sorted using the 'electronic eye'. The eye selects purely by such external properties as colour, and cannot judge taste. Dr Gerrit Polder, an electrical engineer at Wageningen University, carried out his doctorate research at

  12. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  13. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa recA gene: the Les- phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokjohn, T.A.; Miller, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    The Les- phenotype (lysogeny establishment deficient) is a pleiotropic effect of the lesB908 mutation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. lesB908-containing strains are also (i) deficient in general recombination, (ii) sensitive to UV irradiation, and (iii) deficient in UV-stimulated induction of prophages. The P. aeruginosa recA-containing plasmid pKML3001 complemented each of these pleiotropic characteristics of the lesB908 mutation, supporting the hypothesis that lesB908 is an allele of the P. aeruginosa recA gene. The phenotypic effects of the lesB908 mutation may be best explained by the hypothesis that the lesB908 gene product is altered in such a way that it has lost synaptase activity but possesses intrinsic protease activity in the absence of DNA damage. The Les- phenotype is a result of the rapid destruction of newly synthesized phage repressor, resulting in lytic growth of the infecting virus. This hypothesis is consistent with the observations that increasing the number of copies of the phage repressor gene by increasing the multiplicity of infection (i.e., average number of phage genomes per cell) or by introducing the cloned phage repressor gene into a lesB908 mutant will also suppress the Les- phenotype in a phage-specific fashion

  15. Phenotypic, functional, and quantitative characterization of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bueno

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The yield as well as phenotypic and functional parameters of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were analyzed. The cells that remained adherent to Teflon after 10 days of culture had high phagocytic activity when inoculated with Leishmania chagasi. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that more than 80% of cultured cells were positive for the monocyte/macrophage marker CD14.

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Klebsiella pneumonia recovered from nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a zoonotic, Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is the causative agent of nosocomial septicemic, pneumonic, and urinary tract infections. Recently, pathogenic strains of K. pneumoniae sharing a hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype have been attributed to ...

  17. Characterization of the hybrid RHD gene leading to the partial D category IIIc phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, E. A.; Faas, B. H.; Ligthart, P.; Simsek, S.; Overbeeke, M. A.; von dem Borne, A. E.; van Rhenen, D. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    A D-positive white woman was found to have produced alloanti-D leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn in her third D-positive child. The maternal D was identified as the partial D category IIIc antigen (DIIIc). The molecular basis of this phenotype was studied. The proposita and her relatives

  18. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  19. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Boag, Brian; Ghedin, Elodie

    2017-01-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954–1955) and between 2008–2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms. PMID:28253375

  20. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Kerr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955 and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1 to highly attenuated (grade 5. Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  1. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Geber, Adam; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G; Boag, Brian; Eden, John-Sebastian; Ghedin, Elodie; Read, Andrew F; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-03-01

    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. The later UK viruses fell into three distinct lineages indicative of a long period of separation and independent evolution. Although rates of evolutionary change were almost identical to those previously described for MYXV in Australia and strongly clock-like, genome evolution in the UK and Australia showed little convergence. The phenotypes of eight UK viruses from three lineages were characterized in laboratory rabbits and compared to the progenitor (release) Lausanne strain. Inferred virulence ranged from highly virulent (grade 1) to highly attenuated (grade 5). Two broad disease types were seen: cutaneous nodular myxomatosis characterized by multiple raised secondary cutaneous lesions, or an amyxomatous phenotype with few or no secondary lesions. A novel clinical outcome was acute death with pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, often associated with bacteria in many tissues but an absence of inflammatory cells. Notably, reading frame disruptions in genes defined as essential for virulence in the progenitor Lausanne strain were compatible with the acquisition of high virulence. Combined, these data support a model of ongoing host-pathogen co-evolution in which multiple genetic pathways can produce successful outcomes in the field that involve both different virulence grades and disease phenotypes, with alterations in tissue tropism and disease mechanisms.

  2. Characterization of taste-active fractions in red wine combining HPLC fractionation, sensory analysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente; Dizy, Marta; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2010-07-19

    Five Tempranillo wines exhibiting marked differences in taste and/or astringency were selected for the study. In each wine the non-volatile extract was obtained by freeze-drying and further liquid extraction in order to eliminate remaining volatile compounds. This extract was fractionated by semipreparative C18-reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (C18-RP-HPLC) into nine fractions which were freeze-dried, reconstituted with water and sensory assessed for taste attributes and astringency by a specifically trained sensory panel. Results have shown that wine bitterness and astringency cannot be easily related to the bitter and astringent character of the HPLC fractions, what can be due to the existence of perceptual and physicochemical interactions. While the bitter character of the bitterest fractions may be attributed to some flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and their glycosides) the development of a sensitive UPLC-MS method to quantify astringent compounds present in wines has made it possible to demonstrate that proanthocyanidins monomers, dimers, trimers and tetramers, both galloylated or non-galloylated are not relevant compounds for the perceived astringency of the fractions, while cis-aconitic acid, and secondarily vainillic, and syringic acids and ethyl syringate, are the most important molecules driving astringency in two of the fractions (F5 and F6). The identity of the chemicals responsible for the astringency of the third fraction could be assigned to some proanthocyanidins (higher than the tetramer) capable to precipitate with ovalbumin. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Taste buds: cells, signals and synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a consolidation and refinement of the extraordinary progress made in taste research. This Review describes recent advances in our understanding of taste receptors, taste buds, and the connections between taste buds and sensory afferent fibres. The article discusses new findings regarding the cellular mechanisms for detecting tastes, new data on the transmitters involved in taste processing and new studies that address longstanding arguments about taste coding.

  4. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from sulla nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghalem, Hamida; Aliliche, Khadidja; Chriki, Ali; Landoulsi, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, bacterial diversity was investigated in root nodules of Sulla pallida and Sulla capitata. The isolates were analyzed on the basis of their phenotypic and molecular characteristics. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes (recA and atpD) showed that the isolated bacteria related to Sinorhizobium, Neorhizobium, Phyllobacterium, Arthrobacter, Variovorax and Pseudomonas genera. This is the first report of Neorhizobium genus associated with Hedysarum genus. Phenotypically, all strains tolerate the elevated temperature of 40 °C, and salt stress at a concentration of 2%. In addition, the isolates failed to induce nodulation on their original host; and the symbiotic genes could not be amplified, suggesting that these strains are endophytic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenotypic characterization of early events of thymus repopulation in radiation bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharrow, S.O.; Singer, A.; Hammerling, U.; Mathieson, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The phenotype of murine thymocytes repopulating the thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras shortly after irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry. Thymuses in these chimeras, while essentially devoid of lymphoid cells at day 7, were repopulated by days 10 to 12 after irradiation. It was found that this initial repopulation arose from a radioresistant intrathymic precursor that expanded to an almost complete complement of host-type thymocytes. However, these host-derived thymocytes were unusual in that they were relatively deficient in Lyt 1+2- and peanut agglutinin ''dull'' cells as compared with normal thymocytes. Donor bone-marrow-derived cells first appeared in the irradiated chimeric thymuses between days 12 and 15 after irradiation and bone marrow transfer. By day 19, chimeric thymuses contained more than 98% donor cells. This course was identical for three chimeric combinations, each made across different genetic barriers. In contrast to the cells that populate the fetal thymus during normal ontogeny, the first donor bone-marrow-derived cells that can be detected within the irradiated chimeric thymuses already expressed phenotypically normal adult T cell subpopulations in that they contained significant numbers both of Lyt 1+2- and of Lyt 1+2+ thymocytes. Thus, the Lyt phenotype of donor cells that initially repopulate an adult thymus after irradiation is markedly different from the Lyt phenotype of cells that initially populate the fetal thymus. The differences between adult and fetal thymic development that are observed in radiation bone marrow chimeras may be important in our understanding of T cell differentiation in these animals

  6. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of B. cinerea Chilean isolates of different levels of fenhexamid sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA ESTERIO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty three Chilean Botrytis cinerea isolates of different fenhexamid sensitivities, obtained from table grapes, were phenotypically analyzed and sequenced for the erg27 gene that encodes the 3-ketoreductaseenzyme. Fifteen isolates were highly resistant to fenhexamid (HydR3+ with conidial germination EC50values >5 μg·mL-1 and colony growth EC50 values >2 μg·mL-1. Five isolates had slight to moderate resistance levels (HydR3- with conidial germination EC50 values between 0.7 and 2.6 μg·mL-1 and colony growth EC50 values between 0.4 and 3 μg·mL-1. Twenty-three isolates were fenhexamid sensitive (HydS (conidial germination and colony growth EC50 values <0.1 μg·mL-1. Resistance to anilinopyrimidine (phenotype AniR1, benzimidazole (phenotype BenR1 and dicarboximide fungicides (phenotype ImiR1 was common among isolate stested. When HydR3- and HydR3+ sequences were compared with fenhexamid-resistant French isolates, it was verified that all the HydR3+ had a modification in the C-terminal at position 412 of the protein, close tothe putative transmembrane domain responsible for fenhexamid resistance. The HydR3- isolates showed sixspecific amino acid changes in the sequenced region of the erg27 gene, between positions 199 and 408 of the protein, with three of these described for the first time.

  7. (Re)tasting places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    What does geographical origin mean? It is an expression that associates food and wine with a specific place, an association embedded in the concept ‘terroir’ that refers to the complex interaction between a physical environment and local craftsmanship. It is a claim protected through labelling......-schemes and a claim that adds value to the place-related foods. However, viewing the connection between food and place as a question of proving a relationship or as a matter of protecting commercial claims does not seem to provide a satisfactory account for the status of geographically designated foods as being...... particularly attractive Central to the interest of this paper is to approach an understanding of geographical origin as a point of reference for taste. In terms of being sensory experience, taste is subjective. It is difficult to describe verbally and yet at the same time it is a trigger of the memory of past...

  8. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  9. Leveraging Comparative Genomics to Identify and Functionally Characterize Genes Associated with Sperm Phenotypes in Python bivittatus (Burmese Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J. L. Irizarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics approaches provide a means of leveraging functional genomics information from a highly annotated model organism’s genome (such as the mouse genome in order to make physiological inferences about the role of genes and proteins in a less characterized organism’s genome (such as the Burmese python. We employed a comparative genomics approach to produce the functional annotation of Python bivittatus genes encoding proteins associated with sperm phenotypes. We identify 129 gene-phenotype relationships in the python which are implicated in 10 specific sperm phenotypes. Results obtained through our systematic analysis identified subsets of python genes exhibiting associations with gene ontology annotation terms. Functional annotation data was represented in a semantic scatter plot. Together, these newly annotated Python bivittatus genome resources provide a high resolution framework from which the biology relating to reptile spermatogenesis, fertility, and reproduction can be further investigated. Applications of our research include (1 production of genetic diagnostics for assessing fertility in domestic and wild reptiles; (2 enhanced assisted reproduction technology for endangered and captive reptiles; and (3 novel molecular targets for biotechnology-based approaches aimed at reducing fertility and reproduction of invasive reptiles. Additional enhancements to reptile genomic resources will further enhance their value.

  10. Characterization of Carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. Plant Collection of Cibinong Plant Germplasm Garden Based on Phenotypic and Genetic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Priadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as a rich biodiversity country has many superior fruit plant germplasms such as sweet star fruit or carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.. Some varieties of carambola which collected at the Germplasm Garden of Research Center for Biotechnology-LIPI have been used for parent trees of fruit plant production. Therefore, they have to be characterized both phenotypically and genetically. The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between eight varieties of carambola i.e. Malaysia, Penang, Rawasari, Bangkok, Sembiring, Dewabaru, Demak and Dewimurni at the germplasm garden based on phenotypic and genetic characters. Phenotypic characters were observed directly in the field, whereas genetic characters were observed with RAPD markers using 10 primers. Phylogenetic analysis was done using NT-SYS software showed that there were three clusters of carambola varieties. Meanwhile, Malaysia and Penang varieties have closed relationships (96% compared with the other varieties. The result of the study would be dedicated to updating and completing the existing fruit plant collection database of Plants Germplasm Garden. 

  11. Phenotypic characterization, genetic mapping and candidate gene analysis of a source conferring reduced plant height in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, María Laura; Altieri, Emiliano; Bulos, Mariano; Sala, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Reduced height germplasm has the potential to increase stem strength, standability, and also yields potential of the sunflower crop (Helianthus annuus L. var. macrocarpus Ckll.). In this study, we report on the inheritance, mapping, phenotypic and molecular characterization of a reduced plant height trait in inbred lines derived from the source DDR. This trait is controlled by a semidominant allele, Rht1, which maps on linkage group 12 of the sunflower public consensus map. Phenotypic effects of this allele include shorter height and internode length, insensibility to exogenous gibberellin application, normal skotomorphogenetic response, and reduced seed set under self-pollination conditions. This later effect presumably is related to the reduced pollen viability observed in all DDR-derived lines studied. Rht1 completely cosegregated with a haplotype of the HaDella1 gene sequence. This haplotype consists of a point mutation converting a leucine residue in a proline within the conserved DELLA domain. Taken together, the phenotypic, genetic, and molecular results reported here indicate that Rht1 in sunflower likely encodes an altered DELLA protein. If the DELPA motif of the HaDELLA1 sequence in the Rht1-encoded protein determines by itself the observed reduction in height is a matter that remains to be investigated.

  12. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  13. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Finger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells.

  14. Clinical and molecular characterization of a novel INS mutation identified in patients with MODY phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Barbara; Artuso, Rosangela; Lenzi, Lorenzo; Guasti, Monica; Braccesi, Giulia; Barni, Federica; Casalini, Emilio; Giglio, Sabrina; Toni, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Correct diagnosis of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is based on genetic tests requiring an appropriate subject selection by clinicians. Mutations in the insulin (INS) gene rarely occur in patients with MODY. This study is aimed at determining the genetic background and clinical phenotype in patients with suspected MODY. 34 patients with suspected MODY, negative for mutations in the GCK, HNF1α, HNF4α, HNF1β and PDX1 genes, were screened by next generation sequencing (NGS). A heterozygous INS mutation was identified in 4 members of the same family. First genetic tests performed identified two heterozygous silent nucleotide substitutions in MODY3/HNF1α gene. An ineffective attempt to suspend insulin therapy, administering repaglinide and sulphonylureas, was made. DNA was re-sequenced by NGS investigating a set of 102 genes. Genes implicated in the pathway of pancreatic β-cells, candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus and genes causative of diabetes in mice were selected. A novel heterozygous variant in human preproinsulin INS gene (c.125T > C) was found in the affected family members. The new INS mutation broadens the spectrum of possible INS phenotypes. Screening for INS mutations is warranted not only in neonatal diabetes but also in MODYx patients and in selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus negative for autoantibodies. Subjects with complex diseases without a specific phenotype should be studied by NGS because Sanger sequencing is ineffective and time consuming in detecting rare variants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiobacterium valvarum infective endocarditis and phenotypic/molecular characterization of 11 Cardiobacterium species strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Kemp, Michael; Bruun, Niels E

    2011-01-01

    Cardiobacterium valvarum is a newly recognized human pathogen related to infective endocarditis. Cardiobacterium species are, however, only rarely the aetiology of infective endocarditis. An infective endocarditis case is presented and, additionally, phenotypic and phylogenetic comparison...... of a further 10 collection strains, representing the two species within the genus, was performed. C. valvarum was isolated from the blood and DNA was present in valvular tissue (partial 16S rRNA gene analysis) from a 64-year-old man with infective endocarditis of the mitral valve, rupture of chordae...

  16. TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa. PMID:24961971

  17. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Atypical Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua Isolated from Swine Slaughterhouses and Meat Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Zanolli Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, atypical Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua strains have been detected in food and the environment. Because of mutations in the major virulence genes, these strains have different virulence intensities in eukaryotic cells. In this study, we performed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical L. monocytogenes and L. innocua isolates obtained from swine slaughterhouses and meat markets. Forty strains were studied, including isolates of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua with low-hemolytic activity. The isolates were characterized using conventional phenotypic Listeria identification tests and by the detection and analysis of L. monocytogenes-specific genes. Analysis of 16S rRNA was used for the molecular identification of the Listeria species. The L. monocytogenes isolates were positive for all of the virulence genes studied. The atypical L. innocua strains were positive for hly, plcA, and inlC. Mutations in the InlC, InlB, InlA, PI-PLC, PC-PLC, and PrfA proteins were detected in the atypical isolates. Further in vitro and transcriptomic studies are being developed to confirm the role of these mutations in Listeria virulence.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of wheat landraces from mid and far western districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangharash Raj Dangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate phenotypic variation in one hundred and sixty six wheat landraces from mid and far western districts of Nepal. They were sown in randomized complete block design with two replications at National Wheat Research Program in 2014/15. The observed traits were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis using MINITAB v. 14. The results showed a wide range of phenotypic variability in observed parameters. The results also showed that the highest value of the standard deviation from mean (Sd was for grain yield (±290.10 followed by plant height (±7.21. Among the traits the lowest deviation from mean (Sd was for thousand grain weight TGW (±2.68. Wheat landraces grouped in four clusters depending on similarity of the studied traits. The results in this cluster, showed that days to maturity ranged from 97 to111 days, TGW ranged from 16 to17 gm, plant height ranged from 76 to 85 cm, and grain yield ranged from 2800 to 3000 Kg ha-1. Wheat landraces under study are grouped depending on specific traits useful for wheat improvement program. Results of this study can be supportive to detect wheat landraces within species with similar traits. In addition it can be useful for sampling in successive studies and parental selection in wheat breeding program.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 32-44

  19. Characterization of DNA repair phenotypes of Xeroderma pigmentosum cell lines by a paralleled in vitro test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffin, A.L.

    2009-06-01

    DNA is constantly damaged modifying the genetic information for which it encodes. Several cellular mechanisms as the Base Excision Repair (BER) and the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) allow recovering the right DNA sequence. The Xeroderma pigmentosum is a disease characterised by a deficiency in the NER pathway. The aim of this study was to propose an efficient and fast test for the diagnosis of this disease as an alternative to the currently available UDS test. DNA repair activities of XP cell lines were quantified using in vitro miniaturized and paralleled tests in order to establish DNA repair phenotypes of XPA and XPC deficient cells. The main advantage of the tests used in this study is the simultaneous measurement of excision or excision synthesis (ES) of several lesions by only one cellular extract. We showed on one hand that the relative ES of the different lesions depend strongly on the protein concentration of the nuclear extract tested. Working at high protein concentration allowed discriminating the XP phenotype versus the control one, whereas it was impossible under a certain concentration's threshold. On the other hand, while the UVB irradiation of control cells stimulated their repair activities, this effect was not observed in XP cells. This study brings new information on the XPA and XPC protein roles during BER and NER and underlines the complexity of the regulations of DNA repair processes. (author)

  20. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  1. A comparison of English and Japanese taste languages: taste descriptive methodology, codability and the umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M; Ishii, R

    1986-05-01

    Everyday taste descriptions for a range of stimuli were obtained from selected groups of American and Japanese subjects, using a variety of stimuli, stimulus presentation procedures and response conditions. In English there was a tendency to use a quadrapartite classification system: 'sweet', 'sour', 'salty' and 'bitter'. The Japanese had a different strategy, adding a fifth label: 'Ajinomoto', referring to the taste of monosodium glutamate. This label was generally replaced by umami--the scientific term--by Japanese who were workers or trained tasters involved with glutamate manufacture. Cultural differences in taste language have consequences for taste psychophysicists who impose a quadrapartite restriction on allowable taste descriptions. Stimulus presentation by filter-paper or aqueous solution elicited the same response trends. Language codability was only an indicator of degree of taste mixedness/singularity if used statistically with samples of sufficient size; it had little value as an indicator for individual subjects.

  2. Characterization of the testicular, epididymal and endocrine phenotypes in the Leuven Vdr-deficient mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lieben, Liesbet; Nielsen, John E

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is a key factor for calcium and bone homeostasis, but signalling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) seems also to be important for testicular function. To test the functional role of vitamin D signalling we examined the male reproductive system of the Leuven Vdr-ablated (Vdr(-/-)) mice......, previously established as a model for hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets. We investigated reproductive hormones, changes in gene expression and histological phenotype of eleven Vdr(-/-), eight Vdr(+/-) and nine Vdr(+/+) mice. Testicular and epididymal histology were grossly normal in Vdr(-/-) mice...... expressions of ERα and the estrogen-target gene Aqp9 were higher. In conclusion, vitamin D seems dispensable for murine spermatogenesis and sex hormone production, but aberrant estrogen-signalling may elicit some of the VDR-mediated effects on male reproduction....

  3. Phenotypic characterization of speed-associated gait changes in mice reveals modular organization of locomotor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellardita, Carmelo; Kiehn, Ole

    2015-01-01

    behavioral outcomes expressed at different speeds of locomotion. Here, we use detailed kinematic analyses to search for signatures of a modular organization of locomotor circuits in intact and genetically modified mice moving at different speeds of locomotion. We show that wild-type mice display three...... distinct gaits: two alternating, walk and trot, and one synchronous, bound. Each gait is expressed in distinct ranges of speed with phenotypic inter-limb and intra-limb coordination. A fourth gait, gallop, closely resembled bound in most of the locomotor parameters but expressed diverse inter......-limb coordination. Genetic ablation of commissural V0V neurons completely removed the expression of one alternating gait, trot, but left intact walk, gallop, and bound. Ablation of commissural V0V and V0D neurons led to a loss of walk, trot, and gallop, leaving bound as the default gait. Our study provides...

  4. Improved characterization of molecular phenotypes in breast lesions using 18F-FDG PET image homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kunlin; Bhagalia, Roshni; Sood, Anup; Brogi, Edi; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Larson, Steven M.

    2015-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using uorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is commonly used in the assessment of breast lesions by computing voxel-wise standardized uptake value (SUV) maps. Simple metrics derived from ensemble properties of SUVs within each identified breast lesion are routinely used for disease diagnosis. The maximum SUV within the lesion (SUVmax) is the most popular of these metrics. However these simple metrics are known to be error-prone and are susceptible to image noise. Finding reliable SUV map-based features that correlate to established molecular phenotypes of breast cancer (viz. estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression) will enable non-invasive disease management. This study investigated 36 SUV features based on first and second order statistics, local histograms and texture of segmented lesions to predict ER and PR expression in 51 breast cancer patients. True ER and PR expression was obtained via immunohistochemistry (IHC) of tissue samples from each lesion. A supervised learning, adaptive boosting-support vector machine (AdaBoost-SVM), framework was used to select a subset of features to classify breast lesions into distinct phenotypes. Performance of the trained multi-feature classifier was compared against the baseline single-feature SUVmax classifier using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results show that texture features encoding local lesion homogeneity extracted from gray-level co-occurrence matrices are the strongest discriminator of lesion ER expression. In particular, classifiers including these features increased prediction accuracy from 0.75 (baseline) to 0.82 and the area under the ROC curve from 0.64 (baseline) to 0.75.

  5. A composition algorithm based on crossmodal taste-music correspondences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eMesz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available While there is broad consensus about the structural similarities between language and music, comparably less attention has been devoted to semantic correspondences between these two ubiquitous manifestations of human culture. We have investigated the relations between music and a narrow and bounded domain of semantics: the words and concepts referring to taste sensations. In a recent work, we found that taste words were consistently mapped to musical parameters. Bitter is associated with low-pitched and continuous music (legato, salty is characterized by silences between notes (staccato, sour is high pitched, dissonant and fast and sweet is consonant, slow and soft (Mesz2011. Here we extended these ideas, in a synergistic dialog between music and science, investigating whether music can be algorithmically generated from taste-words. We developed and implemented an algorithm that exploits a large corpus of classic and popular songs. New musical pieces were produced by choosing fragments from the corpus and modifying them to minimize their distance to the region in musical space that characterizes each taste. In order to test the capability of the produced music to elicit significant associations with the different tastes, musical pieces were produced and judged by a group of non musicians. Results showed that participants could decode well above chance the taste-word of the composition. We also discuss how our findings can be expressed in a performance bridging music and cognitive science.

  6. The taste of desserts' packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeeke, C J; Peters, M E

    1991-10-01

    This article reports an experiment on expressing the behavioural meaning of designed objects. Can a designer express the taste of a desert in the form of its packaging and can consumers match these forms when tasting the desserts? Analysis of responses of 12 adults indicates positive answers to these questions.

  7. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  8. Taste Bud Labeling in Whole Tongue Epithelial Sheet in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Boggs, Kristin; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Molecular labeling in whole-mount tissues provides an efficient way to obtain general information about the formation, maintenance, degeneration, and regeneration of many organs and tissues. However, labeling of lingual taste buds in whole tongue tissues in adult mice has been problematic because of the strong permeability barrier of the tongue epithelium. In this study, we present a simple method for labeling taste buds in the intact tongue epithelial sheet of an adult mouse. Following intralingual protease injection and incubation, immediate fixation of the tongue on mandible in 4% paraformaldehyde enabled the in situ shape of the tongue epithelium to be well maintained after peeling. The peeled epithelium was accessible to taste bud labeling with a pan-taste cell marker, keratin 8, and a type II taste cell marker, α-gustducin, in all three types of taste papillae, that is, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate. Overnight incubation of tongue epithelial sheets with primary and secondary antibodies was sufficient for intense labeling of taste buds with both fluorescent and DAB visualizations. Labeled individual taste buds were easy to identify and quantify. This protocol provides an efficient way for phenotypic analyses of taste buds, especially regarding distribution pattern and number.

  9. Functional Characterization and Drug Response of Freshly Established Patient-Derived Tumor Models with CpG Island Methylator Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maletzki

    Full Text Available Patient-individual tumor models constitute a powerful platform for basic and translational analyses both in vitro and in vivo. However, due to the labor-intensive and highly time-consuming process, only few well-characterized patient-derived cell lines and/or corresponding xenografts exist. In this study, we describe successful generation and functional analysis of novel tumor models from patients with sporadic primary colorectal carcinomas (CRC showing CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Initial DNA fingerprint analysis confirmed identity with the patient in all four cases. These freshly established cells showed characteristic features associated with the CIMP-phenotype (HROC40: APCwt, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 3/8 marker methylated; HROC43: APC mut, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 4/8 marker methylated; HROC60: APCwt, TP53 mut, KRASwt; 4/8 marker methylated; HROC183: APC mut, TP53 mut, KRAS mut; 6/8 marker methylated. Cell lines were of epithelial origin (EpCAM+ with distinct morphology and growth kinetics. Response to chemotherapeutics was quite individual between cells, with stage I-derived cell line HROC60 being most susceptible towards standard clinically approved chemotherapeutics (e.g. 5-FU, Irinotecan. Of note, most cell lines were sensitive towards "non-classical" CRC standard drugs (sensitivity: Gemcitabin > Rapamycin > Nilotinib. This comprehensive analysis of tumor biology, genetic alterations and assessment of chemosensitivity towards a broad range of (chemo- therapeutics helps bringing forward the concept of personalized tumor therapy.

  10. DEVELOPING A SENSE OF TASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds are found in a distributed array on the tongue surface, and are innervated by cranial nerves that convey taste information to the brain. For nearly a century, taste buds were thought to be induced by nerves late in embryonic development. However, this view has shifted dramatically. A host of studies now indicate that taste bud development is initiated and proceeds via processes that are nerve-independent, occur long before birth, and governed by cellular and molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the developing tongue. Here we review the state of our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation of taste bud development, incorporating important new data obtained through the use of two powerful genetic systems, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:23182899

  11. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  12. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  13. Chromosomal barcoding as a tool for multiplexed phenotypic characterization of laboratory evolved lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Leonie Johanna; Porse, Andreas; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    experiments can be automated in a high-throughput fashion. However, the characterization of the resulting lineages can become a time consuming task, when the performance of each lineage is evaluated individually. Here, we present a novel method for the markerless insertion of randomized genetic barcodes...

  14. Function and phenotype of peripheral neutrophils in the characterization of COPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langereis, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    COPD is a major health problem worldwide and is currently the third cause of morbidity and mortality in the European Union. COPD is a heterogeneous disease that is characterized by irreversible airflow limitation and parenchymal destruction. The severity of COPD is categorized in 5 stages as

  15. Genotype and Phenotype Characterization of Indonesian Phytophthora infestans Isolates Collected From Java and Outside Java Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinita Wikan Utami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight disease, is a worldwide problem in potato and tomato production. To understand the biology and ecology of P. infestans and the mechanism of spatial and temporal factors for the variation in P. infestans, the population diversity is required to be fully characterized. The objective of this research is to characterize the diversity of P. infestans. Surveys and collection of P. infestans isolates were performed on many locations of potato's production center in Indonesia, as in Java (West Java, Central Java, and East Java and outside of Java islands (Medan, Jambi, and Makassar. The collected isolates were then analyzed for their virulence diversity via plant disease bioassays on differential varieties and genotype diversity based on fragment analysis genotypes profile using the multiplexing 20 simple sequence repeat markers. The virulence characterization showed that the isolates group from Makassar, South Sulawesi, have the broad spectrum virulence pathotype to R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5 differential plants. Simple sequence repeat genotype characterization showed that in general, the population structure of P. infestans grouping is accordance to the origin of the sampling locations. The diversity between populations is lower than diversity between isolates in one location population groups. The characters of P. infestans population showed that the population diversity of P. infestans more occurs on individual isolates in one location compared with the diversity between the population location sampling.

  16. Phenotypic Characterization and Genetic Dissection of Growth Period Traits in Soybean (Glycine max Using Association Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangxiong Liu

    Full Text Available The growth period traits are important traits that affect soybean yield. The insights into the genetic basis of growth period traits can provide theoretical basis for cultivated area division, rational distribution, and molecular breeding for soybean varieties. In this study, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS was exploited to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTL for number of days to flowering (ETF, number of days from flowering to maturity (FTM, and number of days to maturity (ETM using 4032 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers with 146 cultivars mainly from Northeast China. Results showed that abundant phenotypic variation was presented in the population, and variation explained by genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction were all significant for each trait. The whole accessions could be clearly clustered into two subpopulations based on their genetic relatedness, and accessions in the same group were almost from the same province. GWAS based on the unified mixed model identified 19 significant SNPs distributed on 11 soybean chromosomes, 12 of which can be consistently detected in both planting densities, and 5 of which were pleotropic QTL. Of 19 SNPs, 7 SNPs located in or close to the previously reported QTL or genes controlling growth period traits. The QTL identified with high resolution in this study will enrich our genomic understanding of growth period traits and could then be explored as genetic markers to be used in genomic applications in soybean breeding.

  17. Biological characterization of bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants possessing the vaccine glycoprotein E negative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric; de Fays, Katalin; Pourchet, Aldo; Thiry, Julien; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Antoine, Nadine; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-03-31

    Intramolecular recombination is a frequent event during the replication cycle of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Recombinant viruses frequently arise and survive in cattle after concomitant nasal infections with two BoHV-1 mutants. The consequences of this process, related to herpesvirus evolution, have to be assessed in the context of large use of live marker vaccines based on glycoprotein E (gE) gene deletion. In natural conditions, double nasal infections by vaccine and wild-type strains are likely to occur. This situation might generate virulent recombinant viruses inducing a serological response indistinguishable from the vaccine one. This question was addressed by generating in vitro BoHV-1 recombinants deleted in the gE gene from seven wild-type BoHV-1 strains and one mutant strain deleted in the genes encoding gC and gE. In vitro growth properties were assessed by virus production, one step growth kinetics and plaque size assay. Heterogeneity in the biological properties was shown among the investigated recombinant viruses. The results demonstrated that some recombinants, in spite of their gE minus phenotype, have biological characteristics close to wild-type BoHV-1.

  18. Characterization of Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713, a strain isolated from human milk: from genotype to phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, Susana; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Delgado, Susana; Martín, Rebeca; Martín, Virginia; Jiménez, Esther; Ruíz-Barba, José L; Mayo, Baltasar; Connor, Ruth I; Suárez, Juan Evaristo; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 5713, isolated from human milk, has immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antiinfectious properties, as revealed by several in vitro and in vivo assays, which suggests a strong potential as a probiotic strain. In this work, the relationships between several genetic features of L. salivarius CECT 5713 and the corresponding phenotypes were evaluated. Although it contains a plasmid-encoded bacteriocin cluster, no bacteriocin biosynthesis was observed, possibly due to a 4-bp deletion at the beginning of the histidine kinase determinant abpK. The genome of L. salivarius CECT 5713 harbours two apparently complete prophages of 39.6 and 48 kbp. Upon induction, the 48-kbp prophage became liberated from the bacterial genome, but no DNA replication took place, which resulted in lysis of the cultures but not in phage progeny generation. The strain was sensitive to most antibiotics tested and no transmissible genes potentially involved in antibiotic resistance were detected. Finally, the genome of L. salivarius CECT 5713 contained four ORFs potentially involved in human molecular mimetism. Among them, protein 1230 was considered of particular relevance because of its similarity with dendritic cell-related proteins. Subsequently, in vitro assays revealed the ability of L. salivarius CECT 5713 to stimulate the maturation of immature dendritic cells and to inhibit the in vitro infectivity of HIV-1.

  19. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Italian Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Morandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a known major cause of foodborne illnesses, and milk and dairy products are often contaminated by enterotoxigenic strains of this bacterium. In the present study, 122 S. aureus isolates collected from different dairy products were characterised by phenotypic properties, by the distribution of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, sej, and sel and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR. Moreover, strain resistance to vancomycin and methicillin (oxacillin was studied. The differences in the RAPD-PCR profiles obtained with the primers M13 and AP4 revealed the presence of a great genetic heterogeneity among the different S. aureus strains. Using the primer AP4 and M13, eight groups were distinguished by RAPD-PCR cluster analysis, although, except in few cases, it was not possible to correlate the isolates of different animal species (cow or ovine with the presence of se genes. None of the isolates showed resistance to vancomycin or methicillin.

  20. Phenotypic characterization of aberrant stem and progenitor cell populations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, Benjamin N; Flenner, Eva; Flörcken, Anne; Westermann, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports have revealed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to arise from cancer stem cells phenotypically similar to physiological hematopoietic stem cells. Myelodysplastic hematopoiesis maintains a hierarchical organization, but the proportion of several hematopoietic compartments is skewed and multiple surface markers are aberrantly expressed. These aberrant antigen expression patterns hold diagnostic and therapeutic promise. However, eradication of MDS requires targeting of early myelodysplasia propagating stem cells. This warrants an exact assessment of the differentiation stage at which aberrant expression occurs in transformed hematopoiesis. Here, we report results on the prospective and extensive dissection of the hematopoietic hierarchy in 20 patients with either low-risk MDS or MDS with excess blasts and compare it to hematopoiesis in patients with non-malignancy-associated cytopenia or B cell lymphoma without bone marrow infiltration. We found patients with MDS with excess blasts to exhibit characteristic expansions of specific immature progenitor compartments. We also identified the aberrant expression of several markers including ALDH, CLL-1, CD44, and CD47 to be specific features of hematopoiesis in MDS with excess blasts. We show that amongst these, aberrant CLL-1 expression manifested at the early uncommitted hematopoietic stem cell level, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic target.

  1. Phenotypic characterization of aberrant stem and progenitor cell populations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Ostendorf

    Full Text Available Recent reports have revealed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS to arise from cancer stem cells phenotypically similar to physiological hematopoietic stem cells. Myelodysplastic hematopoiesis maintains a hierarchical organization, but the proportion of several hematopoietic compartments is skewed and multiple surface markers are aberrantly expressed. These aberrant antigen expression patterns hold diagnostic and therapeutic promise. However, eradication of MDS requires targeting of early myelodysplasia propagating stem cells. This warrants an exact assessment of the differentiation stage at which aberrant expression occurs in transformed hematopoiesis. Here, we report results on the prospective and extensive dissection of the hematopoietic hierarchy in 20 patients with either low-risk MDS or MDS with excess blasts and compare it to hematopoiesis in patients with non-malignancy-associated cytopenia or B cell lymphoma without bone marrow infiltration. We found patients with MDS with excess blasts to exhibit characteristic expansions of specific immature progenitor compartments. We also identified the aberrant expression of several markers including ALDH, CLL-1, CD44, and CD47 to be specific features of hematopoiesis in MDS with excess blasts. We show that amongst these, aberrant CLL-1 expression manifested at the early uncommitted hematopoietic stem cell level, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic target.

  2. Isolation, taxonomic analysis, and phenotypic characterization of bacterial endophytes present in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, José Luis; Alvarez, Florencia; Príncipe, Analía; Salas, María Eugenia; Lozano, Mauricio Javier; Draghi, Walter Omar; Jofré, Edgardo; Lagares, Antonio

    2018-02-10

    A growing body of evidence has reinforced the central role of microbiomes in the life of sound multicellular eukaryotes, thus more properly described as true holobionts. Though soil was considered a main source of plant microbiomes, seeds have been shown to be endophytically colonized by microorganisms thus representing natural carriers of a selected microbial inoculum to the young seedlings. In this work we have investigated the type of culturable endophytic bacteria that are carried within surface-sterilized alfalfa seeds. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the presence of bacteria that belonged to 40 separate genera, distributed within four taxa (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes). Nonsymbiotic members of the Rhizobiaceae family were also found. The evaluation of nine different in-vitro biochemical activities demonstrated isolates with complex combinations of traits that, upon a Principal-Component-Analysis, could be classified into four phenotypic groups. That isolates from nearly half of the genera identified had been able to colonize alfalfa plants grown under axenic conditions was remarkable. Further analyses should be addressed to investigating the colonization mechanisms of the alfalfa seeds, the evolutionary significance of the alfalfa-seed endophytes, and also how after germination the seed microbiome competes with spermospheric and rhizospheric soil bacteria to colonize newly emerging seedlings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenotypic characterization of lymphocytes in HCV/HIV co-infected patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roe, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    While hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific immune responses are attenuated in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients compared to those infected with HCV alone, the reasons for this remain unclear. In this study, the proportions of regulatory, naïve, and memory T cells, along with chemokine receptor expression, were measured in co-infected and mono-infected patients to determine if there is an alteration in the phenotypic profile of lymphocytes in these patients. HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients had increased proportions of CD4(+) naïve cells and decreased proportions of CD4(+) effector cells when compared to HCV mono-infected patients. The proportions of CD4(+) Tregs and CD4(+) CXCR3(+) T cells were also significantly lower in co-infected patients. A decrease in CD4(+) Tregs and subsequent loss of immunosuppressive function may contribute to the accelerated progression to liver disease in co-infected individuals. Dysregulation of immune responses following reduction in the proportions of CD4(+) CXCR3(+) Th-1 cells may contribute to the reduced functional capacity of HCV-specific immune responses in co-infected patients. The findings of this study provide new information on the T-cell immunophenotype in HCV\\/HIV co-infected patients when compared to those infected with HCV alone, and may provide insight into why cell-mediated immune responses are diminished during HCV infection.

  4. Phenotype and 244k array-CGH characterization of chromosome 13q deletions: an update of the phenotypic map of 13q21.1-qter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Maria; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Stoeva, Radka

    2009-01-01

    Partial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 13 lead to variable phenotypes dependant on the size and position of the deleted region. In order to update the phenotypic map of chromosome 13q21.1-qter deletions, we applied 244k Agilent oligonucleotide-based array-CGH to determine the exact break......-genotype correlation on chromosome 13. In contrast to previous reports of carriers of 13q32 band deletions as the most seriously affected patients, we present two such individuals with long-term survival, 28 and 2.5 years....

  5. Characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor beta-arrestin 2 interaction: a high-affinity receptor phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Martini, Lene; Schwartz, Thue W

    2005-01-01

    To dissect the interaction between beta-arrestin ((beta)arr) and family B G protein-coupled receptors, we constructed fusion proteins between the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor and (beta)arr2. The fusion constructs had an increase in apparent affinity selectively for glucagon, suggesting...... that (beta)arr2 interaction locks the receptor in a high-affinity conformation, which can be explored by some, but not all, ligands. The fusion constructs adopted a signaling phenotype governed by the tethered (beta)arr2 with an attenuated G protein-mediated cAMP signal and a higher maximal internalization...... of that which has previously been characterized for family A G protein-coupled receptors, suggesting similarities in the effect of (beta)arr interaction between family A and B receptors also at the molecular level....

  6. Genetic characterization in symptomatic female DMD carriers: lack of relationship between X-inactivation, transcriptional DMD allele balancing and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioschi Simona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, X-linked recessive myopathies, predominantly affect males, a clinically significant proportion of females manifesting symptoms have also been reported. They represent an heterogeneous group characterized by variable degrees of muscle weakness and/or cardiac involvement. Though preferential inactivation of the normal X chromosome has long been considered the principal mechanism behind disease manifestation in these females, supporting evidence is controversial. Methods Eighteen females showing a mosaic pattern of dystrophin expression on muscle biopsy were recruited and classified as symptomatic (7 or asymptomatic (11, based on the presence or absence of muscle weakness. The causative DMD gene mutations were identified in all cases, and the X-inactivation pattern was assessed in muscle DNA. Transcriptional analysis in muscles was performed in all females, and relative quantification of wild-type and mutated transcripts was also performed in 9 carriers. Dystrophin protein was quantified by immunoblotting in 2 females. Results The study highlighted a lack of relationship between dystrophic phenotype and X-inactivation pattern in females; skewed X-inactivation was found in 2 out of 6 symptomatic carriers and in 5 out of 11 asymptomatic carriers. All females were characterized by biallelic transcription, but no association was found between X-inactivation pattern and allele transcriptional balancing. Either a prevalence of wild-type transcript or equal proportions of wild-type and mutated RNAs was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic females. Moreover, very similar levels of total and wild-type transcripts were identified in the two groups of carriers. Conclusions This is the first study deeply exploring the DMD transcriptional behaviour in a cohort of female carriers. Notably, no relationship between X-inactivation pattern and transcriptional behaviour of DMD gene was

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Chikungunya virus of different genotypes from Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Sam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has recently re-emerged globally. The epidemic East/Central/South African (ECSA strains have spread for the first time to Asia, which previously only had endemic Asian strains. In Malaysia, the ECSA strain caused an extensive nationwide outbreak in 2008, while the Asian strains only caused limited outbreaks prior to this. To gain insight into these observed epidemiological differences, we compared genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of CHIKV of Asian and ECSA genotypes isolated in Malaysia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: CHIKV of Asian and ECSA genotypes were isolated from patients during outbreaks in Bagan Panchor in 2006, and Johor in 2008. Sequencing of the CHIKV strains revealed 96.8% amino acid similarity, including an unusual 7 residue deletion in the nsP3 protein of the Asian strain. CHIKV replication in cells and Aedes mosquitoes was measured by virus titration. There were no differences in mammalian cell lines. The ECSA strain reached significantly higher titres in Ae. albopictus cells (C6/36. Both CHIKV strains infected Ae. albopictus mosquitoes at a higher rate than Ae. aegypti, but when compared to each other, the ECSA strain had much higher midgut infection and replication, and salivary gland dissemination, while the Asian strain infected Ae. aegypti at higher rates. CONCLUSIONS: The greater ability of the ECSA strain to replicate in Ae. albopictus may explain why it spread far more quickly and extensively in humans in Malaysia than the Asian strain ever did, particularly in rural areas where Ae. albopictus predominates. Intergenotypic genetic differences were found at E1, E2, and nsP3 sites previously reported to be determinants of host adaptability in alphaviruses. Transmission of CHIKV in humans is influenced by virus strain and vector species, which has implications for regions with more than one circulating CHIKV genotype and Aedes species.

  8. Phenotypic characterization and ecological features of Coccidioides spp. from Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R A; Brilhante, R S N; Rocha, M F G; Fechine, M A B; Camara, L M C; Camargo, Z P; Sidrim, J J C

    2006-11-01

    This study extends phenotypic and ecological knowledge of Coccidioides spp., by describing its recovery from soils of Ceará State (Northeast Brazil) and analyzing the in vitro features of the growth of its vegetative phase. Following a human coccidioidomycosis case, Coccidioides spp. strains were isolated from 3 of 14 soil samples collected in an armadillo's burrow. Mycological analysis showed colonies with glabrous, velvety or cottony texture and an increasing quantity of arthroconidia. The overall growth rates of the strains were slower in 8% NaCl medium, maximum growth rate was obtained at 30 degrees C, and their pH tolerance ranged from 4.0 to 11.0. Several carbohydrates and polyalcohol sources could be efficiently metabolized by Coccidioides spp. strains in the mycelial form. Total absence of growth was observed in media supplemented with either L-aspartic acid or L-histidine. Whereas intense growth was found when strains were incubated with any other aminoacid sources studied. Coccidioides spp. strains did not grow in the presence of Tween 60 and Tween 80, but exhibited intense growth in Tween 20. Nicotinic acid and the toxic compounds caffeic acid and phenol could not be metabolized by any strain. All of the strains were positive for urease production and displayed intense growth in media containing cycloheximide concentrations ranging from 0.01 and 0.05%, but did not grow at 0.1 and 0.2%. The present findings confirm the importance of armadillos burrows in the ecology of Coccidioides spp. in Northeast Brazil and indicate that the fungus is a very physiologically versatile organism.

  9. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Metschnikowia pulcherrima Strains from Douro Wine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Barbosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Some non-Saccharomyces yeasts, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima, have been proposed as selected starters due to their contribution for the overall aroma and chemical profiles of wines. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains isolated from different locations of Douro Wine Region, and to explore their potential as co-adjuncts of S. cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation. For that purpose, a set of 64 M. pulcherrima isolates were used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR fingerprinting with M13 primers demonstrated to be an efficient tool in intraspecific discrimination of M. pulcherrima strains. No significant associations were found between genotypic profiles and either geographical origin or winery. The isolates were screened for their stress resistance ability (ethanol, SO2, chitosan, copper, H2O2, and Grape Juice Medium, aroma-related activities (resistance to 5, 5′, 5′′-trifluor-d, l-leucine and cerulenin and β-glycosidase, β-lyase and sulfite-reductase activities as well as other relevant technological proprieties (protease activity and biogenic amines production. M. pulcherrima response to the different enological traits evaluated was greatly strain-dependent. The most discriminant features were the ability of the strains to grow in Grape-Juice Medium (GJM and sulfite-reductase, and their β-lyase and protease activities. The enological potential of a selected M. pulcherrima strain in mixed-culture with S. cerevisiae was also assessed in natural grape-juice of a local variety, under two nitrogen regimes. M. pulcherrima proved to be promising for future industrial application as a co-starter, lowering ethanol, acetic acid and, reported here for the first time, lowering hydrogen sulfide levels in the wines.

  10. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human memory T cell responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharaporn Tippayawat

    Full Text Available Infection with the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is an important cause of community-acquired lethal sepsis in endemic regions in southeast Asia and northern Australia and is increasingly reported in other tropical areas. In animal models, production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma is critical for resistance, but in humans the characteristics of IFN-gamma production and the bacterial antigens that are recognized by the cell-mediated immune response have not been defined.Peripheral blood from 133 healthy individuals who lived in the endemic area and had no history of melioidosis, 60 patients who had recovered from melioidosis, and 31 other patient control subjects were stimulated by whole bacteria or purified bacterial proteins in vitro, and IFN-gamma responses were analyzed by ELISPOT and flow cytometry.B. pseudomallei was a potent activator of human peripheral blood NK cells for innate production of IFN-gamma. In addition, healthy individuals with serological evidence of exposure to B. pseudomallei and patients recovered from active melioidosis developed CD4(+ (and CD8(+ T cells that recognized whole bacteria and purified proteins LolC, OppA, and PotF, members of the B. pseudomallei ABC transporter family. This response was primarily mediated by terminally differentiated T cells of the effector-memory (T(EMRA phenotype and correlated with the titer of anti-B. pseudomallei antibodies in the serum.Individuals living in a melioidosis-endemic region show clear evidence of T cell priming for the ability to make IFN-gamma that correlates with their serological status. The ability to detect T cell responses to defined B. pseudomallei proteins in large numbers of individuals now provides the opportunity to screen candidate antigens for inclusion in protein or polysaccharide-conjugate subunit vaccines against this important but neglected disease.

  11. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells by Combining Immunomagnetic Selection and FICTION Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, María; Prior, Celia; Warleta, Fernando; Zudaire, Isabel; Ruíz-Mora, Jesús; Catena, Raúl; Calvo, Alfonso; Gaforio, José J.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients has been proven to have clinical relevance. Cytogenetic characterization of these cells could have crucial relevance for targeted cancer therapies. We developed a method that combines an immunomagnetic selection of CTCs from peripheral blood with the fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for investigation of neoplasm (FICTION) technique. Briefly, peripheral blood (10 ml) from healthy donors was spiked with a predetermined number of human breast cancer cells. Nucleated cells were separated by double density gradient centrifugation of blood samples. Tumor cells (TCs) were immunomagnetically isolated with an anti-cytokeratin antibody and placed onto slides for FICTION analysis. For immunophenotyping and genetic characterization of TCs, a mixture of primary monoclonal anti-pancytokeratin antibodies was used, followed by fluorescent secondary antibodies, and finally hybridized with a TOP2A/HER-2/CEP17 multicolor probe. Our results show that TCs can be efficiently isolated from peripheral blood and characterized by FICTION. Because genetic amplification of TOP2A and ErbB2 (HER-2) in breast cancer correlates with response to anthracyclines and herceptin therapies, respectively, this novel methodology could be useful for a better classification of patients according to the genetic alterations of CTCs and for the application of targeted therapies. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:667–675, 2008) PMID:18413646

  12. A Polyphasic Approach for Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of the Fastidious Aquatic Pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Ramírez-Paredes

    2017-12-01

    B, 16SrRNA-ITS-23SrRNA, and concatenated sequence the two Francisella noatunensis ssp. diverged more from each other than from the closely related Francisella philomiragia (Fp. The phenotypic and genetic characterization confirmed the Fno isolates represent a solid phylo-phenetic taxon that in the current context of the genus seems to be misplaced within the species Fn. We propose the use of the present polyphasic approach in future studies to characterize strains of Fnn and Fp and verify their current taxonomic rank of Fno and other aquatic Francisella spp.

  13. New Thermal Taste Actuation Technology for Future Multisensory Virtual Reality and Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayaka, Kasun; Johari, Nurafiqah; Hariri, Surina; Camelia, Hanis; Bielawski, Kevin Stanley; Cheok, Adrian David

    2018-04-01

    Today's virtual reality (VR) applications such as gaming, multisensory entertainment, remote dining, and online shopping are mainly based on audio, visual, and touch interactions between humans and virtual worlds. Integrating the sense of taste into VR is difficult since humans are dependent on chemical-based taste delivery systems. This paper presents the 'Thermal Taste Machine', a new digital taste actuation technology that can effectively produce and modify thermal taste sensations on the tongue. It modifies the temperature of the surface of the tongue within a short period of time (from 25°C to 40 °C while heating, and from 25°C to 10 °C while cooling). We tested this device on human subjects and described the experience of thermal taste using 20 known (taste and non-taste) sensations. Our results suggested that rapidly heating the tongue produces sweetness, fatty/oiliness, electric taste, warmness, and reduces the sensibility for metallic taste. Similarly, cooling the tongue produced mint taste, pleasantness, and coldness. By conducting another user study on the perceived sweetness of sucrose solutions after the thermal stimulation, we found that heating the tongue significantly enhances the intensity of sweetness for both thermal tasters and non-thermal tasters. Also, we found that faster temperature rises on the tongue produce more intense sweet sensations for thermal tasters. This technology will be useful in two ways: First, it can produce taste sensations without using chemicals for the individuals who are sensitive to thermal taste. Second, the temperature rise of the device can be used as a way to enhance the intensity of sweetness. We believe that this technology can be used to digitally produce and enhance taste sensations in future virtual reality applications. The key novelties of this paper are as follows: 1. Development of a thermal taste actuation technology for stimulating the human taste receptors, 2. Characterization of the thermal taste

  14. A taste of cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be toa rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a 'taste' of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school web site: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/. (author)

  15. A Taste of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Verde, L.

    2013-06-27

    This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.

  16. Phenotypic, genetic and molecular characterization of a maize low phytic acid mutant (lpa241)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilu, R.; Panzeri, D.; Gavazzi, G.

    2003-01-01

    -nutritional factor for animals, and isolation of maize low phytic acid (lpa) mutants provides a novel approach to study its biochemical pathway and to tackle the nutritional problems associated with it. Following chemical mutagenesis of pollen, we have isolated a viable recessive mutant named lpa 241 showing about...... 90% reduction of phytic acid and about a tenfold increase in seed-free phosphate content. Although germination rate was decreased by about 30% compared to wild-type, developement of mutant plants was apparentely unaffected. The results of the genetic, biochemical and molecular characterization...

  17. The Super-Seniors Study: Phenotypic characterization of a healthy 85+ population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaschek-Wiener, Julius; Tindale, Lauren C; Collins, Jennifer A; Leach, Stephen; McManus, Bruce; Madden, Kenneth; Meneilly, Graydon; Le, Nhu D; Connors, Joseph M; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2018-01-01

    To understand why some people live to advanced age in good health and others do not, it is important to study not only disease, but also long-term good health. The Super-Seniors Study aims to identify factors associated with healthy aging. 480 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' aged 85 to 105 years and never diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, or major pulmonary disease, were compared to 545 mid-life controls aged 41-54, who represent a group that is unselected for survival from late-life diseases. Health and lifestyle information, personal and family medical history, and blood samples were collected from all participants. Super-Seniors also underwent four geriatric tests. Super-Seniors showed high cognitive (Mini-Mental State Exam mean = 28.3) and functional capacity (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale mean = 21.4), as well as high physical function (Timed Up and Go mean = 12.3 seconds) and low levels of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale mean = 1.5). Super-Seniors were less likely to be current smokers than controls, but the frequency of drinking alcohol was the same in both groups. Super-Seniors were more likely to have 4 or more offspring; controls were more likely to have no children. Female Super-Seniors had a mean age of last fertility 1.9 years older than controls, and were 2.3 times more likely to have had a child at ≥ 40 years. The parents of Super-Seniors had mean ages of deaths of 79.3 years for mothers, and 74.5 years for fathers, each exceeding the life expectancy for their era by a decade. Super-Seniors are cognitively and physically high functioning individuals who have evaded major age-related chronic diseases into old age, representing the approximately top 1% for healthspan. The familiality of long lifespan of the parents of Super-Seniors supports the hypothesis that heritable factors contribute to this desirable phenotype.

  18. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: phenotypic characterization and genotypic correlations in 21 affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudorfer, Orit; Pastores, Gregory M; Zeng, Bai J; Gianutsos, John; Zaroff, Charles M; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the phenotype (and corresponding genotype) of adult patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, a clinical variant of the GM2-gangliosidoses. A comprehensive physical examination, including neurological assessments, was performed to establish the current disease pattern and severity. In addition, the patients' past medical histories were reviewed. The patients' alpha-subunit mutations (beta-Hexosaminidase A genotype) were determined and correlated with their corresponding clinical findings and disease course. Twenty-one patients (current mean age: 27.0 years; range: 14-47 years) were identified. The pedigree revealed a relative with the "classic" infantile or late-onset form of Tay-Sachs disease in four (out of 18) unrelated families. The patients were predominantly male (15/21 individuals) and of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry (15/18 families). Mean age at onset was 18.1 years; balance problems and difficulty climbing stairs were the most frequent presenting complaints. In several cases, the diagnosis was delayed (mean age at diagnosis: 27.0 years). Analysis of the beta-hex A gene revealed the G269S mutation as the most common disease allele; found in homozygosity (N = 1) or heterozygosity (N = 18; including 2 sib pairs). Disease onset (age 36 years) was delayed and progression relatively slower in the homozygous G269S patient. Two siblings (ages 28 and 31 years), of non-Jewish ancestry, were compound heterozygotes (TATC1278/W474C); their clinical course is dominated by psychiatric problems. Brain imaging studies revealed marked cerebellar atrophy in all patients (N = 18) tested, regardless of disease stage. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease is an infrequent disorder and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed (by approximately 8 years). Early on, the majority of patients develop signs of either cerebellar or anterior motor neuron involvement. Affected individuals may also develop psychotic episodes. In most cases, the later

  19. Gene-environment and protein degradation signatures characterize genomic and phenotypic diversity in wild Caenorhabditis elegans populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, J.M.; Snoek, L.B.; Hellenberg Hubar, van C.J.; Coopman, R.; Chen, W.; Yang, Wentao; Sterken, M.G.; Schulenburg, H.; Braeckman, B.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Analyzing and understanding the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes is at the heart of genetics. Research on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been instrumental for unraveling genotype-phenotype relations, and has important implications for understanding the biology of

  20. Isolation of murine postnatal brain microglia for phenotypic characterization using magnetic cell separation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Ashley S; Tansey, Malú G

    2013-01-01

    To shorten the time between brain harvesting and microglia isolation, and characterization, we utilized the MACS(®) neural dissociation kit followed by OctoMACS(®) CD11b magnetic bead isolation technique to positively select for brain microglia expressing the pan-microglial marker CD11b, a key subunit of the membrane attack complex (MAC). This protocol yields a viable and highly pure (>95%) microglial population of approximately 500,000 cells per pup that is amenable for in vitro characterization within hours or days after being harvested from brain tissue. Primary microglia from C57Bl/6 mice were plated for next-day analyses of morphology and cellular markers by immunocytochemistry or for analysis of gene expression under resting or LPS-stimulated conditions. The ease of isolation enables investigators to perform molecular and cellular analyses without having to wait 1-2 weeks to isolate microglia by conventional methods involving mechanical agitation to dislodge these from astrocyte beds.

  1. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  2. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure.

  3. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2 for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  4. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  5. Development and Characterization of a Brain Endothelial Cell Phenotype using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeman, Charlotte; Saaby, Lasse; Holst, Bjørn

    for experiments the following day. The model was monitored by measuring the trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). RA had an inductive effect on the model, shown by an elevation in barrier tightness which correlated with the presence of tight junction proteins, shown by confocal microscopy images which...... be used to investigate drug transport in vitro, and screen candidates for permeation properties. One recent approach is to develop in vitro models of the BBB using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) as described by Stebbins et al. (2015).The aim of the present study was to investigate whether...... the published protocols were generically applicable and thus to develop and characterize in vitro models of the BBB using hIPSCs from different sources. Two stem cell lines, Bioni010-C and WTSli024-A, were seeded and maintained on Matrigel in mTesR1 media. Cells were then seeded as single cells at different...

  6. Insights on consciousness from taste memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Taste research in rodents supports the relevance of memory in order to determine the content of consciousness by modifying both taste perception and later action. Associated with this issue is the fact that taste and visual modalities share anatomical circuits traditionally related to conscious memory. This challenges the view of taste memory as a type of non-declarative unconscious memory.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with reduced susceptibiliy to carbapenems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ambretti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced susceptibility to carbapenems in Gram-negative pathogens is an emerging feature of the antibiotic-resistance phenomenom Reports about strains resistant to this class of antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae, particularly in Klebsiella pneumoniae, are increasing.The aims of this study were to assess the incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems in Bologna area and to carry out the characterization of these strains.The study included isolates of K. pneumoniae that showed reduced susceptibility to carbapenems, as detected by an automated system (Vitek2, bioMérieux. Between January and May 2009, 26 strains were collected (mainly isolated from urinary samples.These isolates were tested for susceptibility to carbapenems by E-test, to define MIC values for meropenem and ertapenem. Moreover, to detect the production of metallo-beta lactamases (MBL and carbapenemases (KPC were respectively performed the Etest with imipenem and imipenem/EDTA (IPM-IPM/EDTA and the modified Hodge test. Susceptibility assays performed by E-test showed that 25/26 strains were susceptible to meropenem, while for ertapenem 20/26 strains resulted resistant.The modified Hodge test was positive for 1 strain, while all the isolates were negative to the IPM-IPM/EDTA E-test.These results show that, as recently reported, the majority of strains of K. pneumoniae exhibiting reduced susceptibility to carbapenems, especially to ertapenem, are characterized by the production of ESBLs, which likely is associated with the loss of porins. On the other side, one strain was found to produce KPC and this finding confirms that the diffusion of carbapenemases producing K. pneumoniae has also to be considered in this geographic area.

  8. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Whitehead, Mark C

    2006-08-09

    The peripheral taste system likely maintains a specific relationship between ganglion cells that signal a particular taste quality and taste bud cells responsive to that quality. We have explored a measure of the receptoneural relationship in the mouse. By injecting single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified. We found that three to five ganglion cells innervate a single bud. Injecting neighboring buds with different color markers showed that the buds are primarily innervated by separate populations of geniculate cells (i.e., multiply labeled ganglion cells are rare). In other words, each taste bud is innervated by a population of neurons that only connects with that bud. Palate bud injections revealed a similar, relatively exclusive receptoneural relationship. Injecting buds in different regions of the tongue did not reveal a topographic representation of buds in the geniculate ganglion, despite a stereotyped patterned arrangement of fungiform buds as rows and columns on the tongue. However, ganglion cells innervating the tongue and palate were differentially concentrated in lateral and rostral regions of the ganglion, respectively. The principal finding that small groups of ganglion cells send sensory fibers that converge selectively on a single bud is a new-found measure of specific matching between the two principal cellular elements of the mouse peripheral taste system. Repetition of the experiments in the hamster showed a more divergent innervation of buds in this species. The results indicate that whatever taste quality is signaled by a murine geniculate ganglion neuron, that signal reflects the activity of cells in a single taste bud.

  9. Functional characterizations of venom phenotypes in the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for expression-driven divergence in toxic activities among populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margres, Mark J.; Walls, Robert; Suntravat, Montamas; Lucena, Sara; Sánchez, Elda E.; Rokyta, Darin R.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes frequently vary across and within species. The connection between specific phenotypic effects and function, however, is less understood despite being essential to our understanding of the adaptive process. Snake venoms are ideal for identifying functionally important phenotypic variation because venom variation is common, and venoms can be functionally characterized through simple assays and toxicity measurements. Previous work with the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) used multivariate statistical approaches to identify six unique venom phenotypes. We functionally characterized hemolytic, gelatinase, fibrinogenolytic, and coagulant activity for all six phenotypes, as well as one additional venom, to determine if the statistically significant differences in toxin expression levels previously documented corresponded to differences in venom activity. In general, statistical differences in toxin expression predicted the identified functional differences, or lack thereof, in toxic activity, demonstrating that the statistical approach used to characterize C. adamanteus venoms was a fair representation of biologically meaningful differences. Minor differences in activity not accounted for by the statistical model may be the result of amino-acid differences and/or post-translational modifications, but overall we were able to link variation in protein expression levels to variation in function as predicted by multivariate statistical approaches. PMID:27179420

  10. Effect of Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection on Salt Taste Perception in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka; Theodorides, Maria L.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of gustatory nerve transection on salt taste have been studied extensively in rats and hamsters but have not been well explored in the mouse. We examined the effects of chorda tympani (CT) nerve transection on NaCl taste preferences and thresholds in outbred CD-1 mice using a high-throughput phenotyping method developed in our laboratory. To measure taste thresholds, mice were conditioned by oral self-administration of LiCl or NaCl and then presented with NaCl concentration series in 2-bottle preference tests. LiCl-conditioned and control NaCl-exposed mice were given bilateral transections of the CT nerve (LiCl-CTX, NaCl-CTX) or were left intact as controls (LiCl-CNT, NaCl-CNT). After recovery from surgery, mice received a concentration series of NaCl (0–300 mM) in 48-h 2-bottle tests. CT transection increased NaCl taste thresholds in LiCl-conditioned mice and eliminated avoidance of concentrated NaCl in control NaCl-exposed mice. This demonstrates that in mice, the CT nerve is important for detection and recognition of NaCl taste and is necessary for the normal avoidance of high concentrations of NaCl. The results of this experiment also show that the method of high-throughput phenotyping of salt taste thresholds is suitable for detecting changes in the taste periphery in mouse genetic studies. PMID:21743094

  11. Molecular and cellular organization of taste neurons in adult Drosophila pharynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chieh (David); Dahanukar, Anupama

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The Drosophila pharyngeal taste organs are poorly characterized despite their location at important sites for monitoring food quality. Functional analysis of pharyngeal neurons has been hindered by the paucity of molecular tools to manipulate them, as well as their relative inaccessibility for neurophysiological investigations. Here, we generate receptor-to-neuron maps of all three pharyngeal taste organs by performing a comprehensive chemoreceptor-GAL4/LexA expression analysis. The organization of pharyngeal neurons reveals similarities and distinctions in receptor repertoires and neuronal groupings compared to external taste neurons. We validate the mapping results by pinpointing a single pharyngeal neuron required for feeding avoidance of L-canavanine. Inducible activation of pharyngeal taste neurons reveals functional differences between external and internal taste neurons and functional subdivision within pharyngeal sweet neurons. Our results provide road maps of pharyngeal taste organs in an insect model system for probing the role of these understudied neurons in controlling feeding behaviors. PMID:29212040

  12. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Kentucky strains recovered from chicken carcasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Tasmin

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is the leading cause of human non-typhoidal gastroenteritis in the US. S. Kentucky is one the most commonly recovered serovars from commercially processed poultry carcasses. This study compared the genotypic and phenotypic properties of two Salmonella enterica strains Typhimurium (ST221_31B and Kentucky (SK222_32B recovered from commercially processed chicken carcasses using whole genome sequencing, phenotype characterizations and an intracellular killing assay. Illumina MiSeq platform was used for sequencing of two Salmonella genomes. Phylogenetic analysis employing homologous alignment of a 1,185 non-duplicated protein-coding gene in the Salmonella core genome demonstrated fully resolved bifurcating patterns with varying levels of diversity that separated ST221_31B and SK222_32B genomes into distinct monophyletic serovar clades. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis identified 2,432 (ST19 SNPs within 13 Typhimurium genomes including ST221_31B representing Sequence Type ST19 and 650 (ST152 SNPs were detected within 13 Kentucky genomes including SK222_32B representing Sequence Type ST152. In addition to serovar-specific conserved coding sequences, the genomes of ST221_31B and SK222_32B harbor several genomic regions with significant genetic differences. These included phage and phage-like elements, carbon utilization or transport operons, fimbriae operons, putative membrane associated protein-encoding genes, antibiotic resistance genes, siderophore operons, and numerous hypothetical protein-encoding genes. Phenotype microarray results demonstrated that ST221_31B is capable of utilizing certain carbon compounds more efficiently as compared to SK222_3B; namely, 1,2-propanediol, M-inositol, L-threonine, α-D-lactose, D-tagatose, adonitol, formic acid, acetoacetic acid, and L-tartaric acid. ST221_31B survived for 48 h in macrophages, while SK222_32B was mostly eliminated. Further, a 3-fold growth of ST221_31B was

  13. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  14. Defects in the peripheral taste structure and function in the MRL/lpr mouse model of autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kim

    Full Text Available While our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of taste reception and signaling continues to improve, the aberrations in these processes that lead to taste dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Abnormalities in taste can develop in a variety of diseases, including infections and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we used a mouse model of autoimmune disease to investigate the underlying mechanisms of taste disorders. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/J (MRL/lpr mice develop a systemic autoimmunity with phenotypic similarities to human systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Our results show that the taste tissues of MRL/lpr mice exhibit characteristics of inflammation, including infiltration of T lymphocytes and elevated levels of some inflammatory cytokines. Histological studies reveal that the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice are smaller than those of wild-type congenic control (MRL/+/+ mice. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU pulse-chase experiments show that fewer BrdU-labeled cells enter the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice, suggesting an inhibition of taste cell renewal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses show that mRNA levels of several type II taste cell markers are lower in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirm a significant reduction in the number of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells in the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, MRL/lpr mice exhibit reduced gustatory nerve responses to the bitter compound quinine and the sweet compound saccharin and reduced behavioral responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste substances compared with controls. In contrast, their responses to salty and sour compounds are comparable to those of control mice in both nerve recording and behavioral experiments. Together, our results suggest that type II taste receptor cells, which are essential for bitter, sweet, and umami taste reception and signaling, are selectively affected in MRL/lpr mice, a model for autoimmune disease with chronic

  15. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Paecilomyces lilacinus strains with biocontrol activity against root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, T S; Holland, R J; Gillings, M R; Briscoe, D A; Neethling, D C; Williams, K L; Nevalainen, K M

    2000-09-01

    Efficient selection of fungi for biological control of nematodes requires a series of screening assays. Assessment of genetic diversity in the candidate species maximizes the variety of the isolates tested and permits the assignment of a particular genotype with high nematophagous potential using a rapid novel assay. Molecular analyses also facilitate separation between isolates, allowing the identification of proprietary strains and trace biocontrol strains in the environment. The resistance of propagules to UV radiation is an important factor in the survival of a biocontrol agent. We have analyzed 15 strains of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus using these principles. Arbitrarily primed DNA and allozyme assays were applied to place the isolates into genetic clusters, and demonstrated that some genetically related P. lilacinus strains exhibit widespread geographic distributions. When exposed to UV radiation, some weakly nematophagous strains were generally more susceptible than effective isolates. A microtitre tray-based assay used to screen the pathogenic activity of each isolate to Meloidogyne javanica egg masses revealed that the nematophagous ability varied between 37%-100%. However, there was no clear relationship between nematophagous ability and genetic clusters. Molecular characterizations revealed sufficient diversity to allow tracking of strains released into the environment.

  16. Phenotypic, genetic and symbiotic characterization of Erythrina velutina rhizobia from Caatinga dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dalila Ribeiro; Silva, Aleksandro Ferreira da; Cavalcanti, Maria Idaline Pessoa; Escobar, Indra Elena Costa; Fraiz, Ana Carla Resende; Ribeiro, Paula Rose de Almeida; Ferreira Neto, Reginaldo Alves; Freitas, Ana Dolores Santiago de; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan

    2018-02-02

    Erythrina velutina ("mulungu") is a legume tree from Caatinga that associates with rhizobia but the diversity and symbiotic ability of "mulungu" rhizobia are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize "mulungu" rhizobia from Caatinga. Bacteria were obteined from Serra Talhada and Caruaru in Caatinga under natural regeneration. The bacteria were evaluated to the amplification of nifH and nodC and to metabolic characteristics. Ten selected bacteria identified by 16S rRNA sequences. They were tested in vitro to NaCl and temperature tolerance, auxin production and calcium phosphate solubilization. The symbiotic ability were assessed in an greenhouse experiment. A total of 32 bacteria were obtained and 17 amplified both symbiotic genes. The bacteria showed a high variable metabolic profile. Bradyrhizobium (6), Rhizobium (3) and Paraburkholderia (1) were identified, differing from their geographic origin. The isolates grew up to 45°C to 0.51molL -1 of NaCl. Bacteria which produced more auxin in the medium with l-tryptophan and two Rhizobium and one Bradyrhizobium were phosphate solubilizers. All bacteria nodulated and ESA 90 (Rhizobium sp.) plus ESA 96 (Paraburkholderia sp.) were more efficient symbiotically. Diverse and efficient rhizobia inhabit the soils of Caatinga dry forests, with the bacterial differentiation by the sampling sites. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Disorders of Smell & Taste Adult ... permanent smell loss. Patients who have had this type of loss describe immediate burning sensation when using ...

  18. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  19. Taste bud cells and nerves

    OpenAIRE

    武田,正子/内田,暢彦/鈴木,裕子; タケダ,マサコ/ウチダ,ノブヒコ/スズキ,ユウコ; TAKEDA,Masako/UCHIDA,Nobuhiko/SUZUKI,Yuko

    2002-01-01

    Sectioning of glossopharyngeal nerves which innervate the taste buds in the circumvallate papillae caused apoptosis of taste buds, the numbers decreasing and the taste buds disappearing after 11 days. This indicates that gustatory nerves may release a trophic substance that induces and maintains taste buds. Taste bud cells contain neurotrophins, NCAM, NSE, PGP9.5, and NeuroD which are specific markers of neurons. The BDNF and GDNF of neurotrophins, and Trk B and GFRαl of their receptors were ...

  20. Culture phenotypes and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimareli-Malli, Z; Mazaraki, K; Stevenson, K; Tsakos, P; Zdragas, A; Giantzi, V; Petridou, E; Heron, I; Vafeas, G

    2013-08-01

    In this study the suitability of different solid media was investigated for the isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in order to identify the optimum single or combination of media to permit the isolation of all strain types from small ruminants. A subset of these Map strains was then further characterized by molecular typing methods to assess the genetic diversity of Map strains in the study area (Northern Greece). Map strains were isolated from tissues and faeces of infected goats (n=52) and sheep (n=8) and were analysed for polymorphisms in IS1311 to classify the strain type as Type C or S. The study found that M7H11 supplemented with mycobactin j, OADC and new born calf serum (M7H11+Mj) is the best single choice of medium for the primary isolation of Map of both Type C and S from small ruminants. The combination of M7H11+Mj and Herrolds egg yolk medium supplemented with mycobactin j and sodium pyruvate allowed the detection of all Map isolates in this study. Nineteen Map isolates were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the isolates demonstrated significant genetic diversity. Twelve different SnaBI and 16 distinct SpeI profiles were detected of which 25 have not been described previously and are new profiles. The combination of both enzyme profiles gave 13 different multiplex profiles. Ten different multiplex profiles were detected in goats and three in sheep. One ovine isolate gave the same multiplex profile as a caprine isolate and two different profiles were found within a single goat herd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenotypic characterization of prostate cancer LNCaP cells cultured within a bioengineered microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirly Sieh

    Full Text Available Biophysical and biochemical properties of the microenvironment regulate cellular responses such as growth, differentiation, morphogenesis and migration in normal and cancer cells. Since two-dimensional (2D cultures lack the essential characteristics of the native cellular microenvironment, three-dimensional (3D cultures have been developed to better mimic the natural extracellular matrix. To date, 3D culture systems have relied mostly on collagen and Matrigel™ hydrogels, allowing only limited control over matrix stiffness, proteolytic degradability, and ligand density. In contrast, bioengineered hydrogels allow us to independently tune and systematically investigate the influence of these parameters on cell growth and differentiation. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG hydrogels, functionalized with the Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD motifs, common cell-binding motifs in extracellular matrix proteins, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP cleavage sites, were characterized regarding their stiffness, diffusive properties, and ability to support growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We found that the mechanical properties modulated the growth kinetics of LNCaP cells in the PEG hydrogel. At culture periods of 28 days, LNCaP cells underwent morphogenic changes, forming tumor-like structures in 3D culture, with hypoxic and apoptotic cores. We further compared protein and gene expression levels between 3D and 2D cultures upon stimulation with the synthetic androgen R1881. Interestingly, the kinetics of R1881 stimulated androgen receptor (AR nuclear translocation differed between 2D and 3D cultures when observed by immunofluorescent staining. Furthermore, microarray studies revealed that changes in expression levels of androgen responsive genes upon R1881 treatment differed greatly between 2D and 3D cultures. Taken together, culturing LNCaP cells in the tunable PEG hydrogels reveals differences in the cellular responses to

  2. Quantitative analysis of taste bud cell numbers in fungiform and soft palate taste buds of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2011-01-07

    Mammalian taste bud cells (TBCs) consist of several cell types equipped with different taste receptor molecules, and hence the ratio of cell types in a taste bud constitutes the taste responses of the taste bud. Here we show that the population of immunohistochemically identified cell types per taste bud is proportional to the number of total TBCs in the taste bud or the area of the taste bud in fungiform papillae, and that the proportions differ among cell types. This result is applicable to soft palate taste buds. However, the density of almost all cell types, the population of cell types divided by the area of the respective taste buds, is significantly higher in soft palates. These results suggest that the turnover of TBCs is regulated to keep the ratio of each cell type constant, and that taste responsiveness is different between fungiform and soft palate taste buds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of X-linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XL-HED) Hair and Sweat Gland Phenotypes Using Phototrichogram Analysis and Live Confocal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle B.; Goodwin, Alice F.; Landan, Maya; Seidel, Kerstin; Tran, Dong-Kha; Hogue, Jacob; Chavez, Miquella; Fete, Mary; Yu, Wenli; Hussein, Tarek; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Jheon, Andrew H.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED), which encompasses a large group of syndromes that share several phenotypic features such as missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XL-HED) is associated with mutations in ectodysplasin (EDA1). Hypohidrosis due to hypoplastic sweat glands and thin, sparse hair are phenotypic features that significantly affect the daily lives of XL-HED individuals and therefore require systematic analysis. We sought to determine the quality of life of individuals with XL-HED and to quantify sweat duct and hair phenotypes using confocal imaging, pilocarpine iontophoresis, and phototrichogram analysis. Using these highly sensitive and non-invasive techniques, we demonstrated that 11/12 XL-HED individuals presented with a complete absence of sweat ducts and that none produced sweat. We determined that the thin hair phenotype observed in XL-HED was due to multiple factors, such as fewer terminal hairs with decreased thickness and slower growth rate, as well as fewer follicular units and fewer hairs per unit. The precise characterization of XL-HED phenotypes using sensitive and non-invasive techniques presented in our study will improve upon larger genotype-phenotype studies and in the assessment of future therapies in XL-HED. PMID:23687000

  4. Characterization of the Drug Resistance Profiles of Patients Infected with CRF07_BC Using Phenotypic Assay and Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Wei Huang

    Full Text Available The usefulness of ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS for the diagnosis of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR remains to be determined. Previously, we reported an explosive outbreak of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF 07_BC among injection drug users (IDUs in Taiwan in 2004. The goal of this study was to characterize the DR of CRF07_BC strains using different assays including UDPS. Seven CRF07_BC isolates including 4 from early epidemic (collected in 2004-2005 and 3 from late epidemic (collected in 2008 were obtained from treatment-naïve patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Viral RNA was extracted directly from patient's plasma or from cultural supernatant and the pol sequences were determined using RT-PCR sequencing or UDPS. For comparison, phenotypic drug susceptibility assay using MAGIC-5 cells (in-house phenotypic assay and Antivirogram were performed. In-house phenotypic assay showed that all the early epidemic and none of the late epidemic CRF07_BC isolates were resistant to most protease inhibitors (PIs (4.4-47.3 fold. Neither genotypic assay nor Antivirogram detected any DR mutations. UDPS showed that early epidemic isolates contained 0.01-0.08% of PI DR major mutations. Furthermore, the combinations of major and accessory PI DR mutations significantly correlated with the phenotypic DR. The in-house phenotypic assay is superior to other conventional phenotypic assays in the detection of DR variants with a frequency as low as 0.01%.

  5. Nicotine can skew the characterization of the macrophage type-1 (MΦ1) phenotype differentiated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to the MΦ2 phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagita, Manabu; Kobayashi, Ryohei; Murakami, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages (MΦs) exhibit functional heterogeneity and plasticity in the local microenvironment. Recently, it was reported that MΦs can be divided into proinflammatory MΦs (MΦ1) and anti-inflammatory MΦs (MΦ2) based on their polarized functional properties. Here, we report that nicotine, the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, can modulate the characteristics of MΦ1. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-driven MΦ1 with nicotine (Ni-MΦ1) showed the phenotypic characteristics of MΦ2. Like MΦ2, Ni-MΦ1 exhibited antigen-uptake activities. Ni-MΦ1 suppressed IL-12, but maintained IL-10 and produced high amounts of MCP-1 upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation compared with MΦ1. Moreover, we observed strong proliferative responses of T cells to lipopolysaccharide-stimulated MΦ1, whereas Ni-MΦ1 reduced T cell proliferation and inhibited IFN-γ production by T cells. These results suggest that nicotine can change the functional characteristics of MΦ and skew the MΦ1 phenotype to MΦ2. We propose that nicotine is a potent regulator that modulates immune responses in microenvironments.

  6. Phenotypic characterization and inheritance of two foliar mutants in pea (Pisum Sativum L.): 'Reduced leaf size' and 'Orange leaf'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenova, N.; Vassilevska-Ivanova, R.; Tcekova, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Two foliar pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutants characterized by reduced leaf size (2/978) and orange leaf (2/1409 M) were established. Both mutants were described morphologically and their productivity potential , pollen viability and inheritance of the mutant traits were evaluated. The mutant 2/978 was identified after irradiation of dry seeds from cv Borek with 15 Gy fast neutrons and was related to the leaf mutation 'rogue'. Reciprocal crosses between mutant 2/978 and cv Borel were executed, and F 1 and F 2 generations were analyzed. The altered leaf trait was presented in all F 1 plants suggesting a dominant character. F 2 segregation data indicated that the trait was controlled by a single dominant gene. The mutant 2/1409M originated from the mutant 2/978 after irradiation with 50 Gy γ-rays. The main mutant's phenotypic characteristic was the orange-yellow coloration of leaves and plants. After of series of crosses it was established that induced chlorophyll mutation is monogenic, recessive and both mutant traits are independently inherited. Two mutants could be used as appropriate plant material for genetic and biological investigations

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic Characterization of facultative and obligate Alkalophilic Bacillus sp. isolated from Saudi Arabia alkaline soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaeedi Abdulrahman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of new alkalophilic Bacillus strains have been increasing interest due to their possessing valuable and commercially interesting enzymes. In the present study, a total six obligate and facultative alkalophilic isolates were isolated from desert soil around the Al-qunfotha city, Saudi Arabia. All isolates were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Among these isolates; AS3, AS4, AS5 and AS6 could grow at pH 9, 10, 11 and 12, but could not grow at pH 7, indicates that these isolates are obligate alkalophiles. While, isolates AS1 and AS2 grew at pH ranged from 7 to 10, but could not grow at pH 11 and 12, suggesting that they could be facultative alkalophiles. All isolates could hydrolyze casein and starch, indicating that they possess interesting amylase and protease enzymes. Based on 16S rDNA data, the phylogenetic analysis of these strains showed that all six alkalophilic Bacillus belonged to Bacillus cohnii with 99% similarity. The nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene for the six isolates were deposited in a Gene-bank under accession numbers; KP053301, KP053302, KP053303, KP053304, KP053305 and KP053306, respectively.

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from farm-raised diarrheic sika deer in Northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available In China, overuse and/or abuse of antimicrobials are common in stockbreeding, which possess high risks of antimicrobial-resistant contaminations. The serogroups, major virulence genes, and antimicrobial resistant patterns of the antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli were investigated in the feces of diarrheic farm-raised sika deer from 50 farms in three Northeastern provinces of China. A total of 220 E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized. Twenty-eight O serogroups were identified from the obtained E. coli isolates with O2, O26, O128, O142 and O154 being dominant. Nearly all the isolates were resistant to at least four of the tested antimicrobials. More than 90% of the E. coli isolates carried at least one of the tested virulence genes. About 85% of the E. coli isolates carried one or more antimicrobial-resistant genes responsible for resistant phenotypes of sulfonamides, streptomycin/spectionomycin or tetracycline. The antimicrobial resistant level and pathogenic group occurrences of the obtained E. coli isolates were higher than that of livestock and wild animals reported in some developed countries. Thus, the fecal-carrying antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from the farm-raised sika deer is potentially a significant contamination source for freshwater systems and food chain, and may pose great health risks for human and animals in Northeastern China.

  9. Phenotypic Characterization and Multivariate Analysis to Explain Body Conformation in Lesser Known Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, V.; Niranjan, S. K.; Mishra, A. K.; Jamuna, V.; Chopra, A.; Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 13 traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, paunch girth, ear length, tail length, length of tail up to switch, face length, face width, horn length, circumference of horn at base, distances between pin bone and hip bone) were recorded in 233 adult Gojri buffaloes from Punjab and Himachal Pradesh states of India. Traits were analysed by using varimax rotated principal component analysis (PCA) with Kaiser Normalization to explain body conformation. PCA revealed four components which explained about 70.9% of the total variation. First component described the general body conformation and explained 31.5% of total variation. It was represented by significant positive high loading of height at wither, body length, heart girth, face length and face width. The communality ranged from 0.83 (hip bone distance) to 0.45 (horn length) and unique factors ranged from 0.16 to 0.55 for all these 13 different biometric traits. Present study suggests that first principal component can be used in the evaluation and comparison of body conformation in buffaloes and thus provides an opportunity to distinguish between early and late maturing to adult, based on a small group of biometric traits to explain body conformation in adult buffaloes. PMID:25656215

  10. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  11. Genotype-phenotype correlation for DFNA22: characterization of non-syndromic, autosomal dominant, progressive sensorineural hearing loss due to MYO6 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsakal, Vedat; Hilgert, Nele; van Dinther, Joost

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and audiological examination was done in 2 Belgian families with autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) linked to DFNA22. Nineteen subjects in family 1 had mild to moderate SNHL starting in the third decade. The hearing loss was characterized by a flat audiogram affecting all......Hz. For all hitherto known DFNA22 families the audiological and clinical characteristics were correlated with the molecular data. This study describes the phenotype of 2 Belgian families with SNHL linked to DFNA22, both with a pathogenic change in the deafness gene MYO6. The phenotypes of all hitherto...

  12. The Insula and Taste Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Yiannakas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC, among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate with the induction of signaling cascades involved in synaptic plasticity. Taste learning has been shown to require the differential involvement of dopaminergic GABAergic, glutamatergic, muscarinic neurotransmission across an extended taste learning circuit. The subsequent activation of downstream protein kinases (ERK, CaMKII, transcription factors (CREB, Elk-1 and immediate early genes (c-fos, Arc, has been implicated in the regulation of the different phases of taste learning. This review discusses the relevant neurotransmission, molecular signaling pathways and genetic markers involved in novel and aversive taste learning, with a particular focus on the IC. Imaging and other studies in humans have implicated the IC in the pathophysiology of a number of cognitive disorders. We conclude that the IC participates in circuit-wide computations that modulate the interception and encoding of sensory information, as well as the formation of subjective internal representations that control the expression of motivated behaviors.

  13. Identification of a subset of perpheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, characterized by FOXP3-positive regulatory T-cell phenotype, HTLV-1 negativity and poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bjerregård; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Bendix, Knud

    2014-01-01

    Identification of a subset of perpheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, characterized by FOXP3-positive regulatory T-cell phenotype, HTLV-1 negativity and poor outcome.......Identification of a subset of perpheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, characterized by FOXP3-positive regulatory T-cell phenotype, HTLV-1 negativity and poor outcome....

  14. Evolutionary origins of taste buds: phylogenetic analysis of purinergic neurotransmission in epithelial chemosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Masato; Parnes, Jason; Hansen, Anne; Kiyohara, Sadao; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are gustatory endorgans which use an uncommon purinergic signalling system to transmit information to afferent gustatory nerve fibres. In mammals, ATP is a crucial neurotransmitter released by the taste cells to activate the afferent nerve fibres. Taste buds in mammals display a characteristic, highly specific ecto-ATPase (NTPDase2) activity, suggesting a role in inactivation of the neurotransmitter. The purpose of this study was to test whether the presence of markers of purinergic signalling characterize taste buds in anamniote vertebrates and to test whether similar purinergic systems are employed by other exteroceptive chemosensory systems. The species examined include several teleosts, elasmobranchs, lampreys and hagfish, the last of which lacks vertebrate-type taste buds. For comparison, Schreiner organs of hagfish and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) of teleosts, both of which are epidermal chemosensory end organs, were also examined because they might be evolutionarily related to taste buds. Ecto-ATPase activity was evident in elongate cells in all fish taste buds, including teleosts, elasmobranchs and lampreys. Neither SCCs nor Schreiner organs show specific ecto-ATPase activity, suggesting that purinergic signalling is not crucial in those systems as it is for taste buds. These findings suggest that the taste system did not originate from SCCs but arose independently in early vertebrates. PMID:23466675

  15. Evolutionary origins of taste buds: phylogenetic analysis of purinergic neurotransmission in epithelial chemosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Masato; Parnes, Jason; Hansen, Anne; Kiyohara, Sadao; Finger, Thomas E

    2013-03-06

    Taste buds are gustatory endorgans which use an uncommon purinergic signalling system to transmit information to afferent gustatory nerve fibres. In mammals, ATP is a crucial neurotransmitter released by the taste cells to activate the afferent nerve fibres. Taste buds in mammals display a characteristic, highly specific ecto-ATPase (NTPDase2) activity, suggesting a role in inactivation of the neurotransmitter. The purpose of this study was to test whether the presence of markers of purinergic signalling characterize taste buds in anamniote vertebrates and to test whether similar purinergic systems are employed by other exteroceptive chemosensory systems. The species examined include several teleosts, elasmobranchs, lampreys and hagfish, the last of which lacks vertebrate-type taste buds. For comparison, Schreiner organs of hagfish and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) of teleosts, both of which are epidermal chemosensory end organs, were also examined because they might be evolutionarily related to taste buds. Ecto-ATPase activity was evident in elongate cells in all fish taste buds, including teleosts, elasmobranchs and lampreys. Neither SCCs nor Schreiner organs show specific ecto-ATPase activity, suggesting that purinergic signalling is not crucial in those systems as it is for taste buds. These findings suggest that the taste system did not originate from SCCs but arose independently in early vertebrates.

  16. Phenotype characterization of embryoid body structures generated by a crystal comet effect tail in an intercellular cancer collision scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz JA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F MurilloDepartment of Pathology, Hospital Departmental Villavicencio, Hospital Departmental Granada, Medicine School, University Cooperative of Colombia, Villavicencio, Meta, ColombiaAbstract: Cancer is, by definition, the uncontrolled growth of autonomous cells that eventually destroy adjacent tissues and generate architectural disorder. However, this concept cannot be totally true. In three well documented studies, we have demonstrated that cancer tissues produce order zones that evolve over time and generate embryoid body structures in a space-time interval. The authors decided to revise the macroscopic and microscopic material in well-developed malignant tumors in which embryoid bodies were identified to determine the phenotype characterization that serves as a guideline for easy recognition. The factors responsible for this morphogenesis are physical, bioelectric, and magnetic susceptibilities produced by crystals that act as molecular designers for the topographic gradients that guide the surrounding silhouette and establish tissue head-tail positional identities. The structures are located in amniotic-like cavities and show characteristic somite-like embryologic segmentation. Immunophenotypic study has demonstrated exclusion factor positional identity in relation to enolase-immunopositive expression of embryoid body and human chorionic gonadotropin immunopositivity exclusion factor expression in the surrounding tissues. The significance of these observations is that they can also be predicted by experimental image data collected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in which two-beam subatomic collision particles in the resulting debris show hyperorder domains similar to those identified by us in intercellular cancer collisions. Our findings suggest that we are dealing with true reverse biologic system information in an activated collective cancer stem cell

  17. Development of a Taste-Masked Orodispersible Film Containing Dimenhydrinate

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    Jörg Breitkreutz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients.

  18. Corticosterone and propranolol's role on taste recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetti, E; Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M

    2014-12-01

    Taste recognition is a robust procedure to study learning and memory processes, as well as the different stages involved in them, i.e. encoding, storage and recall. Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones and the noradrenergic system play an important role in aversive and appetitive memory formation in rats and humans. The present experiments were designed to characterize the effects of immediate post training corticosterone (Experiment 1) and propranolol administration (Experiment 2 and 3) on taste recognition memory. Administration of a high dose of corticosterone (5mg/kg, sc) impairs consolidation of taste memory, but the low and moderate doses (1 and 3mg/kg, sc) didn't affect it. On the other hand, immediate post-training administration of propranolol (1 and 2mg/kg, ip) impaired taste recognition memory. These effects were time-dependent since no effects were seen when drug administration was delayed 3h after training. These findings support the importance of stress hormones and noradrenergic system on the modulation of taste memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from Darmbrand cases in post-World War II Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Menglin; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2012-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens type C strains are the only non-type-A isolates that cause human disease. They are responsible for enteritis necroticans, which was termed Darmbrand when occurring in post-World War II Germany. Darmbrand strains were initially classified as type F because of their exceptional heat resistance but later identified as type C strains. Since only limited information exists regarding Darmbrand strains, this study genetically and phenotypically characterized seven 1940s era Darmbrand-associated strains. Results obtained indicated the following. (i) Five of these Darmbrand isolates belong to type C, carry beta-toxin (cpb) and enterotoxin (cpe) genes on large plasmids, and express both beta-toxin and enterotoxin. The other two isolates are cpe-negative type A. (ii) All seven isolates produce highly heat-resistant spores with D(100) values (the time that a culture must be kept at 100°C to reduce its viability by 90%) of 7 to 40 min. (iii) All of the isolates surveyed produce the same variant small acid-soluble protein 4 (Ssp4) made by type A food poisoning isolates with a chromosomal cpe gene that also produce extremely heat-resistant spores. (iv) The Darmbrand isolates share a genetic background with type A chromosomal-cpe-bearing isolates. Finally, it was shown that both the cpe and cpb genes can be mobilized in Darmbrand isolates. These results suggest that C. perfringens type A and C strains that cause human food-borne illness share a spore heat resistance mechanism that likely favors their survival in temperature-abused food. They also suggest possible evolutionary relationships between Darmbrand strains and type A strains carrying a chromosomal cpe gene.

  20. Development of 3D culture models of plexiform neurofibroma and initial application for phenotypic characterization and drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraniak, Janice M; Chalasani, Anita; Wallace, Margaret R; Mattingly, Raymond R

    2018-01-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas (PNs), which may be present at birth in up to half of children with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), can cause serious loss of function, such as quadriparesis, and can undergo malignant transformation. Surgery is the first line treatment although the invasive nature of these tumors often prevents complete resection. Recent clinical trials have shown promising success for some drugs, notably selumetinib, an inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase (MEK). We have developed three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models of immortalized cells from NF1 PNs and of control Schwann cells (SCs) that we believe mimic more closely the in vivo condition than conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. Our goal is to facilitate pre-clinical identification of potential targeted therapeutics for these tumors. Three drugs, selumetinib (a MEK inhibitor), picropodophyllin (an IGF-1R inhibitor) and LDN-193189 (a BMP2 inhibitor) were tested with dose-response design in both 2D and 3D cultures for their abilities to block net cell growth. Cell lines grown in 3D conditions showed varying degrees of resistance to the inhibitory actions of all three drugs. For example, control SCs became resistant to growth inhibition by selumetinib in 3D culture. LDN-193189 was the most effective drug in 3D cultures, with only slightly reduced potency compared to the 2D cultures. Characterization of these models also demonstrated increased proteolysis of collagen IV in the matrix by the PN driver cells as compared to wild-type SCs. The proteolytic capacity of the PN cells in the model may be a clinically significant property that can be used for testing the ability of drugs to inhibit their invasive phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging of Tumor Metabolic Markers for Cancer Diagnosis, Metabolic Phenotyping, and Characterization of Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhong He

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells display heterogeneous genetic characteristics, depending on the tumor dynamic microenvironment. Abnormal tumor vasculature and poor tissue oxygenation generate a fraction of hypoxic tumor cells that have selective advantages in metastasis and invasion and often resist chemo- and radiation therapies. The genetic alterations acquired by tumors modify their biochemical pathways, which results in abnormal tumor metabolism. An elevation in glycolysis known as the “Warburg effect” and changes in lipid synthesis and oxidation occur. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has been used to study tumor metabolism in preclinical animal models and in clinical research on human breast, brain, and prostate cancers. This technique can identify specific genetic and metabolic changes that occur in malignant tumors. Therefore, the metabolic markers, detectable by MRS, not only provide information on biochemical changes but also define different metabolic tumor phenotypes. When combined with the contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, which has a high sensitivity for cancer diagnosis, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI improves the diagnostic specificity of malignant human cancers and is becoming an important clinical tool for cancer management and care. This article reviews the MRSI techniques as molecular imaging methods to detect and quantify metabolic changes in various tumor tissue types, especially in extracranial tumor tissues that contain high concentrations of fat. MRI/MRSI methods have been used to characterize tumor microenvironments in terms of blood volume and vessel permeability. Measurements of tissue oxygenation and glycolytic rates by MRS also are described to illustrate the capability of the MR technology in probing molecular information non-invasively in tumor tissues and its important potential for studying molecular mechanisms of human cancers in physiological conditions.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of two Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, C S; Franco, P S; Silva, N M; Silva, D A O; Ferro, E A V; Pena, H F J; Soares, R M; Gennari, S M; Mineo, J R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in free-range chickens from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and characterize the genotypic and phenotypic features of two isolates of this parasite, considering the importance of these hosts in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples from 108 free-range chickens were obtained from ten different districts, and submitted to the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies, and brain and heart tissue samples from infected chickens were processed for mouse bioassay. An overall seroprevalence of 71·3% was found and antibody titres ranged from 16 to 4096. After confirmation of seropositivity by mouse bioassay, the determination of the T. gondii genotypes of two isolates was performed by PCR-RFLP, using primers for the following markers: SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, new SAG2, Apico and CS3. These T. gondii isolates, designated TgChBrUD1and TgChBrUD2, were obtained from heart samples of free-range chickens. The TgChBrUD1 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 11 and the TgChBrUD2 isolate belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype 6. Both isolates demonstrated high virulence in a rodent model, with the TgChBrUD1 isolate able to induce brain cysts, in accord with its pattern of multiplication rates in human fibroblast culture. Taken together, these results reveal high prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-range chickens throughout Uberlândia, indicating an important degree of oocyst environmental contamination and the existence of considerable risk for T. gondii transmission to humans by consumption of free-range chicken as a food source.

  3. Smell and Taste Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to develop in people who have a histrionic personality (characterized by conspicuous seeking of attention with dramatic ... Drugs Mentioned In This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names amitriptyline No US brand name quinine QUALAQUIN ...

  4. Changes in taste bud volume during taste disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srur, Ehab; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Just, Tino

    2011-08-01

    On-line mapping and serial volume measurements of taste buds with confocal laser scanning microscopy provide information on the peripheral gustatory organ over time. We report the volumetric measurements of four selected fungiform papillae over 8 weeks in a 62-year-old man with taste disturbance, which was more apparent on the right than on the left side. In the two papillae on the right side, no taste buds were detected within the fungiform papillae in the sixth and eighth week. During sixth and eighth week, there was no response to the highest presented stimuli in electrogustometry (1 mA) on the right-sided tongue tip nor at the tongue edge. The morphology (shape, diameter) of the fungiform papillae on both sides remained unchanged. Comparison of the time course of the volume changes revealed differences corresponding to gustatory sensitivity. These findings suggest that the time course of volume changes indicated taste disturbance in our patient, rather than morphological changes in the fungiform papillae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Taste bud regeneration and the search for taste progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, H; Barlow, L A

    2010-06-01

    While the taste periphery has been studied for over a century, we are only beginning to understand how this important sensory system is maintained throughout adult life. With the advent of molecular genetics in rodent models, and the upswing in translational approaches that impact human patients, we expect the field will make significant advances in the near future.

  6. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depend on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of sensory taste thresholds for phenylthiocarbamide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter organic compound has been described as a bimodal autosomal trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. This study is based on the ability of a person to taste PTC. The present study reports the threshold distribution of PTC taste sensitivity among some Muslim ...

  8. Polycose Taste Pre-Exposure Fails to Influence Behavioral and Neural Indices of Taste Novelty

    OpenAIRE

    Barot, Sabiha K.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2005-01-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose®) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular ...

  9. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. Participation of the peripheral taste system in aging-dependent changes in taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka; Kurokawa, Azusa; Kohta, Rie; Misaka, Takumi

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that aging modifies taste sensitivity. However, the factors affecting the changes in taste sensitivity remain unclear. To investigate the cause of the age-related changes in taste sensitivity, we compared the peripheral taste detection systems in young and old mice. First, we examined whether taste sensitivity varied according to age using behavioral assays. We confirmed that the taste sensitivities to salty and bitter tastes decreased with aging. In other assays, the gustatory nerve responses to salty and sweet tastes increased significantly with aging, while those to bitter taste did not change. Thus, the profile of the gustatory nerve responses was inconsistent with the profile of the behavioral responses. Next, we evaluated the expressions of taste-related molecules in the taste buds. Although no apparent differences in the expressions of representative taste receptors were observed between the two age groups, the mRNA expressions of signaling effectors were slightly, but significantly, decreased in old mice. No significant differences in the turnover rates of taste bud cells were observed between the two age groups. Thus, we did not observe any large decreases in the expressions of taste-related molecules and turnover rates of taste bud cells with aging. Based on these findings, we conclude that changes in taste sensitivity with aging were not caused by aging-related degradation of peripheral taste organs. Meanwhile, the concentrations of several serum components that modify taste responses changed with age. Thus, taste signal-modifying factors such as serum components may have a contributing role in aging-related changes in taste sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensory science research on taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Recent ethnographies from the anthropology of food and the senses have shown how moments in which people taste foods are shaped by scientific knowledge, methods and rationales. Building on approaches developed in science and technology studies, this paper offers an ethnography of the field to which...

  12. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Signaling and Modifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste conveys crucial information about the quality and nutritional value of foods before it is ingested. Taste signaling begins with taste cells via taste receptors in oral cavity. Activation of these receptors drives the transduction systems in taste receptor cells. Then particular transmitters are released from the taste cells and activate corresponding afferent gustatory nerve fibers. Recent studies have revealed that taste sensitivities are defined by distinct taste receptors and modulated by endogenous humoral factors in a specific group of taste cells. Such peripheral taste generations and modifications would directly influence intake of nutritive substances. This review will highlight current understanding of molecular mechanisms for taste reception, signal transduction in taste bud cells, transmission between taste cells and nerves, regeneration from taste stem cells, and modification by humoral factors at peripheral taste organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  14. Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

  15. Molecular and Cellular Organization of Taste Neurons in Adult Drosophila Pharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh David Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Drosophila pharyngeal taste organs are poorly characterized despite their location at important sites for monitoring food quality. Functional analysis of pharyngeal neurons has been hindered by the paucity of molecular tools to manipulate them, as well as their relative inaccessibility for neurophysiological investigations. Here, we generate receptor-to-neuron maps of all three pharyngeal taste organs by performing a comprehensive chemoreceptor-GAL4/LexA expression analysis. The organization of pharyngeal neurons reveals similarities and distinctions in receptor repertoires and neuronal groupings compared to external taste neurons. We validate the mapping results by pinpointing a single pharyngeal neuron required for feeding avoidance of L-canavanine. Inducible activation of pharyngeal taste neurons reveals functional differences between external and internal taste neurons and functional subdivision within pharyngeal sweet neurons. Our results provide roadmaps of pharyngeal taste organs in an insect model system for probing the role of these understudied neurons in controlling feeding behaviors. : Chen and Dahanukar carry out a large-scale, systematic analysis to understand the molecular organization of pharyngeal taste neurons. Taking advantage of the molecular genetic toolkit that arises from this map, they use genetic dissection strategies to probe the functional roles of selected pharyngeal neurons in food choice. Keywords: Drosophila, taste, pharynx, chemosensory receptors, gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, feeding

  16. Flow cytometric characterization of phenotype, DNA indices and p53 gene expression in 55 cases of acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powari, Manish; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash; Marwaha, Ram Kumar; Sandhu, Harpreet; Ganguly, Nirmal Kumar

    2002-06-01

    To characterize the phenotype of acute leukemia cases using flow cytometry, to detect mixed lineage cases and to use DNA index determination, including S-phase fraction (SPF) and p53 detection, to find if there was any correlation of SPF and p53 expression with outcome. Fifty-five cases of acute leukemia were enrolled in this study. A complete hemogram and routine bone marrow examination, including cytochemistry, was done. Mycloperoxidase-negative cases were evaluated on a flow cytometer using monoclonal antibodies. DNA indices were determined by flow cytometry in all cases, and p53 was detected immunohistochemically using the alkaline phosphatase/antialkaline phosphatase technique. Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was diagnosed in 32 cases; acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was diagnosed in 18 (14 B lineage and 4 T line age). Four cases showed mixed lineage leukemia, and undifferentiated acute leukemia was diagnosed in one case. The mean/range of SPF for these groups were 3.76/0.33-6.91, 6.25/0.15-21.4, 2.89/0.35-10.64, 2.60/0.72-6.94 and 7.34, respectively. Aneuploidy was detected in two cases of B-lineage ALL and tetraploidy in a case of AML-M7, while all others were diploid p53. Was detected in 6 of 55 cases (10.90%). Follow-up was available for 24 patients. Five patients relapsed, and four had B-cell type ALL and were diploid and expressed no p53 gene. SPF% did not show any correlation with outcome. These data suggest that within acute leukemia subtypes, there is a wide variation in SPF. SPF does not seem to correlate with outcome. Immunophenotyping is essential to determine the lineage in myeloperoxidase-negative cases. It is perhaps the only way to diagnose mixed lineage leukemia and aberrant expression of markers presently. The p53 gene was detected less frequently. However, more studies are required from different centers with longer follow-up to evaluate prognostic significance.

  17. Normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to TAC3/TACR3 mutations: characterization of neuroendocrine phenotypes and novel mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Francou

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: TAC3/TACR3 mutations have been reported in normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH (OMIM #146110. In the absence of animal models, studies of human neuroendocrine phenotypes associated with neurokinin B and NK3R receptor dysfunction can help to decipher the pathophysiology of this signaling pathway. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of TAC3/TACR3 mutations, characterize novel TACR3 mutations and to analyze neuroendocrine profiles in nCHH caused by deleterious TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations. RESULTS: From a cohort of 352 CHH, we selected 173 nCHH patients and identified nine patients carrying TAC3 or TACR3 variants (5.2%. We describe here 7 of these TACR3 variants (1 frameshift and 2 nonsense deleterious mutations and 4 missense variants found in 5 subjects. Modeling and functional studies of the latter demonstrated the deleterious consequence of one missense mutation (Tyr267Asn probably caused by the misfolding of the mutated NK3R protein. We found a statistically significant (p<0.0001 higher mean FSH/LH ratio in 11 nCHH patients with TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations than in 47 nCHH patients with either biallelic mutations in KISS1R, GNRHR, or with no identified mutations and than in 50 Kallmann patients with mutations in KAL1, FGFR1 or PROK2/PROKR2. Three patients with TAC3/TACR3 biallelic mutations had an apulsatile LH profile but low-frequency alpha-subunit pulses. Pulsatile GnRH administration increased alpha-subunit pulsatile frequency and reduced the FSH/LH ratio. CONCLUSION: The gonadotropin axis dysfunction associated with nCHH due to TAC3/TACR3 mutations is related to a low GnRH pulsatile frequency leading to a low frequency of alpha-subunit pulses and to an elevated FSH/LH ratio. This ratio might be useful for pre-screening nCHH patients for TAC3/TACR3 mutations.

  18. Association between the number of fungiform papillae on the tip of the tongue and sensory taste perception in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Hannah; Ahrens, Wohlfgang; Buchecker, Kirsten; Russo, Paola; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Background : To measure sensory taste perception in children with an accurate and reproducible method is challenging and objective measurement methods are scarce. Objective : Aim was to characterize sensory taste perception, by measuring the number of fungiform papillae (FP) and to investigate whether the number of FP is associated with sensitivity for bitter taste and with taste preferences for sweet, salty, fatty or umami in children between 8 and 11 years of age. Design : Number of FP was measured with a digital camera in 83 children in a German subsample of the IDEFICS study. Among those 56 children performed a taste threshold test for bitter and taste preference tests for sweet, salty, fatty and umami. The association between the number of FP and sensory taste perception was analysed. Results : There is a tendency towards a lower number of FP in children with a higher fat preference (30 vs. 25 papillae, p=0.06). Results show no association between the number of FP and neither the bitter taste thresholds nor taste preferences for sweet, salty and umami. Conclusion : Bitter taste threshold might be independent of the number of FP, while the perception of fat was associated with the number of FP.

  19. Characterization of T cell clones from chagasic patients: predominance of CD8 surface phenotype in clones from patients with pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington R. Cuna

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is associated with pathological processes whose mechanisms are not known. To address this question, T cell lines were developed from chronic chagasic patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and cloned. These T cell clones (TCC were analyzed phenotypically with monoclonal antibodies by the use of a fluorescence microscope. The surface phenotype of the TCC from the asymptomatic patient were predominantly CD4 positive (86%. On the contrary, the surface phenotype CD8 was predominant in the TCC from the patients suffering from cardiomegaly with right bundle branch block (83%, bradycardia with megacolon (75 % and bradycardia (75%. Future studies will be developed in order to identify the antigens eliciting these T cell subpopulations.

  20. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  1. The number of taste buds is related to bitter taste sensitivity in layer and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Shotaro; Bungo, Takashi; Tabata, Shoji

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between taste sensitivity and the number of taste buds using a bitter tastant, quinine hydrochloride, was investigated in White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, and broiler chickens. The White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red strains were able to perceive 2.0 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride, but the taste sensitivity of Rhode Island Red chickens was higher than that of White Leghorn chickens. Broiler chickens perceived 0.5 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride. The number of taste buds in the White Leghorn strain was the lowest, then the Rhode Island Red strain, with the number of taste buds highest in the broiler chickens. The number of taste buds was well correlated with bitter taste sensitivity. Therefore, we suggest that the number of taste buds is a vital factor in the perception of bitter taste and may be useful in selecting appropriate feeds for chickens.

  2. Taste dysfunction in irradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wen-Kai; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Komiyama, Sohtaro

    2002-01-01

    Taste disorders caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are common. This prospective study of 40 patients with head and neck cancer assessed changes in taste sensations during radiation therapy. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied. The taste recognition threshold and supra-threshold taste intensity performance for the four basic tastes were measured using the whole-mouth taste method before, during, and after radiation therapy. Bitter taste was affected most. An increase in threshold for sweet taste depended upon whether the tip of tongue was included within the radiation field. The slope of the taste intensity performance did not change during or after radiotherapy. The pattern of salivary dysfunction was different from that of taste dysfunction. The main cause of taste disorders during radiation support the hypothesis that taste dysfunction is due to damage to the taste buds in the radiation field. (author)

  3. Taste dysfunction in irradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wen-Kai; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Komiyama, Sohtaro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Inokuchi, Akira [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Taste disorders caused by radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are common. This prospective study of 40 patients with head and neck cancer assessed changes in taste sensations during radiation therapy. The relationship between the time course and the degree of taste disorder was studied. The taste recognition threshold and supra-threshold taste intensity performance for the four basic tastes were measured using the whole-mouth taste method before, during, and after radiation therapy. Bitter taste was affected most. An increase in threshold for sweet taste depended upon whether the tip of tongue was included within the radiation field. The slope of the taste intensity performance did not change during or after radiotherapy. The pattern of salivary dysfunction was different from that of taste dysfunction. The main cause of taste disorders during radiation support the hypothesis that taste dysfunction is due to damage to the taste buds in the radiation field. (author)

  4. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of NAD-dependent Pasteurellaceae from the respiratory tract of pigs and their possible pathogenetic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielstein, P.; Wuthe, H.H.; Angen, Øystein

    2001-01-01

    . In the present study, 107 of these NAD-dependent isolates from the porcine respiratory tract, primarily from lungs with pathological changes, were investigated. On the basis of phenotypic criteria, such as haemolysis, urease, catalase, and indole formation as well as other fermentative activities, 50...

  5. Characterization of a 8q21.11 microdeletion syndrome associated with intellectual disability and a recognizable phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomares, María; Delicado, Alicia; Mansilla, Elena; de Torres, María Luisa; Vallespín, Elena; Fernandez, Luis; Martinez-Glez, Victor; García-Miñaur, Sixto; Nevado, Julián; Simarro, Fernando Santos; Ruiz-Perez, Victor L.; Lynch, Sally Ann; Sharkey, Freddie H.; Thuresson, Ann-Charlotte; Annerén, Göran; Belligni, Elga F.; Martínez-Fernández, María Luisa; Bermejo, Eva; Nowakowska, Beata; Kutkowska-Kazmierczak, Anna; Bocian, Ewa; Obersztyn, Ewa; Martínez-Frías, María Luisa; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Lapunzina, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    We report eight unrelated individuals with intellectual disability and overlapping submicroscopic deletions of 8q21.11 (0.66-13.55 Mb in size). The deletion was familial in one and simplex in seven individuals. The phenotype was remarkably similar and consisted of a round face with full cheeks, a

  6. Array-CGH Analysis in a Cohort of Phenotypically Well-Characterized Individuals with "Essential" Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Eleonora; Russo, Serena; Casula, Laura; Alesi, Viola; Amendola, Filomena Alessandra; Angioni, Adriano; Novelli, Antonio; Valeri, Giovanni; Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Copy-number variants (CNVs) are associated with susceptibility to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To detect the presence of CNVs, we conducted an array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis in 133 children with "essential" ASD phenotype. Genetic analyses documented that 12 children had causative CNVs (C-CNVs), 29…

  7. Specific genetic deficiencies of the A and B isoenzymes of monoamine oxidase are characterized by distinct neurochemical and clinical phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J. W.; Eisenhofer, G.; Abeling, N. G.; Berger, W.; Murphy, D. L.; Konings, C. H.; Wagemakers, L. M.; Kopin, I. J.; Karoum, F.; van Gennip, A. H.; Brunner, H. G.

    1996-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) exists as two isoenzymes and plays a central role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters. In this study we compared the neurochemical phenotypes of previously described subjects with genetically determined selective lack of MAO-A or a lack of both MAO-A and MAO-B

  8. Taste as a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation......Teaching does not necessarily condition learning, and specific didactic elements do not necessarily condition the best learning outcome; this also applies to ‘food and meal’ lessons in schools. Teachers’ didactic reflections usually reflect the content and form of the teaching, as well as a number...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...

  9. Taste is a didactic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard

    2015-01-01

    of expectations to students’ learning. This article presents the results of a new quantitative study that investigates students’ work with taste in relation to their own expected learning in the subject Food Knowledge, viewed in the light of three didactic elements: motivation, student participation......Teaching does not necessarily condition learning, and specific didactic elements do not necessarily condition the best learning outcome; this also applies to ‘food and meal’ lessons in schools. Teachers’ didactic reflections usually reflect the content and form of the teaching, as well as a number...... and innovation in school. The method is a questionnaire among students (N= 769) who have competed in Food Fight, a competition that forms part of Food Knowledge. The connection between taste and learning is a relatively unexplored field, and the analysis in this article indicates that the experience of working...

  10. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-01-01

    The significance of taste for human health:Throughout most of human evolution, the daily decisions of what to put into ones mouth and swallow and what to reject presented challenges fraught with danger. Energy-rich foods were often difficult to find; protein was in short supply; sodium was scarce. Moreover, many plants that did contain nutrients were also equipped with defensive compounds that were poisonous. Now many humans over consume exactly the foods that they evolved to find particu...

  11. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  12. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  13. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR.Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene.We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of

  14. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Yoshida, Masahide; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2010-08-05

    The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT), acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout) overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin) solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM). OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II) nor Presynaptic (Type III) cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I) taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of appetite

  15. Molecular and Cellular Organization of Taste Neurons in Adult Drosophila Pharynx

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chieh David Chen; Anupama Dahanukar

    2017-01-01

    Summary: The Drosophila pharyngeal taste organs are poorly characterized despite their location at important sites for monitoring food quality. Functional analysis of pharyngeal neurons has been hindered by the paucity of molecular tools to manipulate them, as well as their relative inaccessibility for neurophysiological investigations. Here, we generate receptor-to-neuron maps of all three pharyngeal taste organs by performing a comprehensive chemoreceptor-GAL4/LexA expression analysis. The ...

  16. Phenotypical and functional characterization of double-negative (CD4-CD8-) alpha beta T-cell receptor positive cells from an immunodeficient patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G

    1991-01-01

    We have characterized CD4-CD8- double-negative (DN) alpha beta TCR+ T cells from a patient with immunodeficiency, lymphocytosis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. The majority of peripheral blood lymphocytes were DN alpha beta TCR+ T cells as evaluated by FACS and biochemical analysis...... (MoAbs) indicated a polyclonal T-cell expansion. Thymic biopsy showed normal histology, whereas lymph node biopsy samples showed altered histological and immunohistological patterns with markedly expanded paracortical areas containing the DN T cells of the same phenotype as found in peripheral blood T...

  17. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; R. van Weissenbruch; A. Vissink; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; F.K.L. Spijkervet; Dr. Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it

  18. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  19. Molecular characterization of a rice mutator-phenotype derived from an incompatible cross-pollination reveals transgenerational mobilization of multiple transposable elements and extensive epigenetic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-specific hybridization occurs frequently in plants, which may induce genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids, allopolyploids and introgressants. It remains unclear however whether pollination by alien pollens of an incompatible species may impose a "biological stress" even in the absence of genome-merger or genetic introgression, whereby genetic and/or epigenetic instability of the maternal recipient genome might be provoked. Results We report here the identification of a rice mutator-phenotype from a set of rice plants derived from a crossing experiment involving two remote and apparently incompatible species, Oryza sativa L. and Oenothera biennis L. The mutator-phenotype (named Tong211-LP showed distinct alteration in several traits, with the most striking being substantially enlarged panicles. Expectably, gel-blotting by total genomic DNA of the pollen-donor showed no evidence for introgression. Characterization of Tong211-LP (S0 and its selfed progenies (S1 ruled out contamination (via seed or pollen or polyploidy as a cause for its dramatic phenotypic changes, but revealed transgenerational mobilization of several previously characterized transposable elements (TEs, including a MITE (mPing, and three LTR retrotransposons (Osr7, Osr23 and Tos17. AFLP and MSAP fingerprinting revealed extensive, transgenerational alterations in cytosine methylation and to a less extent also genetic variation in Tong211-LP and its immediate progenies. mPing mobility was found to correlate with cytosine methylation alteration detected by MSAP but not with genetic variation detected by AFLP. Assay by q-RT-PCR of the steady-state transcript abundance of a set of genes encoding for the various putative DNA methyltransferases, 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases, and small interference RNA (siRNA pathway-related proteins showed that, relative to the rice parental line, heritable perturbation in expression of 12 out of

  20. Fingerprinting taste buds: intermediate filaments and their implication for taste bud formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, M; Reutter, K; Ganchrow, D; Ganchrow, J R

    2000-01-01

    Intermediate filaments in taste organs of terrestrial (human and chick) as well as aquatic (Xenopus laevis) species were detected using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. During development, the potential importance of the interface between the taste bud primordium and non-gustatory adjacent tissues is evidenced by the distinct immunoreactivity of a subpopulation of taste bud cells for cytokeratins and vimentin. In human foetuses, the selective molecular marker for taste bud primor...

  1. Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2015-02-01

    Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Enhancement of Retronasal Odors by Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Barry G.; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste (“sweet,” “sour,” “salty,” and “bitter”) and odor (“ot...

  3. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    findings imply a large positive effect on demand for potato chips from higher taste scores: when consumers’ experienced taste from potato chips improves by one unit, the average WTP for a 150 gram bag of chips increases by 20 euro cents. The effect from taste on bread demand seems smaller, but may...

  4. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  5. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  6. Age-related changes in mouse taste bud morphology, hormone expression, and taste responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Kyong; Cong, Wei-na; Cai, Huan; Kim, Wook; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M; Martin, Bronwen

    2012-04-01

    Normal aging is a complex process that affects every organ system in the body, including the taste system. Thus, we investigated the effects of the normal aging process on taste bud morphology, function, and taste responsivity in male mice at 2, 10, and 18 months of age. The 18-month-old animals demonstrated a significant reduction in taste bud size and number of taste cells per bud compared with the 2- and 10-month-old animals. The 18-month-old animals exhibited a significant reduction of protein gene product 9.5 and sonic hedgehog immunoreactivity (taste cell markers). The number of taste cells expressing the sweet taste receptor subunit, T1R3, and the sweet taste modulating hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, were reduced in the 18-month-old mice. Concordant with taste cell alterations, the 18-month-old animals demonstrated reduced sweet taste responsivity compared with the younger animals and the other major taste modalities (salty, sour, and bitter) remained intact.

  7. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  8. Molecular Features Underlying Selectivity in Chicken Bitter Taste Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Di Pizio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors (Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs, representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste. Using homology modeling and induced-fit docking simulations, we investigated the binding modes of ggTas2r agonists. Interestingly, promiscuous compounds are predicted to establish polar interactions with position 6.51 and hydrophobic interactions with positions 3.32 and 5.42 in all ggTas2rs; whereas certain residues are responsible for receptor selectivity. Lys3.29 and Asn3.36 are suggested as ggTas2r1-specificity-conferring residues; Gln6.55 as ggTas2r2-specificity-conferring residue; Ser5.38 and Gln7.42 as ggTas2r7-specificity conferring residues. The selectivity profile of quinine analogs, quinidine, epiquinidine and ethylhydrocupreine, was then characterized by combining calcium-imaging experiments and in silico approaches. ggTas2r models were used to virtually screen BitterDB compounds. ~50% of compounds known to be bitter to human are likely to be bitter to chicken, with 25, 20, 37% predicted to be ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2, ggTas2r7 agonists, respectively. Predicted ggTas2rs agonists can be tested with in vitro and in vivo experiments, contributing to our understanding of bitter taste in chicken and, consequently, to the improvement of chicken feed.

  9. Expression of sall4 in taste buds of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robyn; Braubach, Oliver R; Bilkey, Jessica; Zhang, Jing; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée; Fine, Alan; Croll, Roger P; Jonz, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    We characterized the expression of sall4, a gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor involved in the maintenance of embryonic stem cells, in taste buds of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Using an enhancer trap line (ET5), we detected enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in developing and adult transgenic zebrafish in regions containing taste buds: the lips, branchial arches, and the nasal and maxillary barbels. Localization of EGFP to taste cells of the branchial arches and lips was confirmed by co-immunolabeling with antibodies against calretinin and serotonin, and a zebrafish-derived neuronal marker (zn-12). Transgenic insertion of the ET construct into the zebrafish genome was evaluated and mapped to chromosome 23 in proximity (i.e. 23 kb) to the sall4 gene. In situ hybridization and expression analysis between 24 and 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) demonstrated that transgenic egfp expression in ET5 zebrafish was correlated with the spatial and temporal pattern of expression of sall4 in the wild-type. Expression was first observed in the central nervous system and branchial arches at 24 hpf. At 48 hpf, sall4 and egfp expression was observed in taste bud primordia surrounding the mouth and branchial arches. At 72 and 96 hpf, expression was detected in the upper and lower lips and branchial arches. Double fluorescence in situ hybridization at 3 and 10 dpf confirmed colocalization of sall4 and egfp in the lips and branchial arches. These studies reveal sall4 expression in chemosensory cells and implicate this transcription factor in the development and renewal of taste epithelia in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea: characterization of genotype by exome sequencing, and phenotypes of bile acid synthesis and colonic transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Eric W.; Shin, Andrea; Carlson, Paula; Li, Ying; Grover, Madhusudan; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    The study objectives were: to mine the complete exome to identify putative rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-diarrhea (IBS-D) phenotype, to assess genes that regulate bile acids in IBS-D, and to explore univariate associations of SNVs with symptom phenotype and quantitative traits in an independent IBS cohort. Using principal components analysis, we identified two groups of IBS-D (n = 16) with increased fecal bile acids: rapid colonic transit or high bile acids synthesis. DNA was sequenced in depth, analyzing SNVs in bile acid genes (ASBT, FXR, OSTα/β, FGF19, FGFR4, KLB, SHP, CYP7A1, LRH-1, and FABP6). Exome findings were compared with those of 50 similar ethnicity controls. We assessed univariate associations of each SNV with quantitative traits and a principal components analysis and associations between SNVs in KLB and FGFR4 and symptom phenotype in 405 IBS, 228 controls and colonic transit in 70 IBS-D, 71 IBS-constipation. Mining the complete exome did not reveal significant associations with IBS-D over controls. There were 54 SNVs in 10 of 11 bile acid-regulating genes, with no SNVs in FGF19; 15 nonsynonymous SNVs were identified in similar proportions of IBS-D and controls. Variations in KLB (rs1015450, downstream) and FGFR4 [rs434434 (intronic), rs1966265, and rs351855 (nonsynonymous)] were associated with colonic transit (rs1966265; P = 0.043), fecal bile acids (rs1015450; P = 0.064), and principal components analysis groups (all 3 FGFR4 SNVs; P transit (P = 0.066). Thus exome sequencing identified additional variants in KLB and FGFR4 associated with bile acids or colonic transit in IBS-D. PMID:24200957

  11. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  12. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  13. Characterization of the multiple drug resistance phenotype expressed by tumour cells following in vitro exposure to fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.T.; McClean, S.; Hosking, L.; Shellard, S.; Dempke, W.; Whelan, R.

    1992-01-01

    The major clinical problem of the emergence of drug resistant tumor cell populations is recognized in patients previously treated with antitumor drugs and with radiotherapy. It is proposed that, although radiation-induced vascular fibrosis may limit drug delivery to the tumor, exposure to radiation may 'induce' or 'select for' drug resistance. This hypothesis was examined by establishing in vitro model systems to investigate the resistance phenotype of tumor cells following exposure to X-rays. Characteristically tumor cells surviving exposure to a series of fractions of X-irradiation are shown to have consistently expressed resistance to multiple drugs, including the Vinca alkaloids and the epipodophyllotoxins. Currently this research is aimed at determining whether distinctive resistance mechanisms operate depending on whether resistance results following drug or X-ray exposure. Initial results indicate that whilst some common mechanisms operate, drug resistant tumor cells identified following exposure to X-irradiation appear to exhibit a novel multidrug resistance phenotype. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab

  14. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-04

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  15. Acid stimulation (sour taste elicits GABA and serotonin release from mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT, ATP, and norepinephrine (NE have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells stably co-expressing GABA(B receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca(2+-dependent; removing Ca(2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III cells and not from Receptor (Type II cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion, the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses.

  16. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates from Healthy Conjunctiva and a Comparative Analysis with Isolates from Ocular Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Flores-Páez

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common commensal of healthy conjunctiva and it can cause endophthalmitis, however its presence in conjunctivitis, keratitis and blepharitis is unknown. Molecular genotyping of S. epidermidis from healthy conjunctiva could provide information about the origin of the strains that infect the eye. In this paper two collections of S. epidermidis were used: one from ocular infection (n = 62, and another from healthy conjunctiva (n = 45. All isolates were genotyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec, detection of the genes icaA, icaD, IS256 and polymorphism type of agr locus. The phenotypic data included biofilm production and antibiotic resistance. The results displayed 61 PFGE types from 107 isolates and they were highly discriminatory. MLST analysis generated a total of 25 STs, of which 11 STs were distributed among the ocular infection isolates and lineage ST2 was the most frequent (48.4%, while 14 STs were present in the healthy conjunctiva isolates and lineage ST5 was the most abundant (24.4%. By means of a principal coordinates analysis (PCoA and a discriminant analysis (DA it was found that ocular infection isolates had as discriminant markers agr III or agr II, SCCmec V or SCCmec I, mecA gene, resistance to tobramycin, positive biofilm, and IS256+. In contrast to the healthy conjunctiva isolates, the discriminating markers were agr I, and resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and oxacillin. The discriminant biomarkers of ocular infection were examined in healthy conjunctiva isolates, and it was found that 3 healthy conjunctiva isolates [two with ST2 and another with ST9] (3/45, 6.66% had similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics to ocular infection isolates, therefore a small population from healthy conjunctiva could cause an ocular infection. These data suggest that the healthy conjunctiva

  17. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR.

  18. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ke; Yang, Juan-Mei; Huang, Yi-Bo; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-06-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  19. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  20. Sweet and sour taste preferences of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the industrialized countries children have many foods to choose from, both healthy and unhealthy products, these choices mainly depend on children's taste preferences. The present thesis focused on preferences for sweet and sour taste of young children (4- to 12-years of age) living in the US and

  1. Learning Consumer Tastes Through Dynamic Assortments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulu, C.; Honhon, D.B.L.P.; Alptekinoglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    How should a firm modify its product assortment over time when learning about consumer tastes? In this paper, we study dynamic assortment decisions in a horizontally differentiated product category for which consumers' diverse tastes can be represented as locations on a Hotelling line. We presume

  2. Taste and smell changes in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cancer often experience changes in taste and smell perception during chemotherapy. The aim of this dissertation was to investigate taste and smell changes and short- and long-term effects of chemotherapy in a homogeneous population of testicular cancer patients treated with

  3. Peptide regulators of peripheral taste function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-03-01

    The peripheral sensory organ of the gustatory system, the taste bud, contains a heterogeneous collection of sensory cells. These taste cells can differ in the stimuli to which they respond and the receptors and other signaling molecules they employ to transduce and encode those stimuli. This molecular diversity extends to the expression of a varied repertoire of bioactive peptides that appear to play important functional roles in signaling taste information between the taste cells and afferent sensory nerves and/or in processing sensory signals within the taste bud itself. Here, we review studies that examine the expression of bioactive peptides in the taste bud and the impact of those peptides on taste functions. Many of these peptides produced in taste buds are known to affect appetite, satiety or metabolism through their actions in the brain, pancreas and other organs, suggesting a functional link between the gustatory system and the neural and endocrine systems that regulate feeding and nutrient utilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLCβ2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polycose taste pre-exposure fails to influence behavioral and neural indices of taste novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barot, Sabiha K; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2005-12-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular cortex, but also failed to induce stronger taste aversion learning than familiar Polycose. Novel NaCl, on the other hand, showed patterns of FLI activation and aversion learning similar to that of novel sweet tastes. Possible reasons for the resistance of Polycose to typical pre-exposure effects are discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uncovering genomic causes of co-morbidity in epilepsy: gene-driven phenotypic characterization of rare microdeletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Kasperavičiūtė

    Full Text Available Patients with epilepsy often suffer from other important conditions. The existence of such co-morbidities is frequently not recognized and their relationship with epilepsy usually remains unexplained.We describe three patients with common, sporadic, non-syndromic epilepsies in whom large genomic microdeletions were found during a study of genetic susceptibility to epilepsy. We performed detailed gene-driven clinical investigations in each patient. Disruption of the function of genes in the deleted regions can explain co-morbidities in these patients.Co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy can be part of a genomic abnormality even in the absence of (known congenital malformations or intellectual disabilities. Gene-driven phenotype examination can also reveal clinically significant unsuspected condition.

  9. Characterization of facial phenotypes of children with congenital hypopituitarism and their parents: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Despoina; Allanson, Judith; Wolf, Lior; Deal, Cheri

    2015-07-01

    Congenital Hypopituitarism (CH) has traditionally been associated with specific facial phenotypes subsumed under the term midface retrusion, based on cephalometric studies. In this study, we used a systematic anthropometric approach to facial morphology in 37 individuals with CH and their parents, primarily of French Canadian ancestry, and compared them to a control group of 78 French Canadian patients with well-controlled type 1 diabetes and their parents. We were able to demonstrate clear morphological differences, which were more prevalent in the affected group than in the control group. More specifically, we showed the presence of a shorter skull base width (P hypopituitarism and will provide further opportunities for data mining. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Marcadores moleculares em estudos de caracterização de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil.: o sabor Molecular markers in erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis araguariensis St.Hil. characterization studies: the taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Angelo Vidor

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A Epagri (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina S.A possui uma das maiores coleções brasileiras de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil.. A partir de ensaios agronômicos preliminares, apresentaram destaque as procedências Barão de Cotegipe e Água Doce. Dentre essas, verificaram-se diferentes sabores (mais amargo e menos amargo, aparentemente, em função do tipo de folha (CL - curta e larga; LE - longa e estreita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de tentar associar os padrões obtidos mediante marcadores moleculares, com as procedências ou acessos e características fenotípicas desejáveis - altura de planta, diâmetro de copa, densidade folhar, sobrevivência das plantas e comportamento de rebrota -, dentro do caráter sabor em erva-mate. Para isto, utilizaram-se marcadores moleculares que amplificam DNA, do tipo RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Os resultados indicaram não ser possível, com o número de iniciadores utlizados como marcadores moleculares, definir geneticamente o caráter sabor, ainda que os mesmos tenham indicado tendência para tal.The Santa Catarina State Agricultural Research and Extensios Organization - Epagri SA, owns one of the largest Brazilian colletions or erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St.Hil.. Preliminary agronomic trials identified two promissing erva-mate materials named Barão de Cotegipe and Água Doce. Different tastes within each material were also identified, i.e. tastes with different grades of bitterness, apparently associated with the shape of leaves (CL - short and wide; LE - long and narrow. This study aimed to associate this plant patterns using molecular markers with plant origins and desirable fenotipic characteristics such as plant height, crown diameter, leaf density, plant survival, regrowth behaviour, within each taste group. For this molecular markers which amplify DNA of RAPD type (Random Amplified Polimorphic DNA was used. The results did not allow

  11. Characterization of Rod Function Phenotypes Across a Range of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severities and Subretinal Drusenoid Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Oliver J; Cukras, Catherine A; Jeffrey, Brett G

    2018-05-01

    To examine spatial changes in rod-mediated function in relationship to local structural changes across the central retina in eyes with a spectrum of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) disease severity. Participants were categorized into five AMD severity groups based on fundus features. Scotopic thresholds were measured at 14 loci spanning ±18° along the vertical meridian from one eye of each of 42 participants (mean = 71.7 ± 9.9 years). Following a 30% bleach, dark adaptation was measured at eight loci (±12°). Rod intercept time (RIT) was defined from the time to detect a -3.1 log cd/m2 stimulus. RITslope was defined from the linear fit of RIT with decreasing retinal eccentricity. The presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD), ellipsoid (EZ) band disruption, and drusen at the test loci was evaluated using optical coherence tomography. Scotopic thresholds indicated greater rod function loss in the macula, which correlated with increasing AMD group severity. RITslope, which captures the spatial change in the rate of dark adaptation, increased with AMD severity (P < 0.0001). Three rod function phenotypes emerged: RF1, normal rod function; RF2, normal scotopic thresholds but slowed dark adaptation; and RF3, elevated scotopic thresholds with slowed dark adaptation. Dark adaptation was slowed at all loci with SDD or EZ band disruption, and at 32% of loci with no local structural changes. Three rod function phenotypes were defined from combined measurement of scotopic threshold and dark adaptation. Spatial changes in dark adaptation across the macula were captured with RITslope, which may be a useful outcome measure for functional studies of AMD.

  12. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  13. Cell lineage mapping of taste bud cells and keratinocytes in the mouse tongue and soft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Tadashi; Clark, Cheryl; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2009-02-01

    The epithelium of the mouse tongue and soft palate consists of at least three distinct epithelial cell populations: basal cells, keratinized cells organized into filiform and fungiform papillae, and taste receptor cells present in tight clusters known as taste buds in the fungiform and circumvallate papillae and soft palate. All three cell types develop from the simple epithelium of the embryonic tongue and palate, and are continually replaced in the adult by cell turnover. Previous studies using pulse-chase tritiated thymidine labeling in the adult mouse provided evidence for a high rate of cell turnover in the keratinocytes (5-7 days) and taste buds (10 days). However, little is known about the localization and phenotype of the long-term stem or progenitor cells that give rise to the mature taste bud cells and surrounding keratinocytes in these gustatory tissues. Here, we make use of a tamoxifen-inducible K14-CreER transgene and the ROSA26 LacZ reporter allele to lineage trace the mature keratinocytes and taste bud cells of the early postnatal and adult mouse tongue and soft palate. Our results support the hypothesis that both the pore keratinocytes and receptor cells of the taste bud are derived from a common K14(+)K5(+)Trp63(+)Sox2(+) population of bipotential progenitor cells located outside the taste bud. The results are also compatible with models in which the keratinocytes of the filiform and fungiform papillae are derived from basal progenitor cells localized at the base of these structures.

  14. The role of taste in alcohol preference, consumption and risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Pickering, Gary J

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review. Ethanol, the compound common to all alcoholic beverages, is generally aversive as it primarily elicits bitterness and irritation when ingested. Individuals who experience orosensations (both taste and chemesthetic) more intensely tend to report lower liking and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Additionally, a preference for sweetness is likely associated with a paternal history of alcohol use disorders. However, conflicting findings in the literature are common and may be partially attributable to differences in the methods used to access orosensory responsiveness and taste phenotypes. We conclude that while taste is a key driver in alcohol preference, intake and use disorder, no single taste-related factor can adequately predict alcohol behaviour. Areas for further research and suggestions for improved methodological and analytical approaches are highlighted.

  15. Early experience of a novel-environment in isolation primes a fearful phenotype characterized by persistent amygdala activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Claessens, Sanne E F; Remmers, Elisa; Tjälve, Marika; Oitzl, Melly S; Champagne, Danielle L; de Kloet, E Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged maternal separation (MS) activates the neonate's hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis causing elevated basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels that may initiate amygdala-dependent fear learning. Here we test the hypothesis that the adult fearful phenotype is programmed by the pup's stressful experience during prolonged MS rather than by prolonged maternal absence per se. For this purpose, Wistar rat pups were exposed, on postnatal-day (pnd) 3, to: (i) repeated-MS in home-environment (HOME-SEP), 8h-MS daily for three days with the pups remaining together in the home-cage; (ii) repeated-MS in a novel-environment (NOVEL-SEP), with the same separation procedure, but now the pups were individually housed in a novel-environment during the 8h dam's absence; (iii) repeated handling, which consisted of daily brief (15 min instead of 8h) MS in the home-altogether or in a novel-environment individually (HOME-HAN and NOVEL-HAN, respectively); (iv) no-separation/no-handling (NON-SEP/NON-HAN) control condition, in which pups were left undisturbed in their home-cage. Compared to HOME-SEP rats, the NOVEL-SEP rats showed one day after the last MS enhanced stress-induced amygdala c-Fos expression and ACTH-release, despite of reduced adrenal corticosterone secretion. The higher amygdala c-Fos expression, ACTH-release and reduced corticosterone output observed postnatally, persisted into adulthood of the NOVEL-SEP animals. Behaviorally, NOVEL-SEP juvenile rats displayed deficits in social play, had intact spatial memory in the peri-pubertal period and showed more contextual fear memory compared to HOME-SEP in adulthood. Finally, NOVEL-HAN, compared to HOME-HAN, displayed increased stress-induced corticosterone output, no deficits in social play and reduced contextual fear. In conclusion, programming of an adult fearful phenotype linked to amygdala priming develops if pups are repeatedly isolated from peers in a novel-environment, while away from the dam for a prolonged

  16. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  17. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  18. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of a Highly Evolved Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Isolated from Seawater in Brazil, 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klécia Marília S de Melo Cassemiro

    Full Text Available A type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV, differing from the Sabin 2 strain at 8.6% (78/903 of VP1 nucleotide positions, was isolated from seawater collected from a seaport in São Paulo State, Brazil. The P1/capsid region is related to the Sabin 2 strain, but sequences within the 5'-untranslated region and downstream of the P1 region were derived from recombination with other members of Human Enterovirus Species C (HEV-C. The two known attenuating mutations had reverted to wild-type (A481G in the 5'-UTR and Ile143Thr in VP1. The VDPV isolate had lost the temperature sensitive phenotype and had accumulated amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic (NAg sites 3a and 3b. The date of the initiating OPV dose, estimated from the number of synonymous substitutions in the capsid region, was approximately 8.5 years before seawater sampling, a finding consistent with a long time of virus replication and possible transmission among several individuals. Although no closely related type 2 VDPVs were detected in Brazil or elsewhere, this VDPV was found in an area with a mobile population, where conditions may favor both viral infection and spread. Environmental surveillance serves as an important tool for sensitive and early detection of circulating poliovirus in the final stages of global polio eradication.

  19. Phenotypic characterization of telomerase-immortalized primary non-malignant and malignant tumor-derived human prostate epithelial cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yongpeng; Li Hongzhen; Miki, Jun; Kim, Kee-Hong; Furusato, Bungo; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Chu, Wei-Sing; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv; Ewing, Charles M.; Isaacs, William B.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2006-01-01

    In vitro human prostate cell culture models are critical for clarifying the mechanism of prostate cancer progression and for testing preventive and therapeutic agents. Cell lines ideal for the study of human primary prostate tumors would be those derived from spontaneously immortalized tumor cells; unfortunately, explanted primary prostate cells survive only short-term in culture, and rarely immortalize spontaneously. Therefore, we recently have generated five immortal human prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from both the benign and malignant tissues of prostate cancer patients with telomerase, a gene that prevents cellular senescence. Examination of these cell lines for their morphologies and proliferative capacities, their abilities to grow in low serum, to respond to androgen stimulation, to grow above the agar layer, to form tumors in SCID mice, suggests that they may serve as valid, useful tools for the elucidation of early events in prostate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the chromosome alterations observed in these immortalized cell lines expressing aspects of the malignant phenotypes imply that these cell lines accurately recapitulate the genetic composition of primary tumors. These novel in vitro models may offer unique models for the study of prostate carcinogenesis and also provide the means for testing both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents

  20. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antioxidant enzyme system in human population exposed to radiation from mobile towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sachin; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Priya, Kanu; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    In the present era, cellular phones have changed the life style of human beings completely and have become an essential part of their lives. The number of cell phones and cell towers are increasing in spite of their disadvantages. These cell towers transmit radiation continuously without any interruption, so people living within 100s of meters from the tower receive 10,000 to 10,000,000 times stronger signal than required for mobile communication. In the present study, we have examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation assay, and effect of functional polymorphism of SOD and CAT antioxidant genes against mobile tower-induced oxidative stress in human population. From our results, we have found a significantly lower mean value of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, and a high value of lipid peroxidation assay in exposed as compared to control subjects. Polymorphisms in antioxidant MnSOD and CAT genes significantly contributed to its phenotype. In the current study, a significant association of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant genes with genetic damage has been observed in human population exposed to radiations emitted from mobile towers.

  1. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Erwiniua carotovora spp. carotovora (JOnes Bergey et al. Isolates from Grafted Tomato in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fiori

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A disease symptomatically similar to that caused by Erwinia carotovora occurred on “Cuore di Bue” and “Cencara” tomato plants grafted on “Beaufort” and “He-Man”, or ungrafted, in greenhouses in Sardinia (Italy. Symptoms were: dark brown/black longitudinal stem lesions, soft stem rot, pith breakdown of the stems, hollow stems, vascular tissue discoloration, wilting and collapse of the plants. Numerous bacterial colonies from stem tissues were isolated on yeast extract salts (YS medium. Seven isolates (DPP As-1, DPP As-2, DPP As-3, DPP As-14, DPP Pu6, DPP Pu7 e DPP Pu8 were selected on the basis of their ability to cause rot on potato pieces and a hypersensitivity reaction in “White burley” tobacco leaves. Pathogenicity tests revealed that five of these isolates infected artichoke, basil, dwarf bean, fennel, marrow, melon, pepper, eggplant, grafted and ungrafted tomato, and white cabbage. Of the remaining two isolates, one (DPP As-1 did not infect white cabbage, and the other (DPP Pu8 did not infect basil, marrow or white cabbage. Phenotypic properties and ELISA, also performed on naturally infected tissues, revealed that all the isolates were E. c. ssp. carotovora (Jones Bergey et al. PCR-RFLP analysis placed two (DPP As-2 and DPP As-3 of the seven isolates in RFLP group 8. Five isolates belonged to a hitherto unknown RFLP group. Prevention and control measures for this disease are suggested.

  2. Phenotypic, molecular characterization, antimicrobial susceptibility and draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium argentoratense strains isolated from clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fernández-Natal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a 12-year period we isolated five Corynebacterium argentoratense strains identified by phenotypic methods, including the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility was determined, and genome sequencing for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes was performed. The organisms were isolated from blood and throat cultures and could be identified by all methods used. All strains were resistant to cotrimoxazole, and resistance to β-lactams was partly present. Two strains were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. The draft genome sequences of theses isolates revealed the presence of the erm(X resistance gene that is embedded in the genetic structure of the transposable element Tn5423. Although rarely reported as a human pathogen, C. argentoratense can be involved in bacteraemia and probably in other infections. Our results also show that horizontal transfer of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance is occurring in this species.

  3. Resistance to DNA Damaging Agents Produced Invasive Phenotype of Rat Glioma Cells—Characterization of a New in Vivo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stojković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemoresistance and invasion properties are severe limitations to efficient glioma therapy. Therefore, development of glioma in vivo models that more accurately resemble the situation observed in patients emerges. Previously, we established RC6 rat glioma cell line resistant to DNA damaging agents including antiglioma approved therapies such as 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU and temozolomide (TMZ. Herein, we evaluated the invasiveness of RC6 cells in vitro and in a new orthotopic animal model. For comparison, we used C6 cells from which RC6 cells originated. Differences in cell growth properties were assessed by real-time cell analyzer. Cells’ invasive potential in vitro was studied in fluorescently labeled gelatin and by formation of multicellular spheroids in hydrogel. For animal studies, fluorescently labeled cells were inoculated into adult male Wistar rat brains. Consecutive coronal and sagittal brain sections were analyzed 10 and 25 days post-inoculation, while rats’ behavior was recorded during three days in the open field test starting from 25th day post-inoculation. We demonstrated that development of chemoresistance induced invasive phenotype of RC6 cells with significant behavioral impediments implying usefulness of orthotopic RC6 glioma allograft in preclinical studies for the examination of new approaches to counteract both chemoresistance and invasion of glioma cells.

  4. Global Phenotypic Characterization of Effects of Fluoroquinolone Resistance Selection on the Metabolic Activities and Drug Susceptibilities of Clostridium perfringens Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miseon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone resistance affects toxin production of Clostridium perfringens strains differently. To investigate the effect of fluoroquinolone resistance selection on global changes in metabolic activities and drug susceptibilities, four C. perfringens strains and their norfloxacin-, ciprofloxacin-, and gatifloxacin-resistant mutants were compared in nearly 2000 assays, using phenotype microarray plates. Variations among mutant strains resulting from resistance selection were observed in all aspects of metabolism. Carbon utilization, pH range, osmotic tolerance, and chemical sensitivity of resistant strains were affected differently in the resistant mutants depending on both the bacterial genotype and the fluoroquinolone to which the bacterium was resistant. The susceptibilities to gentamicin and erythromycin of all resistant mutants except one increased, but some resistant strains were less susceptible to amoxicillin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and metronidazole than their wild types. Sensitivity to ethidium bromide decreased in some resistant mutants and increased in others. Microarray analysis of two gatifloxacin-resistant mutants showed changes in metabolic activities that were correlated with altered expression of various genes. Both the chemical structures of fluoroquinolones and the genomic makeup of the wild types influenced the changes found in resistant mutants, which may explain some inconsistent reports of the effects of therapeutic use of fluoroquinolones on clinical isolates of bacteria.

  5. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds

  7. Prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples of pediatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, south west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toru, Milkiyas; Beyene, Getnet; Kassa, Tesfaye; Gizachew, Zeleke; Howe, Rawleigh; Yeshitila, Biruk

    2018-05-08

    This study was done to determine the prevalence and phenotypic characterization of Enterococcus species isolated from clinical samples of pediatric patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of Enterococci species was 5.5% (22/403). Five (22.7%) of Enterococci species were vancomycin resistant. Haemolysin, gelatinase and biofilm production was seen among 45.5, 68.2 and 77.3% of isolates respectively. The overall rate of antibiotic resistance was 95.5% (21/22). High resistance was observed against norfloxacin (87.5%), and tetracycline (77.3%). Whereas, low resistance (36.5%) was observed against ciprofloxacin and eighteen (80.8%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant.

  8. Phenotypic and genomic characterization of the antimicrobial producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3 isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea: insights into its biotechnological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in plant microbiota; however, despite medicinal plant relevance, very little is known about their highly complex endophytic communities. In this work, we report on the genomic and phenotypic characterization of the antimicrobial compound producer Rheinheimera sp. EpRS3, a bacterial strain isolated from the rhizospheric soil of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. In particular, EpRS3 is able to inhibit growth of different bacterial pathogens (Bcc, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) which might be related to the presence of gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of different types of secondary metabolites. The outcomes presented in this work highlight the fact that the strain possesses huge biotechnological potential; indeed, it also shows antimicrobial effects upon well-described multidrug-resistant (MDR) human pathogens, and it affects plant root elongation and morphology, mimicking indole acetic acid (IAA) action. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Fgf signaling controls pharyngeal taste bud formation through miR-200 and Delta-Notch activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Gibon, Guillaume; Dirian, Lara; Ernest, Sylvain; Rosa, Frederic M

    2011-08-01

    Taste buds, the taste sensory organs, are conserved in vertebrates and composed of distinct cell types, including taste receptor, basal/presynaptic and support cells. Here, we characterize zebrafish taste bud development and show that compromised Fgf signaling in the larva results in taste bud reduction and disorganization. We determine that Fgf activity is required within pharyngeal endoderm for formation of Calb2b(+) cells and reveal miR-200 and Delta-Notch signaling as key factors in this process. miR-200 knock down shows that miR-200 activity is required for taste bud formation and in particular for Calb2b(+) cell formation. Compromised delta activity in mib(-/-) dramatically reduces the number of Calb2b(+) cells and increases the number of 5HT(+) cells. Conversely, larvae with increased Notch activity and ascl1a(-/-) mutants are devoid of 5HT(+) cells, but have maintained and increased Calb2b(+) cells, respectively. These results show that Delta-Notch signaling is required for intact taste bud organ formation. Consistent with this, Notch activity restores Calb2b(+) cell formation in pharyngeal endoderm with compromised Fgf signaling, but fails to restore the formation of these cells after miR-200 knock down. Altogether, this study provides genetic evidence that supports a novel model where Fgf regulates Delta-Notch signaling, and subsequently miR-200 activity, in order to promote taste bud cell type differentiation.

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus friend or foe?-spoilage potential and brewing ability of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus yeast isolates by genetic, phenotypic and physiological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Dörnberg, Tim; Kory, Oliver Ingo; Jacob, Fritz; Michel, Maximilian; Hutzler, Mathias

    2018-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae variety diastaticus is generally considered to be an obligatory spoilage microorganism and spoilage yeast in beer and beer-mixed beverages. Their super-attenuating ability causes increased carbon dioxide concentrations, beer gushing and potential bottle explosion along with changes in flavor, sedimentation and increased turbidity. This research shows clear differences in the super-attenuating properties of S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus yeast strains and their potential for industrial brewing applications. Nineteen unknown spoilage yeast cultures were obtained as isolates and characterized using a broad spectrum of genetic and phenotypic methods. Results indicated that all isolates represent genetically different S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains except for strain TUM PI BA 124. Yeast strains were screened for their super-attenuating ability and sporulation. Even if the STA1 gene responsible for super-attenuation by encoding for the enzyme glucoamylase could be verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, no correlation to the spoilage potential could be demonstrated. Seven strains were further characterized focusing on brewing and sensory properties according to the yeast characterization platform developed by Meier-Dörnberg. Yeast strain TUM 3-H-2 cannot metabolize dextrin and soluble starch and showed no spoilage potential or super-attenuating ability even when the strain belongs to the species S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus. Overall, the beer produced with S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus has a dry and winey body with noticeable phenolic off-flavors desirable in German wheat beers.

  11. Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste ("sweet," "sour," "salty," and "bitter") and odor ("other") intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste-odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of "cherry" and "vanilla" flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication of taste sensor for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kuriyaki, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    In order to solve the unconcern to usefulness of learning science among high school students in Japan, we developed a simple fabricated taste sensor with sensitivity and selectivity to each taste quality, which can be applied in science class. A commercialized Teflon membrane was used as the polymer membrane holding lipids. In addition, a non-adhesive method is considered to combine the membrane and the sensor electrode using a plastic cap which is easily accessible. The taste sensor for education fabricated in this way showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. By adjusting the composition of trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMA) and phosphoric acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester (PAEE) included in lipid solution, we improved the selectivity of this simple taste sensor to saltiness and sourness. To verify this taste sensor as a useful science teaching material for science class, we applied this taste sensor into a science class for university students. By comparing the results between the sensory test and the sensor response, humans taste showed the same tendency just as the sensor response, which proved the sensor as a useful teaching material for science class.

  13. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy

  14. Characterization of the metabolic phenotype of rapamycin-treated CD8+ T cells with augmented ability to generate long-lasting memory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular metabolism plays a critical role in regulating T cell responses and the development of memory T cells with long-term protections. However, the metabolic phenotype of antigen-activated T cells that are responsible for the generation of long-lived memory cells has not been characterized. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV peptide gp33-specific CD8(+ T cells derived from T cell receptor transgenic mice, we characterized the metabolic phenotype of proliferating T cells that were activated and expanded in vitro in the presence or absence of rapamycin, and determined the capability of these rapamycin-treated T cells to generate long-lived memory cells in vivo. RESULTS: Antigen-activated CD8(+ T cells treated with rapamycin gave rise to 5-fold more long-lived memory T cells in vivo than untreated control T cells. In contrast to that control T cells only increased glycolysis, rapamycin-treated T cells upregulated both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. These rapamycin-treated T cells had greater ability than control T cells to survive withdrawal of either glucose or growth factors. Inhibition of OXPHOS by oligomycin significantly reduced the ability of rapamycin-treated T cells to survive growth factor withdrawal. This effect of OXPHOS inhibition was accompanied with mitochondrial hyperpolarization and elevation of reactive oxygen species that are known to be toxic to cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that these rapamycin-treated T cells may represent a unique cell model for identifying nutrients and signals critical to regulating metabolism in both effector and memory T cells, and for the development of new methods to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell cancer therapy.

  15. Functional promoter haplotypes of the human FAS gene are associated with the phenotype of SLE characterized by thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, R L; Kelly, J A; Pociot, F

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by production of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens and tissue injury. Defective apoptosis of activated immune cells leads to the development of autoantibodies in SLE. FasL initiated apoptosis is central...... for peripheral tolerance. Fas deficiencies in humans and mice predispose toward systemic autoimmunity. SLE is conferred by many genes. The genetic effects may be concentrated by familial clustering or by stratifying of subphenotypes. We have tested polymorphisms and haplotypes in FAS and FASL for association...... to SLE or subphenotypes in 126 multiplex American SLE pedigrees and found association of the FAS codon214 AC(C/T) as well as the FAS-670G>A'-codon214 AC(C/T)' haplotype to thrombocytopenia in SLE. Furthermore we have functionally characterized the FAS/FASL promoter polymorphisms associated with SLE...

  16. Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Amelian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral

  17. Characterization of Phenotypic and Transcriptional Differences in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells under 2D and 3D Culture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Ken-Ichiro; Koyama, Yoshie; Tokunaga, Yumie; Mashimo, Yasumasa; Yoshioka, Momoko; Fockenberg, Christopher; Mosbergen, Rowland; Korn, Othmar; Wells, Christine; Chen, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for applications in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Microfluidic technology is a promising approach for creating artificial microenvironments; however, although a proper 3D microenvironment is required to achieve robust control of cellular phenotypes, most current microfluidic devices provide only 2D cell culture and do not allow tuning of physical and chemical environmental cues simultaneously. Here, the authors report a 3D cellular microenvironment plate (3D-CEP), which consists of a microfluidic device filled with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-β-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel (HG), which enables systematic tuning of both chemical and physical environmental cues as well as in situ cell monitoring. The authors show that H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and 253G1 human induced pluripotent stem cells in the HG/3D-CEP system maintain their pluripotent marker expression under HG/3D-CEP self-renewing conditions. Additionally, global gene expression analyses are used to elucidate small variations among different test environments. Interestingly, the authors find that treatment of H9 hESCs under HG/3D-CEP self-renewing conditions results in initiation of entry into the neural differentiation process by induction of PAX3 and OTX1 expression. The authors believe that this HG/3D-CEP system will serve as a versatile platform for developing targeted functional cell lines and facilitate advances in drug screening and regenerative medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Spike rate and spike timing contributions to coding taste quality information in rat periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon eLawhern

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that individual sensory neurons in the rodent brain rely on temporal features of the discharge pattern to code differences in taste quality information. In contrast, in-vestigations of individual sensory neurons in the periphery have focused on analysis of spike rate and mostly disregarded spike timing as a taste quality coding mechanism. The purpose of this work was to determine the contribution of spike timing to taste quality coding by rat geniculate ganglion neurons using computational methods that have been applied successfully in other sys-tems. We recorded the discharge patterns of narrowly-tuned and broadly-tuned neurons in the rat geniculate ganglion to representatives of the five basic taste qualities. We used mutual in-formation to determine significant responses and the van Rossum metric to characterize their temporal features. While our findings show that spike timing contributes a significant part of the message, spike rate contributes the largest portion of the message relayed by afferent neurons from rat fungiform taste buds to the brain. Thus, spike rate and spike timing together are more effective than spike rate alone in coding stimulus quality information to a single basic taste in the periphery for both narrowly-tuned specialist and broadly-tuned generalist neurons.

  19. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Reduces Taste-Evoked ATP Secretion from Mouse Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2015-09-16

    Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that peripheral afferent nerve fibers innervating taste buds contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which may be as an efferent transmitter released from peripheral axon terminals. In this report, we determined the targets of CGRP within taste buds and studied what effect CGRP exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura-2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings showed that a subset of Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells (53%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP. Using pharmacological tools, the actions of CGRP were probed and elucidated by the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). We demonstrated that this effect of CGRP was dependent on phospholipase C activation and was prevented by the inhibitor U73122. Moreover, applying CGRP caused taste buds to secrete serotonin (5-HT), a Presynaptic (Type III) cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor (Type II) cell transmitter. Further, our previous studies showed that 5-HT released from Presynaptic (Type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells by activating 5-HT1A receptors, and reducing ATP secretion. Our data showed that CGRP-evoked 5-HT release reduced taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for CGRP as an inhibitory transmitter that shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling during processing gustatory information in taste buds. The taste sensation is initiated with a highly complex set of interactions between a variety of cells located within the taste buds before signal propagation to the brain. Afferent signals from the oral cavity are carried to the brain in chemosensory fibers that contribute to chemesthesis, the general chemical sensitivity of the mucus

  20. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2018-01-30

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  1. Development of printed sensors for taste sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an idea of developing taste sensors using novel printed sensors. The raw materials used for developing the sensors were commercial polymer films. Powered graphene was produced using laser induction technique. This powder was separately transferred to Kapton tapes to developed flexible graphene sensors. The fabricated sensors were tested with different chemicals having specific attributes with the idea to develop a taste sensor. Three different types of chemicals were tested and analyzed to verify the ability of the developed sensor patch to differentiate between the individual chemicals. The initial results have provided a significant platform in the process of developing a fully functionalized taste sensing system.

  2. Receptosecretory nature of type III cells in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Sumio

    2009-01-01

    Type III cells in taste buds form chemical synapses with intragemmal afferent nerve fibers and are characterized by the presence of membrane-bound vesicles in the cytoplasm. Although the vesicles differ in shape and size among species, they are primarily categorized into small clear (40 nm in diameter) and large dense-cored (90-200 nm) types. As such vesicles tend to be closely juxtaposed to the synaptic membrane of the cells, it is reasonable to consider that the vesicles include transmitter(s) towards the gustatory nerve. In the guinea-pig taste bud, stimulation with various taste substances (sucrose, sodium chloride, quinine hydrochloride, or monosodium L-glutamate) causes ultrastructural alterations of the type III cells. At the synapse, the presynaptic plasma membrane often displays invaginations of 90 nm in a mean diameter towards the cytoplasm, which indicates the dense-cored vesicles opening into the synaptic cleft by means of exocytosis. The vesicles are also exocytosed at the non-synaptic region into the intercellular space. These findings strongly suggest that the transmitters presumably contained in the vesicles are released to conduct the excitement of the type III cells to the nerves and also to exert their paracrine effects upon the surroundings, such as the Ebner's salivary gland, acting as local hormones.

  3. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  4. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Dotson, Cedrick D; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Ji, Sunggoan; Drucker, Daniel J; Maudsley, Stuart; Munger, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Modulation of sensory function can help animals adjust to a changing external and internal environment. Even so, mechanisms for modulating taste sensitivity are poorly understood. Using immunohistochemical, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, we found that the peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor (GLP-1R) are expressed in mammalian taste buds. Furthermore, we found that GLP-1 signaling plays an important role in the modulation of taste sensitivity: GLP-1R knockout mice exhibit a dramatic reduction in sweet taste sensitivity as well as an enhanced sensitivity to umami-tasting stimuli. Together, these findings suggest a novel paracrine mechanism for the hormonal modulation of taste function in mammals.

  5. Psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and desire for more chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Jennifer A; Bradley, Lauren E; Leitzsch, Jessica B; Chohan, Omar; Fasulo, Kristy; Haller, Josie; Jaeger, Kristin; Szulanczyk, Benjamin; Del Parigi, Angelo

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and to evaluate the contribution of the main chocolate components to the desire to consume more of it. A total of 280 participants, (F-155; M=125) ranging in age from 18-65, completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to taste 12.5 g of either white chocolate ("control") or one of four chocolate ("cocoa") samples varying in sugar, fat and percent cocoa content, then answered the question: "Do you want more of this chocolate?" and "If yes, how many more pieces of this chocolate would you like to eat?" They completed pre- and post-consumption surveys, consisting of 30 questions derived from the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) subscales, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG), Morphine (M) and Excitement (E). Significant decreases in post-pre consumption changes in MBG subscale were observed between the control sample and the 70% cocoa (p=0.046) or the 85% cocoa sample (p=0.0194). Proportionally more men than women wanted more of the tasted chocolate (p=0.035). Participants were more likely to want more of the tasted chocolate if they displayed a greater change in the MBG scale, and if their chocolate sample had high sugar and cocoa content, as assessed by multiple logistic regression. Our results suggest that multiple characteristics of chocolate, including sugar, cocoa and the drug-like effects experienced, play a role in the desire to consume chocolate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bitter and sweet tasting molecules: It's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, Yaron; Hayes, John E; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-04-19

    "Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25-member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs. Molecules humans describe as sweet are recognized by a TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer of class C GPCRs. Here we characterize the chemical space of bitter and sweet molecules: the majority of bitter compounds show higher hydrophobicity compared to sweet compounds, while sweet molecules have a wider range of sizes. Importantly, recent evidence indicates that TAS1Rs and TAS2Rs are not limited to the oral cavity; moreover, some bitterants are pharmacologically promiscuous, with the hERG potassium channel, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and carbonic anhydrases as common off-targets. Further focus on polypharmacology may unravel new physiological roles for tastant molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization and Treatment of a Cohort with Familial Tumoral Calcinosis/Hyperostosis-Hyperphosphatemia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Gourh, Pravitt; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Wodajo, Felasfa; Ichikawa, Shoji; Econs, Michael J.; White, Kenneth; Molinolo, Alfredo; Chen, Marcus Y.; Heller, Theo; Del Rivero, Jaydira; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Arabshahi, Bita; Jackson, Malaka B.; Hatab, Sarah; McCarthy, Edward; Guthrie, Lori C.; Brillante, Beth A.; Gafni, Rachel I.; Collins, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Familial tumoral calcinosis (FTC)/hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome (HHS) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 (GALNT3), or KLOTHO. The result is functional deficiency of, or resistance to, intact FGF23 (iFGF23), causing hyperphosphatemia, increased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus (TRP), elevated or inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), ectopic calcifications and/or diaphyseal hyperostosis. Eight subjects with FTC/HHS were studied and treated. Clinical manifestations varied, even within families, ranging from asymptomatic to large, disabling calcifications. All subjects had hyperphosphatemia, increased TRP, and elevated or inappropriately normal 1,25D. C-terminal FGF23 was markedly elevated while iFGF23 was comparatively low, consistent with increased FGF23 cleavage. Radiographs ranged from diaphyseal hyperostosis to massive calcification. Two subjects with severe calcifications also had overwhelming systemic inflammation and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). GALNT3 mutations were identified in 7 subjects; no causative mutation was found in the eighth. Biopsies from 4 subjects showed ectopic calcification and chronic inflammation, with areas of heterotopic ossification observed in 1 subject. Treatment with low phosphate diet, phosphate binders, and phosphaturia-inducing therapies was prescribed with variable response. One subject experienced complete resolution of a calcific mass after 13 months of medical treatment. In the 2 subjects with systemic inflammation, interleukin-1 (IL-1) antagonists significantly decreased CRP levels with resolution of calcinosis cutis and peri-lesional inflammation in one subject and improvement of overall well-being in both subjects. This cohort expands the phenotype and genotype of FTC/HHS and demonstrates the range of clinical manifestations despite similar biochemical profiles and genetic mutations

  8. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: co...

  9. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  10. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  11. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  12. (PTC) taste sensitivity, ABO and Rhesus factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    diseases [11], thyroid disorders, gastrointestinal ulcers and sus- ceptibility to ... forensic pathology. It has also been ... haemolysate from venous blood of the subjects was placed ..... Phenylthiocarbamide taste sensitivity in chronic peptic ulcer.

  13. NEURAL ORGANIZATION OF SENSORY INFORMATIONS FOR TASTE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    TASTE , ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY), (*NERVES, *TONGUE), NERVE CELLS, NERVE IMPULSES, PHYSIOLOGY, NERVOUS SYSTEM, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), NERVE FIBERS, RATS...HAMSTERS, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), PERCEPTION, COOLING, BEHAVIOR, PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, TEMPERATURE, THRESHOLDS(PHYSIOLOGY), CHEMORECEPTORS , STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, JAPAN

  14. Musical taste, employment, education, and global region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W

    2013-10-01

    Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  15. Quantitative analysis of developing epiglottal taste buds in sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, R M; Cheal, M L; Kim, Y H

    1980-01-01

    Epiglottal taste buds of the sheep increase in number during development, and continue to increase until the epiglottis has reached its adult size. However, since the increase in taste bud numbers is paralleled by increase in the surface area of the epiglottis, the density of taste buds decreases progressively in the fetus and newborn. After birth the density remains relatively constant. From examination of the morphological stages of epiglottal taste bud development, we conclude that taste b...

  16. First isolation, identification, phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Brucella abortus biovar 3 from dairy cattle in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, C; Stokstad, M; Johansen, T B; Klevar, S; Mdegela, R H; Mwamengele, G; Michel, P; Escobar, L; Fretin, D; Godfroid, J

    2015-07-21

    Brucellosis is a disease of worldwide public health and economic importance. Successful control is based on knowledge of epidemiology and strains present in an area. In developing countries, most investigations are based on serological assays. This study aimed at investigating a dairy herd experiencing abortions in order to establish within-herd seroprevalence to Brucella spp., identify, characterize Brucella strains by Multiple Loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA-VNTR) and investigate possible spillover to other species. The within-herd seroprevalence in cattle (n = 200) was 48 % (95 % CI 41-55), using an indirect ELISA, while the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) yielded lower prevalence (21.5 %; 95 % CI 16-27). Two sheep (n = 35) and one goat (n = 50) were seropositive using ELISA while none of the dogs (n = 6) was positive with the RBT. Three Brucella were isolated from an aborted fetus and associated membranes. Real time PCR (IS711), Bruce-ladder and classical biotyping classified the isolates as B. abortus biovar 3. MLVA-VNTR revealed two different but closely related genotypes. The isolates showed unique profiles, providing the first genotypic data from Tanzania. These genotypes were not related to B. abortus biovar 3 reference strain Tulya originally isolated from a human patient in Uganda in 1958, unlike the genotypes isolated and characterized recently in Kenya. High within-herd prevalence, isolation of the pathogen and abortion confirm that B. abortus is circulating in this herd with cattle as reservoir hosts. A low seroprevalence in sheep and goats suggests a spillover of B. abortus from cattle to small ruminants in the herd. This is the first isolation and characterization of B. abortus biovar 3 from a dairy cow with abortion in Tanzania. The origin of the Tanzanian genotypes remain elusive, although they seem to be related to genotypes found in Europe, Turkey and China but not related to B. abortus biovar 3 reference strain or genotypes from

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of clinically relevant bacteria isolated from dental waste and waste workers' hands, mucosas and coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, T L; Vieira, C D; de Carvalho, M A R; Ladeira, L C D; Magalhães, P P; de Macêdo Farias, L; Dos Santos, S G

    2017-10-01

    Infectious wastes are potential sources of pathogenic micro-organisms, which may represent a risk to the professionals who manage them. In this study, we aimed to characterize the infectious bacteria present in dental waste and waste workers. The dental waste produced over 24 h was collected and waste workers were sampled by swabbing. Isolate resistance profiles were characterized by Vitek ® and PCR and biofilm formation by Congo Red agar, string test and microtitre assay. To assess similarity between the waste and the workers' samples, a random amplified polymorphic DNA test was used. Twenty-eight bacteria were identified as clinically relevant. The most frequent gene was bla TEM present in five Gram-negative micro-organisms, and one bla SHV in Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Pseudomonas aeruginosa were positive to extracellular polymeric substances formation, except one isolated from a worker. Klebsiella pneumoniae had negative results for the string test. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed better adherence at 25°C after 48 h of incubation and K. pneumonia had the best biofilm formation at the same temperature, after 24 h. The similarity between P. aeruginosa recovered from dental waste and from workers was low, however, it is important to note that a pathogen was found on a worker's hands and that improvements in biosafety are required. Infectious dental waste can contain clinically relevant bacteria with important resistance and biofilm profiles. These micro-organisms could be transmitted to waste workers, other professionals and patients if the principles of biosafety measures are neglected. To our knowledge, no study has ever evaluated the microbial characterization and the potential contamination risk of dental infectious waste and waste handlers. The presence of clinically relevant bacteria in the hands and nasal mucosa of waste workers highlights the need for studies in this field to clarify the risk of these pathogens in dental healthcare services, and to

  18. Controlling taste and odour levels in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, A J

    1980-12-01

    Taste and odor of drinking water supplies act as indicator mechanisms, indicating increased degrees of biological activity, possible contamination of the supply, treatment inadequacies, or contamination of the distribution systems. Disinfection and coagulation are effective preventive measures. Taste and odor problems may arise even with the application of preventive measures, so protective and treatment techniques must be implemented. These include chlorination and activated carbon absorption. (1 photo, 3 references, 1 table)

  19. Taste Receptor Signaling-- From Tongues to Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50–100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second messenger signaling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signaling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli, and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signaling effectors that include Gβγ activation of PLCβ2, IP3-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and Ca2+-dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials, and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The Gα subunit, α-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signaling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signaling effectors as taste cells. PMID:21481196

  20. Phenotypic characterization of autoreactive B cells--checkpoints of B cell tolerance in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett M Jacobi

    Full Text Available DNA-reactive B cells play a central role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; DNA antibodies precede clinical disease and in established disease correlate with renal inflammation and contribute to dendritic cell activation and high levels of type 1 interferon. A number of central and peripheral B cell tolerance mechanisms designed to control the survival, differentiation and activation of autoreactive B cells are thought to be disturbed in patients with SLE. The characterization of DNA-reactive B cells has, however, been limited by their low frequency in peripheral blood. Using a tetrameric configuration of a peptide mimetope of DNA bound by pathogenic anti-DNA antibodies, we can identify B cells producing potentially pathogenic DNA-reactive antibodies. We, therefore, characterized the maturation and differentiation states of peptide, (ds double stranded DNA cross-reactive B cells in the peripheral blood of lupus patients and correlated these with clinical disease activity. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of tetramer-binding B cells in SLE patients compared to healthy controls. We demonstrated the existence of a novel tolerance checkpoint at the transition of antigen-naïve to antigen-experienced. We further demonstrate that patients with moderately active disease have more autoreactive B cells in both the antigen-naïve and antigen-experienced compartments consistent with greater impairment in B cell tolerance in both early and late checkpoints in these patients than in patients with quiescent disease. This methodology enables us to gain insight into the development and fate of DNA-reactive B cells in individual patients with SLE and paves the way ultimately to permit better and more customized therapies.

  1. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical isolates collected through national antimicrobial resistance surveillance network in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Geeta; Kim, Dong Wook; Clemens, John D; Malla, Sarala; Upadhyaya, Bishnu Prasad; Dumre, Shyam Prakash; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Adhikari, Shailaja; Sharma, Supriya; Rijal, Nisha; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Mason, Carl; Kansakar, Palpasa

    2012-08-01

    Cholera occurs in sporadic cases and outbreaks in Nepal each year. Vibrio cholerae O1 (n = 522) isolated during 2007-2010 from diarrheal patients at 10 different hospital laboratories in Nepal were characterized. Biochemical and serologic identifications showed that all the isolates belonged to serogroup O1, El Tor biotype. Except 72 isolates of Inaba serotype isolated in the year 2007, all the remaining isolates were of Ogawa serotype. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and furazolidone. Resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole were 21, 4, 16 and 90 % respectively. Seventy-seven of these isolates were selected for further characterization for ctxB gene and MLVA typing. Two different variants of classical type cholera toxin were observed. Ogawa strains from 2007 and 2010-Western Nepal outbreak harbored CTX-3 type cholera toxin, whereas Inaba serotypes in 2007 and the remaining Ogawa serotypes in 2008-2010 harbored CTX 3b-type toxin. MLVA analysis showed circulation of four different groups of altered V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains. Two different profiles were seen among 2007 Inaba (9, 3, 6, x, x) and Ogawa (10, 7, 6, x, x) isolates. The MLVA profile of 2008 and 2009 Ogawa isolates were similar to those of Inaba strains of 2007. Isolates from 2010 also showed three different MLVA profiles; profile 9, 3, 6, x, x in 3 isolates, 11, 7, 6, x, x among 2010 Western Nepal outbreak strains and profile 8, 3, 6, x, x among isolates from Butwal and Kathmandu.

  2. Quantification of taste of green tea with taste sensor; Aji sensor wo mochiita ryokucha no aji no teiryoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezaki, H.; Taniguchi, A. [Anritsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    We have developed a multichannel taste sensor with artificial lipid membranes and have applied it to quantification of taste of green tea. We used multiple regression analysis and found high correlations of outputs of the taste sensor with the results of sensory test (taste, flavor and color) and chemical analyses (amino acids and tannin that are main taste substances in green tea). It is concluded that the taste sensor has a potential for quantification of taste of green tea. The taste sensor responds not only to amino acids and tannin, but also to many other taste substances, and hence it contains much more taste information than conventional chemical analyses. 12 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  4. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  5. Whole transcriptome profiling of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sunil K; Lewandowski, Brian C; Qin, Yumei; Kotha, Ramana; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Margolskee, Robert F

    2017-08-08

    Analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data can provide insights into the specific functions of individual cell types that compose complex tissues. Here, we examined gene expression in two distinct subpopulations of mouse taste cells: Tas1r3-expressing type II cells and physiologically identified type III cells. Our RNA-Seq libraries met high quality control standards and accurately captured differential expression of marker genes for type II (e.g. the Tas1r genes, Plcb2, Trpm5) and type III (e.g. Pkd2l1, Ncam, Snap25) taste cells. Bioinformatics analysis showed that genes regulating responses to stimuli were up-regulated in type II cells, while pathways related to neuronal function were up-regulated in type III cells. We also identified highly expressed genes and pathways associated with chemotaxis and axon guidance, providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying integration of new taste cells into the taste bud. We validated our results by immunohistochemically confirming expression of selected genes encoding synaptic (Cplx2 and Pclo) and semaphorin signalling pathway (Crmp2, PlexinB1, Fes and Sema4a) components. The approach described here could provide a comprehensive map of gene expression for all taste cell subpopulations and will be particularly relevant for cell types in taste buds and other tissues that can be identified only by physiological methods.

  6. Metallic taste from electrical and chemical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Harry T; Stevens, David A; Chapman, Kathryn W; Kurtz, Anne

    2005-03-01

    A series of three experiments investigated the nature of metallic taste reports after stimulation with solutions of metal salts and after stimulation with metals and electric currents. To stimulate with electricity, a device was fabricated consisting of a small battery affixed to a plastic handle with the anode side exposed for placement on the tongue or oral tissues. Intensity of taste from metals and batteries was dependent upon the voltage and was more robust in areas dense in fungiform papillae. Metallic taste was reported from stimulation with ferrous sulfate solutions, from metals and from electric stimuli. However, reports of metallic taste were more frequent when the word 'metallic' was presented embedded in a list of choices, as opposed to simple free-choice labeling. Intensity decreased for ferrous sulfate when the nose was occluded, consistent with a decrease in retronasal smell, as previously reported. Intensity of taste evoked by copper metal, bimetallic stimuli (zinc/copper) or small batteries (1.5-3 V) was not affected by nasal occlusion. This difference suggests two distinct mechanisms for evocation of metallic taste reports, one dependent upon retronasal smell and a second mediated by oral chemoreceptors.

  7. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Phenotypic characterization of an older adult male with late-onset epilepsy and a novel mutation in ASXL3 shows overlap with the associated Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhoeven W

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Willem Verhoeven,1,2 Jos Egger,1,3 Emmy Räkers,4 Arjen van Erkelens,5 Rolph Pfundt,5 Marjolein H Willemsen5 1Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Venray, the Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 4ASVZ, Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Sliedrecht, the Netherlands; 5Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: The additional sex combs like 3 gene is considered to be causative for the rare Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome (BRPS, which is characterized by severe intellectual disability, neonatal hypotonia, nearly absent development of speech and language as well as several facial dysmorphisms. Apart from disruptive autistiform behaviors, sleep disturbances and epileptic phenomena may be present. Here, a 47-year-old severely intellectually disabled male is described in whom exome sequencing disclosed a novel heterozygous frameshift mutation in the ASXL3 gene leading to a premature stopcodon in the last part of the last exon. Mutations in this very end 3' of the gene have not been reported before in BRPS. The phenotypical presentation of the patient including partially therapy-resistant epilepsy starting in later adulthood shows overlap with BRPS, and it was therefore concluded that the phenotype is likely explained by the identified mutation in ASXL3. Keywords: Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome, ASLX3, frameshift mutation, epilepsy, intellectual disability, array analysis, whole exome sequencing, autism spectrum disorder

  9. Adverse metabolic phenotype of female offspring exposed to preeclampsia in utero: a characterization of the BPH/5 mouse in postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Lob, Heinrich E; Song, Jiunn; Xia, YunWei; Butler, Scott; Liu, Chin-Chi; Redman, Leanne M; Sones, Jenny L

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating disorder of pregnancy that classically presents with maternal hypertension and proteinuria after 20 wk of gestation. In addition to being a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity/mortality, epidemiological and prospective studies have revealed long-term consequences for both the mother and baby of preeclamptic pregnancies, including chronic hypertension as well as other cardiovascular diseases and metabolic derangements. To better understand the effect of in utero exposure of PE on offspring, we utilized the BPH/5 mouse, a spontaneous model of the maternal and fetal PE syndrome. We hypothesized that young BPH/5 offspring would have altered metabolic and cardiovascular phenotypes. Indeed, BPH/5 growth-restricted offspring showed excess catch-up growth by early adulthood due to hyperphagia and increased white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation, with inflammation markers isolated to the reproductive WAT depot only. Both excessive WAT accumulation and the inflammatory WAT phenotype were corrected by pair-feeding young BPH/5 female mice. We also found that young BPH/5 female mice showed evidence of leptin resistance. Indeed, chronic hyperleptinemia has been shown to characterize other rodent models of PE; however, the maternal metabolic profile before pregnancy has not been fully understood. Furthermore, we found that these mice show signs of cardiovascular anomalies (hypertension and cardiomegaly) and altered signaling within the reproductive axis in early life. Future studies will involve challenging the physiological metabolic state of BPH/5 mice through pair-feeding to reduce WAT before pregnancy and determining its causal role in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Phenotypic characterization of a novel virulence-factor deletion strain of Burkholderia mallei that provides partial protection against inhalational glanders in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A. Bozue

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei (Bm is a highly infectious intracellular pathogen classified as a category B biological agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. After respiratory exposure, Bm establishes itself within host macrophages before spreading into major organ systems, which can lead to chronic infection, sepsis, and death. Previously, we combined computational prediction of host-pathogen interactions with yeast two-hybrid experiments and identified novel virulence factor genes in Bm, including BMAA0553, BMAA0728 (tssN, and BMAA1865. In the present study, we used recombinant allelic exchange to construct deletion mutants of BMAA0553 and tssN (ΔBMAA0553 and ΔTssN, respectively and showed that both deletions completely abrogated virulence at doses of >100 times the LD50 of the wild-type Bm strain. Analysis of ΔBMAA0553- and ΔTssN-infected mice showed starkly reduced bacterial dissemination relative to wild-type Bm, and subsequent in vitro experiments characterized pathogenic phenotypes with respect to intracellular growth, macrophage uptake and phagosomal escape, actin-based motility, and multinucleated giant cell formation. Based on observed in vitro and in vivo phenotypes, we explored the use of ΔTssN as a candidate live-attenuated vaccine. Mice immunized with aerosolized ΔTssN showed a 21-day survival rate of 67% after a high-dose aerosol challenge with the wild-type Bm ATCC 23344 strain, compared to a 0% survival rate for unvaccinated mice. However, analysis of histopathology and bacterial burden showed that while the surviving vaccinated mice were protected from acute infection, Bm was still able to establish a chronic infection. Vaccinated mice showed a modest IgG response, suggesting a limited potential of ΔTssN as a vaccine candidate, but also showed prolonged elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, underscoring the role of cellular and innate immunity in mitigating acute infection in inhalational glanders.

  11. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Chondrogenic Gene Expression and Cartilage Phenotype Differentiation in Human Breast Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Promoted by Ginsenoside Rg1 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Tian Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Investigating and understanding chondrogenic gene expression during the differentiation of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs into chondrogenic cells is a prerequisite for the application of this approach for cartilage repair and regeneration. In this study, we aim to characterize HBASCs and to examine chondrogenic gene expression in chondrogenic inductive culture medium containing ginsenoside Rg1. Methods: Human breast adipose-derived stem cells at passage 3 were evaluated based on specific cell markers and their multilineage differentiation capacity. Cultured HBASCs were treated either with basic chondrogenic inductive conditioned medium alone (group A, control or with basic chondrogenic inductive medium plus 10 µg/ml (group B, 50 µg/ml (group C, or 100µg/ml ginsenoside Rg1 (group D. Cell proliferation was assessed using the CCK-8 assay for a period of 9 days. Two weeks after induction, the expression of chondrogenic genes (collagen type II, collagen type XI, ACP, COMP and ELASTIN was determined using real-time PCR in all groups. Results: The different concentrations of ginsenoside Rg1 that were added to the basic chondrogenic inductive culture medium promoted the proliferation of HBASCs at earlier stages (groups B, C, and D but resulted in chondrogenic phenotype differentiation and higher mRNA expression of collagen type II (CO-II, collagen type XI (CO-XI, acid phosphatase (ACP, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and ELASTIN compared with the control (group A at later stages. The results reveal an obvious positive dose-effect relationship between ginsenoside Rg1 and the proliferation and chondrogenic phenotype differentiation of HBASCs in vitro. Conclusions: Human breast adipose-derived stem cells retain stem cell characteristics after expansion in culture through passage 3 and serve as a feasible source of cells for cartilage regeneration in vitro. Chondrogenesis in HBASCs was found to be prominent

  13. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-09-15

    Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. The current study investigates both phenomena resulting from the hybridization of a male snake with type I degradative venom, Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), and a female snake with type II highly toxic venom, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake). SDS-PAGE, enzymology, Western blot and reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) were used to characterize the venom of the C. o. helleri male, the C. s. scutulatus female and their two hybrid offspring as they aged. In general, Crotalus o. helleri × C. s. scutulatus hybrid venoms appeared to exhibit overlapping parental venom profiles, and several different enzyme activity patterns. Both hybrids expressed C. o. helleri father-specific myotoxins as well as C. s. scutulatus mother-specific Mojave toxin. Snake venom metalloprotease activity displayed apparent sex-influenced expression patterns, while hybrid serine protease activities were intermediate to parental activities. The C. s. scutulatus × C. o. helleri hybrid male's venom profile provided the strongest evidence that type I and type II venom characteristics are expressed simultaneously in hybrid venoms, as this snake contained distinctive characteristics of both parental species. However, the possibility of

  14. Characterization of human disease phenotypes associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR, and IFIH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Yanick J; Chase, Diana S; Lowenstein Schmidt, Johanna; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Forte, Gabriella M A; Gornall, Hannah L; Oojageer, Anthony; Anderson, Beverley; Pizzino, Amy; Helman, Guy; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M; Ackroyd, Sam; Aeby, Alec; Agosta, Guillermo; Albin, Catherine; Allon-Shalev, Stavit; Arellano, Montse; Ariaudo, Giada; Aswani, Vijay; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Baildam, Eileen M; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Bailey, Kathryn M; Barnerias, Christine; Barth, Magalie; Battini, Roberta; Beresford, Michael W; Bernard, Geneviève; Bianchi, Marika; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Blair, Edward M; Bloom, Miriam; Burlina, Alberto B; Carpanelli, Maria Luisa; Carvalho, Daniel R; Castro-Gago, Manuel; Cavallini, Anna; Cereda, Cristina; Chandler, Kate E; Chitayat, David A; Collins, Abigail E; Sierra Corcoles, Concepcion; Cordeiro, Nuno J V; Crichiutti, Giovanni; Dabydeen, Lyvia; Dale, Russell C; D'Arrigo, Stefano; De Goede, Christian G E L; De Laet, Corinne; De Waele, Liesbeth M H; Denzler, Ines; Desguerre, Isabelle; Devriendt, Koenraad; Di Rocco, Maja; Fahey, Michael C; Fazzi, Elisa; Ferrie, Colin D; Figueiredo, António; Gener, Blanca; Goizet, Cyril; Gowrinathan, Nirmala R; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Hanrahan, Donncha; Isidor, Bertrand; Kara, Bülent; Khan, Nasaim; King, Mary D; Kirk, Edwin P; Kumar, Ram; Lagae, Lieven; Landrieu, Pierre; Lauffer, Heinz; Laugel, Vincent; La Piana, Roberta; Lim, Ming J; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M; Linnankivi, Tarja; Mackay, Mark T; Marom, Daphna R; Marques Lourenço, Charles; McKee, Shane A; Moroni, Isabella; Morton, Jenny E V; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Murray, Kevin; Nabbout, Rima; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Nunez-Enamorado, Noemi; Oades, Patrick J; Olivieri, Ivana; Ostergaard, John R; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Prendiville, Julie S; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Régal, Luc; Ricci, Federica; Rio, Marlène; Rodriguez, Diana; Roubertie, Agathe; Salvatici, Elisabetta; Segers, Karin A; Sinha, Gyanranjan P; Soler, Doriette; Spiegel, Ronen; Stödberg, Tommy I; Straussberg, Rachel; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Suri, Mohnish; Tacke, Uta; Tan, Tiong Y; te Water Naude, Johann; Wee Teik, Keng; Thomas, Maya Mary; Till, Marianne; Tonduti, Davide; Valente, Enza Maria; Van Coster, Rudy Noel; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Vassallo, Grace; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Vogt, Julie; Wallace, Geoffrey B; Wassmer, Evangeline; Webb, Hannah J; Whitehouse, William P; Whitney, Robyn N; Zaki, Maha S; Zuberi, Sameer M; Livingston, John H; Rozenberg, Flore; Lebon, Pierre; Vanderver, Adeline; Orcesi, Simona; Rice, Gillian I

    2015-02-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disease occurring due to mutations in any of TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR or IFIH1. We report on 374 patients from 299 families with mutations in these seven genes. Most patients conformed to one of two fairly stereotyped clinical profiles; either exhibiting an in utero disease-onset (74 patients; 22.8% of all patients where data were available), or a post-natal presentation, usually within the first year of life (223 patients; 68.6%), characterized by a sub-acute encephalopathy and a loss of previously acquired skills. Other clinically distinct phenotypes were also observed; particularly, bilateral striatal necrosis (13 patients; 3.6%) and non-syndromic spastic paraparesis (12 patients; 3.4%). We recorded 69 deaths (19.3% of patients with follow-up data). Of 285 patients for whom data were available, 210 (73.7%) were profoundly disabled, with no useful motor, speech and intellectual function. Chilblains, glaucoma, hypothyroidism, cardiomyopathy, intracerebral vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, bowel inflammation and systemic lupus erythematosus were seen frequently enough to be confirmed as real associations with the Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome phenotype. We observed a robust relationship between mutations in all seven genes with increased type I interferon activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and the increased expression of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts in peripheral blood. We recorded a positive correlation between the level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon activity assayed within one year of disease presentation and the degree of subsequent disability. Interferon-stimulated gene transcripts remained high in most patients, indicating an ongoing disease process. On the basis of substantial morbidity and mortality, our data highlight the urgent need to define coherent treatment strategies for the phenotypes associated with mutations in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-related genes

  15. Characterization of Human Disease Phenotypes Associated with Mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR, and IFIH1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Yanick J.; Chase, Diana S.; Schmidt, Johanna Lowenstein; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Forte, Gabriella M.A.; Gornall, Hannah L.; Oojageer, Anthony; Anderson, Beverley; Pizzino, Amy; Helman, Guy; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M.; Ackroyd, Sam; Aeby, Alec; Agosta, Guillermo; Albin, Catherine; Allon-Shalev, Stavit; Arellano, Montse; Ariaudo, Giada; Aswani, Vijay; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Baildam, Eileen M.; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Bailey, Kathryn M.; Barnerias, Christine; Barth, Magalie; Battini, Roberta; Beresford, Michael W.; Bernard, Geneviève; Bianchi, Marika; de Villemeur, Thierry Billette; Blair, Edward M.; Bloom, Miriam; Burlina, Alberto B.; Carpanelli, Maria Luisa; Carvalho, Daniel R.; Castro-Gago, Manuel; Cavallini, Anna; Cereda, Cristina; Chandler, Kate E.; Chitayat, David A.; Collins, Abigail E.; Corcoles, Concepcion Sierra; Cordeiro, Nuno J.V.; Crichiutti, Giovanni; Dabydeen, Lyvia; Dale, Russell C.; D’Arrigo, Stefano; De Goede, Christian G.E.L.; De Laet, Corinne; De Waele, Liesbeth M.H.; Denzler, Ines; Desguerre, Isabelle; Devriendt, Koenraad; Di Rocco, Maja; Fahey, Michael C.; Fazzi, Elisa; Ferrie, Colin D.; Figueiredo, António; Gener, Blanca; Goizet, Cyril; Gowrinathan, Nirmala R.; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Hanrahan, Donncha; Isidor, Bertrand; Kara, Bülent; Khan, Nasaim; King, Mary D.; Kirk, Edwin P.; Kumar, Ram; Lagae, Lieven; Landrieu, Pierre; Lauffer, Heinz; Laugel, Vincent; La Piana, Roberta; Lim, Ming J.; Lin, Jean-Pierre S.-M.; Linnankivi, Tarja; Mackay, Mark T.; Marom, Daphna R.; Lourenço, Charles Marques; McKee, Shane A.; Moroni, Isabella; Morton, Jenny E.V.; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Murray, Kevin; Nabbout, Rima; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Nunez-Enamorado, Noemi; Oades, Patrick J.; Olivieri, Ivana; Ostergaard, John R.; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Prendiville, Julie S.; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Régal, Luc; Ricci, Federica; Rio, Marlène; Rodriguez, Diana; Roubertie, Agathe; Salvatici, Elisabetta; Segers, Karin A.; Sinha, Gyanranjan P.; Soler, Doriette; Spiegel, Ronen; Stödberg, Tommy I.; Straussberg, Rachel; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Suri, Mohnish; Tacke, Uta; Tan, Tiong Y.; Naude, Johann te Water; Teik, Keng Wee; Thomas, Maya Mary; Till, Marianne; Tonduti, Davide; Valente, Enza Maria; Van Coster, Rudy Noel; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Vassallo, Grace; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Vogt, Julie; Wallace, Geoffrey B.; Wassmer, Evangeline; Webb, Hannah J.; Whitehouse, William P.; Whitney, Robyn N.; Zaki, Maha S.; Zuberi, Sameer M.; Livingston, John H.; Rozenberg, Flore; Lebon, Pierre; Vanderver, Adeline; Orcesi, Simona; Rice, Gillian I.

    2015-01-01

    Aicardi–Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disease occurring due to mutations in any of TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR or IFIH1. We report on 374 patients from 299 families with mutations in these seven genes. Most patients conformed to one of two fairly stereotyped clinical profiles; either exhibiting an in utero disease-onset (74 patients; 22.8% of all patients where data were available), or a post-natal presentation, usually within the first year of life (223 patients; 68.6%), characterized by a sub-acute encephalopathy and a loss of previously acquired skills. Other clinically distinct phenotypes were also observed; particularly, bilateral striatal necrosis (13 patients; 3.6%) and non-syndromic spastic paraparesis (12 patients; 3.4%). We recorded 69 deaths (19.3% of patients with follow-up data). Of 285 patients for whom data were available, 210 (73.7%) were profoundly disabled, with no useful motor, speech and intellectual function. Chilblains, glaucoma, hypothyroidism, cardiomyopathy, intracerebral vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, bowel inflammation and systemic lupus erythematosus were seen frequently enough to be confirmed as real associations with the Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome phenotype. We observed a robust relationship between mutations in all seven genes with increased type I interferon activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and the increased expression of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts in peripheral blood. We recorded a positive correlation between the level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon activity assayed within one year of disease presentation and the degree of subsequent disability. Interferon-stimulated gene transcripts remained high in most patients, indicating an ongoing disease process. On the basis of substantial morbidity and mortality, our data highlight the urgent need to define coherent treatment strategies for the phenotypes associated with mutations in the Aicardi–Goutières syndrome

  16. In vitro phenotypic, genomic and proteomic characterization of a cytokine-resistant murine β-TC3 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Coppola

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is caused by the selective destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. This process is mediated by cells of the immune system through release of nitric oxide, free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which induce a complex network of intracellular signalling cascades, eventually affecting the expression of genes involved in β-cell survival.The aim of our study was to investigate possible mechanisms of resistance to cytokine-induced β-cell death. To this purpose, we created a cytokine-resistant β-cell line (β-TC3R by chronically treating the β-TC3 murine insulinoma cell line with IL-1β + IFN-γ. β-TC3R cells exhibited higher proliferation rate and resistance to cytokine-mediated cell death in comparison to the parental line. Interestingly, they maintained expression of β-cell specific markers, such as PDX1, NKX6.1, GLUT2 and insulin. The analysis of the secretory function showed that β-TC3R cells have impaired glucose-induced c-peptide release, which however was only moderately reduced after incubation with KCl and tolbutamide. Gene expression analysis showed that β-TC3R cells were characterized by downregulation of IL-1β and IFN-γ receptors and upregulation of SOCS3, the classical negative regulator of cytokines signaling. Comparative proteomic analysis showed specific upregulation of 35 proteins, mainly involved in cell death, stress response and folding. Among them, SUMO4, a negative feedback regulator in NF-kB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways, resulted hyper-expressed. Silencing of SUMO4 was able to restore sensitivity to cytokine-induced cell death in β-TC3R cells, suggesting it may play a key role in acquired cytokine resistance by blocking JAK/STAT and NF-kB lethal signaling.In conclusion, our study represents the first extensive proteomic characterization of a murine cytokine-resistant β-cell line, which might represent a useful tool for studying the mechanisms involved in resistance to

  17. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of bacterial populations isolated from diesel-contaminated soil and treated by two bioremediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta R, Olga M; Rivera R, Angela P; Rojano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Orlando; Correa, Margarita M; Cienfuegos Gallet, Astrid V; Arias, Lida; Cardona G, Santiago A

    2012-01-01

    In this study bioremediation is presented as an alternative for the recovery of contaminated ecosystems. In this work an experimental diesel spill on pasture land was remediated using two bioremediation technologies: natural attenuation, which is the natural capability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade a xenobiotic component in a determined time, and biostimulation, which consist in the acceleration of the degradation process through the stimulation of the metabolism of indigenous microorganisms by the addition of nutrients (P and N) to the media. Results of respirometry assays indicated that both treatments produced significant levels of hydrocarbon removal but the biostimulation treatment stranded out with 98.17% degradation. Seven bacterial isolates were obtained from these treatments which according to their molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis belong to the genus: Enterobacter, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Sanguibacter, Staphylococcus and Flavobacterium. All isolates were able to metabolize diesel as a carbon and energy source; for this reason and taking into account that for some of these microorganisms their role in bioremediation have not been extensively studied, it is recommended to continue with their evaluation to know their real potential for the solution of environmental problems.

  18. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-09-09

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum.

  19. Expanding the clinical phenotype of the 3q29 microdeletion syndrome and characterization of the reciprocal microduplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Christopher A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial deletions of 3q29 have been recently described as a microdeletion syndrome mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats resulting in an ~1.6 Mb common-sized deletion. Given the molecular mechanism causing the deletion, the reciprocal duplication is anticipated to occur with equal frequency, although only one family with this duplication has been reported. Results In this study we describe 14 individuals with microdeletions of 3q29, including one family with a mildly affected mother and two affected children, identified among 14,698 individuals with idiopathic mental retardation who were analyzed by array CGH. Eleven individuals had typical 1.6-Mb deletions. Three individuals had deletions that flank, span, or partially overlap the commonly deleted region. Although the clinical presentations of individuals with typical-sized deletions varied, several features were present in multiple individuals, including mental retardation and microcephaly. We also identified 19 individuals with duplications of 3q29, five of which appear to be the reciprocal duplication product of the 3q29 microdeletion and 14 of which flank, span, or partially overlap the common deletion region. The clinical features of individuals with microduplications of 3q29 also varied with few common features. De novo and inherited abnormalities were found in both the microdeletion and microduplication cohorts illustrating the need for parental samples to fully characterize these abnormalities. Conclusion Our report demonstrates that array CGH is especially suited to identify chromosome abnormalities with unclear or variable presentations.

  20. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Park, Thomas J; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+) via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT), and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR), Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates). The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR) to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1) NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2) NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3) NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4) NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the neurogenic gene (MASH1) indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional and

  2. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies with Specificity for Rhesus Macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddappa N Byrareddy

    Full Text Available Lectin-like molecules and their receptors are cell surface molecules that have been shown to play a role in either facilitating infection or serving as transporters of HIV/SIV in vivo. The role of these lectin-like molecules in the pathogenesis of HIV/SIV infection continues to be defined. In efforts to gain further insight on the potential role of these lectin-like molecules, our laboratory generated monoclonal antibodies (mAb against the human analogs of rhesus macaque CD200, CD200R and Mincle, since the rhesus macaques are accepted as the most reliable animal model to study human HIV infection. The characterization of the cell lineages from the blood and various tissues of rhesus macaques that express these lectin-like molecules are described herein. Among the mononuclear cells, the cells of the myeloid lineage of rhesus macaques are the predominant cell lineages that express readily detectable levels of CD200, CD200R and Mincle that is similar to the expression of Siglec-1 and Siglec-3 reported by our laboratory earlier. Subset analysis revealed that a higher frequency of the CD14+/CD16- subset from normal rhesus macaques express CD200, CD200R and Mincle. Differences in the frequencies and density of expression of these molecules by the gated population of CD14+ cells from various tissues are noted with PBMC and bone marrow expressing the highest and the mononuclear cells isolated from the colon and ileum expressing the lowest levels. While a significant frequency of pDCs and mDCs express Siglec-1/Siglec-3, a much lower frequency expresses CD200, CD200R and Mincle in PBMCs from rhesus macaques. The mAb against CD200 and CD200R but not Mincle appear to inhibit the infection of macrophage tropic SIV/SHIV in vitro. We conclude that these mAbs may have potential to be used as adjunctive therapeutic agents to control/inhibit SIV/HIV infection.

  3. Kokumi Substances, Enhancers of Basic Tastes, Induce Responses in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Expressing Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yasuda, Reiko; Kuroda, Motonaka; Eto, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami. PMID:22511946

  4. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  5. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  6. Taste Disturbance After Palatopharyngeal Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ren Hsiao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste disorder is a rare complication of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, and may have a significant impact on quality of life. Herein, we report a case of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a 51- year-old man who experienced taste disturbance after palatopharyngeal surgery using electrocautery for developing a uvulopalatal flap. Gustatory function test using three-drop-method with solutions of highest concentration was implemented to assess the deficiency of four basic tastes. The results showed deficit of sweet taste associated with phantom of bitter taste. The patient reported constant spontaneous bitter taste and dysgeusia in sweet taste with poor quality of life at the 2-year follow-up. We suggest that patients are informed of the potential for taste impairment from palatopharyngeal surgery, as well as reducing the use of electrocautery in developing uvulopalatal flap to reduce damage to taste function.

  7. A bio-cultural approach to the study of food choice: The contribution of taste genetics, population and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Davide S; Giuliani, Cristina; Antinucci, Marco; Morini, Gabriella; Garagnani, Paolo; Tofanelli, Sergio; Luiselli, Donata

    2017-07-01

    The study of food choice, one of the most complex human traits, requires an integrated approach that takes into account environmental, socio-cultural and biological diversity. We recruited 183 volunteers from four geo-linguistic groups and highly diversified in terms of both genetic background and food habits from whom we collected genotypes and phenotypes tightly linked to taste perception. We confirmed previous genetic associations, in particular with stevioside perception, and noted significant differences in food consumption: in particular, broccoli, mustard and beer consumption scores were significantly higher (Adjusted P = 0.02, Adjusted P diversity and cultural aspects in taste perception and food consumption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Radiogenic damage to the sense of taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Freywald, G.

    1975-01-01

    In order to determine radiogenic impairment of taste and the natural laws it obeys, gustometric investigations were carried out on 11 patients under radiation treatment. From the investigations it could be seen that the first measurable impairment is present after about 2,000 rad and the climax of the sensory radiation injury occurs after 4,000 rad. The individual taste qualities are damaged in the sequence bitter, sweet, salty and sour. Then the taste surprisingly improves somewhat although irradiation continues. Our observation that the interval between sensation threshold and recognition threshold during radiotherapy grows indicating an apparently stronger damage to the recognition threshold and only later goes back to the standard, is also new and has so far no explanation. It was seen in all posttherapeutical taste tests that the taste function was only fully normalized with a few patients, while in most cases a more or less large function defect remained. This result contradicts the general opinion that there is a complete restitution at the latest 3 months after terminating the irradiation. The present result is fully confirmed by the post-investigation of 55 patients whose irradiation went back up to 13 years. A significant, remaining reduction of the average taste function can also be found here. As the extent of the remaining taste impairment is measurable but very small, it is hardly ever noticed by the patients. Similar to in the course investigations, one could see here, too, that the sensation thresholds on the long run are less damaged than the recognition thresholds. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Various Age- and Sex-Specific Groups of Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehete, Pramod N; Nehete, Bharti P; Chitta, Sriram; Williams, Lawrence E; Abee, Christian R

    2017-02-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys. We noted age- and sex-dependent changes in CD28+ (an essential T cell costimulatory molecule) and CD95+ (an apoptotic surface marker) T cells and various levels of cytokines in the plasma. In immune assays of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IFNγ and perforin responses were significantly higher in female than in male monkeys and in young adults than in juvenile and geriatric groups, despite similar lymphocyte (particularly T cell) populations in these groups. Our current findings may be useful in exploring Aotus monkeys as a model system for the study of aging, susceptibility to infectious diseases, and age-associated differences in vaccine efficacy, and other challenges particular to pediatric and geriatric patients.

  11. ADA-deficient SCID is associated with a specific microenvironment and bone phenotype characterized by RANKL/OPG imbalance and osteoblast insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Aisha V; Mrak, Emanuela; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Zacchi, Elena; Cavani, Francesco; Casiraghi, Miriam; Grunebaum, Eyal; Roifman, Chaim M; Cervi, Maria C; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Carlucci, Filippo; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Villa, Anna; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2009-10-08

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a disorder of the purine metabolism leading to combined immunodeficiency and systemic alterations, including skeletal abnormalities. We report that ADA deficiency in mice causes a specific bone phenotype characterized by alterations of structural properties and impaired mechanical competence. These alterations are the combined result of an imbalanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin axis, causing decreased osteoclastogenesis and an intrinsic defect of osteoblast function with subsequent low bone formation. In vitro, osteoblasts lacking ADA displayed an altered transcriptional profile and growth reduction. Furthermore, the bone marrow microenvironment of ADA-deficient mice showed a reduced capacity to support in vitro and in vivo hematopoiesis. Treatment of ADA-deficient neonatal mice with enzyme replacement therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy resulted in full recovery of the altered bone parameters. Remarkably, untreated ADA-severe combined immunodeficiency patients showed a similar imbalance in RANKL/osteoprotegerin levels alongside severe growth retardation. Gene therapy with ADA-transduced hematopoietic stem cells increased serum RANKL levels and children's growth. Our results indicate that the ADA metabolism represents a crucial modulatory factor of bone cell activities and remodeling.

  12. Isolation, molecular and phenotypic characterization of Cronobacter spp. in ready-to-eat salads and foods from Japanese cuisine commercialized in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Luiza; Carvalho, Carla Trece; Tavares, Rodrigo Overas; de Mello Medeiros, Valéria; de Oliveira Rosas, Carla; Silva, Júlia Nunes; Dos Reis Lopes, Silvia Maria; Forsythe, Stephen James; Brandão, Marcelo Luiz Lima

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to detect Cronobacter from 30 samples of ready-to-eat (RTE) salads and 30 foods from Japanese cuisine as commercially available in Brazil. The detection of Cronobacter was as according to the ISO standard 22964:2017. The isolates were phenotypically characterized by Vitek 2.0 and the antibiotic susceptibility profile was determined using the standardized agar disc diffusion method. Molecular characterization was accomplished by real-time PCR targeting dnaG gene, multiplex-PCR targeting cgcA gene, and fusA allele sequencing. Twenty-seven samples (45.0%) contained Cronobacter, 14 (23.3%) samples of foods from Japanese cuisine and 13 (21.7%) samples of RTE salads. Twenty-nine unique Cronobacter isolates were selected from the 27 positive samples and were identified as C. sakazakii (n = 18), C. malonaticus (n = 8), and C. dublinensis (n = 3). A high genetic diversity was observed, with 29 Cronobacter strains being assigned to 11 different fusA alleles, a ratio of 2.6 strains by fusA allele was found. The cgcA multiplex-PCR failed to identify many of the Cronobacter isolates at the species level. Four (13.8%) Cronobacter isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested (n = 12). The presence of Cronobacter in RTE foods could be a potential threat to human health and highlights the need for high levels of hygiene, particularly when preparing food for elderly, immunosuppressed persons or adults with prior underlying pathology. Epidemiological surveillance agencies should be aware of the risk that these RTE foods may represent, for these groups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O26:H8 among Diarrheagenic E. coli O26 Strains Isolated in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Roxane M. F.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Saridakis, Halha O.; Pedroso, Margareth Z.; Rocha, Letícia B.; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Vieira, Mônica A. M.; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O26 comprise two distinct groups of pathogens, characterized as enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among the several genes related to type III secretion system-secreted effector proteins, espK was found to be highly specific for EHEC O26:H11 and its stx-negative derivative strains isolated in European countries. E. coli O26 strains isolated in Brazil from infant diarrhea, foods, and the environment have consistently been shown to lack stx genes and are thus considered atypical EPEC. However, no further information related to their genetic background is known. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to discriminate and characterize these Brazilian O26 stx-negative strains by phenotypic, genetic, and biochemical approaches. Among 44 isolates confirmed to be O26 isolates, most displayed flagellar antigen H11 or H32. Out of the 13 nonmotile isolates, 2 tested positive for fliCH11, and 11 were fliCH8 positive. The identification of genetic markers showed that several O26:H11 and all O26:H8 strains tested positive for espK and could therefore be discriminated as EHEC derivatives. The presence of H8 among EHEC O26 and its stx-negative derivative isolates is described for the first time. The interaction of three isolates with polarized Caco-2 cells and with intestinal biopsy specimen fragments ex vivo confirmed the ability of the O26 strains analyzed to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions. The O26:H32 strains, isolated mostly from meat, were considered nonvirulent. Knowledge of the virulence content of stx-negative O26 isolates within the same serotype helped to avoid misclassification of isolates, which certainly has important implications for public health surveillance. PMID:23974139

  14. Characterization of women with elevated antimüllerian hormone levels (AMH): correlation of AMH with polycystic ovarian syndrome phenotypes and assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Khanimov, Moisey; Malter, Henry E; Grazi, Richard V; Leader, Ben

    2014-07-01

    Serum Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are elevated in polycystic ovarian syndrome and have been shown to be useful in its diagnosis. However, the clinical significance of extremely high AMH levels is understudied. We aimed to characterize a population of women with elevated AMH (>5 ng/mL). This was a retrospective cohort study of 134 women presenting to our fertility clinic for infertility evaluation and treatment who were found to have random serum AMH over 5 ng/mL. Women were divided into 3 groups according to AMH: 5-10 ng/mL, >10-14 ng/mL, and >14 ng/mL. Endocrine characteristics, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes, fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates were compared between groups. AMH ranged between 5 to 48 ng/mL. Greater than 97% of women with ultrahigh AMH (>10 ng/mL) had PCOS. In addition, women with AMH >10 ng/mL had greater prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology and oligoamenorrhea than women with AMH 5-10 ng/mL. Moreover, serum AMH correlated positively with luteinizing hormone, total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Furthermore, AMH showed strong predictive ability for the presence of amenorrhea (area under the curve, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.92; P 10 ng/mL showed higher rates of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and clinical pregnancy rates compared with women with AMH 5-10 ng/mL. These data characterize a population of women with elevated AMH levels, demonstrating that the vast majority of women with AMH >10 ng/mL have PCOS. Increased AMH levels correlated with PCOS severity and are associated with greater ovarian stimulation and higher clinical pregnancy rates following assisted reproductive technology. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Food Science of Dashi and Umami Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kumiko

    2016-01-01

    Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste. The exchange of knowledge on cooking methods and diverse types of umami rich foods in different countries displays the blending of the culinary arts, food science and technology for healthy and tasty solutions. Since Japanese cuisine 'WASHOKU' was listed in the 'Intangible Heritage of UNESCO' in 2013, many people in the world now have great interest in Japanese cuisine. One of the unique characteristics of this cuisine is that 'dashi' is an indispensable material for cooking a variety of Japanese dishes. Many chefs from Europe, US and South America have come to Japan to learn Japanese cuisine in the last 10 years, and umami has become recognized as a common taste worldwide. Researchers and culinary professionals have begun to pay attention to the traditional seasonings and condiments rich in glutamate available throughout the world.

  16. [Molecular logic of alcohol and taste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Arai, Soichi

    2006-10-01

    Ethanol, a main constituent of every alcohol beverage, has long been calling our attention to its gustatory effect. Recent molecular dynamics studies have suggested that ethanol as well as other tastants in foods, when taken in the oral cavity, gives rise to a taste signal which is expressed via reception at taste cells in the taste bud, intracellular signal transduction in collaboration with G proteins and effecters, and signal transmission to synapsed taste neurons, and/or simultaneous reception at and signal transduction in somatosensory neurons. The taste of ethanol and its acceptability are then recognized and judged at the higher center, with generation of various physiological phenomena in the body. We have tried to make an all-inclusive DNA microarray analysis, demonstrating that when a rat tongue is stimulated with a drop of aqueous ethanol in vivo, several particular genes are specifically up- or down-regulated in trigeminal ganglions. These initial gene expression changes at peripheral neurocytes might in whole or in part trigger some of the ethanol-associated gustatory and bodily response. The importance of defining a related molecular logic is emphasized to understand academic and industrial significances of this unique food constituent, ethanol.

  17. The Role of Cholecystokinin in Peripheral Taste Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yoshida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ. In the present study, we focused on the function of CCK in the initial responses to taste stimulation. CCK was coexpressed with type II taste cell markers such as Gα-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2, and transient receptor potential channel M5. Furthermore, a small subset (~30% of CCK-expressing taste cells expressed a sweet/umami taste receptor component, taste receptor type 1 member 3, in taste buds. Because type II taste cells are sweet, umami or bitter taste cells, the majority of CCK-expressing taste cells may be bitter taste cells. CCK-A and -B receptors were expressed in both taste cells and gustatory neurons. CCK receptor knockout mice showed reduced neural responses to bitter compounds compared with wild-type mice. Consistently, intravenous injection of CCK-Ar antagonist lorglumide selectively suppressed gustatory nerve responses to bitter compounds. Intravenous injection of CCK-8 transiently increased gustatory nerve activities in a dose-dependent manner whereas administration of CCK-8 did not affect activities of bitter-sensitive taste cells. Collectively, CCK may be a functionally important neurotransmitter or neuromodulator to activate bitter nerve fibers in peripheral taste tissues.

  18. Cyanotoxin mixtures and taste-and-odor compounds in cyanobacterial blooms from the midwestern united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.L.; Loftin, K.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Ziegler, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The mixtures of toxins and taste-and-odor compounds present during cyanobacterial blooms are not well characterized and of particular concern when evaluating potential human health risks. Cyanobacterial blooms were sampled in twenty-three Midwestern United States lakes and analyzed for community composition, thirteen cyanotoxins by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay, and two taste-and-odor compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis and/or Microcystis were dominant in most (96%) blooms, but community composition was not strongly correlated with toxin and taste-and-odor occurrence. Microcystins occurred in all blooms. Total microcystin concentrations measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassay were linearly related (rs = 0.76, p cyanotoxins occurred in 48% of blooms and 95% had multiple microcystin variants. Toxins and taste-and-odor compounds frequently co-occurred (91% of blooms), indicating odor may serve as a warning that cyanotoxins likely are present. However, toxins occurred more frequently than taste-and-odor compounds, so odor alone does not provide sufficient warning to ensure human-health protection. ?? This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2010 by the American Chemical Society.

  19. Subtype-dependent postnatal development of taste receptor cells in mouse fungiform taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Iwamoto, Masafumi; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2012-06-01

    Taste buds contain two types of taste receptor cells, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 3-immunoreactive cells (type II cells) and synaptosomal-associating protein-25-immunoreactive cells (type III cells). We investigated their postnatal development in mouse fungiform taste buds immunohistochemically and electrophysiologically. The cell density, i.e. the number of cells per taste bud divided by the maximal area of the horizontal cross-section of the taste bud, of type II cells increased by postnatal day (PD)49, where as that of type III cells was unchanged throughout the postnatal observation period and was equal to that of the adult cells at PD1. The immunoreactivity of taste bud cell subtypes was the same as that of their respective subtypes in adult mice throughout the postnatal observation period. Almost all type II cells were immunoreactive to gustducin at PD1, and then the ratio of gustducin-immunoreactive type II cells to all type II cells decreased to a saturation level, ∼60% of all type II cells, by PD15. Type II and III cells generated voltage-gated currents similar to their respective adult cells even at PD3. These results show that infant taste receptor cells are as excitable as those of adults and propagate in a subtype-dependent manner. The relationship between the ratio of each taste receptor cell subtype to all cells and taste nerve responses are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...

  1. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring....... However, this is not expected to be the case if the packaging carries only a verbal indication of the potential ingredient (say, the word strawberry). We put these assumptions to experimental test. Our goal was to contribute firmer evidence to the legal decision-making in the present field while...

  2. Expression of the synaptic exocytosis-regulating molecule complexin 2 in taste buds and its participation in peripheral taste transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yoshimoto, Joto; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-06-01

    Taste information from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying taste transduction through this pathway have not been fully elucidated. In this study, to identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated whether complexins (Cplxs), which play roles in regulating membrane fusion in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, were expressed in taste bud cells. Among four Cplx isoforms, strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in type III taste cells. To investigate the function of CPLX2 in taste transduction, we observed taste responses in CPLX2-knockout mice. When assessed with electrophysiological and behavioral assays, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2-knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These results suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons. A part of taste information is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated complexins (Cplxs) expression in taste bud cells. Strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in taste bud cells. Furthermore, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2- knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition memory using attenuation of neophobia as an index. In addition, learned taste aversion in both short- and long-term memory tests was exclusively impa...

  4. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature...

  5. Inhibitory phenotype of HBV-specific CD4+ T-cells is characterized by high PD-1 expression but absent coregulation of multiple inhibitory molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Raziorrouh

    Full Text Available T-cell exhaustion seems to play a critical role in CD8+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic viral infections. However, up to now little is known about the mechanisms underlying CD4+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection and the role of inhibitory molecules such as programmed death 1 (PD-1 for CD4+ T-cell failure.The expression of multiple inhibitory molecules such as PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, CD244, KLRG1 and markers defining the grade of T-cell differentiation as CCR7, CD45RA, CD57 and CD127 were analyzed on virus-specific CD4+ T-cells from peripheral blood using a newly established DRB1*01-restricted MHC class II Tetramer. Effects of in vitro PD-L1/2 blockade were defined by investigating changes in CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production.CD4+ T-cell responses during chronic HBV infection was characterized by reduced Tetramer+CD4+ T-cell frequencies, effector memory phenotype, sustained PD-1 but low levels of CTLA-4, TIM-3, KLRG1 and CD244 expression. PD-1 blockade revealed individualized patterns of in vitro responsiveness with partly increased IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α secretion as well as enhanced CD4+ T-cell expansion almost in treated patients with viral control.HBV-specific CD4+ T-cells are reliably detectable during different courses of HBV infection by MHC class II Tetramer technology. CD4+ T-cell dysfunction during chronic HBV is basically linked to strong PD-1 upregulation but absent coregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors. PD-L1/2 neutralization partly leads to enhanced CD4+ T-cell functionality with heterogeneous patterns of CD4+ T-cell rejunivation.

  6. Phenotypic characterization of Grm1crv4 mice reveals a functional role for the type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor in bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Ilaria; Mattinzoli, Deborah; Otescu, Lavinia Alexandra; Bossi, Simone; Ikehata, Masami; Gentili, Chiara; Cangemi, Giuliana; Gatti, Cinzia; Emionite, Laura; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Riccardi, Daniela; Puliti, Aldamaria

    2017-01-01

    Recent increasing evidence supports a role for neuronal type signaling in bone. Specifically glutamate receptors have been found in cells responsible for bone remodeling, namely the osteoblasts and the osteoclasts. While most studies have focused on ionotropic glutamate receptors, the relevance of the metabotropic glutamate signaling in bone is poorly understood. Specifically type 1 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1) receptors are expressed in bone, but the effect of its ablation on skeletal development has never been investigated. Here we report that Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice, homozygous for an inactivating mutation of the mGlu1 receptor, and mainly characterized by ataxia and renal dysfunction, exhibit decreased body weight, bone length and bone mineral density compared to wild type (WT) animals. Blood analyses of the affected mice demonstrate the absence of changes in circulating factors, such as vitamin D and PTH, suggesting renal damage is not the main culprit of the skeletal phenotype. Cultures of osteoblasts lacking functional mGlu1 receptors exhibit less homogeneous collagen deposition than WT cells, and present increased expression of osteocalcin, a marker of osteoblast maturation. These data suggest that the skeletal damage is directly linked to the absence of the receptor, which in turn leads to osteoblasts dysfunction and earlier maturation. Accordingly, skeletal histomorphology suggests that Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice exhibit enhanced bone maturation, resulting in premature fusion of the growth plate and shortened long bones, and further slowdown of bone apposition rate compared to the WT animals. In summary, this work reveals novel functions of mGlu1 receptors in the bone and indicates that in osteoblasts mGlu1 receptors are necessary for production of normal bone matrix, longitudinal bone growth, and normal skeletal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the Sdccag8Tn(sb-Tyr2161B.CA1C2Ove mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Weihbrecht

    Full Text Available Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC are a group of disorders that present with end-stage renal failure in childhood/adolescence, kidney cysts, retinal degeneration, and cerebellar hypoplasia. One disorder that shares clinical features with NPHP-RC is Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS. Serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 (SDCCAG8; also known as NPHP10 and BBS16 is an NPHP gene that is also associated with BBS. To better understand the patho-mechanisms of NPHP and BBS caused by loss of SDCCAG8 function, we characterized an SDCCAG8 mouse model (Sdccag8Tn(sb-Tyr2161B.CA1C2Ove generated by Sleeping Beauty Transposon (SBT-mediated insertion mutagenesis. Consistent with the previously reported, independent SDCCAG8 mouse models, our mutant mice display pre-axial polydactyly in their hind limbs. In addition, we report patterning defects in the secondary palate, brain abnormalities, as well as neonatal lethality associated with developmental defects in the lung in our mouse model. The neonatal lethality phenotype is genetic background dependent and rescued by introducing 129S6/SvEvTac background. Genetic modifier(s responsible for this effect were mapped to a region between SNPs rs3714172 and rs3141832 on chromosome 11. While determining the precise genetic lesion in our mouse model, we found that SBT insertion resulted in a deletion of multiple exons from both Sdccag8 and its neighboring gene Akt3. We ascribe the patterning defects in the limb and the secondary palate as well as lung abnormalities to loss of SDCCAG8, while the developmental defects in the brain are likely due to the loss of AKT3. This mouse model may be useful to study features not observed in other SDCCAG8 models but cautions are needed in interpreting data.

  8. Characterization of Regenerative Phenotype of Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSC) from Human Umbilical Cord Blood (hUCB) by Functional Secretome Analysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schira, Jessica; Falkenberg, Heiner; Hendricks, Marion; Waldera-Lupa, Daniel M.; Kögler, Gesine; Meyer, Helmut E.; Müller, Hans Werner; Stühler, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) isolated from human umbilical cord blood is an attractive stem cell population available at GMP grade without any ethical concerns. It has been shown that USSC transplantation into acute injured rat spinal cords leads to axonal regrowth and significant locomotor recovery, yet lacking cell replacement. Instead, USSC secrete trophic factors enhancing neurite growth of primary cortical neurons in vitro. Here, we applied a functional secretome approach characterizing proteins secreted by USSC for the first time and validated candidate neurite growth promoting factors using primary cortical neurons in vitro. By mass spectrometric analysis and exhaustive bioinformatic interrogation we identified 1156 proteins representing the secretome of USSC. Using Gene Ontology we revealed that USSC secretome contains proteins involved in a number of relevant biological processes of nerve regeneration such as cell adhesion, cell motion, blood vessel formation, cytoskeleton organization and extracellular matrix organization. We found for instance that 31 well-known neurite growth promoting factors like, e.g. neuronal growth regulator 1, NDNF, SPARC, and PEDF span the whole abundance range of USSC secretome. By the means of primary cortical neurons in vitro assays we verified SPARC and PEDF as significantly involved in USSC mediated neurite growth and therewith underline their role in improved locomotor recovery after transplantation. From our data we are convinced that USSC are a valuable tool in regenerative medicine as USSC's secretome contains a comprehensive network of trophic factors supporting nerve regeneration not only by a single process but also maintained its regenerative phenotype by a multitude of relevant biological processes. PMID:26183719

  9. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  10. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  11. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  12. Behavior change is not one size fits all: psychosocial phenotypes of childhood obesity prevention intervention participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgermaster, Marissa; Contento, Isobel; Koch, Pamela; Mamykina, Lena

    2018-01-17

    Variability in individuals' responses to interventions may contribute to small average treatment effects of childhood obesity prevention interventions. But, neither the causes of this individual variability nor the mechanism by which it influences behavior are clear. We used qualitative methods to characterize variability in students' responses to participating in a childhood obesity prevention intervention and psychosocial characteristics related to the behavior change process. We interviewed 18 students participating in a school-based curriculum and policy behavior change intervention. Descriptive coding, summary, and case-ordered descriptive meta-matrices were used to group participants by their psychosocial responses to the intervention and associated behavior changes. Four psychosocial phenotypes of responses emerged: (a) Activated-successful behavior-changers with strong internal supports; (b) Inspired-motivated, but not fully successful behavior-changers with some internal supports, whose taste preferences and food environment overwhelmed their motivation; (c) Reinforced-already practiced target behaviors, were motivated, and had strong family support; and (d) Indifferent-uninterested in behavior change and only did target behaviors if family insisted. Our findings contribute to the field of behavioral medicine by suggesting the presence of specific subgroups of participants who respond differently to behavior change interventions and salient psychosocial characteristics that differentiate among these phenotypes. Future research should examine the utility of prospectively identifying psychosocial phenotypes for improving the tailoring of nutrition behavior change interventions. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds, the niche for taste progenitor

  15. Tasteful Brands: Products of Brands Perceived to be Warm and Competent Taste Subjectively Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Bratanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and experimental data, the present research examines the effect of brand perception on experienced taste. The content of brand perception can be organized along the two social perception dimensions of warmth and competence. We use these two dimensions to systematically investigate the influence of brand perception on experienced taste and consumer behavior toward food products. The brand’s perceived warmth and competence independently influenced taste, both when it was measured as a belief and as an embodied experience following consumption. Taste mediated the link between brand’s warmth and competence perceptions and three consumer behavioral tendencies crucial for the marketing success of brands: buying intentions, brand loyalty, and support for the brand.

  16. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from [ 3 H]cytidine. Accumulated 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant

  17. Glucose transporters are expressed in taste receptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Flavia; Benati, Donatella; Cristofoletti, Mirko; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    In the intestine, changes of sugar concentration generated in the lumen during digestion induce adaptive responses of glucose transporters in the epithelium. A close matching between the intestinal expression of glucose transporters and the composition and amount of the diet has been provided by several experiments. Functional evidence has demonstrated that the regulation of glucose transporters into enterocytes is induced by the sensing of sugar of the enteroendocrine cells through activation of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) and their associated elements of G-protein-linked signaling pathways (e.g. α-gustducin, phospholipase C β type 2 and transient receptor potential channel M5), which are signaling molecules also involved in the perception of sweet substances in the taste receptor cells (TRCs) of the tongue. Considering this phenotypical similarity between the intestinal cells and TRCs, we evaluated whether the TRCs themselves possess proteins of the glucose transport mechanism. Therefore, we investigated the expression of the typical intestinal glucose transporters (i.e. GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1) in rat circumvallate papillae, using immunohistochemistry, double-labeling immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 are expressed in TRCs; their immunoreactivity was also observed in cells that displayed staining for α-gustducin and T1R3 receptor. The immunoelectron microscopic results confirmed that GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1 were predominantly expressed in cells with ultrastructural characteristics of chemoreceptor cells. The presence of glucose transporters in TRCs adds a further link between chemosensory information and cellular responses to sweet stimuli that may have important roles in glucose homeostasis, contributing to a better understanding of the pathways implicated in glucose metabolism. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011

  18. Controlling or trusting children’s taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Leer, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    and not as an important sense, a source to pleasure, or a central way of sensually understanding and approaching the world. In other words, taste literacy becomes a tool to push children towards ‘hegemonic nutrition’. Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the reworking of Foucault’s governmentality concept in recent...

  19. The Musical Taste of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a particular…

  20. On Education and the Taste for Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Paulo

    1991-01-01

    Argues that it is impossible to teach democracy without living democracy. Shows the need to create the taste for democracy, and the appetite for learning, taking risks, and for appreciating differences. Asserts that teachers are not actually champions of civil rights, freedom and democracy but will be called on to fight for these ideals. (PRA)

  1. Primacy and Recency Effects for Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Thomas A.; Katz, Jeffrey S.

    2018-01-01

    Historically, much of what we know about human memory has been discovered in experiments using visual and verbal stimuli. In two experiments, participants demonstrated reliably high recognition for nonverbal liquids. In Experiment 1, participants showed high accuracy for recognizing tastes (bitter, salty, sour, sweet) over a 30-s delay in a…

  2. Subjective intensity and pleasantness in taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on intensity and pleasantness in taste perception. There is a formal relationship between intensity and hedonic value of stimuli, which can be expressed in an inverted U. The fact that pleasantness depends partially on stimulus intensity poses a problem when one wants to

  3. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  4. Water palatability, a matter of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Manon; van Nes, A.; Tobias, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this trial was to test whether the temperature or additives of the drinking water affected water uptake by nursery pigs. We designed a repeated 4 × 4 Latin Square to control for confounding factors such as; carry-over effects, learning of a preferential taste, daily variation

  5. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds.

  6. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Bowles, Spencer G; Salcedo, Ernesto; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds.

  7. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds. PMID:28846687

  8. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial

  9. Oxytocin decreases sweet taste sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Abouyared, Marianne; St John, Steven J; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-03-15

    Oxytocin (OXT) suppresses food intake and lack of OXT leads to overconsumption of sucrose. Taste bud cells were recently discovered to express OXT-receptor. In the present study we tested whether administering OXT to wild-type mice affects their licking behavior for tastants in a paradigm designed to be sensitive to taste perception. We injected C57BL/6J mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10mg/kg OXT and assayed their brief-access lick responses, motivated by water deprivation, to NaCl (300mM), citric acid (20mM), quinine (0.3mM), saccharin (10mM), and a mix of MSG and IMP (100mM and 0.5mM respectively). OXT had no effect on licking for NaCl, citric acid, or quinine. A possible effect of OXT on saccharin and MSG+IMP was difficult to interpret due to unexpectedly low lick rates to water (the vehicle for all taste solutions), likely caused by the use of a high OXT dose that suppressed licking and other behaviors. A subsequent experiment focused on another preferred tastant, sucrose, and employed a much lower OXT dose (0.1mg/kg). This modification, based on our measurements of plasma OXT following i.p. injection, permitted us to elevate plasma [OXT] sufficiently to preferentially activate taste bud cells. OXT at this low dose significantly reduced licking responses to 0.3M sucrose, and overall shifted the sucrose concentration - behavioral response curves rightward (mean EC50saline=0.362M vs. EC50OXT=0.466M). Males did not differ from females under any condition in this study. We propose that circulating oxytocin is another factor that modulates taste-based behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. E-tongue: a tool for taste evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Sharma, Aarti; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj K

    2010-01-01

    Taste has an important role in the development of oral pharmaceuticals. With respect to patient acceptability and compliance, taste is one of the prime factors determining the market penetration and commercial success of oral formulations, especially in pediatric medicine. Taste assessment is one important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. Hence, pharmaceutical industries invest time, money and resources into developing palatable and pleasant-tasting products. The primary method for the taste measurement of a drug substance or a formulation is by human sensory evaluation, in which tasting a sample is relayed to inspectors. However, this method is impractical for early stage drug development because the test in humans is expensive and the taste of a drug candidate may not be important to the final product. Therefore, taste-sensing analytical devices, which can detect tastes, have been replacing the taste panelists. In the present review we are presenting different aspect of electronic tongue. The review article also discussed some useful patents and instrument with respect to E-tongue.

  11. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  12. Volumetry of human taste buds using laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, T; Srur, E; Stachs, O; Pau, H W

    2009-10-01

    In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy is a relatively new, non-invasive method for assessment of oral cavity epithelia. The penetration depth of approximately 200-400 microm allows visualisation of fungiform papillae and their taste buds. This paper describes the technique of in vivo volumetry of human taste buds. Confocal laser scanning microscopy used a diode laser at 670 nm for illumination. Digital laser scanning confocal microscopy equipment consisted of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph HRTII and the Rostock Cornea Module. Volume scans of fungiform papillae were used for three-dimensional reconstruction of the taste bud. This technique supplied information on taste bud structure and enabled measurement and calculation of taste bud volume. Volumetric data from a 23-year-old man over a nine-day period showed only a small deviation in values. After three to four weeks, phenomenological changes in taste bud structures were found (i.e. a significant increase in volume, followed by disappearance of the taste bud and appearance of a new taste bud). The data obtained indicate the potential application of this non-invasive imaging modality: to evaluate variation of taste bud volume in human fungiform papillae with ageing; to study the effects of chorda tympani nerve transection on taste bud volume; and to demonstrate recovery of taste buds in patients with a severed chorda tympani nerve who show recovery of gustatory sensibility after surgery.

  13. Ligand binding modes from low resolution GPCR models and mutagenesis: chicken bitter taste receptor as a test-case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pizio, Antonella; Kruetzfeldt, Louisa-Marie; Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-08-15

    Bitter taste is one of the basic taste modalities, warning against consuming potential poisons. Bitter compounds activate members of the bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of functional Tas2rs is species-dependent. Chickens represent an intriguing minimalistic model, because they detect the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptor subtypes. We investigated the binding modes of several known agonists of a representative chicken bitter taste receptor, ggTas2r1. Because of low sequence similarity between ggTas2r1 and crystallized GPCRs (~10% identity, ~30% similarity at most), the combination of computational approaches with site-directed mutagenesis was used to characterize the agonist-bound conformation of ggTas2r1 binding site between TMs 3, 5, 6 and 7. We found that the ligand interactions with N93 in TM3 and/or N247 in TM5, combined with hydrophobic contacts, are typically involved in agonist recognition. Next, the ggTas2r1 structural model was successfully used to identify three quinine analogues (epiquinidine, ethylhydrocupreine, quinidine) as new ggTas2r1 agonists. The integrated approach validated here may be applicable to additional cases where the sequence identity of the GPCR of interest and the existing experimental structures is low.

  14. A Molecular and Cellular Context-Dependent Role for Ir76b in Detection of Amino Acid Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Ganguly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid taste is expected to be a universal property among animals. Although sweet, bitter, salt, and water tastes have been well characterized in insects, the mechanisms underlying amino acid taste remain elusive. From a Drosophila RNAi screen, we identify an ionotropic receptor, Ir76b, as necessary for yeast preference. Using calcium imaging, we identify Ir76b+ amino acid taste neurons in legs, overlapping partially with sweet neurons but not those that sense other tastants. Ir76b mutants have reduced responses to amino acids, which are rescued by transgenic expression of Ir76b and a mosquito ortholog AgIr76b. Co-expression of Ir20a with Ir76b is sufficient for conferring amino acid responses in sweet-taste neurons. Notably, Ir20a also serves to block salt response of Ir76b. Our study establishes the role of a highly conserved receptor in amino acid taste and suggests a mechanism for mutually exclusive roles of Ir76b in salt- and amino-acid-sensing neurons.

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  16. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  17. Nicotine can skew the characterization of the macrophage type-1 (M{Phi}1) phenotype differentiated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to the M{Phi}2 phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagita, Manabu; Kobayashi, Ryohei [Department of Periodontology, Division of Oral Biology and Disease Control, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Murakami, Shinya, E-mail: ipshinya@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Division of Oral Biology and Disease Control, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-10-09

    Macrophages (M{Phi}s) exhibit functional heterogeneity and plasticity in the local microenvironment. Recently, it was reported that M{Phi}s can be divided into proinflammatory M{Phi}s (M{Phi}1) and anti-inflammatory M{Phi}s (M{Phi}2) based on their polarized functional properties. Here, we report that nicotine, the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, can modulate the characteristics of M{Phi}1. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-driven M{Phi}1 with nicotine (Ni-M{Phi}1) showed the phenotypic characteristics of M{Phi}2. Like M{Phi}2, Ni-M{Phi}1 exhibited antigen-uptake activities. Ni-M{Phi}1 suppressed IL-12, but maintained IL-10 and produced high amounts of MCP-1 upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation compared with M{Phi}1. Moreover, we observed strong proliferative responses of T cells to lipopolysaccharide-stimulated M{Phi}1, whereas Ni-M{Phi}1 reduced T cell proliferation and inhibited IFN-{gamma} production by T cells. These results suggest that nicotine can change the functional characteristics of M{Phi} and skew the M{Phi}1 phenotype to M{Phi}2. We propose that nicotine is a potent regulator that modulates immune responses in microenvironments.

  18. Postnatal development of bitter taste avoidance behavior in mice is associated with ACTIN-dependent localization of bitter taste receptors to the microvilli of taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuko; Kondo, Kaori; Kunishima, Yoshimi; Iseki, Sachiko; Kondo, Takashi; Ota, Masato S

    2018-01-22

    Bitter taste avoidance behavior (BAB) plays a fundamental role in the avoidance of toxic substances with a bitter taste. However, the molecular basis underlying the development of BAB is unknown. To study critical developmental events by which taste buds turn into functional organs with BAB, we investigated the early phase development of BAB in postnatal mice in response to bitter-tasting compounds, such as quinine and thiamine. Postnatal mice started to exhibit BAB for thiamine and quinine at postnatal day 5 (PD5) and PD7, respectively. Histological analyses of taste buds revealed the formation of microvilli in the taste pores starting at PD5 and the localization of type 2 taste receptor 119 (TAS2R119) at the microvilli at PD6. Treatment of the tongue epithelium with cytochalasin D (CytD), which disturbs ACTIN polymerization in the microvilli, resulted in the loss of TAS2R119 localization at the microvilli and the loss of BAB for quinine and thiamine. The release of ATP from the circumvallate papillae tissue due to taste stimuli was also declined following CytD treatment. These results suggest that the localization of TAS2R119 at the microvilli of taste pores is critical for the initiation of BAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

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    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  20. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Lu, Min; Echeverri, Fernando; Laita, Bianca; Kalabat, Dalia; Williams, Mark E; Hevezi, Peter; Zlotnik, Albert; Moyer, Bryan D

    2009-03-12

    Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  1. Targeted taste cell-specific overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult taste buds elevates phosphorylated TrkB protein levels in taste cells, increases taste bud size, and promotes gustatory innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V; Margolskee, Robert F; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2012-05-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system.

  2. Norepinephrine is coreleased with serotonin in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-12-03

    ATP and serotonin (5-HT) are neurotransmitters secreted from taste bud receptor (type II) and presynaptic (type III) cells, respectively. Norepinephrine (NE) has also been proposed to be a neurotransmitter or paracrine hormone in taste buds. Yet, to date, the specific stimulus for NE release in taste buds is not well understood, and the identity of the taste cells that secrete NE is not known. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with alpha(1A) adrenoceptors and loaded with fura-2 ("biosensors") to detect NE secreted from isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells. Biosensors responded to low concentrations of NE (>or=10 nm) with a reliable fura-2 signal. NE biosensors did not respond to stimulation with KCl or taste compounds. However, we recorded robust responses from NE biosensors when they were positioned against mouse circumvallate taste buds and the taste buds were stimulated with KCl (50 mm) or a mixture of taste compounds (cycloheximide, 10 microm; saccharin, 2 mm; denatonium, 1 mm; SC45647, 100 microm). NE biosensor responses evoked by stimulating taste buds were reversibly blocked by prazosin, an alpha(1A) receptor antagonist. Together, these findings indicate that taste bud cells secrete NE when they are stimulated. We isolated individual taste bud cells to identify the origin of NE release. NE was secreted only from presynaptic (type III) taste cells and not receptor (type II) cells. Stimulus-evoked NE release depended on Ca(2+) in the bathing medium. Using dual biosensors (sensitive to 5-HT and NE), we found all presynaptic cells secrete 5-HT and 33% corelease NE with 5-HT.

  3. Targeted Taste Cell-specific Overexpression of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Adult Taste Buds Elevates Phosphorylated TrkB Protein Levels in Taste Cells, Increases Taste Bud Size, and Promotes Gustatory Innervation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Nosrat, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system. PMID:22442142

  4. Phenotypic, Molecular and Symbiotic Characterization of the Rhizobial Symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart That Grow in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, María Florencia; López, José Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, María Antonieta; Pensiero, José Francisco; Lagares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart belongs to the D. virgatus complex, subfamily Mimosoidae. The known potential as livestock fodder of several of these legumes prompted us to undertake a phenotypic, molecular, and symbiotic characterization of the D. paspalaceus symbionts in the Santa Fe province, Argentina. The rhizobia collected—containing isolates with different abiotic-stress tolerances—showed a remarkable genetic diversity by PCR fingerprinting, with 11 different amplification profiles present among 20 isolates. In selected isolates 16S-rDNA sequencing detected mesorhizobia (60%) and rhizobia (40%) within the collection, in contrast to the genus of the original inoculant strain CB3126—previously isolated from Leucaena leucocephala—that we typified here through its 16S rDNA as Sinorhizobium terangae. The results revealed the establishment by diverse bacterial genera -rhizobia, sinorhizobia, and mesorhizobia- of full N2-fixing symbiotic associations with D. paspalaceus. This diversity was paralleled by the presence of at least two different nodC allelic variants. The identical nodC alleles of the Mesorhizobia sp. 10.L.4.2 and 10.L.5.3 notably failed to group within any of the currently described rhizo-/brady-/azorhizobial nodC clades. Interestingly, the nodC from S. terangae CB3126 clustered close to homologs from common bean nodulating rhizobia, but not with the nodC from S. terangae WSM1721 that nodulates Acacia. No previous data were available on nod-gene phylogeny for Desmanthus symbionts. A field assay indicated that inoculation of D. paspalaceus with the local Rhizobium sp. 10L.11.4 produced higher aerial-plant dry weights compared to S. teranga CB3126–inoculated plants. Neither the mesorhizobia 10.L.4.2 or 10.L.5.3 nor the rhizobium 10L.11.4 induced root nodules in L. leucocephala or P. vulgaris. The results show that some of the local isolates have remarkable tolerances to several abiotic stresses including acidity, salt, and temperature

  5. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rintahaka

    Full Text Available A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we

  6. Phenotypical analysis of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG fimbrial spaFED operon: surface expression and functional characterization of recombinant SpaFED pili in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintahaka, Johanna; Yu, Xia; Kant, Ravi; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    A noticeable genomic feature of many piliated Gram-positive bacterial species is the presence of more than one pilus-encoding operon. Paradigmatically, the gut-adapted Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain contains two different fimbrial operons in its genome. However, whereas one of these operons (called spaCBA) is encoding for the functionally mucus-/collagen-binding SpaCBA pilus, for the other operon (called spaFED) any native expression of the SpaFED-called pili is still the subject of some uncertainty. Irrespective of such considerations, we decided it would be of relevance or interest to decipher the gross structure of this pilus type, and as well assess its functional capabilities for cellular adhesion and immunostimulation. For this, and by following the approach we had used previously to explicate the immuno-properties of SpaCBA pili, we constructed nisin-inducible expression clones producing either wild-type or SpaF pilin-deleted surface-assembled L. rhamnosus GG SpaFED pili on Lactococcus lactis cells. Using these piliated lactococcal constructs, we found that the pilin-polymerized architecture of a recombinant-produced SpaFED pilus coincides with sequence-based functional predictions of the related pilins, and in fact is prototypical of those other sortase-dependent pilus-like structures thus far characterized for piliated Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, we confirmed that among the different pilin subunits encompassing spaFED operon-encoded pili, the SpaF pilin is a main adhesion determinant, and when present in the assembled structure can mediate pilus binding to mucus, certain extracellular matrix proteins, and different gut epithelial cell lines. However, somewhat unexpectedly, when recombinant SpaFED pili are surface-attached, we found that they could not potentiate the existing lactococcal cell-induced immune responses so elicited from intestinal- and immune-related cells, but rather instead, they could dampen them. Accordingly, we have now provided

  7. Choice Behavior Guided by Learned, But Not Innate, Taste Aversion Recruits the Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Peñas-Rincón, Ana; Ángeles-Durán, Sandybel; Sotres-Bayon, Francisco

    2016-10-12

    -guided tasks, our study provides evidence for the key role of orbitofrontal cortex activity in choice behavior and shows that this is dissociable from the adjacent insular cortex-dependent taste aversion memory. Understanding the brain mechanisms that underlie the impact that emotional associations have on survival choice behaviors may lead to better treatments for mental disorders characterized by emotional decision-making deficits. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3610574-10$15.00/0.

  8. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    OpenAIRE

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary induct...

  10. Single Lgr5- or Lgr6-expressing taste stem/progenitor cells generate taste bud cells ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenwen; Lewandowski, Brian C; Watson, Jaime; Aihara, Eitaro; Iwatsuki, Ken; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Margolskee, Robert F; Jiang, Peihua

    2014-11-18

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and its homologs (e.g., Lgr6) mark adult stem cells in multiple tissues. Recently, we and others have shown that Lgr5 marks adult taste stem/progenitor cells in posterior tongue. However, the regenerative potential of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) cells and the identity of adult taste stem/progenitor cells that regenerate taste tissue in anterior tongue remain elusive. In the present work, we describe a culture system in which single isolated Lgr5(+) or Lgr6(+) cells from taste tissue can generate continuously expanding 3D structures ("organoids"). Many cells within these taste organoids were cycling and positive for proliferative cell markers, cytokeratin K5 and Sox2, and incorporated 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Importantly, mature taste receptor cells that express gustducin, carbonic anhydrase 4, taste receptor type 1 member 3, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2, or cytokeratin K8 were present in the taste organoids. Using calcium imaging assays, we found that cells grown out from taste organoids derived from isolated Lgr5(+) cells were functional and responded to tastants in a dose-dependent manner. Genetic lineage tracing showed that Lgr6(+) cells gave rise to taste bud cells in taste papillae in both anterior and posterior tongue. RT-PCR data demonstrated that Lgr5 and Lgr6 may mark the same subset of taste stem/progenitor cells both anteriorly and posteriorly. Together, our data demonstrate that functional taste cells can be generated ex vivo from single Lgr5(+) or Lgr6(+) cells, validating the use of this model for the study of taste cell generation.

  11. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  12. Taste masking of ofloxacin and formation of interpenetrating polymer network beads for sustained release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michael Rajesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to carry out taste masking of ofloxacin (Ofl by ion exchange resins (IERs followed by sustained release of Ofl by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN beads. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs with three different ratios of Ofl to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were prepared by batch method and investigated for in vivo and in vitro taste masking. DRC of methacrylic acid-divinyl benzene (MD resin and Ofl prepared at a ratio of 1:4 was used to form IPN beads. IPN beads of MD 1:4 were prepared by following the ionic cross-linking method using sodium carboxymethyl xanthan gum (SCMXG and SCMXG-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMXG-SCMC. IPN beads were characterized with FT-IR and further studied on sustained release of Ofl at different pH. In vivo taste masking carried out by human volunteers showed that MD 1:4 significantly reduced the bitterness of Ofl. Characterization studies such as FT-IR, DSC, P-XRD and taste masking showed that complex formation took place between drug and resin. In vitro study at gastric pH showed complete release of drug from MD 1:4 within 30 min whereas IPN beads took 5 h at gastric pH and 10 h at salivary pH for the complete release of drug. As the crosslinking increased the release kinetics changed into non-Fickian diffusion to zero-order release mechanism. MD 1:4 showed better performance for the taste masking of Ofl and IPNs beads prepared from it were found useful for the sustained release of Ofl at both the pH, indicating a versatile drug delivery system.

  13. Taste avoidance induced by wheel running: effects of backward pairings and robustness of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pierce, W David; Heth, Donald C; Russell, James C

    2004-09-15

    Rats repeatedly exposed to a distinctive novel solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) followed by the opportunity to run in a wheel subsequently drink less of this solution. Investigations on this phenomenon indicate that wheel running is an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) for establishing conditioned taste aversion (CTA) when using a forward conditioning procedure (i.e., the US-wheel running follows the CS-taste). However, other studies show that wheel running produces reliable preference for a distinctive place when pairings are backward (i.e., the CS-location follows the US-wheel running). One possibility to account for these results is that rewarding aftereffects of wheel running conditioned preference to the CS. The main objective of the present study was to assess the effects of backward conditioning using wheel running as the US and a distinctive taste as the CS. In a between-groups design, two experimental groups [i.e., forward (FC) and backward conditioning (BC)] and two control groups [CS-taste alone (TA) and CS-US unpaired (UNP)] were compared. Results from this experiment indicated that there is less suppression of drinking when a CS-taste followed a bout of wheel running. In fact, rats in the BC group drank more of the paired solution than all the other groups.

  14. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

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    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the d