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Sample records for taste aversive agent

  1. Drugs and taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondeau, D.B.; Jolicoeur, F.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Wayner, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The literature on the effects of drugs on the acquisition and the magnitude of taste aversion is reviewed and discussed. Then, the results of a series of experiments on the effects of phenobarbital and related drugs on taste aversion are reported. A standard taste aversion model was used in all experiments; test drugs were injected prior to drinking in a one bottle situation on the first test day following the taste aversion treatment. Phenobarbital in doses ranging from 20 to 80 mg/kg significantly attenuated taste aversion induced by lithium chloride (LiCl) and x-radiation, the maximal effect occurred with the 60 mg/kg dose. The attenuating effect was found to be dependent upon the magnitude of the aversion to the sapid solution. Phenobarbital completely abolished aversion produced by 0.375 mEq LiCl while the attenuation effect decreased linearly with higher doses of LiCl. Results also indicate that phenobarbital's attenuating effect cannot be solely attributed to its dipsogenic characteristic or to its state dependent learning effect. Attenuation of LiCl aversion to a saccharin solution was also observed following single doses of amobarbital, 30 mg/kg, pentobarbital, 15 mg/kg, and chloropromazine, 0.75 mg/kg. Taste aversion was not affected by other doses of those drugs or by hexobarbital, barbital, and chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital's attenuating effect on taste aversion is discussed in relation to other known behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the drug

  2. Further evidence for conditioned taste aversion induced by forced swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2005-01-31

    A series of experiments with rats reported that aversion to a taste solution can be established by forced swimming in a water pool. Experiment 1 demonstrated that correlation of taste and swimming is a critical factor for this phenomenon, indicating associative (i.e., Pavlovian) nature of this learning. Experiment 2 showed that this learning obeys the Pavlovian law of strength, by displaying a positive relationship between the duration of water immersion in training and the taste aversion observed in subsequent testing. Experiment 3 revealed that swimming rather than being wet is the critical agent, because a water shower did not endow rats with taste aversion. Experiment 4 found that taste aversion was a positive function of water level of the pools in training (0, 12 or 32 cm). These results, taken together, suggest that energy expenditure caused by physical exercise might be involved in the development of taste aversion.

  3. Interactions between radiation and amphetamine in taste aversion learning and the role of the area postrema in amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were run to assess the role of the area postrema in taste aversion learning resulting from combined treatment with subthreshold unconditioned stimuli and in the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion. In the first experiment, it was shown that combined treatment with subthreshold radiation (15 rad) and subthreshold amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, IP) resulted in the acquisition of a taste aversion. The second experiment showed that lesions of the area postrema blocked taste aversion learning produced by two subthreshold doses of amphetamine. In the third experiment, which looked at the dose-response curve for amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning in intact rats and rats with area postrema lesions, it was shown that both groups of rats acquired taste aversions following injection of amphetamine, although the rats with lesions showed a less severe aversion than the intact rats. The results are interpreted as indicating that amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning may involve area postrema-mediated mechanisms, particularly at the lower doses, but that an intact area postrema is not a necessary condition for the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion

  4. Mechanisms of radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The literature on taste aversion learning is reviewed and discussed, with particular emphasis on those studies that have used exposure to ionizing radiation as an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned taste aversion. The primary aim of the review is to attempt to define the mechanisms that lead to the initiation of the taste aversion response following exposure to ionizing radiation. Studies using drug treatments to produce a taste aversion have been included to the extent that they are relevant to understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can affect the behavior of the organism. 141 references

  5. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial

  6. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  7. Sodium butyrate into the insular cortex during conditioned taste-aversion acquisition delays aversive taste memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Reyes-López, Julian; Miranda, María Isabel

    2014-04-16

    Histone acetylation is one mechanism that promotes gene expression, and it increases during learning of various tasks. Specifically, novel taste consumption produces an increased acetylation of histone lysine residues in the insular cortex (IC), where protein synthesis is crucial during memory consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the role of this elevated histone acetylation during CTA learning has not been examined directly. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate (NaBu), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, injected into the IC during CTA acquisition. Male Wistar rats, IC bilaterally implanted, were injected 60 min before saccharine presentation, with a total volume of 0.5 µl of NaBu solution (100, 500, and 10 µg/0.5 µl) or saline; 30 min later animals were injected intraperitoneally with lithium chloride, a malaise-inducing drug. The next day, CTA retrieval was tested. No effects of NaBu were observed during acquisition or retrieval, but during extinction trials, a significant delay in aversive memory extinction was observed in the group injected with the lowest NaBu dose. This result indicates that NaBu in the IC strengthens CTA and delays aversive memory extinction, and suggests that histone acetylation could increase long-term taste-aversive memory strength.

  8. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-09-01

    We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste avoidance: reward or aversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Showalter, John; Grigson, Patricia Sue

    2009-03-01

    Rats avoid intake of a palatable taste cue when paired with all drugs of abuse tested. Evidence suggests that, at least for morphine and cocaine, rats avoid the taste cue because they are anticipating the rewarding properties of the drug. Thus, the suppressive effects of a rewarding sucrose solution and cocaine, but not those of the putatively aversive agent, lithium chloride (LiCl), are exaggerated in drug-sensitive Lewis rats. Likewise, the suppressive effects of sucrose and morphine, but not those of LiCl, are eliminated by bilateral lesions of the gustatory thalamus. Unlike morphine and cocaine, it is less clear whether rewarding or aversive drug properties are responsible for ethanol-induced suppression of intake of a taste cue. The present set of studies tests whether, like cocaine, ethanol-induced suppression of intake of a taste cue also is greater in the drug-sensitive Lewis rats and whether the suppressive effects of the drug are prevented by bilateral lesions of the taste thalamus. In Experiment 1, fluid-deprived Lewis and Fischer rats were given 5-minute access to 0.15% saccharin and then injected with saline or a range of doses of ethanol (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 g/kg). There was a total of 6 such pairings. In Experiments 2 and 3, Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral electrophysiologically guided lesions of the gustatory thalamus. After recovery, suppression of intake of the saccharin cue was evaluated following repeated daily pairings with either a high (1.5 g/kg) or a low (0.75 g/kg) dose of ethanol. Ethanol-induced suppression of intake of the saccharin conditioned stimulus (CS) did not differ between the drug-sensitive Lewis rats relative to the less-sensitive Fischer rats. Lesions of the taste thalamus, however, prevented the suppressive effect of the 0.75 g/kg dose of the drug, but had no impact on the suppressive effect of the 1.5 g/kg dose of ethanol. The results suggest that the suppressive effects of ethanol on CS intake are mediated by both

  10. Acquisition of lithium chloride- and radiation-induced taste aversions in hypophysectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hypophysectomy on the acquisition of conditioned taste aversions following injection of lithium chloride and following exposure to ionizing radiation were studied using a two-bottle preference test. Hypophysectomy did not disrupt the acquisition of a taste aversion following either treatment. The results are interpreted as: (a) suggesting that pituitary/adrenal hormones do not mediate the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following injections of lithium chloride or following exposure to ionizing radiation in a two-bottle preference test, and (b) consistent with other research suggesting that the involvement of pituitary/adrenal hormones in taste aversion learning may be related to the conflict induced by using a one-bottle test and not to the learning itself

  11. Taste aversion learning produced by combined treatment with subthreshold radiation and lithium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine whether treatment with two subthreshold doses of radiation or lithium chloride, either alone or in combination, could lead to taste aversion learning. The first experiment determined the thresholds for a radiation-induced taste aversion at 15-20 rad and for lithium chloride at 0.30-0.45 mEq/kg. In the second experiment it was shown that exposing rats to two doses of 15 rad separated by up to 3 hr produced a taste aversion. Treatment with two injections of lithium chloride (0.30 mEq/kg) did not produce a significant reduction in preference. Combined treatment with radiation and lithium chloride did produce a taste aversion when the two treatments were administered within 1 hr of each other. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of these findings for understanding the nature of the unconditioned stimuli leading to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  12. Taste aversion memory reconsolidation is independent of its retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Balderas, Israela; Garcia-DeLaTorre, Paola; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-10-01

    Reconsolidation refers to the destabilization/re-stabilization memory process upon its activation. However, the conditions needed to undergo reconsolidation, as well as its functional significance is quite unclear and a matter of intense investigation. Even so, memory retrieval is held as requisite to initiate reconsolidation. Therefore, in the present work we examined whether transient pharmacological disruption of memory retrieval impedes reconsolidation of stored memory in the widely used associative conditioning task, taste aversion. We found that AMPA receptors inhibition in the amygdala impaired retrieval of taste aversion memory. Furthermore, AMPA receptors blockade impeded retrieval regardless of memory strength. However, inhibition of retrieval did not affect anisomycin-mediated disruption of reconsolidation. These results indicate that retrieval is a dispensable condition to undergo reconsolidation and provide evidence of molecular dissociation between retrieval and activation of memory in the non-declarative memory model taste aversion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced taste aversion was examined to assess the importance of the vagus nerve in transmitting information on the peripheral toxicity of radiation to the brain. Vagotomy had no effect on taste aversion learning, consistent with reports using other toxins. The data support the involvement of a blood-borne factor in the acquisition of taste aversion induced by ionizing radiation

  14. Role of the area postrema in radiation-induced taste aversion learning and emesis in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Chedester, A.L.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the area postrema in radiation-induced emesis and taste aversion learning and the relationship between these behaviors were studied in cats. The potential involvement of neural factors which might be independent of the area postrema was minimized by using low levels of ionizing radiation (100 rads at a dose rate of 40 rads/min) to elicit a taste aversion, and by using body-only exposures (4500 and 6000 rads at 450 rads/min) to produce emesis. Lesions of the area postrema disrupted both taste aversion learning and emesis following irradiation. These results, which indicate that the area postrema is involved in the mediation of both radiation-induced emesis and taste aversion learning in cats under these experimental conditions, are interpreted as being consistent with the hypotheses that similar mechanisms mediate both responses to exposure to ionizing radiation, and that the taste aversion learning paradigm can therefore serve as a model system for studying radiation-induced emesis

  15. Differential involvement of cortical muscarinic and NMDA receptors in short- and long-term taste aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G; Gutiérrez, R; De La Cruz, V; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F

    2002-09-01

    In conditioned taste aversion, an animal avoids a taste previously associated with toxic effects, and this aversive memory formation requires an intact insular cortex. In this paper, we investigated the possible differential involvement of cholinergic and glutamatergic receptors in the insular cortex in short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) of taste aversion in rats. Taste aversion was induced by intraperitoneal administration of lithium chloride (a malaise-inducing drug) 15 min after experience with an unfamiliar taste. In order to test STM and LTM of taste aversion, taste stimulus was again presented 4 h and 72 h after lithium injection, respectively. During the acquisition, microinjection of the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, in the insular cortex before, but not after, the presentation of the new taste, abolished STM as well as LTM. Blockade of the NMDA receptor, in the insular cortex, by AP5 before, but not after, the presentation of the taste stimulus, impaired LTM but left STM intact. Moreover, when injected 1 h after malaise induction (i.e., during taste-illness association), AP5 disrupted both STM and LTM. These results suggest that activation of muscarinic receptors in the insular cortex is involved in the acquisition of taste memory, whereas NMDA receptors participate in taste memory consolidation. These data demonstrate that different neurochemical mechanisms subserve different memory phases. NMDA receptors are also probably involved in processing the visceral input, thus allowing subsequent taste-illness association. This indicates that in the same cortical area the same neurotransmitter system can be involved in distinct processes: taste memory consolidation vs. taste-illness association.

  16. Conditioned taste aversion: modulation by 5-HT receptor activity and corticosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Gorzalka; Hanson, Laura; Harrington, J

    2003-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to elucidate the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system in the acquisition of lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment 1, rats were administered either vehicle or 50 mg/kg nefazodone daily fo......, corticosterone-treated animals required more trials to reach extinction. These results suggest the involvement of both the 5-HT system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in lithium chloride-conditioned taste aversion....

  17. Effects of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of radiation- and lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments were run to evaluate the effect of antiemetics on the acquisition and recall of a conditioned taste aversion induced by exposure to ionizing radiation or by injection of lithium chloride. Groups of male rats were exposed to 100 rad gamma radiation or 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride following consumption of a 10% sucrose solution. They were then injected with saline or with one of three antiemetics (prochlorperazine, trimethobenzamide, or cyclizine) at dose levels that have been reported to be effective in attenuating a previously acquired lithium chloride-induced taste aversion. The pretreatments with antiemetics had no effect on the acquisition or recall of either the lithium chloride- or radiation-induced taste aversion. The data suggest that antiemetics do not disrupt lithium chloride-induced taste aversions as previously reported, nor do they effect radiation-induced taste aversion learning

  18. Long-term aversive taste memory requires insular and amygdala protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Balderas, Israela; Saucedo-Alquicira, Fernando; Cruz-Castañeda, Paulina; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2011-03-01

    Some reports have shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is necessary to degrade repressor factors to produce new proteins essential to memory consolidation. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that memory updating also relies on protein degradation through the UPS. To evaluate whether degradation of proteins is part of the cellular events needed for long-term storage of taste aversion, we injected lactacystin--an UPS inhibitor--into the amygdala and/or insular cortex 30 min before the first or second training trials. The results revealed that degradation of proteins in either the amygdala or insular cortex suffices for long-term stabilization of first-time encounter taste aversion. On the other hand, lactacystin applied in the insula, but not in the amygdala, before the second training prevented long-term storage of updated information. Our results support that degradation of proteins by means of the UPS is required every time taste aversion is to be stored in long-term memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of cocaine, alcohol and cocaine/alcohol combinations in conditioned taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Gregory D; Verendeev, Andrey; Jones, Jermaine; Riley, Anthony L

    2005-09-01

    We have recently reported that alcohol attenuates cocaine place preferences. Although the basis for this effect is unknown, alcohol may attenuate cocaine reward by potentiating its aversive effects. To examine this possibility, these experiments assessed the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions under conditions similar to those that resulted in attenuated place preferences. Specifically, Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on taste aversions induced by 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg cocaine. Experiment 3 examined the role of intertrial interval in the effects of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) on cocaine (30 mg/kg) taste aversions. In Experiments 1 and 2, cocaine was effective at conditioning aversions. Alcohol produced no measurable effect. Combining cocaine and alcohol produced no greater aversion than cocaine alone (and, in fact, weakened aversions at the lowest dose of cocaine). In Experiment 3, varying the intertrial interval from 3 days (as in the case of Experiments 1 and 2) to 1 day (a procedure identical to that in which alcohol attenuated cocaine place preferences) resulted in significant alcohol- and cocaine-induced taste aversions. Nonetheless, alcohol remained ineffective in potentiating cocaine aversions. Thus, under these conditions alcohol does not potentiate cocaine's aversiveness. These results were discussed in terms of their implication for the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced place preferences. Further, the effects of alcohol on place preferences conditioned by cocaine were discussed in relation to other assessments of the effects of alcohol on the affective properties of cocaine and the implications of these interactions for alcohol and cocaine co-use.

  20. Effects of Swim Stress on Neophobia and Reconditioning Using a Conditioned Taste Aversion Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer M.; Ramsey, Ashley K.; Fowler, Stephanie W.; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that swim stress during a classical conditioning trial attenuates conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In the current study, rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on the habituation of neophobia to a flavored solution and reacquisition of an extinguished conditioned taste aversion. In Experiment…

  1. Differential effects of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in the medial prefrontal cortex during aversive and incidental taste memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, J; Nuñez-Jaramillo, L; Morán-Guel, E; Miranda, M I

    2010-08-11

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain area crucial for memory, attention, and decision making. Specifically, the noradrenergic system in this cortex is involved in aversive learning, as well as in the retrieval of these memories. Some evidence suggests that this area has an important role during taste memory, particularly during conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a model of aversive memory. Despite some previous evidence, there is scarce information about the role of adrenergic receptors in the mPFC during formation of aversive taste memory and appetitive/incidental taste memory. The goal of this research was to evaluate the role of mPFC beta-adrenergic receptors during CTA acquisition/consolidation or CTA retrieval, as well as during incidental taste memory formation using the model of latent inhibition of CTA. The results showed that infusions in the mPFC of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol before CTA acquisition impaired both short- and long-term aversive taste memory formation, and also that propranolol infusions before the memory test impaired CTA retrieval. However, propranolol infusions before pre-exposure to the taste during the latent inhibition procedure had no effect on incidental taste memory acquisition or consolidation. These data indicate that beta-adrenergic receptors in the mPFC have different functions during taste memory formation: they have an important role during aversive taste association as well as during aversive retrieval but not during incidental taste memory formation. Copyright (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A conditioned aversion study of sucrose and SC45647 taste in TRPM5 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F; Delay, Eugene R

    2012-06-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances.

  3. Effects of phenobarbital on taste aversion induced by x-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolicoeur, F.B.; Wayner, M.J.; Rondeau, D.B.; Merkel, A.D.; Bassano, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of phenobarbital on taste aversion induced by x-radiation were examined. Rats were adapted to a 23 hr 50 min water deprivation schedule. On the Treatment Day animals were given a novel 0.125% Na saccharin solution during the 10 min drinking session and were then exposed to 100 rads of x-radiation. The saccharin solution was presented again on six subsequent Test Days. Phenobarbital in doses of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg was adminstered 15 min prior to drinking on the first Test Day. Results demonstrate the phenobarbital in all doses tested has a significant attenuating effect on radiation induced taste aversion

  4. Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1988-01-01

    The preexposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired preexposures to lithium chloride (3.0 mEq/kg, IP) blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium chloride or exposure to ionizing radiation (100 rad). Similar pretreatment with radiation blocked the acquisition of a radiation-induced aversion, but had no effect on taste aversions produced by lithium chloride (3.0 or 1.5 mEq/kg). Preexposure to ethanol (4 g/kg, PO) disrupted the acquisition of an ethanol-induced taste aversion, but not radiation- or lithium chloride-induced aversions. In contrast, preexposure to either radiation or lithium chloride attenuated an ethanol-induced taste aversion in intact rats, but not in rats with lesions of the area postrema. The results are discussed in terms of relationships between these three unconditioned stimuli and in terms of implications of these results for understanding the nature of the proximal unconditioned stimulus in taste aversion learning

  5. Attenuation of radiation- and drug-induced conditioned taste aversions following area postrema lesions in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of lesions of the area postrema on the acquisition of radiation- and drug-induced (histamine and lithium chloride) conditioned taste aversions were investigated. The results indicated that area postrema lesions caused a significant attenuation of the aversion produced by pairing a novel sucrose solution with radiation (100 rad) or drug injection. Further, the area postrema lesions produced a similar level of attenuation of the taste aversion in all three treatment conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the implications of this finding for defining the mechanisms by which exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion

  6. Strain-dependent sex differences in the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jermaine D; Busse, Gregory D; Riley, Anthony L

    2006-04-01

    Research using the conditioned taste aversion procedure has reported that a cocaine/alcohol combination induces a significantly stronger taste aversion than either cocaine or alcohol alone. These findings suggest that the co-administration of alcohol intensifies the aversive effects of cocaine. Although the behavioral interaction of cocaine and alcohol is well established, little is known about how the effects of this drug combination might be modulated by a variety of subject variables. The current investigation addressed this by assessing if the ability of alcohol to potentiate cocaine-induced taste aversions is dependent upon the strain and/or sex of the subject. In this series of studies, male and female rats of Long-Evans (Experiment 1) and Sprague-Dawley (Experiment 2) descent were given limited access to a novel saccharin solution to drink and were then injected with either vehicle, cocaine (20 mg/kg), alcohol (0.56 g/kg) or the alcohol/cocaine combination. This procedure was repeated every fourth day for a total of four conditioning trials. All subjects were then compared on an Aversion Test that followed the fourth conditioning cycle. In three of the groups tested (male Long-Evans; male and female Sprague-Dawley), cocaine induced a significant taste aversion that was unaffected by the co-administration of alcohol. However, in female Long-Evans subjects, the addition of alcohol significantly strengthened the avoidance of the saccharin solution. Although the effects of alcohol on cocaine-induced taste aversions are dependent upon an interaction of sex and strain, the basis for this SexxStrain interaction is not known. That such an interaction is evident suggests that attention to such factors in assessing the effects of drug combinations is important to understanding the likelihood of the use and abuse of such drugs.

  7. State-dependent interaction in the antihistamine-induced disruption of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were run to evaluate the possibility that injection of antihistamine can produce a state-dependent acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion. In the first experiment, pretreating rats with the antihistamine chlorpheniramine maleate prior to their initial exposure to sucrose and to low-level irradiation on the conditioning day did not prevent the acquisition of a taste aversion to sucrose when the antihistamine was also administered prior to a subsequent preference test. In the second experiment, rats were both conditioned and tested for a radiation-induced aversion in a drug-free state. Under these condtions, the rats continued to show an aversion to sucrose despite pretreating them with chlorpheniramine prior to irradiation. Since rats conditioned under the antihistamine do not show the radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion when tested for sucrose preference in a nondrug state, it would seem that pretreating rats with an antihistamine prior to conditioning affects only the retrieval of the previously learned response and not its acquisition

  8. The Effect of Swimming Experience on Acquisition and Retention of Swimming-Based Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Takahisa; Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2010-01-01

    Swimming endows rats with an aversion to a taste solution consumed before swimming. The present study explored whether the experience of swimming before or after the taste-swimming trials interferes with swimming-based taste aversion learning. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a single preexposure to 20 min of swimming was as effective as four or…

  9. Investigations on UCS-CS mediation in radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, T.C.

    1974-01-01

    Groups of 8 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in an investigation of procaine and dimenhydrinate effects on radiation-induced taste aversion learning. Neither the local anesthetic procaine, administered intraperitoneally, nor the antinausea drug dimenhydrinate, administered intramuscularly, blocked acquisition of aversion to saccharin flavored water. Control animals confirmed that saccharin preferences appeared normally in non-irradiated animals, and that the drugs produced no aversion in the absence of radiation. Another investigation, using groups of 5 female Sprague-Dawley rats, showed a failure of dimenhydrinate in blocking the acquisition of a rotation-induced conditioned taste aversion. Two dose levels of the drug were used, 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg. At the dimenhydrinate dosage used in the study involving radiation (1.75 mg/kg) and at the higher dosage used in the study involving rotation, there appeared to be a potentiation of the effects of radiation and rotation, respectively. Results of these studies seem to favor a model for UCS-CS mediation as being diffuse and perhaps redundant. The possibility that nausea-producing stimuli may work synergistically was also discussed. (U.S.)

  10. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

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    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG, and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1 the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t cell and (2 the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  11. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Etsuro; Otsuka, Emi; Hama, Noriyuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Okada, Ryuichi; Hatakeyama, Dai; Fujito, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC) in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG), and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1) the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t) cell and (2) the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  12. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The effect of post-conditioning exposure to morphine on the retention of a morphine-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, W J; Zellner, D A; LoLordo, V M; Riley, A L

    1981-06-01

    In the following experiment, multiple injections of morphine sulfate following the acquisition of a morphine-induced taste aversion had no effect on the retention of the previously acquired aversion. Post-conditioning injections of morphine resulted in the development of physical dependence to morphine and led to a decrement in the ability of morphine to induce a subsequent aversion to a second novel taste. This failure of post-conditioning exposures to morphine to affect a previously acquired morphine-induced taste aversion even though tolerance to morphine had occurred was discussed in the context of Rescorla's event-memory model of conditioning.

  14. Choice Behavior Guided by Learned, But Not Innate, Taste Aversion Recruits the Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Peñas-Rincón, Ana; Ángeles-Durán, Sandybel; Sotres-Bayon, Francisco

    2016-10-12

    The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats. Interestingly, we found that inactivation of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), but not the dorsal or ventral medial prefrontal cortices, blocked retrieval of choice CTA. However, OFC inactivation left retrieval of no-choice CTA intact, suggesting its role in guiding choice, but not in retrieval of CTA memory. Consistently, OFC activity increased in the choice condition compared with no-choice, as measured with c-Fos immunolabeling. Notably, OFC inactivation did not affect choice behavior when it was guided by innate taste aversion. Consistent with an anterior insular cortex (AIC) involvement in storing taste memories, we found that AIC inactivation impaired retrieval of both choice and no-choice CTA. Therefore, this study provides evidence for OFC's role in guiding choice behavior and shows that this is dissociable from AIC-dependent taste aversion memory. Together, our results suggest that OFC is required and recruited to guide choice selection between options of taste associations relayed from AIC. Survival and mental health depend on being able to choose stimuli not associated with danger. This is particularly important when danger is associated with stimuli that we ingest. Although much is known about the brain mechanisms that underlie associations with dangerous taste stimuli, very little is known about how these stored emotional associations guide behavior when it involves choice. By combining pharmacological and immunohistochemistry tools with taste

  15. Relationship between vomiting and taste aversion learning in the ferret: studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B M; Hunt, W A

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between emesis and taste aversion learning was studied in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) following exposure to ionizing radiation (50-200 cGy) or injection of lithium chloride (1.5-3.0 mEq/kg, ip). When 10% sucrose or 0.1% saccharin was used as the conditioned stimulus, neither unconditioned stimulus produced a taste aversion, even when vomiting was produced by the stimulus (Experiments 1 and 2). When a canned cat food was used as the conditioned stimulus, lithium chloride, but not ionizing radiation, produced a taste aversion (Experiment 3). Lithium chloride was effective in producing a conditioned taste aversion when administration of the toxin was delayed by up to 90 min following the ingestion of the canned cat food, indicating that the ferrets are capable of showing long-delay learning (Experiment 4). Experiment 5 examined the capacity of amphetamine, which is a qualitatively different stimulus than lithium chloride or ionizing radiation, to produce taste aversion learning in rats and cats as well as in ferrets. Injection of amphetamine (3 mg/kg, ip) produced a taste aversion in rats and cats but not in ferrets which required a higher dose (> 5 mg/kg). The results of these experiments are interpreted as indicating that, at least for the ferret, there is no necessary relationship between toxin-induced illness and the acquisition of a CTA and that gastrointestinal distress is not a sufficient condition for CTA learning.

  16. Effects of dose and of partial body ionizing radiation on taste aversion learning in rats with lesions of the area postrema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of area postrema lesions on the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following partial body exposure to ionizing radiation was investigated in rats exposed to head-only irradiation at 100, 200 and 300 rad or to body-only irradiation at 100 and 200 rad. Following head-only irradiation area postrema lesions produced a significant attenuation of the radiation-induced taste aversion at all dose levels, although the rats still showed a significant reduction in sucrose preference. Following body-only exposure, area postrema lesions completely disrupted the acquisition of the conditioned taste aversion. The results are interpreted as indicating that: (a) the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following body-only exposure is mediated by the area postrema; and (b) taste aversion learning following radiation exposure to the head-only is mediated by both the area postrema and a mechanism which is independent of the area postrema

  17. Cisplatin-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion: Attenuation by Dexamethasone but not Zacopride or GR38032F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    SR2-1 Cisplatin-induced conditioned taste aversion: ateuto by dexamethasone but not zacopride or GR38032F Nm I- Paul C Mele, John R. McDonough, David...to 5-H1’, receptor blockade. 5-HT., receptor antagonists; Zacopridc: GR38032F; Desamethasone: Cisplatin: Taste aversion (conditioned) I. Introductlon...intake) was used as the area known as the chemoreceptor trigger zone (Borri- index of the CTA. son, 1974). Moreover. the findings that rats, ferrets

  18. Differential participation of temporal structures in the consolidation and reconsolidation of taste aversion extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Delatorre, Paola; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Balderas, Israela; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2010-09-01

    The extinction process has been described as the decline in the frequency or intensity of the conditioned response following the withdrawal of reinforcement. Hence, experimental extinction does not reflect loss of the original memory, but rather reflects new learning, which in turn requires consolidation in order to be maintained in the long term. During extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), a taste previously associated with aversive consequences acquires a safe status through continuous presentations of the flavor with no aversive consequence. In addition, reconsolidation has been defined as the labile state of a consolidated memory after its reactivation by the presentation of relevant information. In this study, we analyzed structures from the temporal lobe that could be involved in consolidation and reconsolidation of extinction of CTA by means of new protein synthesis. Our results showed that protein synthesis in the hippocampus (HC), the perirhinal cortex (PR) and the insular cortex (IC) of rats participate in extinction consolidation, whereas the basolateral amygdala plays no part in this phenomenon. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of protein synthesis in the IC in a third extinction trial had an effect on reconsolidation of extinction. The participation of the HC in taste memory has been described as a downmodulator for CTA consolidation, and has been related to a context-taste association. Altogether, these data suggest that extinction of aversive taste memories are subserved by the IC, HC and PR, and that extinction can undergo reconsolidation, a process depending only on the IC. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Gene Network Analysis in Amygdala following Taste Aversion Learning in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva K. Panguluri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned taste aversion (CTA is an adaptive behavior that benefits survival of animals including humans and also serves as a powerful model to study the neural mechanisms of learning. Memory formation is a necessary component of CTA learning and involves neural processing and regulation of gene expression in the amygdala. Many studies have been focused on the identification of intracellular signaling cascades involved in CTA, but not late responsive genes underlying the long-lasting behavioral plasticity. In this study, we explored in silico experiments to identify persistent changes in gene expression associated with CTA in rats. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to identify 248 genes in the amygdala regulated by CTA. Pathway Studio and IPA software analyses showed that the differentially expressed genes in the amygdala fall in diverse functional categories such as behavior, psychological disorders, nervous system development and function, and cell-to-cell signaling. Conditioned taste aversion is a complex behavioral trait which involves association of visceral and taste inputs, consolidation of taste and visceral information, memory formation, retrieval of stored information, and extinction phase. In silico analysis of differentially expressed genes is therefore necessary to manipulate specific phase/stage of CTA to understand the molecular insight.

  20. Acute infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the insular cortex promotes conditioned taste aversion extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, Luis M; Ramírez-León, Betsabee; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2014-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators not only for synaptic plasticity, but also for the behavioral organism-environment interactions. Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region that has been related with acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical microinfusion of BDNF induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC projection and enhances the retention of CTA memory of adult rats in vivo. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether acute BDNF-infusion in the IC modifies the extinction of CTA. Accordingly, animals were trained in the CTA task and received bilateral IC microinfusions of BDNF before extinction training. Our results showed that taste aversion was significantly reduced in BDNF rats from the first extinction trial. Additionally, we found that the effect of BDNF on taste aversion did not require extinction training. Finally we showed that the BDNF effect does not degrade the original taste aversion memory trace. These results emphasize that BDNF activity underlies memory extinction in neocortical areas and support the idea that BDNF is a key regulator and mediator of long-term synaptic modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aversion learning can reduce meal size without taste avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Schurdak, Jennifer D; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C

    2016-03-01

    Nausea and aversive food responses are commonly reported following bariatric surgery, along with post-surgical reduction in meal size. This study investigates whether a meal size limit can be conditioned by associating large meals with aversive outcomes. In rats, the intake of meals exceeding a pre-defined size threshold was paired with lithium chloride-induced gastric illness, and the effects on self-determined food intakes and body weight were measured. Rats given LiCl contingent on the intake of a large meal learned to reliably reduce intake below this meal size threshold, while post-meal saline or LiCl before meals did not change meal size. It was further demonstrated that this is not a conditioned taste aversion and that this effect transferred to foods not explicitly trained. Finally, when rats received LiCl following all large meals, the number of small meals increased, but total food intake and body weight decreased. While further work is needed, this is the first demonstration that meal size may be conditioned, using an aversion procedure, to remain under a target threshold and that this effect is distinct from taste avoidance. Corresponding reduction in food intake and body weight suggests that this phenomenon may have implications for developing weight loss strategies and understanding the efficacy of bariatric surgery. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Studies on the role of central histamine in the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1982-01-01

    The experiments described in this report were designed to test two hypotheses about how exposure to low-level radiation can affect the behavior of an organism: first, tht radiation effects on behavior are mediated by a radiation-induced release of histamine; and second, that this radiation-induced histamine release can exert relatively direct effects on the central nervous system. The results of the first experiment showed that microinjection of histamine directly into the fourth ventricle of rats produced a taste aversion to a novel sucrose solution. Pretreating rats with intraventricular H 1 or H 2 blockers was not effective in preventing the acquisition of the radiation-induced aversion, although the H 1 blocker did prevent the acquisition of a histamine-induced taste aversion. It also was not possible to establish a cross-tolerance between centrally administered histamine and radiation. The results are interpreted as not supporting the hypothesis that a radiation-induced release of central histamine mediates the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following exposure to low-level radiation

  3. Mice do not develop conditioned taste aversion because of immunity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to test the generation of conditioned taste aversion and conditioned immunodepression by daily paired administration of saccharin solution with cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/kg, for 4 days. One group of male mice of the outbred CD1 strain drank 0.15% saccharin and received 1 injection of cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/kg, for 4 days (paired group), another group (unpaired group) received the same doses of saccharin and cyclophosphamide noncontingently, the third group (cy60) received saccharin paired with cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, and the fourth group (placebo) received saccharin in the absence of cyclophosphamide. All mice were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), 0.2 mg, 1 day before the treatments. Mice of the paired, unpaired and cy60 groups displayed a similarly decreased antibody response to KLH, but mice of the paired group did not develop an aversion to saccharin while mice of the cy60 group did. Besides, repeat presentation of saccharin to mice of the paired group did not alter their antibody response to ovalbumin compared with mice of the unpaired or placebo group. Taste aversion was not elicited in response to impaired immunity and the conditioned stimulus (saccharin) did not impair the antibody response. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Excitation of lateral habenula neurons as a neural mechanism underlying ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shashank; Keefe, Kristen A; Taha, Sharif A

    2017-02-15

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has been implicated in regulation of drug-seeking behaviours through aversion-mediated learning. In this study, we recorded neuronal activity in the LHb of rats during an operant task before and after ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin. Ethanol-induced CTA caused significantly higher baseline firing rates in LHb neurons, as well as elevated firing rates in response to cue presentation, lever press and saccharin taste. In a separate cohort of rats, we found that bilateral LHb lesions blocked ethanol-induced CTA. Our results strongly suggest that excitation of LHb neurons is required for ethanol-induced CTA, and point towards a mechanism through which LHb firing may regulate voluntary ethanol consumption. Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion-mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol-induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water-deprived rats before and after an ethanol-induced (1.5 g kg -1 20% ethanol, i.p.) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin taste. Ethanol-induced CTA strongly decreased motivation for saccharin in an operant task to obtain the tastant. Comparison of LHb neural firing before and after CTA induction revealed four main differences in firing properties. First, baseline firing after CTA induction was significantly higher. Second, firing evoked by cues signalling saccharin availability shifted from a pattern of primarily inhibition before CTA to primarily excitation after CTA induction. Third, CTA induction reduced

  5. Attenuation of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion after the development of ethanol tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt to reduce a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was undertaken by rendering animals tolerant to ethanol. Ethanol tolerance, developed over 5 days, was sufficient to block a radiation-induced taste aversion, as well as an ethanol-induced CTA. Several intermittent doses of ethanol, which did not induce tolerance but removed the novelty of the conditioning stimulus, blocked an ethanol-induced CTA but not the radiation-induced CTA. A CTA induced by doses of radiation up to 500 rads was attenuated. These data suggest that radioprotection developing in association with ethanol tolerance is a result of a physiological response to the chronic presence of ethanol not to the ethanol itself

  6. Time of day-dependent latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversions in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Manrique, T.; Molero, A.; Ballesteros, M. A.; Morón, I.; Gallo, M.; Fenton, André Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2004), s. 77-80 ISSN 1074-7427 Grant - others:CICYT(ES) BSO2002-01215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : condition taste aversion * latent inhibition * temporal context Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.443, year: 2004

  7. Rho-associated kinase in the gustatory cortex is involved in conditioned taste aversion memory formation but not in memory retrieval or relearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetat, Sahar; Rosenblum, Kobi; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) is intimately involved in cortical neuronal morphogenesis. The present study explores the roles of ROCK in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory formation in gustatory cortex (GC) in adult rat. Microinjection of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 into the GC 30 min before CTA training or 10 min after the conditioned stimulus (CS) impaired long-term CTA memory (LTM) formation. ROCK inhibitor had no effect on taste aversion when injected before the first LTM test day and did not alter taste aversion on subsequent test days. Microinjection of ROCK inhibitor into GC 30 min before preexposure to the taste CS had no effect on latent inhibition of CTA learning suggesting that ROCK is involved in CS-US association rather than taste learning per se. Cumulatively, these results show that ROCK is needed for normal CTA memory formation but not retrieval, relearning or incidental taste learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Yerkes-Dodson law and appropriate stimuli for conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Etsuro; Yamagishi, Miki; Takigami, Satoshi; Sakakibara, Manabu; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken

    2015-02-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can learn conditioned taste aversion and then consolidate it into long-term memory (LTM). A high-voltage electric shock was used as the unconditioned stimulus, where we have previously used KCl. We varied the strength of both the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli to determine whether the so-called Yerkes-Dodson law prevailed. This is an empirical relationship between the state of arousal and LTM formation, showing that there is an optimal level of arousal leading to memory formation. However, too little or too much arousal results in poorer LTM. We found here that the most appropriate stimuli to use in taste aversion training in Lymnaea were a 10 mmol l(-1) sucrose solution as the conditioned stimulus and a 3 s electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. CAMKII inhibition in the parabrachial nuclei elicits conditioned taste aversion in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sacchetti, B.; Baldi, E.; Tassoni, G.; Bielavská, Edita

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2001), s. 253-261 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase * conditioned taste aversion Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.830, year: 2001

  10. Intracellular calcium chelation and pharmacological SERCA inhibition of Ca2+ pump in the insular cortex differentially affect taste aversive memory formation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María Isabel; González-Cedillo, Francisco J; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2011-09-01

    Variation in intracellular calcium concentration regulates the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity and is associated with a variety of memory/retrieval and learning paradigms. Accordingly, impaired calcium mobilization from internal deposits affects synaptic plasticity and cognition in the aged brain. During taste memory formation several proteins are modulated directly or indirectly by calcium, and recent evidence suggests the importance of calcium buffering and the role of intracellular calcium deposits during cognitive processes. Thus, the main goal of this research was to study the consequence of hampering changes in cytoplasmic calcium and inhibiting SERCA activity by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin treatments, respectively, in the insular cortex during different stages of taste memory formation. Using conditioned taste aversion (CTA), we found differential effects of BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin infusions before and after gustatory stimulation, as well as during taste aversive memory consolidation; BAPTA-AM, but not thapsigargin, attenuates acquisition and/or consolidation of CTA, but neither compound affects taste aversive memory retrieval. These results point to the importance of intracellular calcium dynamics in the insular cortex during different stages of taste aversive memory formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Taste avoidance induced by wheel running: effects of backward pairings and robustness of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pierce, W David; Heth, Donald C; Russell, James C

    2004-09-15

    Rats repeatedly exposed to a distinctive novel solution (conditioned stimulus, CS) followed by the opportunity to run in a wheel subsequently drink less of this solution. Investigations on this phenomenon indicate that wheel running is an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) for establishing conditioned taste aversion (CTA) when using a forward conditioning procedure (i.e., the US-wheel running follows the CS-taste). However, other studies show that wheel running produces reliable preference for a distinctive place when pairings are backward (i.e., the CS-location follows the US-wheel running). One possibility to account for these results is that rewarding aftereffects of wheel running conditioned preference to the CS. The main objective of the present study was to assess the effects of backward conditioning using wheel running as the US and a distinctive taste as the CS. In a between-groups design, two experimental groups [i.e., forward (FC) and backward conditioning (BC)] and two control groups [CS-taste alone (TA) and CS-US unpaired (UNP)] were compared. Results from this experiment indicated that there is less suppression of drinking when a CS-taste followed a bout of wheel running. In fact, rats in the BC group drank more of the paired solution than all the other groups.

  12. Eliciting conditioned taste aversion in lizards: Live toxic prey are more effective than scent and taste cues alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Fear, Georgia; Thomas, Jai; Webb, Jonathan K; Pearson, David J; Shine, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an adaptive learning mechanism whereby a consumer associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic substance, and thereafter avoids eating that type of food. Recently, wildlife researchers have employed CTA to discourage native fauna from ingesting toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina), a species that is invading tropical Australia. In this paper, we compare the results of 2 sets of CTA trials on large varanid lizards ("goannas," Varanus panoptes). One set of trials (described in this paper) exposed recently-captured lizards to sausages made from cane toad flesh, laced with a nausea-inducing chemical (lithium chloride) to reinforce the aversion response. The other trials (in a recently-published paper, reviewed herein) exposed free-ranging lizards to live juvenile cane toads. The effectiveness of the training was judged by how long a lizard survived in the wild before it was killed (fatally poisoned) by a cane toad. Both stimuli elicited rapid aversion to live toads, but the CTA response did not enhance survival rates of the sausage-trained goannas after they were released into the wild. In contrast, the goannas exposed to live juvenile toads exhibited higher long-term survival rates than did untrained conspecifics. Our results suggest that although it is relatively easy to elicit short-term aversion to toad cues in goannas, a biologically realistic stimulus (live toads, encountered by free-ranging predators) is most effective at buffering these reptiles from the impact of invasive toxic prey. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Excitation of lateral habenula neurons as a neural mechanism underlying ethanol‐induced conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Kristen A.; Taha, Sharif A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The lateral habenula (LHb) has been implicated in regulation of drug‐seeking behaviours through aversion‐mediated learning.In this study, we recorded neuronal activity in the LHb of rats during an operant task before and after ethanol‐induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin.Ethanol‐induced CTA caused significantly higher baseline firing rates in LHb neurons, as well as elevated firing rates in response to cue presentation, lever press and saccharin taste.In a separate cohort of rats, we found that bilateral LHb lesions blocked ethanol‐induced CTA.Our results strongly suggest that excitation of LHb neurons is required for ethanol‐induced CTA, and point towards a mechanism through which LHb firing may regulate voluntary ethanol consumption. Abstract Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion‐mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol‐induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water‐deprived rats before and after an ethanol‐induced (1.5 g kg−1 20% ethanol, i.p.) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin taste. Ethanol‐induced CTA strongly decreased motivation for saccharin in an operant task to obtain the tastant. Comparison of LHb neural firing before and after CTA induction revealed four main differences in firing properties. First, baseline firing after CTA induction was significantly higher. Second, firing evoked by cues signalling saccharin availability shifted from a pattern of primarily inhibition before CTA to primarily excitation after CTA

  14. Glucocorticoids interact with the noradrenergic arousal system in the nucleus accumbens shell to enhance memory consolidation of both appetitive and aversive taste learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Romy; Fornari, Raquel V; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-09-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences but have little effect on memory of low-arousing experiences. Although both positive and negative emotionally arousing events tend to be well remembered, studies investigating the neural mechanism underlying glucocorticoid-induced memory enhancement focused primarily on negatively motivated training experiences. In the present study we show an involvement of glucocorticoids within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in enhancing memory consolidation of both an appetitive and aversive form of taste learning. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist RU 28362 (1 or 3ng) administered bilaterally into the NAc shell, but not core, of male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after an appetitive saccharin drinking experience dose-dependently enhanced 24-h retention of the safe taste, resulting in a facilitated attenuation of neophobia. Similarly, GR agonist infusions given into the NAc shell immediately after pairing of the saccharin taste with a malaise-inducing agent enhanced memory of this negative experience, resulting in an intensified conditioned aversion. Importantly, a suppression of noradrenergic activity within the NAc shell with the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol blocked the facilitating effect of a concurrently administered GR agonist on memory consolidation in both the appetitive and aversive learning task. Thus, these findings indicate that GR activation interacts with the noradrenergic arousal system within the NAc to enhance memory consolidation of emotionally arousing training experiences regardless of valence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing taste sensitivity and aversion in very young children : development of a procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J; Kroeze, J.H.A.; Kamps, WA; Bijleveld, CMA

    Taste perception in 45 3- to 6-year-old children was tested using procedures specifically designed for this age group. Detection thresholds for sucrose and urea were measured by a staircase method and aversion to urea was assessed hedonically, using drawings of facial expressions. All children

  16. A high-protein diet enhances satiety without conditioned taste aversion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaïd, Ahmed; Tomé, Daniel; L'Heureux-Bourdon, Diane; Even, Patrick; Gietzen, Dorothy; Morens, Céline; Gaudichon, Claire; Larue-Achagiotis, Christiane; Fromentin, Gilles

    2003-02-01

    In order to determine the respective roles of conditioned food aversion, satiety and palatability, we studied behavioral responses to a 50% total milk protein diet, compared with those to a normal protein diet containing 14% total milk protein. Different paradigms were employed, including meal pattern analysis, two-choice testing, flavor testing, a behavioral satiety sequence (BSS) and taste reactivity. Our experiments showed that only behavioral and food intake parameters were disturbed during the first day when an animal ate the high-protein (P50) diet, and that most parameters returned to baseline values as soon as the second day of P50. Rats adapted to P50 did not acquire a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) but exhibited satiety, and a normal BSS. The initial reduction in high-protein diet intake appeared to result from the lower palatability of the food combined with the satiety effect of the high-protein diet and the delay required for metabolic adaptation to the higher protein level.

  17. Altered processing of rewarding and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Prinster, Anna; Volpe, Umberto; Cantone, Elena; Pellegrino, Francesca; Canna, Antonietta; Milano, Walter; Aiello, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects. Twenty underweight AN women, 20 symptomatic BN women and 20 healthy women underwent fMRI while tasting 0.292 M sucrose solution (sweet taste), 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride solution (bitter taste) and water as a reference taste. In symptomatic AN and BN patients the pleasant sweet stimulus induced a higher activation in several brain areas than that induced by the aversive bitter taste. The opposite occurred in healthy controls. Moreover, compared to healthy controls, AN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left anterior cingulate cortex, while BN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left insula. These results show an altered processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli in ED patients, which may be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of AN and BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fos and Egr1 Expression in the Rat Brain in Response to Olfactory Cue after Taste-Potentiated Odor Aversion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarelli, Martine; Dardou, David; Datiche, Frederique

    2006-01-01

    When an odor is paired with a delayed illness, rats acquire a relatively weak odor aversion. In contrast, rats develop a strong aversion to an olfactory cue paired with delayed illness if it is presented simultaneously with a gustatory cue. Such a conditioning effect has been referred to as taste-potentiated odor aversion learning (TPOA). TPOA is…

  19. The different effects of over-expressing murine NMDA receptor 2B subunit in the forebrain on conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijia; Gu, Yiran; Meng, Bo; Mei, Bing; Li, Fei

    2010-09-10

    The glutamate transmission system and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R), in particular its 2B subunit (NR2B), have been reported to be possibly related to taste memory as a result of treatment with NMDA antagonists and agonists. In order to further study the role of the NR2B subunit in gustation memory, we applied four different taste aversive tasks to observe the behavior of a transgenic mice model in which the NR2B subunit was specifically over-expressed in the forebrain. We found that in both short- and long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, mice with forebrain expression of the NR2B transgene (Tg) showed significantly enhanced CTA 2 days after training. However, both the Tg and the wild-type (Wt) mice shared the same level of aversive memory on the 30th day after training. In both fast and slow extinction experiments, Tg mice maintained a higher CTA memory than that of control mice in most extinction trials. The third experiment, which involved testing the memory for familiar taste, demonstrated that NR2B augmentation had no benefit on the latent inhibition (LI) of CTA. In addition, the last experiment (two-taste LI) showed a suppression of enhanced CTA in Tg mice when the mice were exposed to both novel and familiar tastes. These data suggested that forebrain NR2B over-expression had different effects on gustatory learning and memory. The transgenic animals were only sensitive to novel but not familiar tastes, and up-regulation of NR2B resulted in enhanced CTA function for only a short period of time. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucocorticoids Enhance Taste Aversion Memory via Actions in the Insular Cortex and Basolateral Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Isabel; Quirarte, Gina L.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Gabriela; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial and contextual memory. The present experiments investigated glucocorticoid effects on the long-term formation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an associative learning task that does not depend critically on hippocampal function.…

  1. Serotonin and dopamine in the parabrachial nucleus of rats during conditioned taste aversion learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zach, P.; Křivánek, Jiří; Valeš, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 2 (2006), s. 271-276 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : taste aversion * microdialysis * parabrachial nucleus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2006

  2. Dexamethasone: a potent blocker for radiation-induced taste aversion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairnie, A.B.; Leach, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Rats, trained to drink water during a single 30-min period each day, were then given 0.1% saccharin twice a week and water on other days for 30 min. If 20 rad of radiation (0.2 Gy) were given each time 30 to 40 min after the saccharin the rats developed a profound aversion to saccharin during the course of three weeks, whereas control groups failed to do so. This paradigm was then used to test the ability of drugs, given twice weekly immediately after the saccharin, to prevent the development during three weeks of an aversion when 20 rad was given, 30 to 40 min later. Insulin, domperidone, haloperidol, acetylsalicylic acid, naloxone, chlorpheniramine, cimetidine, and dimethyl sulphoxide were tested without notable success. However dexamethasone, at doses ranging from 0.013 mg/kg to 1.3 mg/kg, significantly attenuated the conditioned taste aversion by up to 60 percent. The results are discussed in terms of a search for an antinauseant and antiemetic drug effective against radiation in man

  3. The effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversions in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Busse, Gregory D; Roma, Peter G; Chen, Scott A; Barr, Christina S; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-04-01

    Overall drug acceptability is thought to be a function of the balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the latter of which is reportedly affected by polydrug use. Given that nicotine and alcohol are commonly co-used, the present experiments sought to assess nicotine's impact on ethanol's aversive effects within a conditioned taste aversion design. Experiment 1 examined various doses of nicotine (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 mg/kg) to determine a behaviorally active dose, and experiment 2 examined various doses of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg) to determine a dose that produced intermediate aversions. Experiment 3 then examined the aversive effects of nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) and ethanol (1.0 g/kg) alone and in combination. Additionally, nicotine's effects on blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and ethanol-induced hypothermia were examined. Nicotine and ethanol combined produced aversions significantly greater than those produced by either drug alone or the summed aversive effects of the individual compounds. These effects were unrelated to changes in BAC, but nicotine and ethanol combined produced a prolonged hypothermic effect which may contribute to the increased aversions induced by the combination. These data demonstrate that nicotine may interact with ethanol, increasing ethanol's aversive effects. Although the rewarding effects of concurrently administered nicotine and ethanol were not assessed, these data do indicate that the reported high incidence of nicotine and ethanol co-use is unlikely due to reductions in the aversiveness of ethanol with concurrently administered nicotine. It is more likely attributable to nicotine-related changes in ethanol's rewarding effects.

  4. Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex contributes to conditioned taste aversion memory consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Villar, Maria Eugenia; Igaz, Lionel M; Viola, Haydée; Medina, Jorge H

    2015-12-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known for its role in decision making and memory processing, including the participation in the formation of extinction memories. However, little is known regarding its contribution to aversive memory consolidation. Here we demonstrate that neural activity and protein synthesis are required in the dorsal mPFC for memory formation of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task and that this region is involved in the retrieval of recent and remote long-term CTA memory. In addition, both NMDA receptor and CaMKII activity in dorsal mPFC are needed for CTA memory consolidation, highlighting the complexity of mPFC functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Antimetabolite ara-CTP Blocks Long-Term Memory of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianpeng; Ren, Keqin; Pérez, Javier; Silva, Alcino J.; Peña de Ortiz, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that processes related to DNA recombination and repair are involved in learning and memory. Rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of the antimetabolite 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate (ara-CTP) or its precursor cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) 30 min prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training. Both ara-CTP and ara-C caused significant impairments in long-term memory (LTM) of CTA. Control experiments indicate that the effect of ara-...

  6. What are the elements of motivation for acquisition of conditioned taste aversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Koichi; Okuta, Akiko; Okada, Ryuichi; Hatakeyama, Dai; Otsuka, Emi; Yamagishi, Miki; Morikawa, Mika; Naganuma, Yuki; Fujito, Yutaka; Dyakonova, Varvara; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of being classically conditioned to avoid food and to consolidate this aversion into a long-term memory (LTM). Previous studies have shown that the length of food deprivation is important for both the acquisition of taste aversion and its consolidation into LTM, which is referred to as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Here we tested the hypothesis that the hemolymph glucose concentration is an important factor in the learning and memory of CTA. One-day food deprivation resulted in the best learning and memory, whereas more prolonged food deprivation had diminishing effects. Five-day food deprivation resulted in snails incapable of learning or remembering. During this food deprivation period, the hemolymph glucose concentration decreased. If snails were fed for 2days following the 5-day food deprivation, their glucose levels increased significantly and they exhibited both learning and memory, but neither learning nor memory was as good as with the 1-day food-deprived snails. Injection of the snails with insulin to reduce glucose levels resulted in better learning and memory. Insulin is also known to cause a long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between the feeding-related neurons. On the other hand, injection of glucose into 5-day food-deprived snails did not alter their inability to learn and remember. However, if these snails were fed on sucrose for 3min, they then exhibited learning and memory formation. Our data suggest that hemolymph glucose concentration is an important factor in motivating acquisition of CTA in Lymnaea and that the action of insulin in the brain and the feeding behavior are also important factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Region-Specific Involvement of Actin Rearrangement-Related Synaptic Structure Alterations in Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ai-Ling; Wang, Yue; Li, Bo-Qin; Wang, Qian-Qian; Ma, Ling; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Actin rearrangement plays an essential role in learning and memory; however, the spatial and temporal regulation of actin dynamics in different phases of associative memory has not been fully understood. Here, using the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, we investigated the region-specific involvement of actin rearrangement-related…

  8. Integration of Neurobiological and Computational Analyses of the Neural Network Essentials for Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-29

    cortex. Physiology a Behavior, IQ, 203-206, 1983. Garcia, J., Hankins, W. G., Coil, S. D. Koalas , men and other conditional gastronomes. In Food...Conditioned taste aversion and the pituitary-adrenal system. Behavioral Biology , 16, 413-424, 1976. Kalat, J. W., Rozin, P. "Learned safety" as a

  9. Explicit Disassociation of a Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus during Extinction Training Reduces Both Time to Asymptotic Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, G. Andrew; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N.; Huffman, Jennifer; Bacik, Stephanie; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M.; Kim, Ye-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) may be acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). This aversion may be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone. However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). In the current…

  10. Polycose taste pre-exposure fails to influence behavioral and neural indices of taste novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barot, Sabiha K; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2005-12-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular cortex, but also failed to induce stronger taste aversion learning than familiar Polycose. Novel NaCl, on the other hand, showed patterns of FLI activation and aversion learning similar to that of novel sweet tastes. Possible reasons for the resistance of Polycose to typical pre-exposure effects are discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Weak involvement of octopamine in aversive taste learning in a snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aonuma, Hitoshi; Kaneda, Mugiho; Hatakeyama, Dai; Watanabe, Takayuki; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2017-05-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning taste aversion by pairing presentations of a sucrose solution and an electric shock and consolidating it into long-term memory (LTM), which is referred to as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We asked here if the neurotransmitter octopamine is involved in CTA. We first determined the levels of octopamine and its catabolites in the central nervous system (CNS) of snails with varying degrees of food deprivation, because CTA grades are correlated with degrees of food deprivation. We next manipulated the octopamine signaling using both an agonist and an antagonist of octopamine receptors and correlated their respective effects with CTA grades. We found that snails with the least amount of food-deprivation obtained the best CTA grade and had low levels of octopamine; whereas the most severely food-deprived snails did not form CTA and had the highest CNS octopamine levels. In modestly food-deprived snails, octopamine application increased the basal level of feeding response to a sucrose solution, and it did not obstruct CTA formation. Application of phentolamine, an octopamine receptor antagonist, to the most severely food-deprived snails decreased the basal level of feeding elicited by sucrose, but it did not enhance CTA formation. We conclude that octopamine involvement in CTA formation in Lymnaea is at best weak, and that the changes in CNS octopamine content are an epiphenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol-Aversion Therapy: Relation Between Strength of Aversion and Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Dale S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed degree of alcohol aversion in 60 alcoholics who received emetic alcohol-aversion therapy. Results revealed changes in response to alcoholic, but not to nonalcoholic, flavors, including decreased consumption in taste tests, more negative flavor ratings, overt behavioral indicants of aversion and increased tachycardiac response. (Author/NB)

  13. Conditioned taste aversion and Ca/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the parabrachial nucleus of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2001), s. 46-56 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II * conditioned taste aversion * parabrachial nucleus of rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.830, year: 2001

  14. ASIC1a regulates insular long-term depression and is required for the extinction of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Liu, Ming-Gang; Deng, Shining; Liu, Yan-Mei; Shang, Lin; Ding, Jing; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Jiang, Qin; Li, Ying; Li, Fei; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2016-12-07

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) has been shown to play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here we identify a crucial role for ASIC1a in long-term depression (LTD) at mouse insular synapses. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1a reduced the induction probability of LTD without affecting that of long-term potentiation in the insular cortex. The disruption of ASIC1a also attenuated the extinction of established taste aversion memory without altering the initial associative taste learning or its long-term retention. Extinction of taste aversive memory led to the reduced insular synaptic efficacy, which precluded further LTD induction. The impaired LTD and extinction learning in ASIC1a null mice were restored by virus-mediated expression of wild-type ASIC1a, but not its ion-impermeable mutant, in the insular cortices. Our data demonstrate the involvement of an ASIC1a-mediated insular synaptic depression mechanism in extinction learning, which raises the possibility of targeting ASIC1a to manage adaptive behaviours.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor into adult neocortex strengthens a taste aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2016-01-15

    Nowadays, it is known that brain derived neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in regulating long-term memory related mechanisms. Previous studies from our group in the insular cortex (IC), a brain structure of the temporal lobe implicated in acquisition, consolidation and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), demonstrated that BDNF is essential for CTA consolidation. Recent studies show that BDNF-TrkB signaling is able to mediate the enhancement of memory. However, whether BDNF into neocortex is able to enhance aversive memories remains unexplored. In the present work, we administrated BDNF in a concentration capable of inducing in vivo neocortical LTP, into the IC immediately after CTA acquisition in two different conditions: a "strong-CTA" induced by 0.2M lithium chloride i.p. as unconditioned stimulus, and a "weak-CTA" induced by 0.1M lithium chloride i.p. Our results show that infusion of BDNF into the IC converts a weak CTA into a strong one, in a TrkB receptor-dependent manner. The present data suggest that BDNF into the adult insular cortex is sufficient to increase an aversive memory-trace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Paterak, Justyna; Siwińska-Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Małkowska, Anna; Polak, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aversive action of the pharmacological properties of ethanol was studied in selectively bred Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats. For this study, a conditioned-taste aversion test was used. Male WHP and WLP rats were submitted to daily 20-min sessions for 5 days, in which a saccharin solution (1.0 g/L) was available (pre-conditioning phase). Next, this drinking was paired with the injection of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg), intraperitoneally [i.p.] immediately after removal of the saccharin bottle (conditioning phase). Afterward, the choice between the saccharin solution and water was extended for 18 subsequent days for 20-min daily sessions (post-conditioning phase). Both doses of ethanol did not produce an aversion to saccharin in WLP and WHP rats in the conditioning phase. However, injection of the 1.0 g/kg dose of ethanol produced an aversion in WLP rats that was detected by a decrease in saccharin intake at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 of the post-conditioning phase, with a decrease in saccharin preference for 16 days of the post-conditioning phase. Conditioned taste aversion, measured as a decrease in saccharin intake and saccharin preference, was only visible in WHP rats at day 1 and day 3 of the post-conditioning phase. This difference between WLP and WHP rats was apparent despite similar blood ethanol levels in both rat lines following injection of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of ethanol. These results may suggest differing levels of aversion to the post-ingestional effects of ethanol between WLP and WHP rats. These differing levels of aversion may contribute to the selected line difference in ethanol preference in WHP and WLP rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proximal, but not distal, pre-exposure reduces serial overshadowing in one-trial taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Dorothy W S; Boakes, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    This experiment tested whether pre-exposing a taste would reduce its ability to overshadow conditioning to a target taste and whether this effect would depend on the delay between pre-exposure and conditioning. Two groups of rats were pre-exposed to an interfering taste (HCl) either a week before conditioning (Group Distal) or the day preceding conditioning (Group Proximal). In the single conditioning trial, rats were given the target taste (sucrose) and 65min later were injected with lithium. The groups differed as to what they were given to drink 50min after sucrose: The Distal, Proximal and Novel groups were given HCl, while the Control group was given water. Pre-exposure to HCl reduced overshadowing of the sucrose aversion by HCl in Group Proximal but not in Group Distal. Possible explanations for the latter result include extinction of the context-HCl association and loss of context control over an HCl-no outcome association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebral Giant Cells are Necessary for the Formation and Recall of Memory of Conditioned Taste Aversion in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2017-02-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can acquire conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a long-term memory. CTA is caused by the temporal pairing of a stimulus, such as sucrose (the conditioned stimulus; CS), with another stimulus, such as electric shock (the unconditioned stimulus; US). Previous studies have demonstrated changes in both cellular and molecular properties in a pair of neurons known as the cerebral giant cells (CGCs), suggesting that these neurons play a key role in CTA. Here we examined the necessity of the pair of CGC somata for the learning, memory formation and memory recall of CTA by using the soma ablation technique. There was no difference in the feeding response elicited by the CS before and after ablation of the CGC somata. Ablation of the CGC somata before taste-aversion training resulted in the learning acquisition, but the memory formation was not observed 24 h later. We next asked whether memory was present when the CGC somata were ablated 24 h after taste-aversion training. The memory was present before performing the somata ablation. However, when we tested snails five days after somata ablation, the memory recall was not present. Together the data show that: 1) the somata of the CGCs are not necessary for learning acquisition; 2) the somata are necessary for memory formation; and 3) the somata are necessary for memory recall. That is, these results demonstrate that the CGCs function in the long-term memory of CTA in Lymnaea.

  19. Memory of conditioned taste aversion is erased by inhibition of PI3K in the insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouzkey, Ilana; Rosenblum, Kobi; Maroun, Mouna

    2013-06-01

    The conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm, in which association between a novel taste and visceral malaise is formed, gives a unique experimental setting to examine the mechanisms underlying memory acquisition and extinction processes. AKT is a main kinase of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade (PI3K) and has been implicated in long-term memory. We have recently reported that blockade of PI3K in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) before retrieval of fear memory was associated with long-term reduction in fear responses, suggesting a possible role of PI3K inhibition in fear erasure. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether PI3K has a similar role in the insular cortex (IC), which has a crucial role in CTA acquisition, consolidation, maintenance, and extinction. To that end, we (1) monitored AKT phosphorylation in the IC following CTA acquisition and extinction and (2) inhibited PI3K by local microinjection of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 at different stages of CTA acquisition and extinction. Our results show that while AKT phosphorylation is increased following CTA learning, it is decreased following CTA extinction. Inhibition of AKT phosphorylation in the IC before or after the first CTA retrieval test resulted in reduction in the aversion index. This reduction in aversion is due to the erasure of the original CTA trace memory, as re-application of the unconditioned stimulus (lithium chloride) did not induce the recovery of aversion in LY294002-treated animals. Our present data add new evidence to suggest that PI3K is engaged in consolidation of aversive memories, as its inhibition is associated with erasure of CTA memory.

  20. Genotype Modulates Age-Related Alterations in Sensitivity to the Aversive Effects of Ethanol: An 8 Inbred Strain Analysis of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eileen M.; Forrest, Robert D.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Thus far there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in 8 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, C3H/HeJ, and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25, 3g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72h intervals for a total of 5 CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. PMID:23171343

  1. Central mechanisms of taste: Cognition, emotion and taste-elicited behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamamoto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste is unique among sensory systems in its innate association with mechanisms of reward and aversion in addition to its recognition of quality, e.g., sucrose is sweet and preferable, and quinine is bitter and aversive. Taste information is sent to the reward system and feeding center via the prefrontal cortices such as the mediodorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices in rodents and the orbitofrontal cortex in primates. The amygdala, which receives taste inputs, also influences reward and feeding. In terms of neuroactive substances, palatability is closely related to benzodiazepine derivatives and β-endorphin, both of which facilitate consumption of food and fluid. The reward system contains the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum and finally sends information to the lateral hypothalamic area, the feeding center. The dopaminergic system originating from the ventral tegmental area mediates the motivation to consume palatable food. The actual ingestive behavior is promoted by the orexigenic neuropeptides from the hypothalamus. Even palatable food can become aversive and avoided as a consequence of a postingestional unpleasant experience such as malaise. The neural mechanisms of this conditioned taste aversion will also be elucidated.

  2. Post-Acquisition Release of Glutamate and Norepinephrine in the Amygdala Is Involved in Taste-Aversion Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gomez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Amygdala activity mediates the acquisition and consolidation of emotional experiences; we have recently shown that post-acquisition reactivation of this structure is necessary for the long-term storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the specific neurotransmitters involved in such reactivation are not known. The aim of the present…

  3. Conditioned taste aversion to ethanol in a social context: impact of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; Schatz, Kelcie C; Anderson, Rachel I; Spear, Linda P; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2014-03-15

    Given that human adolescents place a high value on social interactions-particularly while consuming alcohol-the current study utilized a novel social drinking paradigm to examine rewarding and aversive properties of ethanol in non-water deprived rats that were housed and tested in groups of five same-sex littermates. On postnatal day P34 (adolescents) or P69 (adults), rats were habituated to the testing apparatus for 30 min. On the next day, animals were placed into the test apparatus and given 30 min access to a supersaccharin solution (3% sucrose; 0.125% saccharin), followed immediately by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Subsequent intake of the supersacharrin solution was assessed on three consecutive test days. Adolescent males were less sensitive to ethanol's aversive effects than adult males, with adolescent males maintaining an aversion on all three test days only at the 1.5 g/kg dose, whereas adults demonstrated aversions across test days to 1 and 1.5 g/kg. Adolescent females maintained aversions to 1 and 1.5 g/kg across days, whereas adult females continued to show an aversion to the 1.5 g/kg dose only. These opposite patterns of sensitivity that emerged among males and females at each age in the propensity to maintain an ethanol-induced taste aversion under social conditions may contribute to age- and sex-related differences in ethanol intake. Testing in social groups may be useful for future work when studying rodent models of adolescent alcohol use given the importance that human adolescents place on drinking in social settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Integration of Neurobiological and Computational Analyses of the Neural Network Essentials for Conditioned Taste Aversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-30

    gastronomes . In Food Aversion Learning, ed. N. W. Milgram, L. Krames, T. Alloway. New York: Plenum Press, 1977. Grill, H. J., Berridge, K. C. Taste...Jun 25 10:4,6:21 1990 ZLS: syr GRP: Po JOB: aug 0V: 12 Pb ok, &,vpr. VoL 4&, 000-=. 0 Pervnoe Press pl. 1990. Prited a tft USA . 0031-938"S90 53.00 + .00

  5. Genotype modulates age-related alterations in sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol: an eight inbred strain analysis of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E M; Forrest, R D; Boehm, S L

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Currently there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in eight inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T(+) tf/J, C3H/HeJ and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1 h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72 h intervals for a total of five CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Rapid, Labile, and Protein Synthesis– Independent Short-Term Memory in Conditioned Taste Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Berlin, RoseAnn

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with int...

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances conditioned taste aversion retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Diana V; Figueroa-Guzmán, Yazmín; Escobar, Martha L

    2006-01-05

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has recently emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators of not only central synaptic plasticity, but also behavioral interactions between an organism and its environment. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the IC, previous to CTA training, enhances the retention of this task. Recently, we found that intracortical microinfusion of BDNF induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy in the Bla-IC projection of adult rats in vivo. In this work, we present experimental data showing that intracortical microinfusion of BDNF previous to CTA training enhances the retention of this task. These findings support the concept that BDNF may contribute to memory-related functions performed by a neocortical area, playing a critical role in long-term synaptic plasticity.

  8. Salivary peptide tyrosine-tyrosine 3-36 modulates ingestive behavior without inducing taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Maria D; Sergeyev, Valeriy G; Acosta, Andres; Spegele, Michael; La Sala, Michael; Waler, Nickolas J; Chiriboga-Hurtado, Juan; Currlin, Seth W; Herzog, Herbert; Dotson, Cedrick D; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2013-11-20

    Hormone peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) is secreted into circulation from the gut L-endocrine cells in response to food intake, thus inducing satiation during interaction with its preferred receptor, Y2R. Clinical applications of systemically administered PYY for the purpose of reducing body weight were compromised as a result of the common side effect of visceral sickness. We describe here a novel approach of elevating PYY in saliva in mice, which, although reliably inducing strong anorexic responses, does not cause aversive reactions. The augmentation of salivary PYY activated forebrain areas known to mediate feeding, hunger, and satiation while minimally affecting brainstem chemoreceptor zones triggering nausea. By comparing neuronal pathways activated by systemic versus salivary PYY, we identified a metabolic circuit associated with Y2R-positive cells in the oral cavity and extending through brainstem nuclei into hypothalamic satiety centers. The discovery of this alternative circuit that regulates ingestive behavior without inducing taste aversion may open the possibility of a therapeutic application of PYY for the treatment of obesity via direct oral application.

  9. Effect of sex on ethanol consumption and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Francis, Reynold; MacDonald, Andrea; Keistler, Colby; O'Neill, Lauren; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Vulnerability to alcoholism is determined by many factors, including the balance of pleasurable vs. aversive alcohol-induced sensations: pleasurable sensations increase intake, while aversive sensations decrease it. Female sex and adolescent age are associated with lower sensitivity to intake-reducing effects and more rapid development of alcohol abuse. This study assessed voluntary drinking and the aversive effects of alcohol to determine whether these measures are inversely related across the sexes and development. Voluntary drinking of 20 % ethanol in an every-other-day (EOD) availability pattern and the dose-response relationship of ethanol conditioned taste aversion (CTA) were assessed in male and female adolescent and adult rats. CTA was sex specific in adult but not adolescent rats, with adult females exhibiting less aversion. Voluntary ethanol consumption varied according to age and individual differences but was not sex specific. Adolescents initially drank more than adults, exhibited greater day-to-day variation in consumption, were more susceptible to the alcohol deprivation effect, and took longer to establish individual differences in consumption patterns. These results show that the emergence of intake patterns differs between adolescents and adults. Adolescents as a group initiate drinking at high levels but decrease intake as they mature. A subset of adolescents maintained high drinking levels into adulthood. In contrast, most adults consumed at steady, low levels, but a small subset quickly established and maintained high-consumption patterns. Adolescents also showed marked deprivation-induced increases. Sex differences were not observed in EOD drinking during either adolescence or adulthood.

  10. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  11. The effects of area postrema lesions and selective vagotomy on motion-induced conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; Sutton, R. L.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is one of several behaviors which was suggested as a putative measure of motion sickness in rats. A review is made of studies which used surgical disruption of area postrema or the vagus nerve to investigate whether CTA and vomiting induced by motion may depend on common neural pathways or structures. When the chemoreceptive function of the area postrema (AP) is destroyed by complete ablation, rats develop CTA and cats and monkeys develop CTA and vomit. Thus the AP is not crucially involved in either CTA or vomiting induced by motion. However, after complete denervation of the stomach or after labyrinthectomy rats do not develop CTA when motion is used as the unconditioned stimulus. Studies of brainstem projections of the vagus nerve, the area postrema, the periaqueductal grey, and the vestibular system are used as the basis for speculation about regions which could mediate both motion-induced vomiting and behavioral food aversion.

  12. Taste-aversion-prone (TAP) rats and taste-aversion-resistant (TAR) rats differ in ethanol self-administration, but not in ethanol clearance or general consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, T Edward; Whitford-Stoddard, Jennifer L; Elkins, Ralph L

    2004-05-01

    Taste-aversion (TA)-prone (TAP) rats and TA-resistant (TAR) rats have been developed by means of bidirectional selective breeding on the basis of their behavioral responses to a TA conditioning paradigm. The TA conditioning involved the pairing of an emetic-class agent (cyclophosphamide) with a novel saccharin solution as the conditioned stimulus. Despite the absence of ethanol in the selective breeding process, these rat lines differ widely in ethanol self-administration. In the current study, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined after 9 days of limited (2 h per day) access to a simultaneous, two-bottle choice of a 10% ethanol in water solution [volume/volume (vol./vol.)] or plain water. The BACs correlated highly with ethanol intake among TAR rats, but an insufficient number of TAP rats yielded measurable BACs to make the same comparison within this rat line. The same rats were subsequently exposed to 24-h access of a two-bottle choice (10% ethanol or plain water) for 8 days. Ethanol consumption during the 24-h access period correlated highly with that seen during limited access. Subsequent TA conditioning with these rats yielded line-typical differences in saccharin preferences. In a separate group of rats, ethanol clearance was determined by measuring BACs at 1, 4, and 7 h after injection of a 2.5-g/kg dose of ethanol. Ethanol clearance was not different between the two lines. Furthermore, the lines did not differ with respect to food and water consumption. Therefore, the TAP rat-TAR rat differences in ethanol consumption cannot be attributed to line differences in ethanol metabolism or in general consummatory behavior. The findings support our contention that the line differences in ethanol consumption are mediated by differences in TA-related mechanisms. The findings are discussed with respect to genetically based differences in the subjective experience of ethanol.

  13. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition memory using attenuation of neophobia as an index. In addition, learned taste aversion in both short- and long-term memory tests was exclusively impa...

  14. Taste and odor recognition memory: the emotional flavor of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, our knowledge of the neurobiology of taste and smell has greatly increased; by using several learning models, we now have a better understanding of the behavioral and neurochemical basis of memory recognition. Studies have provided new evidence of some processes that depend on prior experience with the specific combination of sensory stimuli. This review contains recent research related to taste and odor recognition memory, and the goal is to highlight the role of two prominent brain structures, the insular cortex and the amygdala. These structures have an important function during learning and memory and have been associated with the differences in learning induced by the diverse degrees of emotion during taste/odor memory formation, either aversive or appetitive or when taste and odor are combined and/or potentiated.Therefore, this review includes information about certain neurochemical transmitters and their interactions during appetitive or aversive taste memory formation,taste-potentiated odor aversion memory, and conditioned odor aversion, which might be able to maintain the complex processes necessary for flavor recognition memory.

  15. The role of dopamine D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens during taste-aversive learning and memory extinction after long-term sugar consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María Isabel; Rangel-Hernández, José Alejandro; Vera-Rivera, Gabriela; García-Medina, Nadia Edith; Soto-Alonso, Gerardo; Rodríguez-García, Gabriela; Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis

    2017-09-17

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is a forebrain region that may significantly contribute to the integration of taste and visceral signals during food consumption. Changes in dopamine release in the NAcc have been observed during consumption of a sweet taste and during compulsive consumption of dietary sugars, suggesting that NAcc dopaminergic transmission is strongly correlated with taste familiarity and the hedonic value content. NAcc core and shell nuclei are differentially involved during and after sugar exposure and, particularly, previous evidence suggests that dopamine D2 receptors could be related with the strength of the latent inhibition (LI) of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which depends on the length of the taste stimulus pre-exposure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate, after long-term exposure to sugar, the function of dopaminergic D2 receptors in the NAcc core during taste memory retrieval preference test, and during CTA. Adult rats were exposed during 14days to 10% sugar solution as a single liquid ad libitum. NAcc core bilateral injections of D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol (1μg/μL), were made before third preference test and CTA acquisition. We found that sugar was similarly preferred after 3 acute presentations or 14days of continued sugar consumption and that haloperidol did not disrupt this appetitive memory retrieval. Nevertheless, D2 receptors antagonism differentially affects aversive memory formation after acute or long-term sugar consumption. These results demonstrate that NAcc dopamine D2 receptors have a differential function during CTA depending on the degree of sugar familiarity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular signals into the insular cortex and amygdala during aversive gustatory memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Gutiérrez, Ranier; Miranda, María Isabel

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, we will provide evidence of the putative molecular signals and biochemical events that mediate the formation of long-lasting gustatory memory trace. When an animal drinks a novel taste (the conditioned stimulus; CS) and it is later associated with malaise (unconditioned stimulus; US), the animal will reject it in the next presentation, developing a long-lasting taste aversion, i.e., the taste cue becomes an aversive signal, and this is referred to as conditioning taste aversion. Different evidence indicates that the novel stimulus (taste) induces a rapid and strong cortical acetylcholine activity that decreases when the stimulus becomes familiar after several presentations. Cholinergic activation via muscarinic receptors initiates a series of intracellular events leading to plastic changes that could be related to short- and/or long-term memory gustatory trace. Such plastic changes facilitate the incoming US signals carried out by, in part, the glutamate release induced by the US. Altogether, these events could produce the cellular changes related to the switch from safe to aversive taste memory trace. A proposed working model to explain the biochemical sequence of signals during taste memory formation will be discussed.

  17. How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garcia-Burgos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED, and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN and bulimia nervosa (BN remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined.Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology.Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated

  18. How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Burgos, David; Maglieri, Sabine; Vögele, Claus; Munsch, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED), and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined. Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology. Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated with binge

  19. How Does Food Taste in Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa? A Protocol for a Quasi-Experimental, Cross-Sectional Design to Investigate Taste Aversion or Increased Hedonic Valence of Food in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Burgos, David; Maglieri, Sabine; Vögele, Claus; Munsch, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite on-going efforts to better understand dysregulated eating, the olfactory-gustatory deficits and food preferences in eating disorders (ED), and the mechanisms underlying the perception of and responses to food properties in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) remain largely unknown; both during the course of the illness and compared to healthy populations. It is, therefore, necessary to systematically investigate the gustatory perception and hedonics of taste in patients with AN and BN. To this end, we will examine whether aversions to the taste of high-calorie food is related to the suppression of energy intake in restricting-type AN, and whether an increased hedonic valence of sweet, caloric-dense foods may be part of the mechanisms triggering binge-eating episodes in BN. In addition, the role of cognitions influencing these mechanisms will be examined. Method: In study 1, four mixtures of sweet-fat stimuli will be presented in a sensory two-alternative forced-choice test involving signal detection analysis. In study 2, a full-scale taste reactivity test will be carried out, including psychophysiological and behavioral measures to assess subtle and covert hedonic changes. We will compare the responses of currently-ill AN and BN patients to those who have recovered from AN and BN, and also to those of healthy normal-weight and underweight individuals without any eating disorder pathology. Discussion: If taste response profiles are differentially linked to ED types, then future studies should investigate whether taste responsiveness represents a useful diagnostic measure in the prevention, assessment and treatment of EDs. The expected results on cognitive mechanisms in the top-down processes of food hedonics will complement current models and contribute to the refinement of interventions to change cognitive aspects of taste aversions, to establish functional food preferences and to better manage food cravings associated with binge

  20. Long-Term Alcohol Drinking Reduces the Efficacy of Forced Abstinence and Conditioned Taste Aversion in Crossed High-Alcohol-Preferring Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David S; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Negative outcomes of alcoholism are progressively more severe as the duration of problem of alcohol use increases. Additionally, alcoholics demonstrate tendencies to neglect negative consequences associated with drinking and/or to choose to drink in the immediate presence of warning factors against drinking. The recently derived crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice, which volitionally drink to heavier intoxication (as assessed by blood ethanol [EtOH] concentration) than other alcohol-preferring populations, as well as spontaneously escalating their intake, may be a candidate to explore mechanisms underlying long-term excessive drinking. Here, we hypothesized that an extended drinking history would reduce the ability of 2 manipulations (forced abstinence [FA] and conditioned taste aversion [CTA]) to attenuate drinking. Experiment 1 examined differences between groups drinking for either 14 or 35 days, half of each subjected to 7 days of FA and half not, to characterize the potential changes in postabstinence drinking resulting from an extended drinking history. Experiment 2 used a CTA procedure to assess stimulus specificity of the ability of an aversive flavorant to decrease alcohol consumption. Experiment 3 used this taste aversion procedure to assess differences among groups drinking for 1, 14, or 35 days in their propensity to overcome this aversion when the flavorant was mixed with either EtOH or water. Experiment 1 demonstrated that although FA decreased alcohol consumption in mice with a 14-day drinking history, it failed to do so in mice drinking alcohol for 35 days. Experiment 2 showed that the addition of a flavorant only suppressed alcohol drinking if an aversion to the flavorant was previously established. Experiment 3 demonstrated that an extended drinking history expedited extinction of suppressed alcohol intake caused by a conditioned aversive flavor. These data show that a history of long-term drinking in cHAP mice attenuates the efficacy

  1. Polycose Taste Pre-Exposure Fails to Influence Behavioral and Neural Indices of Taste Novelty

    OpenAIRE

    Barot, Sabiha K.; Bernstein, Ilene L.

    2005-01-01

    Taste novelty can strongly modulate the speed and efficacy of taste aversion learning. Novel sweet tastes enhance c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in the central amygdala and insular cortex. The present studies examined whether this neural correlate of novelty extends to different taste types by measuring FLI signals after exposure to novel and familiar polysaccharide (Polycose®) and salt (NaCl) tastes. Novel Polycose not only failed to elevate FLI expression in central amygdala and insular ...

  2. Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Haack

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug.

  3. Effects of area postrema lesions on taste aversions produced by treatment with WR-2721 in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1986-01-01

    The conditioned taste aversion procedure was used to further assess some behavioral effects of treatment with the putative radioprotectant WR-2721 and the role of the area postrema in mediating the behavioral effects of treatment. Treatment with 40, 150 or 300 mg/kg WR-2721 produced dose-dependent changes in sucrose intake in both control rats and rats with area postrema lesions. The effectiveness of the lesion in disrupting the acquisition of an aversion varied as a function of the dose administered, with the lesions producing the greatest disruption of aversion learning at the lowest dose and little disruption at the highest dose tested. At all dose levels, sucrose intake was greater for the rats with area postrema lesions than for the sham-operated control rats. Treatment with WR-2721 also produced significant decreases in total fluid intake, particularly at the higher dose levels. The results are discussed as indicating that treatment with WR-2721 produces highly toxic effects on behavior and that the use of the compound as a radioprotectant for radiotherapy requires additional assessment of its effects on brain function and behavior

  4. Failure to Find Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnon, Christopher A; Dinges, Christopher W; Black, Timothy E; Wells, Harrington; Abramson, Charles I

    2018-04-24

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning is a highly specialized form of conditioning found across taxa that leads to avoidance of an initially neutral stimulus, such as taste or odor, that is associated with, but is not the cause of, a detrimental health condition. This study examines if honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) develop ethanol (EtOH)-induced CTA. Restrained bees were first administered a sucrose solution that was cinnamon scented, lavender scented, or unscented, and contained either 0, 2.5, 5, 10, or 20% EtOH. Then, 30 minutes later, we used a proboscis extension response (PER) conditioning procedure where the bees were taught to associate either cinnamon odor, lavender odor, or an air-puff with repeated sucrose feedings. For some bees, the odor of the previously consumed EtOH solution was the same as the odor associated with sucrose in the conditioning procedure. If bees are able to learn EtOH-induced CTA, they should show an immediate low level of response to odors previously associated with EtOH. We found that bees did not develop CTA despite the substantial inhibitory and aversive effects EtOH has on behavior. Instead, bees receiving a conditioning odor that was previously associated with EtOH showed an immediate high level of response. While this demonstrates bees are capable of one-trial learning common to CTA experiments, this high level of response is the opposite of what would occur if the bees developed a CTA. Responding on subsequent trials also showed a general inhibitory effect of EtOH. Finally, we found that consumption of cinnamon extract reduced the effects of EtOH. The honey bees' lack of learned avoidance to EtOH mirrors that seen in human alcoholism. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of honey bees as an insect model for EtOH consumption. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Lossed in translation: an off-the-shelf method to recover probabilistic beliefs from loss-averse agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerman, Theo; Palley, Asa B

    2016-01-01

    Strictly proper scoring rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs from risk neutral agents. Previous experimental studies have identified two problems with this method: (i) risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports toward the probability of [Formula: see text], and (ii) for moderate beliefs agents simply report [Formula: see text]. Applying a prospect theory model of risk preferences, we show that loss aversion can explain both of these behavioral phenomena. Using the insights of this model, we develop a simple off-the-shelf probability assessment mechanism that encourages loss-averse agents to report true beliefs. In an experiment, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this modification in both eliminating uninformative reports and eliciting true probabilistic beliefs.

  6. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in male sprague-dawley rats: impact of age and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2010-12-01

    Age-specific characteristics may contribute to the elevation in ethanol intake commonly reported among adolescents compared to adults. This study was designed to examine age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol's aversive properties using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure with sucrose serving as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Given that ontogenetic differences in responsiveness to stressors have been previously reported, the role of stressor exposure on the development of CTA was also assessed. Experiment 1 examined the influence of 5 days of prior restraint stress exposure on the expression of CTA in a 2-bottle test following 1 pairing of a sucrose solution with ethanol. In Experiment 2, the effects of 7 days of social isolation on the development of CTA were observed using a 1-bottle test following multiple sucrose-ethanol pairings. This study revealed age-related differences in the development of ethanol-induced CTA. In Experiment 1, adolescents required a higher dose of ethanol than adults to demonstrate an aversion. In Experiment 2, adolescents required not only a higher ethanol dose but also more pairings of ethanol with the sucrose CS. No effects of prior stressor exposure were observed in either experiment. Together, these experiments demonstrate an adolescent-specific insensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that elicit CTA, a pattern not influenced by repeated restraint stress or housing in social isolation. This age-related insensitivity to the dysphoric effects of ethanol is consistent with other work from our laboratory, adding further to the evidence that adolescent rats are less susceptible to negative consequences of ethanol that may serve as cues to curb consumption. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Safe taste memory consolidation is disrupted by a protein synthesis inhibitor in the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Llinás, R; Ramírez-Lugo, L; Guzmán-Ramos, K; Zavala-Vega, S; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F

    2009-07-01

    Consolidation is the process by which a new memory is stabilized over time, and is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. A useful model for studying memory formation is gustatory memory, a type of memory in which a novel taste may become either safe by not being followed by negative consequences (attenuation of neophobia, AN), or aversive by being followed by post-digestive malaise (conditioned taste aversion, CTA). Here we evaluated the effects of the administration of a protein synthesis inhibitor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell for either safe or aversive taste memory trace consolidation. To test the effects on CTA and AN of protein synthesis inhibition, anisomycin (100microg/microl) was bilaterally infused into the NAc shell of Wistar rats' brains. We found that post-trial protein synthesis blockade impaired the long-term safe taste memory. However, protein synthesis inhibition failed to disrupt the long-term memory of CTA. In addition, we infused anisomycin in the NAc shell after the pre-exposure to saccharin in a latent inhibition of aversive taste. We found that the protein synthesis inhibition impaired the consolidation of safe taste memory, allowing the aversive taste memory to form and consolidate. Our results suggest that protein synthesis is required in the NAc shell for consolidation of safe but not aversive taste memories, supporting the notion that consolidation of taste memory is processed in several brain regions in parallel, and implying that inhibitory interactions between both taste memory traces do occur.

  8. Gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversions in rats: A comparison of the protective effects of area postrema lesions with differing doses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenkopp, K.P.; Giugno, L.

    1989-01-01

    Lesions which destroy the area postrema (AP) and damage the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) attenuate or abolish conditioned taste aversions (CTA) induced by a variety of pharmacological agents as well as exposure to radiation. In the present experiment, 4 groups of male rats received lesions of AP and 4 groups were given sham lesions. One sham-lesioned and one AP-lesioned group were given a single pairing of 1-hr access to a novel 0.10% sodium saccharin solution followed immediately with exposure to 0, 100, 200, or 400 rad of gamma radiation, respectively. Four days later all groups were given daily two-bottle preference tests (saccharin vs. water) on 4 consecutive days. The sham-lesioned groups exposed to the radiation (100, 200, or 400 rad) developed profound aversions to the saccharin on all test days (p less than 0.001). In contrast, all of the AP-lesioned groups as well as the sham-irradiated (0 rad) sham-lesioned group exhibited strong, comparable (p greater than 0.30) preferences for saccharin. Thus, lesion of AP abolished the radiation-induced CTA at all dose levels of radiation. These results raise the possibility of pharmacological intervention at the level of AP to prevent radiation-induced CTA in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

  9. Pre-exposure to wheel running disrupts taste aversion conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Pierce, W David; Heth, Donald C; Russell, James C

    2002-05-01

    When rats are given access to a running wheel after drinking a flavored solution, they subsequently drink less of that flavor solution. It has been suggested that running produces a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). This study explored whether CTA is eliminated by prior exposure to wheel running [i.e., unconditioned stimulus (UCS) pre-exposure effect]. The rats in the experimental group (UW) were allowed to wheel run for 1 h daily for seven consecutive days of pre-exposure. Rats in the two other groups had either access to locked wheels (LW group) or were maintained in their home cages (HC group) during the pre-exposure days. All rats were then exposed to four paired and four unpaired trials using a "ABBAABBA" design. Conditioning trials were composed of one flavored liquid followed by 60-min access to wheel running. For the unpaired trials, rats received a different flavor not followed by the opportunity to run. All rats were then initially tested for water consumption followed by tests of the two flavors (paired or unpaired) in a counterbalanced design. Rats in the UW group show no CTA to the liquid paired with wheel running, whereas LW and HC groups developed CTA. These results indicate that pre-exposure to wheel running (i.e., the UCS), eliminates subsequent CTA.

  10. Sex differences in the effects of ethanol pre-exposure during adolescence on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K; Berthold, Claire; Koss, Wendy A; Juraska, Janice M; Gulley, Joshua M

    2011-11-20

    Alcohol use, which typically begins during adolescence and differs between males and females, is influenced by both the rewarding and aversive properties of the drug. One way adolescent alcohol use may modulate later consumption is by reducing alcohol's aversive properties. Here, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm to determine if pre-exposure to alcohol (ethanol) during adolescence would attenuate ethanol-induced CTA assessed in adulthood in a sex-dependent manner. Male and female Long-Evans rats were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline or 3.0g/kg ethanol in a binge-like pattern during postnatal days (PD) 35-45. In adulthood (>PD 100), rats were given access to 0.1% saccharin, followed by saline or ethanol (1.0 or 1.5g/kg, i.p.), over four conditioning sessions. We found sex differences in ethanol-induced CTA, with males developing a more robust aversion earlier in conditioning. Sex differences in the effects of pre-exposure were also evident: males, but not females, showed an attenuated CTA in adulthood following ethanol pre-exposure, which occurred approximately nine weeks earlier. Taken together, these findings indicate that males are more sensitive to the aversive properties of ethanol than females. In addition, the ability of pre-exposure to the ethanol US to attenuate CTA is enhanced in males compared to females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ASIC1a regulates insular long-term depression and is required for the extinction of conditioned taste aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei-Guang; Liu, Ming-Gang; Deng, Shining; Liu, Yan-Mei; Shang, Lin; Ding, Jing; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Jiang, Qin; Li, Ying; Li, Fei; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) has been shown to play important roles in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here we identify a crucial role for ASIC1a in long-term depression (LTD) at mouse insular synapses. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of ASIC1a reduced the induction probability of LTD without affecting that of long-term potentiation in the insular cortex. The disruption of ASIC1a also attenuated the extinction of established taste aversion memory without alte...

  12. Long-term changes in amphetamine-induced reinforcement and aversion in rats following exposure to 56Fe particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    Exposing rats to heavy particles produces alterations in the functioning of dopaminergic neurons and in the behaviors that depend upon the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Two of these dopamine-dependent behaviors include amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measure using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced reinforcement, measured using the conditioned place preference procedure, and amphetamine-induced aversion, measured using the conditioned taste aversion. Previous research has shown that exposing rats to 1.0 Gy of 1GeV/n 56Fe particles produced a disruption of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion 3 days following exposure, but produced an apparent enhancement of the aversion 112 days following exposure. The present experiments were designed to provide a further evaluation of these results by examining taste aversion learning 154 days following exposure to 1.0Gy 56Fe particles and to establish the convergent validity of the taste aversion results by looking at the effects of exposure on the establishment of an amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference 3, 7, and 16 weeks following irradiation. The taste aversion results failed to confirm the apparent enhancement of the amphetamine-induced CTA observed in the prior experiment. However, exposure to 56Fe particles prevented the acquisition of amphetamine-induced place preference at all three-time intervals. The results are interpreted as indicating that exposure to heavy particles can produce long-term changes in behavioral functioning.

  13. Investigating the Predictive Value of Functional MRI to Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli: A Pattern Classification Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara McCabe

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain.25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food. We applied GPCs to discriminate between the appetitive and aversive sights and tastes using functional activity patterns.The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for the accuracy to discriminate appetitive taste from neutral condition was 86.5% (specificity = 81%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001. If a participant experienced neutral taste stimuli the probability of correct classification was 92. The accuracy to discriminate aversive from neutral taste stimuli was 82.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001 and appetitive from aversive taste stimuli was 73% (specificity = 77%, sensitivity = 69%, p = 0.001. In the sight modality, the accuracy to discriminate appetitive from neutral condition was 88.5% (specificity = 85%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001, to discriminate aversive from neutral sight stimuli was 92% (specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001, and to discriminate aversive from appetitive sight stimuli was 63.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 54%, p = 0.009.Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neurofunctional data in discriminating emotional and neutral networks of activity in the healthy human brain. It would be of interest to use pattern recognition techniques and fMRI to examine network dysfunction in the processing of appetitive, aversive and neutral stimuli in psychiatric disorders. Especially where problems with reward and punishment processing have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  14. Differential requirement of de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex and the amygdala for safe and aversive taste long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Venkataraman, Archana; Morin, Jean-Pascal; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2018-04-16

    Several immediate early genes products are known to be involved in the facilitation of structural and functional modifications at distinct synapses activated through experience. The IEG-encoded protein Arc (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) has been widely implicated in long-term memory formation and stabilization. In this study, we sought to evaluate a possible role for de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) and in the amygdala (AMY) during long-term taste memory formation. We found that acute inhibition of Arc protein synthesis through the infusion of antisense oligonucleotides administered in the IC before a novel taste presentation, affected consolidation of a safe taste memory trace (ST) but spared consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Conversely, blocking Arc synthesis within the AMY impaired CTA consolidation but had no effect on ST long-term memory formation. Our results suggest that Arc-dependent plasticity during taste learning is required within distinct structures of the medial temporal lobe, depending on the emotional valence of the memory trace. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning through the taste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste is the final arbiter of which chemicals from the environment will be admitted to the body. The action of swallowing a substance leads to a physiological consequence of which the taste system should be informed. Accordingly, taste neurons in the central nervous system are closely allied with those that receive input from the viscera so as to monitor the impact of a recently ingested substance. There is behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, gene expression, and neurochemical evidence that the consequences of ingestion influence subsequent food selection through development of either a conditioned taste aversion (if illness ensues or a conditioned taste preference (if satiety. This ongoing communication between taste and the viscera permits the animal to tailor its taste system to its individual needs over a lifetime.

  16. Perirhinal Cortex Muscarinic Receptor Blockade Impairs Taste Recognition Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ranier; De la Cruz, Vanesa; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2004-01-01

    The relevance of perirhinal cortical cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission for taste recognition memory and learned taste aversion was assessed by microinfusions of muscarinic (scopolamine), NMDA (AP-5), and AMPA (NBQX) receptor antagonists. Infusions of scopolamine, but not AP5 or NBQX, prevented the consolidation of taste recognition…

  17. Conditioned taste aversion modifies persistently the subsequent induction of neocortical long-term potentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Castillo, Diana V; Moguel-González, Minerva; Escobar, Martha L

    2011-05-01

    The ability of neurons to modify their synaptic strength in an activity-dependent manner has a crucial role in learning and memory processes. It has been proposed that homeostatic forms of plasticity might provide the global regulation necessary to maintain synaptic strength and plasticity within a functional dynamic range. Similarly, it is considered that the capacity of synapses to express plastic changes is itself subject to variation dependent on previous experience. In particular, training in several behavioral tasks modifies the possibility to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC) have shown that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC projection previous to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training enhances the retention of this task. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether CTA training modifies the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Thus, CTA trained rats received high frequency stimulation in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce LTP 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after the aversion test. Our results show that CTA training prevents the subsequent induction of LTP in the Bla-IC projection, for at least 120 h after CTA training. We also showed that pharmacological inhibition of CTA consolidation with anisomycin (1 μl/side; 100 μg/μl) prevents the CTA effect on IC-LTP. These findings reveal that CTA training produces a persistent change in the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in a protein-synthesis dependent manner, suggesting that changes in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity contribute to the formation and persistence of aversive memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sweet and bitter taste of ethanol in C57BL/6J and DBA2/J mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizard, David A

    2007-01-01

    Studies of inbred strains of rats and mice have suggested a positive association between strain variations in sweet taste and ethanol intake. However, strain associations by themselves are insufficient to support a functional link between taste and ethanol intake. We used conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to explore the sweet and bitter taste of ethanol and ability to detect sucrose, quinine and ethanol in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mouse strains that are frequently used in alcohol research. The present study showed that C57BL/6J mice generalized taste aversions from sucrose and quinine solutions to 10% ethanol and, reciprocally, aversions to 10% ethanol generalized to each of these solutions presented separately. Only conditioned aversions to quinine generalized to ethanol in the DBA/2J strain but an aversion conditioned to ethanol did not generalize reciprocally to quinine. Thus, considering these two gustatory qualities, 10% ethanol tastes both sweet and bitter to B6 mice but only bitter to D2. Both strains were able to generalize taste aversions across different concentrations of the same compound. B6 were able to detect lower concentrations of quinine than D2 but both strains were able to detect sucrose and (in contrast to previous findings) ethanol at similar concentrations. The strain-dependent gustatory profiles for ethanol may make an important contribution to the understanding of the undoubtedly complex mechanisms influencing high ethanol preference of B6 and pronounced ethanol avoidance of D2 mice.

  19. Bidirectional modulation of taste aversion extinction by insular cortex LTP and LTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Escobar, Martha L

    2017-07-01

    The history of activity of a given neuron has been proposed to bidirectionally influence its future response to synaptic inputs. In particular, induction of synaptic plasticity expressions such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) modifies the performance of several behavioral tasks. Our previous studies in the insular cortex (IC), a neocortical region that has been related to acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC pathway before CTA training enhances the retention of this task. In addition, we reported that CTA training triggers a persistent impairment in the ability to induce in vivo LTP in the IC. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether LTD can be induced in the Bla-IC projection in vivo, as well as, whether the extinction of CTA is bidirectionally modified by previous synaptic plasticity induction in this pathway. Thus, rats received 900 train pulses (five 250μs pulses at 250Hz) delivered at 1Hz in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce LTD or 10 trains of 100Hz/1s with an intertrain interval of 20s in order to induce LTP. Seven days after surgery, rats were trained in the CTA task including the extinction trials. Our results show that the Bla-IC pathway is able to express in vivo LTD in an N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent manner. Induction of LTD in the Bla-IC projection previous to CTA training facilitates the extinction of this task. Conversely, LTP induction enhances CTA retention. The present results show the bidirectional modulation of CTA extinction in response to IC-LTP and LTD, providing evidence of the homeostatic adaptation of taste learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The antimetabolite ara-CTP blocks long-term memory of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianpeng; Ren, Keqin; Pérez, Javier; Silva, Alcino J; Peña de Ortiz, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that processes related to DNA recombination and repair are involved in learning and memory. Rats received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of the antimetabolite 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate (ara-CTP) or its precursor cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) 30 min prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training. Both ara-CTP and ara-C caused significant impairments in long-term memory (LTM) of CTA. Control experiments indicate that the effect of ara-CTP on CTA memory is related to interference with learning. Furthermore, as it was previously demonstrated for the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, ara-CTP had no effect on CTA memory when it was injected 1 h after training. Importantly, although both ara-CTP and anisomycin significantly blocked LTM in the task, short-term memory (STM) measured 1 h after training was not affected by either of the drugs. Finally, ara-CTP had no effect on in vitro transcription, but it did effectively block nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) activity of brain protein extracts. We suggest that DNA ligase-mediated DNA recombination and repair processes are necessary for the expression of LTM in the brain.

  1. Influences of β-endorphins in Ethanol Consumption Patterns and Acquisition of a Conditioned Taste Aversion Mediated by the Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Molina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rewarding effects of ethanol may be mediated in part by endogenous opioids. Ethanol alters β-endorphin synthesis and release. β-endorphin heterozygous (HT and knockout (KO mice consume higher levels of a low-concentrated alcohol solution and show heightened predisposition to self-administer ethanol in comparison with wild-type (WT mice (Grisel et al., 1999. This study was conducted in order to: i re-analyze and extend previous results in terms of ethanol consumption profiles of β-endorphin deficient mice; and ii analyze conditioned aversive learning mediated by ethanol postabsorptive effects as a function of genetic capabilities to synthesize β-endorphin. In Experiment 1, mice were evaluated in terms of consumption of a low (7% ethanol solution in a two-bottle free choice paradigm. Ethanol concentration was then increased to 10 % and voluntary intake consumption was tested. WT mice displayed significantly higher consumption levels and ethanol-preference scores than did KO mice, independently from ethanol concentration. HT mice drank more ethanol than did KO mice. In Experiment 2, mice (KO, HT and WT were tested in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm in which a sodium chloride (NaCl solution was paired with a 2-g/kg ethanol dose. Only HT and KO displayed a conditioned aversion when using 2-g/kg ethanol as unconditioned stimulus. The present results indicate that total or partial deficiency of β-endorphin synthesis reduces ethanol preference and consumption. Furthermore, this study indicates that the lack of β-endorphin synthesis exacerbates ethanol’s aversive postabsorptive effects which can in turn modulate self-administration patterns of the drug.

  2. Inhibition of protein kinase A activity interferes with long-term, but not short-term, memory of conditioned taste aversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Teng; Thiele, Todd E; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2002-12-01

    The present experiments examined whether inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity interferes with conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memories. Rats were centrally infused with the selective PKA inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine (Rp-cAMPS) before conditioning. Direct infusions of Rp-cAMPS into the amygdala showed no interference with short-term memory but did show significant attenuation of long-term memory and more rapid extinction. Results suggest that PKA activity is involved in the consolidation of long-term memory of CTAs, and that the amygdala may be 1 site that is important for this activity.

  3. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saalfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1 and >3 weeks (CTA2 post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS, respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol (25% or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P 25–45 (early AIE or P45-65 (late AIE, or were left non-manipulated (NM. During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5 g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence.

  4. The ontogeny of ethanol aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Recent work has suggested separate developmental periods within the broader framework of adolescence, with data suggesting distinct alterations and vulnerabilities within these intervals. While previous research has suggested reduced sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol in adolescence relative to adults, a more detailed ontogeny of this effect has yet to be conducted. The adolescent brain undergoes significant transitions throughout adolescence, including in regions linked with drug reward and aversion. The current study aimed to determine the ontogeny of ethanol aversion by utilizing a conditioned taste aversion procedure at six different ages to test the hypothesis that the transitions into, through, and out of adolescence are associated with ontogenetic alterations in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol. Non-deprived animals given Boost® as the conditioned stimulus (CS) were used in Experiment 1, whereas Experiment 2 used water-restricted animals provided with a saccharin/sucrose solution as the CS. In both experiments, an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol was evident in adolescents compared to adults, although more age differences were apparent in water deprived animals than when a highly palatable CS was given to ad libitum animals. Overall, the data suggest an attenuated sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that is most pronounced during pre- and early adolescence, declining thereafter to reach the enhanced aversive sensitivity of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lossed in Translation: An Off-the-Shelf Method to Recover Probabilistic Beliefs from Loss-Averse Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.; Palley, A.

    2013-01-01

    Although strictly proper rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs, experimental results have shown that risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports towards the rule's baseline probability of 1/2, and a conservative preference for certain outcomes leads agents

  6. Rats and seabirds: effects of egg size on predation risk and the potential of conditioned taste aversion as a mitigation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Lucía; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seabirds nesting on islands are threatened by invasive rodents, such as mice and rats, which may attack eggs, chicks and even adults. The low feasibility of rat eradications on many islands makes the development of alternate control plans necessary. We used a combination of field experiments on a Mediterranean island invaded by black rats (Rattusrattus) to evaluate (1) the predation risk posed to different-sized seabird eggs and (2), the potential of two deterrent methods (electronic and chemical) to reduce its impact. Rats were able to consume eggs of all sizes (12 to 68 g), but survival increased 13 times from the smallest to the largest eggs (which also had more resistant eggshells). Extrapolation to seabird eggs suggests that the smallest species (Hydrobatespelagicus) suffer the most severe predation risk, but even the largest (Larusmichahellis) could suffer >60% mortality. Nest attack was not reduced by the deterrents. However, chemical deterrence (conditioned taste aversion by lithium chloride) slowed the increase in predation rate over time, which resulted in a three-fold increase in egg survival to predation as compared to both control and electronic deterrence. At the end of the experimental period, this effect was confirmed by a treatment swap, which showed that conferred protection remains at least 15 days after cessation of the treatment. Results indicate that small seabird species are likely to suffer severe rates of nest predation by rats and that conditioned taste aversion, but not electronic repellents, may represent a suitable method to protect colonies when eradication or control is not feasible or cost-effective.

  7. Lossed in translation: an off-the-shelf method to recover probablistic beliefs from loss-averse agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.; Palley, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Strictly proper scoring rules are designed to truthfully elicit subjective probabilistic beliefs from risk neutral agents. Previous experimental studies have identified two problems with this method: (i) risk aversion causes agents to bias their reports toward the probability of 1/2 , and (ii) for

  8. Delayed effect of chronic administration of corticoids on the taste aversion learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Petr; Mrzilkova, Jana; Stuchlik, Ales; Vales, Karel; Rezacova, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Long term permanent changes of eating behavior and concomitant structural changes in the CNS are matter of debade in literature. Often there is not enough distinction beween acute and chronic exposure to corticoids in evaluating its effect on behavior and/or brain structural changes. For behavioral evaluation we used well established conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm and coronal Nissl-stained brain sections for evaluation of neuroanatomical changes. The CTA is part of complex adaptive behavioral processes controling food intake. It is well established methodological tool for study of biological substrates of learning and memory. Our hypothesis was that long term changes in laboratory rat behavior induced by exogenous corticosterone are not accompanyied by neurohistological changes in the rat brain, previously described in literature. Firstly, our results support CTA paradigm as promising tool for testing chronic influence of stress hormones on eating behavior and memory. The results support fact that previous long term elevated corticosterone levels disrupt normal eating behavior and it could also lead to structural changes, which could be biological substrates of behavioral changes. The fact we have not found significant morphological changes in brain strengthen the notion of possible subcellular impairment taking place instead of simple neuronal loss.

  9. Rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine are segregated within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellings, Laurie H L; Baharnouri, Golriz; McQuade, Lindsey E; Clarke, Paul B S

    2008-07-01

    Forebrain dopamine plays a critical role in motivated behavior. According to the classic view, mesolimbic dopamine selectively guides behavior motivated by positive reinforcers. However, this has been challenged in favor of a wider role encompassing aversively motivated behavior. This controversy is particularly striking in the case of nicotine, with opposing claims that either the rewarding or the aversive effect of nicotine is critically dependent on mesolimbic dopamine transmission. In the present study, the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of nucleus accumbens core vs. medial shell on intravenous nicotine conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion were examined in male adult rats. Dopaminergic denervation in accumbens medial shell was associated with decreased nicotine conditioned place preference. Conversely, denervation in accumbens core was associated with an increase in conditioned place preference. In addition, dopaminergic denervation of accumbens core but not medial shell abolished conditioned taste aversion for nicotine. We conclude that nucleus accumbens core and medial shell dopaminergic innervation exert segregated effects on rewarding and aversive effects of nicotine. More generally, our findings indicate that dopaminergic transmission may mediate or enable opposing motivational processes within functionally distinct domains of the accumbens.

  10. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  12. cAMP response element-binding protein in the amygdala is required for long- but not short-term conditioned taste aversion memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, R; Hazvi, S; Dudai, Y

    1997-11-01

    In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) organisms learn to avoid a taste if the first encounter with that taste is followed by transient poisoning. The neural mechanisms that subserve this robust and long-lasting association of taste and malaise have not yet been elucidated, but several brain areas have been implicated in the process, including the amygdala. In this study we investigated the role of amygdala in general, and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the amygdala in particular, in CTA learning and memory. Toward that end, we combined antisense technology in vivo with behavioral, molecular, and histochemical analysis. Local microinjection of phosphorothioate-modified oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) antisense to CREB into the rat amygdala several hours before CTA training transiently reduced the level of CREB protein during training and impaired CTA memory when tested 3-5 d later. In comparison, sense ODNs had no effect on memory. The effect of antisense was not attributable to differential tissue damage and was site-specific. CREB antisense in the amygdala had no effect on retrieval of CTA memory once it had been formed, and did not affect short-term CTA memory. We propose that the amygdala, specifically the central nucleus, is required for the establishment of long-term CTA memory in the behaving rat; that the process involves long-term changes, subserved by CRE-regulated gene expression, in amygdala neurons; and that the amygdala may retain some CTA-relevant information over time rather than merely modulating the gustatory trace during acquisition of CTA.

  13. One-trial conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea: good and poor performers in long-term memory acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Rio; Azami, Sachiyo; Shiga, Hatsuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Suguru; Hatakeyama, Dai; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2007-04-01

    In the majority of studies designed to elucidate the causal mechanisms of memory formation, certain members of the experimental cohort, even though subjected to exactly the same conditioning procedures, remember significantly better than others, whereas others show little or no long-term memory (LTM) formation. To begin to address the question of why this phenomenon occurs and thereby help clarify the causal mechanism of LTM formation, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure on individuals of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and analyzed their subsequent behavior. Using sucrose as an appetitive stimulus and KCl as an aversive stimulus, we obtained a constant ratio of ;poor' to ;good' performers for CTA-LTM. We found that approximately 40% of trained snails possessed LTM following a one-trial conditioning procedure. When we examined the time-window necessary for the memory consolidation, we found that if we cooled snails to 4 degrees C for 30 min within 10 min after the one-trial conditioning, LTM was blocked. However, with delayed cooling (i.e. longer than 10 min), LTM was present. We could further interfere with LTM formation by inducing inhibitory learning (i.e. backward conditioning) after the one-trial conditioning. Finally, we examined whether we could motivate snails to acquire LTM by depriving them of food for 5 days before the one-trial conditioning. Food-deprived snails, however, failed to exhibit LTM following the one-trial conditioning. These results will help us begin to clarify why some individuals are better at learning and forming memory for specific tasks at the neuronal level.

  14. Delta receptor antagonism, ethanol taste reactivity, and ethanol consumption in outbred male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Amanda E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, produces significant changes in ethanol responsivity in rats by rendering the taste of ethanol aversive as well as producing a decrease in voluntary ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effect of naltrindole, a specific antagonist of delta opioid receptors, on ethanol taste reactivity and ethanol consumption in outbred rats. In the first experiment, rats received acute treatment of naltrexone, naltrindole, or saline followed by the measurement of ethanol consumption in a short-term access period. The second experiment involved the same treatments and investigated ethanol palatability (using the taste-reactivity test) as well as ethanol consumption. Results indicated that treatment with 3 mg/kg naltrexone significantly affected palatability (rendered ethanol more aversive, Experiment 2) and decreased voluntary ethanol consumption (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of naltrindole were inconsistent. In Experiment 1, 8 mg/kg naltrindole significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption but this was not replicated in Experiment 2. The 8 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in aversive responding (Experiment 2) but did not affect ingestive responding. Lower doses of naltrindole (2 and 4 mg/kg) were ineffective in altering rats' taste-reactivity response to and consumption of ethanol. While these data suggest that delta receptors are involved in rats' taste-reactivity response to ethanol and rats' ethanol consumption, it is likely that multiple opioid receptors mediate both behavioral responses.

  15. Lateral hypothalamus contains two types of palatability-related taste responses with distinct dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer X; Yoshida, Takashi; Monk, Kevin J; Katz, Donald B

    2013-05-29

    The taste of foods, in particular the palatability of these tastes, exerts a powerful influence on our feeding choices. Although the lateral hypothalamus (LH) has long been known to regulate feeding behavior, taste processing in LH remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined single-unit LH responses in rats subjected to a battery of taste stimuli that differed in both chemical composition and palatability. Like neurons in cortex and amygdala, LH neurons produced a brief epoch of nonspecific responses followed by a protracted period of taste-specific firing. Unlike in cortex, however, where palatability-related information only appears 500 ms after the onset of taste-specific firing, taste specificity in LH was dominated by palatability-related firing, consistent with LH's role as a feeding center. Upon closer inspection, taste-specific LH neurons fell reliably into one of two subtypes: the first type showed a reliable affinity for palatable tastes, low spontaneous firing rates, phasic responses, and relatively narrow tuning; the second type showed strongest modulation to aversive tastes, high spontaneous firing rates, protracted responses, and broader tuning. Although neurons producing both types of responses were found within the same regions of LH, cross-correlation analyses suggest that they may participate in distinct functional networks. Our data shed light on the implementation of palatability processing both within LH and throughout the taste circuit, and may ultimately have implications for LH's role in the formation and maintenance of taste preferences and aversions.

  16. Rapid, labile, and protein synthesis-independent short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, T A; Berlin, R

    1999-01-01

    Short-term memory is a rapid, labile, and protein-synthesis-independent phase of memory. The existence of short-term memory in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning has not been demonstrated formally. To determine the earliest time at which a CTA is expressed, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min, 1 hr, 6 hr, or 48 h after contingent pairing of an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6.6 ml over 6 min) and toxic lithium chloride injection (76 mg/kg). Rats were implanted with intraoral catheters to allow presentation of taste solutions at arbitrary times. Intraoral intake was measured under conditions of long-delay, single-trial learning typical of CTA. Rats decreased intraoral intake of sucrose at 15 min after contingent pairing of sucrose and LiCl, but not after noncontingent LiCl or sucrose. Thus CTA learning can be expressed rapidly. To determine if short-term CTA memory is labile and decays in the absence of long-term memory, we measured intraoral intake of sucrose after pairing sucrose with low doses of LiCl. Rats received an intraoral infusion of 5% sucrose (6 ml/6 min); 30 min later LiCl was injected at three different doses (19, 38, or 76 mg/kg). A second intraoral infusion of sucrose was administered 15 min, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4.5 hr, 6 hr, or 48 hr later. The formation of long-term CTA memory was dependent on the dose of LiCl paired with sucrose during acquisition. Low doses of LiCl induced a CTA that decayed within 6 hr after pairing. Central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide prior to LiCl injection blocked long-term CTA expression at 6 and 48 hr, but not short-term CTA expression at 1 hr. Thus, short-term memory for CTA learning exists that is acquired rapidly and independent of protein synthesis, but labile in the absence of long-term memory formation.

  17. Involvement of protein kinase Mζ in the maintenance of long-term memory for taste aversion learning in young chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiunova, A A; Bezryadnov, D V; Anokhin, K V

    2015-03-01

    The effects of an inhibitor of protein kinase Mζ on long-term memory were studied using the model of taste aversion in newborn chicks. Memory was impaired by intracerebral injection of 10 or 20 nmol of ζ-inhibiting peptide 24 h after training. Memory impairment was found 2 h after peptide administration, and repeated examination 24 h after treatment showed no recovery. Memory impairment was not observed 24 h after inhibitor administration if the testing 2 h after treatment was not performed. The results indicate the contribution of protein kinase Mζ in the maintenance of long-term memory in the avian brain. These data confirm the hypothesis of several authors that inhibition of protein kinase Mζ does not abolish memory, but rather interacts with processes of memory retrieval and/or reconsolidation.

  18. Effect of norbinaltorphimine on ∆⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced taste avoidance in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Shaun M; Wakeford, Alison G P; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2015-09-01

    The aversive effects of ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are mediated by activity at the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) as assessed in adult animals; however, no studies have assessed KOR involvement in the aversive effects of THC in adolescents. Given that adolescents have been reported to be insensitive to the aversive effects induced by KOR agonists, a different mechanism might mediate the aversive effects of THC in this age group. The present study was designed to assess the impact of KOR antagonism on the aversive effects of THC in adolescent and adult rats using the conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) procedure. Following a single pretreatment injection of norbinaltorphimine (norBNI; 15 mg/kg), CTAs induced by THC (0, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8, and 3.2 mg/kg) were assessed in adolescent (n = 84) and adult (n = 83) Sprague-Dawley rats. The KOR antagonist, norBNI, had weak and inconsistent effects on THC-induced taste avoidance in adolescent rats in that norBNI both attenuated and strengthened taste avoidance dependent on dose and trial. norBNI had limited impact on the final one-bottle avoidance and no effects on the two-bottle preference test. Interestingly, norBNI had no effect on THC-induced taste avoidance in adult rats as well. That norBNI had no significant effect on THC-induced avoidance in adults, and a minor and inconsistent effect in adolescents demonstrates that the aversive effects of THC are not mediated by KOR activity as assessed by the CTA design in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  19. Increase in cyclic AMP concentration in a cerebral giant interneuron mimics part of a memory trace for conditioned taste aversion of the pond snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Emi; Matsunaga, Miho; Okada, Ryuichi; Yamagishi, Miki; Okuta, Akiko; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can be classically conditioned in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and subsequently be consolidated into long-term memory (LTM). The neural trace that subserves CTA-LTM can be summarized as follows: A polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potential recorded in the neuron 1 medial (N1M) cell in the conditioned snails as a result of activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC) is larger and lasts longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is ultimately activated by the CGC via the neuron 3 tonic (N3t) cell. That is, the inhibitory monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the N1M cell are facilitated. The N1M and N3t cells are the members of feeding central pattern generator, whereas the CGC is a multimodal interneuron thought to play a key role in feeding behavior. Here we examined the involvement of a second messenger, cAMP, in the establishment of the memory trace. We injected cAMP into the CGC and monitored the potentials of the B3 motor neuron activated by the CGC. B3 activity is used as an index for the synaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. We found that the B3 potentials were transiently enlarged. Thus, when the cAMP concentration is increased in the CGC by taste aversion training, cAMP-induced changes may play a key role in the establishment of a memory trace in the N3t cell.

  20. Specific and differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades by unfamiliar taste in the insular cortex of the behaving rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D E; Hazvi, S; Rosenblum, K; Seger, R; Dudai, Y

    1998-12-01

    Rats were given to drink an unfamiliar taste solution under conditions that result in long-term memory of that taste. The insular cortex, which contains the taste cortex, was then removed and assayed for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades by using antibodies to the activated forms of various MAPKs. Extracellular responsive kinase 1-2 (ERK1-2) in the cortical homogenate was significantly activated within taste solution, without alteration in the total level of the ERK1-2 proteins. The activity subsided to basal levels within ERK1-2 was not activated when the taste was made familiar. The effect of the unfamiliar taste was specific to the insular cortex. Jun N-terminal kinase 1-2 (JNK1-2) was activated by drinking the taste but with a delayed time course, whereas the activity of Akt kinase and p38MAPK remained unchanged. Elk-1, a member of the ternary complex factor and an ERK/JNK downstream substrate, was activated with a time course similar to that of ERK1-2. Microinjection of a reversible inhibitor of MAPK/ERK kinase into the insular cortex shortly before exposure to the novel taste in a conditioned taste aversion training paradigm attenuated long-term taste aversion memory without significantly affecting short-term memory or the sensory, motor, and motivational faculties required to express long-term taste aversion memory. It was concluded that ERK and JNK are specifically and differentially activated in the insular cortex after exposure to a novel taste, and that this activation is required for consolidation of long-term taste memory.

  1. Medial prefrontal cortex dopamine controls the persistent storage of aversive memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, María C.; Kramar, Cecilia P.; Tomaiuolo, Micol; Katche, Cynthia; Weisstaub, Noelia; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.

    2014-01-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is essential for initial memory processing and expression but its involvement in persistent memory storage has seldom been studied. Using the hippocampus dependent inhibitory avoidance learning task and the hippocampus-independent conditioned taste aversion paradigm together with specific dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists we found that persistence but not formation of long-term aversive memories requires dopamine D1/D5 receptors activation in mPFC immediately after training and, depending on the task, between 6 and 12 h later. Our results indicate that besides its well-known participation in retrieval and early consolidation, mPFC also modulates the endurance of long-lasting aversive memories regardless of whether formation of the aversive mnemonic trace requires the participation of the hippocampus. PMID:25506318

  2. Leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides prevent taste aversion in gamma-irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vanita; Bala, Madhu; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Surinder; Gupta, Manish

    2011-12-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides (Sea buckthorn), a traditionally known plant for nutritional and therapeutic values, is under active investigation for radioprotective properties. This study investigated effects of aqueous leaf extract from H. rhamnoides on (60)Co-γ-radiation induced changes in behavior, oxidative stress and serotonin levels in jejunum and plasma of rats. Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was chosen as the assay to record behavioral changes and was assessed in terms of saccharine preference ratio (SPR). Whole body (60)Co-γ-irradiation (2 Gy) induced significant nonrecoverable CTA (25.6 ± 3.6% SPR, t(6) = 3.499, p loss in body weight (b.w.). One time treatment with leaf extract before irradiation, countered radiation induced CTA and loss in body weight. The 12 mg/kg b.w. concentration of leaf extract caused complete extinction of CTA [100.3 ± 6.4% SPR, t(6) = 5.879, p < .01] after day 3 and the effect was significantly higher than positive control, Ondansetrone (70.0 ± 8.9% SPR). Treatment with leaf extract before irradiation significantly countered radiation induced (1) decrease in antioxidant protection, (2) increase in levels of corticosterone (CS) in plasma, (3) increase in levels of serotonin in jejunum and plasma. Present investigation demonstrated that H. rhamnoides leaf extract prevented behavioral changes induced at clinical radiation doses. Hippophae leaves are nontoxic and are being consumed as tea and other beverages. CTA in rats is a considered parallel process to nausea and vomiting in human beings. These findings, put together, suggest that dietary supplements from Hippophae leaves could be developed for preventing behavioral changes in subjects exposed to radiation.

  3. LINKING GABAA RECEPTOR SUBUNITS TO ALCOHOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION AND RECOVERY FROM ACUTE ALCOHOL INTOXICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y.A.; Benavidez, J.M.; Black, M.; Chandra, D.; Homanics, G.E.; Rudolph, U.; Harris, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABAA-R) are important for ethanol actions and it is of interest to link individual subunits with specific ethanol behaviors. We studied null mutant mice for six different GABAA-R subunits (α1, α2, α3, α4, α5 and δ). Only mice lacking the α2 subunit showed reduction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to ethanol. These results are in agreement with data from knock-in mice with mutation of the ethanol-sensitive site in the α2-subunit (Blednov et al., 2011) and indicate this aversive property of ethanol is dependent on ethanol action on α2-containing GABAA-R. Deletion of the α2-subunit led to faster recovery whereas absence of the α3-subunit slowed recovery from ethanol-induced incoordination (rotarod). Deletion of the other four subunits did not affect this behavior. Similar changes in this behavior for the α2 and α3 null mutants were found for flurazepam motor-incoordination. However, no differences in recovery were found in motor-incoordinating effects of an α1-selective modulator (zolpidem) or an α4-selective agonist (gaboxadol). Therefore, recovery of rotarod incoordination is under control of two GABAA-R subunits: α2 and α3. For motor activity, α3 null mice demonstrated higher activation by ethanol (1 g/kg) whereas both α2 and α3 (-/-) knockout mice were less sensitive to ethanol-induced reduction of motor activity (1.5 g/kg). These studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol which may be relevant to the genetic linkage of the α2 subunit with human alcoholism. PMID:23147414

  4. Conditioned taste aversion prevents the long-lasting BDNF-induced enhancement of synaptic transmission in the insular cortex: A metaplastic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olvera, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2016-04-01

    Homeostatic plasticity mechanisms dynamically adjust synaptic strengths to promote stability that is crucial for memory storage. Metaplasticity is an example of these forms of plasticity that modify the capacity of synapses to experience subsequent Hebbian modifications. In particular, training in several behavioral tasks modifies the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Recently, we have reported that prior training in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) prevents the subsequent induction of LTP generated by high frequency stimulation in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC). One of the key molecular players that underlie long-term synaptic plasticity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Previous studies from our group reported that acute microinfusion of BDNF in the IC induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy at the Bla-IC projection. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze whether CTA training modifies the ability to induce subsequent BDNF-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Accordingly, CTA trained rats received intracortical microinfusion of BDNF in order to induce lasting potentiation 48h after the aversion test. Our results show that CTA training prevents the induction of in vivo BDNF-LTP in the Bla-IC projection. The present results provide evidence that CTA modulates BDNF-dependent changes in IC synaptic strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hiring a Gay Man, Taking a Risk?: A Lab Experiment on Employment Discrimination and Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    We investigate risk aversion as a driver of labor market discrimination against homosexual men. We show that more hiring discrimination by more risk-averse employers is consistent with taste-based and statistical discrimination. To test this hypothesis we conduct a scenario experiment in which experimental employers take a fictitious hiring decision concerning a heterosexual or homosexual male job candidate. In addition, participants are surveyed on their risk aversion and other characteristics that might correlate with this risk aversion. Analysis of the (post-)experimental data confirms our hypothesis. The likelihood of a beneficial hiring decision for homosexual male candidates decreases by 31.7% when employers are a standard deviation more risk-averse.

  6. Acquisition and retrieval of conditioned taste aversion is impaired by brain damage caused by two hours of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroubek, J; Hort, J; Komárek, V; Langmeier, M; Brozek, G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Cavalheiro's pilocarpine model of epileptogenesis upon conditioned taste aversion (CTA), an important example of nondeclarative memory, was studied in adult Long Evans rats. Deterioration of CTA was studied during the silent period between pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) and delayed spontaneous recurrent seizures. SE was elicited by i.p. injection of pilocarpine (320 mg/kg ) and interrupted after 2 hours by clonazepame (1 mg/kg i.p.). Peripheral cholinergic symptoms were suppressed by methylscopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.), administered together with pilocarpine. CTA was formed against the salty taste of isotonic LiCl. In the experiment of CTA acquisition, the CTA was formed and tested during the silent period after SE. In the experiment of CTA retrieval, the CTA was acquired before SE and the retrieval itself was tested during the silent period. Retrieval of CTA acquired before SE was impaired more than the retrieval of CTA formed during the silent period. Our findings indicate that epileptic seizures can disrupt even non-declarative memory but that CTA formed by the damaged brain can use its better preserved parts for memory trace formation. Ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p.) applied 2 min after the onset of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus protected memory deterioration.

  7. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2009-06-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  8. An increase in insulin is important for the acquisition conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Koichi; Yamagishi, Miki; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2014-12-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in Lymnaea is brought about by pairing a sucrose solution (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with an electric shock (the unconditioned stimulus, US). Following repeated CS-US pairings, CTA occurs and it is consolidated into long-term memory (LTM). The best CTA is achieved, if snails are food-deprived for 1 day before training commences. With a longer period of food deprivation (5 days), learning and memory formation does not occur. It has been hypothesized that the levels of insulin in the central nervous system (CNS) are very important for CTA to occur. To test his hypothesis, we injected insulin directly into 5-day food-deprived snails. The injection of insulin, as expected, resulted in a decrease in hemolymph glucose concentration. Consistent with our hypothesis with insulin injection, learning and memory formation of CTA occurred. That is, the 'insulin spike' is more important than an increase in hemolymph glucose concentration for CTA-LTM. If we injected an insulin receptor antibody into the snails before the insulin injection, learning was formed but memory formation was not, which is consistent with our previous study. Therefore, a rise in the insulin concentration (i.e., insulin spike) in the CNS is considered to be a key determining factor in the process of CTA-LTM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reassessment of area postrema's role in motion sickness and conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.; Brizzee, Kenneth R.; Corcoran, Meryl Lee; Crampton, G. H.; Damelio, F.; Elfar, S.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of classical studies on the role of the area psotrema (AP) in motion-induced emesis it was generally accepted that the AP is an essential structure for the production of vomiting in response to motion. However, in more recent studies it has been demonstrated that vomiting induced by motion can still occur in animals in which the AP has been destroyed bilaterally. It was inferred from some of these more recent studies that the AP plays no role in motion-induced emesis. From the standpoint of the current understanding of central nervous system (CNS) plasticity, redundancy, remodeling, unmasking, regeneration, and recovery of function, however, it is important to realize the limitations of using ablation procedures to determine the functional role of a given neural structure in a highly integrated, adaptable central nervous system (CNS). For example, the results of our recent investigations in cat and squirrel monkey on the role of the AP in emesis and conditioned taste aversion induced by motion indicate that while AP lesions do not prevent motion-induced emesis when animals are tested 30 days or more after surgery, the lesions do change the latency to emesis. Thus, contradictory findings from lesion studies must be evaluated not only in terms of species difference, differences in lesioning techniques and extent of lesions, and in stimulus parameters, but also in terms of duration of the recovery period, during which significant recovery of function may take place. In our judgment, inadequate consideration of the foregoing factors could lead to erroneous inferences about given structure's role in the behavior of the intact, nonablated animal.

  10. Linking GABA(A) receptor subunits to alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion and recovery from acute alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y A; Benavidez, J M; Black, M; Chandra, D; Homanics, G E; Rudolph, U; Harris, R A

    2013-04-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-R) are important for ethanol actions and it is of interest to link individual subunits with specific ethanol behaviors. We studied null mutant mice for six different GABA(A)-R subunits (α1, α2, α3, α4, α5 and δ). Only mice lacking the α2 subunit showed reduction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to ethanol. These results are in agreement with data from knock-in mice with mutation of the ethanol-sensitive site in the α2-subunit (Blednov et al., 2011). All together, they indicate that aversive property of ethanol is dependent on ethanol action on α2-containing GABA(A)-R. Deletion of the α2-subunit led to faster recovery whereas absence of the α3-subunit slowed recovery from ethanol-induced incoordination (rotarod). Deletion of the other four subunits did not affect this behavior. Similar changes in this behavior for the α2 and α3 null mutants were found for flurazepam motor incoordination. However, no differences in recovery were found in motor-incoordinating effects of an α1-selective modulator (zolpidem) or an α4-selective agonist (gaboxadol). Therefore, recovery of rotarod incoordination is under control of two GABA(A)-R subunits: α2 and α3. For motor activity, α3 null mice demonstrated higher activation by ethanol (1 g/kg) whereas both α2 (-/-) and α3 (-/Y) knockout mice were less sensitive to ethanol-induced reduction of motor activity (1.5 g/kg). These studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol which may be relevant to the genetic linkage of the α2 subunit with human alcoholism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Region-specific involvement of BDNF secretion and synthesis in conditioned taste aversion memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Yu, Hui; Wang, Yue; Huang, Shu-Hong; Lee, Francis S; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2011-02-09

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB), play a critical role in activity-dependent plasticity processes such as long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. It has been shown that BDNF exerts different or even opposite effects on behavior depending on the neural circuit. However, the detailed role of BDNF in memory process on the basis of its location has not been fully understood. Here, we aim to investigate the regional specific involvement of BDNF/TrkB in hippocampal-independent conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory processes. We found region-specific changes in BDNF expression during CTA learning. CTA conditioning induced increased BDNF levels in the central nuclei of amygdala (CeA) and insular cortex, but not in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Interestingly, we found that the enhanced TrkB phosphorylation occurred at the time point before the increased BDNF expression, suggesting rapid induction of activity-dependent BDNF secretion by CTA learning. Moreover, targeted infusion of BDNF antibodies or BDNF antisense oligonucleotides revealed that activity-dependent BDNF secretion and synthesis in the CeA, but not the BLA, was respectively involved in the short- and long-term memory formation of CTA. Finally, we found that infusion of exogenous BDNF into the CeA could enhance CTA learning. These data suggest that region-specific BDNF release and synthesis temporally regulate different CTA memory phases through activation of TrkB receptors.

  12. The effects of continuous and intermittent ethanol exposure in adolesence on the aversive properties of ethanol during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Graham, Danielle L

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents is prevalent. Epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol abuse during the adolescent developmental period may result in long-term changes such as an increased susceptibility to alcohol-related problems in adulthood. Laboratory findings suggest that alcohol exposure during the adolescent developmental period, as compared with adulthood, may differentially impact subsequent neurobehavioral responses to alcohol. The present study was designed to examine whether ethanol exposure, continuous versus intermittent, during the adolescent developmental period would alter the aversive properties of ethanol in adult C3H mice. Periadolescent (PD28) male C3H mice were exposed to 64 hours of continuous or intermittent ethanol vapor. As a comparison, adult (PD70) C3H mice were also exposed to 64 hours of continuous or intermittent ethanol vapor. Six weeks after ethanol exposure, taste aversion conditioning was carried out on both ethanol pre-exposed and ethanol-naive animals using a 1-trial, 1-flavor taste-conditioning procedure. Ethanol exposure during the periadolescent period significantly attenuated a subsequent ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion, as compared with control animals. Adult animals exposed to chronic ethanol vapor during adolescence showed less of an aversion to an ethanol-paired flavor than ethanol-naive adults. Intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor during periadolescence produced a greater attenuation. It is suggested that ethanol exposure during the periadolescent period results in long-term neurobehavioral changes, which lessen a conditioned aversion to ethanol in adulthood. It is suggested that this age-related effect may underlie the increased susceptibility to alcohol-related problems which is negatively correlated with the age of onset for alcohol abuse.

  13. The Insula and Taste Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Yiannakas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC, among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate with the induction of signaling cascades involved in synaptic plasticity. Taste learning has been shown to require the differential involvement of dopaminergic GABAergic, glutamatergic, muscarinic neurotransmission across an extended taste learning circuit. The subsequent activation of downstream protein kinases (ERK, CaMKII, transcription factors (CREB, Elk-1 and immediate early genes (c-fos, Arc, has been implicated in the regulation of the different phases of taste learning. This review discusses the relevant neurotransmission, molecular signaling pathways and genetic markers involved in novel and aversive taste learning, with a particular focus on the IC. Imaging and other studies in humans have implicated the IC in the pathophysiology of a number of cognitive disorders. We conclude that the IC participates in circuit-wide computations that modulate the interception and encoding of sensory information, as well as the formation of subjective internal representations that control the expression of motivated behaviors.

  14. Ongoing ingestive behavior is rapidly suppressed by a preabsorptive, intestinal "bitter taste" cue.

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    Schier, Lindsey A; Davidson, Terry L; Powley, Terry L

    2011-11-01

    The discovery that cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract express the same molecular receptors and intracellular signaling components known to be involved in taste has generated great interest in potential functions of such post-oral "taste" receptors in the control of food intake. To determine whether taste cues in the GI tract are detected and can directly influence behavior, the present study used a microbehavioral analysis of intake, in which rats drank from lickometers that were programmed to simultaneously deliver a brief yoked infusion of a taste stimulus to the intestines. Specifically, in daily 30-min sessions, thirsty rats with indwelling intraduodenal catheters were trained to drink hypotonic (0.12 M) sodium chloride (NaCl) and simultaneously self-infuse a 0.12 M NaCl solution. Once trained, in a subsequent series of intestinal taste probe trials, rats reduced licking during a 6-min infusion period, when a bitter stimulus denatonium benzoate (DB; 10 mM) was added to the NaCl vehicle for infusion, apparently conditioning a mild taste aversion. Presentation of the DB in isomolar lithium chloride (LiCl) for intestinal infusions accelerated the development of the response across trials and strengthened the temporal resolution of the early licking suppression in response to the arrival of the DB in the intestine. In an experiment to evaluate whether CCK is involved as a paracrine signal in transducing the intestinal taste of DB, the CCK-1R antagonist devazepide partially blocked the response to intestinal DB. In contrast to their ability to detect and avoid the bitter taste in the intestine, rats did not modify their licking to saccharin intraduodenal probe infusions. The intestinal taste aversion paradigm developed here provides a sensitive and effective protocol for evaluating which tastants-and concentrations of tastants-in the lumen of the gut can control ingestion.

  15. Aversive effects of ethanol in adolescent versus adult rats: potential causes and implication for future drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; DiFeliceantonio, Alexandra G; Foscue, Ethan; Glowacz, Susan; Haseeb, Naadeyah; Wang, Nancy; Zhou, Cathy; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2010-12-01

    Many people experiment with alcohol and other drugs of abuse during their teenage years. Epidemiological evidence suggests that younger initiates into drug taking are more likely to develop problematic drug seeking behavior, including binge and other high-intake behaviors. The level of drug intake for any individual depends on the balance of rewarding and aversive effects of the drug in that individual. Multiple rodent studies have demonstrated that aversive effects of drugs of abuse are reduced in adolescent compared to adult animals. In this study, we addressed 2 key questions: First, do reduced aversive effects of ethanol in younger rats correlate with increased ethanol consumption? Second, are the reduced aversive effects in adolescents attributable to reduced sensitivity to ethanol's physiologic effects? Adolescent and adult rats were tested for ethanol conditioned taste aversion (CTA) followed by a voluntary drinking period, including postdeprivation consumption. Multivariate regression was used to assess correlations. In separate experiments, adolescent and adult rats were tested for their sensitivity to the hypothermic and sedative effects of ethanol, and for blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). We observed that in adolescent rats but not adults, taste aversion was inversely correlated with postdeprivation consumption. Adolescents also exhibited a greater increase in consumption after deprivation than adults. Furthermore, the age difference in ethanol CTA was not attributable to differences in hypothermia, sedation, or BECs. These results suggest that during adolescence, individuals that are insensitive to aversive effects are most likely to develop problem drinking behaviors. These results underscore the importance of the interaction between developmental stage and individual variation in sensitivity to alcohol. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Corticosterone and propranolol's role on taste recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetti, E; Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M

    2014-12-01

    Taste recognition is a robust procedure to study learning and memory processes, as well as the different stages involved in them, i.e. encoding, storage and recall. Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones and the noradrenergic system play an important role in aversive and appetitive memory formation in rats and humans. The present experiments were designed to characterize the effects of immediate post training corticosterone (Experiment 1) and propranolol administration (Experiment 2 and 3) on taste recognition memory. Administration of a high dose of corticosterone (5mg/kg, sc) impairs consolidation of taste memory, but the low and moderate doses (1 and 3mg/kg, sc) didn't affect it. On the other hand, immediate post-training administration of propranolol (1 and 2mg/kg, ip) impaired taste recognition memory. These effects were time-dependent since no effects were seen when drug administration was delayed 3h after training. These findings support the importance of stress hormones and noradrenergic system on the modulation of taste memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. NMDA receptor activation and PKC but not PKA lead to the modification of the long-term potentiation in the insular cortex induced by conditioned taste aversion: differential role of kinases in metaplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that training in behavioral tasks modifies the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent manner. This receptor leads to calcium entry into neuronal cells, promoting the activation of protein kinases as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), which contribute significantly to the formation of different types of memories and play a pivotal role in the expression of LTP. Our previous studies involving the insular cortex (IC) have demonstrated that induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA)-IC projection prior to conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training enhances the retention of this task. Recently, we showed that CTA training triggers a persistent impairment in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity on the BLA-IC pathway in a protein synthesis-dependent manner, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated whether the blockade of NMDAR, as well as the inhibition of PKC and PKA affects the CTA-dependent impairment of the IC-LTP. Thus, CTA-trained rats received high frequency stimulation in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce LTP 48 h after the aversion test. The NMDAR antagonist CPP and the specific inhibitors for PKC (chelerythrine) and PKA (KT-5720) were intracortically administered during the acquisition session. Our results show that the blockade of NMDAR and the inhibition of PKC activity prevent the CTA memory-formation as well as the IC-LTP impairment. Nevertheless, PKA inhibition prevents the memory formation of taste aversion but produces no interference with the CTA-dependent impairment of the IC-LTP. These findings reveal the differential roles of protein kinases on CTA-dependent modification of IC-LTP enhancing our understanding of the effects of memory-related changes on synaptic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake and body weight by reducing total meals with no conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, M Joelle; Shaw, Janice; Cramer, Jeff; Sindelar, Dana K

    2013-11-01

    Serotonin acts through receptors controlling several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis regulation and food intake. Recent experiments demonstrated that 5-HT1A receptor antagonists reduce food intake. We sought to examine the microstructure of feeding with 5-HT1A receptor antagonists using a food intake monitoring system. We also examined the relationship between food intake, inhibition of binding and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of the antagonists. Ex vivo binding revealed that, at doses used in this study to reduce food intake, inhibition of binding of a 5-HT1A agonist by ~40% was reached in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with a trend for higher binding in DIO vs. lean animals. Additionally, PK analysis detected levels from 2 to 24h post-compound administration. Male DIO mice were administered 5-HT1A receptor antagonists LY439934 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), WAY100635 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.), SRA-333 (10 or 30 mg/kg, p.o.), or NAD-299 (3 or 10mg/kg, s.c.) for 3 days and meal patterns were measured. Analyses revealed that for each antagonist, 24-h food intake was reduced through a specific decrease in the total number of meals. Compared to controls, meal number was decreased 14-35% in the high dose. Average meal size was not changed by any of the compounds. The reduction in food intake reduced body weight 1-4% compared to Vehicle controls. Subsequently, a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) assay was used to determine whether the feeding decrease might be an indicator of aversion, nausea, or visceral illness caused by the antagonists. Using a two bottle preference test, it was found that none of the compounds produced a CTA. The decrease in food intake does not appear to be a response to nausea or malaise. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptor antagonist suppresses feeding, specifically by decreasing the number of meals, and induce weight loss without an aversive side effect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  20. Increased ethanol consumption despite taste aversion in mice with a human tryptophan hydroxylase 2 loss of function mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Francis; Doré, François Y; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2015-11-16

    Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the brain serotonin synthesis enzyme Tph2 have been identified in mental illnesses, with co-morbidity of substance use disorder. However, little is known about the impact of Tph2 gene variants on addiction. Mice expressing a human Tph2 loss of function variant were used to investigate consequences of aversive conditions on ethanol intake. Mice were familiarized either with ethanol or a solution containing both ethanol and the bittering agent quinine. Effect of familiarization to ethanol or an ethanol-quinine solution was then evaluated using a two-bottles preference test in Tph2-KI and control littermates. Mice from both genotypes displayed similar levels of ethanol consumption and quinine avoidance when habituated to ethanol alone. In contrast, addition of quinine to ethanol during the familiarization period resulted in a reduction of avoidance for the quinine-ethanol solution only in mutant mice. These results indicate that loss of function mutation in Tph2 results in greater motivation for ethanol consumption under aversive conditions and may confer enhanced sensitivity to alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Conditioned taste avoidance induced by forced and voluntary wheel running in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forristall, J R; Hookey, B L; Grant, V L

    2007-03-01

    Voluntary exercise by rats running in a freely rotating wheel (free wheel) produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) of a flavored solution consumed before running [e.g., Lett, B.T., Grant, V.L., 1996. Wheel running induces conditioned taste aversion in rats trained while hungry and thirsty. Physiol. Behav. 59, 699-702]. Forced exercise, swimming or running, also produces CTA in rats [e.g., Masaki, T., Nakajima, S., 2006. Taste aversion induced by forced swimming, voluntary running, forced running, and lithium chloride injection treatments. Physiol. Behav. 88, 411-416]. Energy expenditure may be the critical factor in producing such CTA. If so, forced running in a motorized running wheel should produce CTA equivalent to that produced by a similar amount of voluntary running. In two experiments, we compared forced running in a motorized wheel with voluntary running in a free wheel. Mean distance run over 30 min was equated as closely as possible in the two apparatuses. Both types of exercise produced CTA relative to sedentary, locked-wheel controls. However, voluntary running produced greater CTA than forced running. We consider differences between running in the free and motorized wheels that may account for the differences in strength of CTA.

  2. Taste learning and memory: a window to the study of brain aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eGámiz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Taste learning exhibits advantages for research on memory brain systems and its reorganization along the life. A review of the effects of aging on taste memory abilities offers a complex picture showing preserved, impaired and enhanced functions. Some of the age-related changes in taste memory seem to be associated with an altered temporal processing. Longer taste-illness delays can be introduced for acquisition of conditioned taste aversions and the modulation of taste learning by the temporal context is absent in naïve aged rats. Evidence is presented suggesting that hippocampal-dependent taste memory can be reactivated by previous learning experiences in old rats. As long as temporary hipocampal inactivation might represent a better model than permanent damage of the aged hippocampus, reversion inactivation of the dorsal Hippocampus by tetrotodoxin (TTX has been applied in aged rats. Results are reported indicating the need of taking into account the interactions between the previous experiences and acute brain intervention when applying taste learning and memory tasks at advanced ages.

  3. Conditioned taste aversion memory and c-Fos induction are disrupted in RIIbeta-protein kinase A mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Teng; Clarke, Sharon N D A; Spray, Kristina J; Thiele, Todd E; Bernstein, Ilene L

    2003-07-14

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway has been implicated in many forms of learning. The present studies examined conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, an amygdala-dependent task, in mice with a targeted disruption of a gene for a specific regulatory subunit of PKA (RIIbeta), which is selectively expressed in amygdala. Null mutant (RIIbeta(-/-)) mice and littermate controls (RIIbeta(+/+)) were tested for protein synthesis-independent short-term memory (STM) and protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) for CTAs. The ability of the unconditioned stimulus (US) drug, LiCl, to induce c-Fos in regions thought to be important in this learning was also determined. RIIbeta(-/-) mice showed significant impairment in CTA memory when tested 24h after training (LTM). In contrast, STM was normal. With regard to the c-Fos response to LiCl, the US drug, significant elevations were evident in brainstem (nucleus of the solitary tract) and pontine (parabrachial nucleus) regions, in mutants as well as wild-type controls. However, in amygdala, elevations were seen in controls but were absent in the mutants. These findings suggest that disruption of PKA signaling interferes with LTM consolidation of CTA and that a possible mediator of this effect is interference with c-Fos expression in amygdala which may be necessary for CTA memory.

  4. PKMζ inhibition prevents the metaplastic change induced by conditioned taste aversion on insular cortex long-term potentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-Durán, Sandybel; Ramos-Languren, Laura E; Escobar, Martha L

    2012-01-01

    The activity history of a given neuron or pathway has been suggested to influence its future responses to synaptic inputs. In particular, training in several learning tasks produces a metaplastic change, that is, a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity. Experimental evidence shows that the maintenance of long term memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) requires the persistent action of the atypical protein kinase Cisoform, protein kinase M ζ (PKM ζ ). Recent work has demonstrated that the inactivation of PKM ζ in the insular cortex (IC) abolishes conditioned taste aversion (CTA) long term memory. Our previous studies in the IC have demonstrated that the induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (Bla)-IC projection previous to CTA training enhances the retention of this task. Moreover, recently, we have observed that CTA training blocks the subsequent induction of LTP in the Bla-IC projection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation of PKM ζon the CTA-dependent modification of the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo . Thus, we have delivered high-frequency stimulation in the Bla-IC projection in order to induce in vivo IC-LTP in the rats that underwent or did not have an impairment of CTA retention due to the intracortical administration of the selective PKM ζ pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptide, ZIP. Our results show that the microinfusion of ZIP into the IC of the behaving rats impairs long-term memory of CTA and prevents its effects on IC-LTP. These results indicate that PKM ζ is a key component of the cellular mechanisms necessary for the persistence of lasting memory traces as well as for those underlying metaplastic changes in neocortex, contributing to the persistence of aversive memories.

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  6. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  7. Acute suppression, but not chronic genetic deficiency, of c-fos gene expression impairs long-term memory in aversive taste learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Sako, Noritaka; Senba, Emiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2006-05-02

    Several lines of evidence have indicated that the establishment of long-term memory requires protein synthesis, including the synthesis of immediate-early gene products. Although the anatomical expression patterns of the c-fos gene, a transcription factor-encoding immediate-early gene, in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) are well documented, the functional roles of c-fos gene expression and Fos-mediated transcription remain to be clarified. Using the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) method in rats and gene-targeting knockout techniques in mice (c-fos(-/-) mice), we examined the roles of c-fos gene expression in the acquisition, retrieval, and retention of CTA. Preconditioning microinfusion of AS-ODN directed against c-fos mRNA (c-fos AS-ODN) into the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) impaired the acquisition, whereas infusion of control ODNs consisting of a randomized or inverted base order had no effect. Microinfusion of c-fos AS-ODN into either the amygdala or insular cortex did not impair the acquisition, whereas it attenuated the retention. Retrieval and subsequent retention of an acquired CTA were not disrupted by c-fos AS-ODN infusion into the PBN or amygdala. Microinfusion of another AS-ODN directed against zif268 (egr-1, krox-24, NGFI-A) mRNA into the PBN or amygdala did not affect the acquisition and retention. The genetic deficiency in c-fos(-/-) mice caused normal acquisition and retention. The present results suggest that the Fos-mediated gene transcription in the PBN, amygdala, or insular cortex plays critical roles in the acquisition and/or consolidation, but not the retrieval, of long-term taste memory; nevertheless, some other factors could compensate CTA mechanism when Fos-mediated transcription is not available.

  8. Loss Aversion, Adaptive Beliefs, and Asset Pricing Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Samy Selim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study asset pricing dynamics in artificial financial markets model. The financial market is populated with agents following two heterogeneous trading beliefs, the technical and the fundamental prediction rules. Agents switch between trading rules with respect to their past performance. The agents are loss averse over asset price fluctuations. Loss aversion behaviour depends on the past performance of the trading strategies in terms of an evolutionary fitness measure. We propose a novel application of the prospect theory to agent-based modelling, and by simulation, the effect of evolutionary fitness measure on adaptive belief system is investigated. For comparison, we study pricing dynamics of a financial market populated with chartists perceive losses and gains symmetrically. One of our contributions is validating the agent-based models using real financial data of the Egyptian Stock Exchange. We find that our framework can explain important stylized facts in financial time series, such as random walk price behaviour, bubbles and crashes, fat-tailed return distributions, power-law tails in the distribution of returns, excess volatility, volatility clustering, the absence of autocorrelation in raw returns, and the power-law autocorrelations in absolute returns. In addition to this, we find that loss aversion improves market quality and market stability.

  9. Altered gene activity correlated with long-term memory formation of conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Sachiyo; Wagatsuma, Akiko; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Hatakeyama, Dai; Usami, Takeshi; Fujie, Manabu; Koyanagi, Ryo; Azumi, Kaoru; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2006-11-15

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of learning conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and then consolidating that learning into long-term memory (LTM) that persists for at least 1 month. LTM requires de novo protein synthesis and altered gene activity. Changes in gene activity in Lymnaea that are correlated with, much less causative, memory formation have not yet been identified. As a first step toward rectifying this situation, we constructed a cDNA microarray with mRNAs extracted from the central nervous system (CNS) of Lymnaea. We then, using this microarray assay, identified genes whose activity either increased or decreased following CTA memory consolidation. We also identified genes whose expression levels were altered after inhibition of the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) that is hypothesized to be a key transcription factor for CTA memory. We found that the molluscan insulin-related peptide II (MIP II) was up-regulated during CTA-LTM, whereas the gene encoding pedal peptide preprohormone (Pep) was down-regulated by CREB2 RNA interference. We next examined mRNAs of MIP II and Pep using real-time RT-PCR with SYBR Green. The MIP II mRNA level in the CNS of snails exhibiting "good" memory for CTA was confirmed to be significantly higher than that from the CNS of snails exhibiting "poor" memory. In contrast, there was no significant difference in expression levels of the Pep mRNA between "good" and "poor" performers. These data suggest that in Lymnaea MIP II may play a role in the consolidation process that forms LTM following CTA training.

  10. Human capital and risk aversion in relational incentive contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a self-enforced relational incentive contract between a risk neutral principal and a risk averse agent where the agent's human capital is essential in ex post realization of values. I analyse the effect of outside options on the optimal bonus level, showing how the presence of ex post outside options may impede desirable degrees of performance pay. The effect of risk aversion and incentive responsiveness is analysed by allowing for linear contracts. I show that the first order effect of these parameters are the same as in verifiable contracts, but second order effects show that the optimal bonus level's sensitivity to risk aversion and incentive responsiveness increases with the discount factor. The analysis has interesting implications on firm boundaries and specificity choices. (author)

  11. Post-oral sugar detection rapidly and chemospecifically modulates taste-guided behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that post-oral sugar sensing rapidly stimulates ingestion. Here, we explored the specificity with which early-phase post-oral sugar sensing influenced ingestive motivation. In experiment 1, rats were trained to associate the consumption of 0.3 M sucrose with injections of LiCl (3.0 meq/kg ip, conditioned taste aversion) or given equivalent exposures to the stimuli, but in an unpaired fashion. Then, all rats were subjected to two brief-access tests to assess appetitive and consummatory responses to the taste properties of sucrose (0.01–1.0 M), 0.12 M NaCl, and dH2O (in 10-s trials in randomized blocks). Intraduodenal infusions of either 0.3 M sucrose or equiosmolar 0.15 M NaCl (3.0 ml) were administered, beginning just before each test. For unpaired rats, intraduodenal sucrose specifically enhanced licking for 0.03–1.0 M sucrose, with no effect on trial initiation, relative to intraduodenal NaCl. Rats with an aversion to sucrose suppressed licking responses to sucrose in a concentration-dependent manner, as expected, but the intraduodenal sucrose preload did not appear to further influence licking responses; instead, intraduodenal sucrose attenuated trial initiation. Using a serial taste reactivity (TR) paradigm, however, experiment 2 demonstrated that intraduodenal sucrose preloads suppressed ingestive oromotor responses to intraorally delivered sucrose in rats with a sucrose aversion. Finally, experiment 3 showed that intraduodenal sucrose preloads enhanced preferential licking to some representative tastants tested (sucrose, Polycose, and Intralipid), but not others (NaCl, quinine). Together, the results suggest that the early phase-reinforcing efficacy of post-oral sugar is dependent on the sensory and motivational properties of the ingesta. PMID:27511277

  12. Post-learning molecular reactivation underlies taste memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kioko eGuzman-Ramos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that memory consolidation is a progressive process that requires post-trial stabilization of the information. In this regard, it has been speculated that waves of receptors activation, expression of immediate early genes and replenishment of receptor subunit pools occur to induce functional or morphological changes to maintain the information for longer periods. In this paper, we will review data related to neuronal changes in the post-acquisition stage of taste aversion learning that could be involved in further stabilization of the memory trace. In order to achieve such stabilization, evidence suggests that the functional integrity of the insular cortex (IC and the amygdala (AMY is required. Particularly the increase of extracellular levels of glutamate and activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors within the IC shows a main role in the consolidation process. Additionally the modulatory actions of the dopaminergic system in the IC appear to be involved in the mechanisms that lead to taste aversion memory consolidation through the activation of pathways related to enhancement of protein synthesis such as the Protein Kinase A pathway. In summary, we suggest that post-acquisition molecular and neuronal changes underlying memory consolidation are dependent on the interactions between the AMY and the IC.

  13. Averting the foul taste of pediatric medicines improves adherence and can be lifesaving ? Pheburane? (sodium phenylbutyrate)

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael J; Amitai, Yona

    2016-01-01

    Background Children?s aversions to poor and mostly bitter tastes and their inability to swallow tablets and capsules are major challenges in pediatric medicine. Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) is a lifesaving waste nitrogen, alternative to urea nitrogen, for individuals suffering from urea cycle disorders. A major issue in the use of NaPB is its highly foul taste, which often leads to children being unable to consume it, resulting in ineffective treatment, or alternatively, necessitating the app...

  14. Effects of pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptors on the aversive effects of nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Melissa; Norman, Haval; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2018-02-15

    Nicotine, an addictive component of tobacco smoke, produces both rewarding and aversive effects. Increasing the aversive effects of nicotine may help in promoting smoking cessation. However, neural targets mediating the aversive effects of nicotine have not been fully identified. In this study, we evaluated the role of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the aversive effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base; s.c.) using the nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) model in Wistar rats. The KORs were activated using the selective KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0, 0.03, 0.15 & 0.3mg/kg; s.c.) and inhibited using the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 15 & 30mg/kg; s.c.) in separate groups of rats using a between-subjects design. Pretreatment with the KOR agonist (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) significantly increased aversion for the nicotine-associated solution. Additionally, (±)U-50,488H (0.3mg/kg) on its own induced aversion to the flavored solution associated with it even in the absence of nicotine, suggesting that the KOR agonist induced increase in nicotine-induced aversion was an additive effect. Interestingly, administration of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI (30mg/kg) prior to conditioning with nicotine/saline, but not after conditioning with nicotine/saline, attenuated nicotine-induced aversive effects compared to saline controls. Taken together, these data suggest a role for KORs in the aversive effects of nicotine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

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    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  16. The role of taste in alcohol preference, consumption and risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Pickering, Gary J

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review. Ethanol, the compound common to all alcoholic beverages, is generally aversive as it primarily elicits bitterness and irritation when ingested. Individuals who experience orosensations (both taste and chemesthetic) more intensely tend to report lower liking and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Additionally, a preference for sweetness is likely associated with a paternal history of alcohol use disorders. However, conflicting findings in the literature are common and may be partially attributable to differences in the methods used to access orosensory responsiveness and taste phenotypes. We conclude that while taste is a key driver in alcohol preference, intake and use disorder, no single taste-related factor can adequately predict alcohol behaviour. Areas for further research and suggestions for improved methodological and analytical approaches are highlighted.

  17. Comparing uncertainty aversion towards different sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baillon, Aurélien; Liu, Ning; van Dolder, Dennie

    2017-01-01

    We propose simple behavioral definitions of comparative uncertainty aversion for a single agent towards different sources of uncertainty. Our definitions allow for the comparison of utility curvature for different sources if the agent’s choices satisfy subjective expected utility towards each

  18. Adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure fails to affect THC-induced place and taste conditioning in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral estrogen retains potency as an aversion agent in eggs: implications to studies of community ecology and wildlife management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, L K; Crowe, M; Lundquist, R

    1992-06-01

    The first of two experiments with laboratory rats demonstrated that oral estrogen (17 alpha-ethinylestradiol) can remain in the albumen of eggs at room temperature for up to 8 days with undiminished capacity to produce conditioned taste aversion. The second experiment showed that estrogen remains potent in the yolk of eggs for at least 4 days. There is now greater assurance that egg prey placed into the field will induce reliable CTA among mammalian predators. Community ecologists interested in such processes as competitive release and the responses of prey populations to reduced predation upon their eggs can selectively factor predation out of field experiments without the need for physically excluding predators. Wildlife biologists interested in reducing predation upon the eggs of endangered species now have greater assurance that estrogen-treated egg baits will suppress predation in a more cost-effective manner and with less likelihood of discrimination between treated eggs and those of endangered species.

  20. Egr-1 induction provides a genetic response to food aversion in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte eBoyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As soon as zebrafish larvae start eating, they exhibit a marked aversion for bitter and acidic substances, as revealed by a consumption assay, in which fluorescent Tetrahymena serve as a feeding basis, to which various stimuli can be added. Bitter and acidic substances elicited an increase in mRNA accumulation of the immediate-early response gene egr-1, as revealed by in situ hybridization. Conversely, chemostimulants that did not induce aversion did not induce egr-1 response. Maximum labelling was observed in cells located in the oropharyngeal cavity and on the gill rakers. Gustatory areas of the brain were also labelled. Interestingly, when bitter tastants were repeatedly associated with food reward, zebrafish juveniles learned to ingest food in the presence of the bitter compound. After habituation, the acquisition of acceptance for bitterness was accompanied by a loss of egr-1 labelling. Altogether, our data indicate that egr-1 participates specifically in food aversion. The existence of reward-coupled changes in taste sensitivity in humans suggests that our results are relevant to situations in humans.

  1. Egr-1 induction provides a genetic response to food aversion in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Brigitte; Ernest, Sylvain; Rosa, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    As soon as zebrafish larvae start eating, they exhibit a marked aversion for bitter and acidic substances, as revealed by a consumption assay, in which fluorescent Tetrahymena serve as a feeding basis, to which various stimuli can be added. Bitter and acidic substances elicited an increase in mRNA accumulation of the immediate-early response gene egr-1, as revealed by in situ hybridization. Conversely, chemostimulants that did not induce aversion did not induce egr-1 response. Maximum labeling was observed in cells located in the oropharyngeal cavity and on the gill rakers. Gustatory areas of the brain were also labeled. Interestingly, when bitter tastants were repeatedly associated with food reward, zebrafish juveniles learned to ingest food in the presence of the bitter compound. After habituation, the acquisition of acceptance for bitterness was accompanied by a loss of egr-1 labeling. Altogether, our data indicate that egr-1 participates specifically in food aversion. The existence of reward-coupled changes in taste sensitivity in humans suggests that our results are relevant to situations in humans.

  2. Extinction of aversive taste memory homeostatically prevents the maintenance of in vivo insular cortex LTP: Calcineurin participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olvera, Alejandro; Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Gonsebatt, María E; Escobar, Martha L

    2018-04-06

    Accumulating evidence indicates that homeostatic plasticity mechanisms dynamically adjust synaptic strength to promote stability that is crucial for memory storage. Our previous studies have shown that prior training in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) prevents the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC) in vivo. We have also reported that induction of LTP in the Bla-IC pathway modifies the CTA extinction. Memoryextinction involves the formation of a new associativememorythat inhibits a previously conditioned association. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of CTA extinction on the ability to induce subsequent LTP in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Thus, 48 h after CTA extinction animals received high frequency stimulation in order to induce IC-LTP. Our results show that extinction training allows the induction but not the maintenance of IC-LTP. In addition, with the purpose of exploring part of the mechanisms involved in this process and since a body of evidence suggests that protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is involved in the extinction of some behavioral tasks, we analyzed the participation of this phosphatase. The present results show that extinction training increases the CaN expression in the IC, as well as that the inhibition of this phosphatase reverts the effects of the CTA-extinction on the IC-LTP. These findings reveal that CTA extinction promotes a homeostatic regulation of subsequent IC synaptic plasticity maintenance through increases in CaN levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brief Exposures to the Taste of Ethanol (EtOH) and Quinine Promote Subsequent Acceptance of EtOH in a Paradigm that Minimizes Postingestive Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, Gregory C; Meyer, Paul J

    2018-03-01

    Aversion to the orosensory properties of concentrated ethanol (EtOH) solutions is often cited as a primary barrier to initiation of drinking and may contribute to abstention. These aversive properties include gustatory processes which encompass both bitter-like taste qualities and trigeminal-mediated irritation. Chronic intermittent EtOH access (CIA) results in substantial and persistent increases in EtOH consumption, but the degree to which this facilitation involves sensory responding to EtOH and other bitter stimuli is currently undetermined. Long-Evans rats were given brief-access licking tests designed to examine the immediate, taste-guided assessment of the palatability of EtOH and quinine solutions. Rats were assessed once in a naïve state and again following previous brief-access exposure, or following 4 weeks of CIA. The relationship between the sensitivity to the aversive orosensory properties of EtOH and quinine following EtOH access and the impact of antecedent quinine exposure on the acceptance of EtOH were determined in 2 parallel studies. Both brief access to EtOH and 4-week CIA resulted in substantial rightward shifts in the concentration-response function of brief-access EtOH licking, indicating that EtOH exposure increased acceptance of the taste of EtOH. The initial sensitivity to the aversive orosensory properties of EtOH and quinine was positively correlated in naïve rats, such that rats that were initially more accepting of quinine were also more accepting of EtOH. Rats that sampled quinine immediately prior to tasting EtOH exhibited successive positive contrast in that they were more accepting of highly concentrated EtOH, relative to a water-control group. Increased EtOH acceptance following exposure is, at least in part, facilitated by a decrease in its aversive sensory properties. Both long- and short-term access increase the palatability of the taste of EtOH in brief-access licking tests. Moreover, the sensitivity to the bitterness of

  4. The Aversive Agent Lithium Chloride Suppresses Phasic Dopamine Release Through Central GLP-1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Chartoff, Elena H; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2016-02-01

    Unconditioned rewarding stimuli evoke phasic increases in dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) while discrete aversive stimuli elicit pauses in dopamine neuron firing and reductions in NAc dopamine concentration. The unconditioned effects of more prolonged aversive states on dopamine release dynamics are not well understood and are investigated here using the malaise-inducing agent lithium chloride (LiCl). We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure phasic increases in NAc dopamine resulting from electrical stimulation of dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Systemic LiCl injection reduced electrically evoked dopamine release in the NAc of both anesthetized and awake rats. As some behavioral effects of LiCl appear to be mediated through glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation, we hypothesized that the suppression of phasic dopamine by LiCl is GLP-1R dependent. Indeed, peripheral pretreatment with the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) potently attenuated the LiCl-induced suppression of dopamine. Pretreatment with Ex-9 did not, however, affect the suppression of phasic dopamine release by the kappa-opioid receptor agonist, salvinorin A, supporting a selective effect of GLP-1R stimulation in LiCl-induced dopamine suppression. By delivering Ex-9 to either the lateral or fourth ventricle, we highlight a population of central GLP-1 receptors rostral to the hindbrain that are involved in the LiCl-mediated suppression of NAc dopamine release.

  5. Coordinating a Supply Chain with Risk-Averse Agents under Demand and Consumer Returns Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the optimal order decision in a supply chain when it faces uncertain demand and uncertain consumer returns. We build consumer returns model with decision-makers’ risk preference under mean-variance objective framework and discuss supply chain coordination problem under wholesale-price-only policy and the manufacturer’s buyback policy, respectively. We find that, with wholesale price policy, the supply chain cannot be coordinated whether the supply chain agents are risk-neutral or risk-averse. However, with buyback policy, the supply chain can be coordinated and the profit of the supply chain can be arbitrarily allocated between the manufacturer and the retailer. Through numerical examples, we illustrate the impact of stochastic consumer returns and the supply chain agents’ risk attitude on the optimal order decision.

  6. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Forsythe, W.C.; Anderson, L.E. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}) and the other group to {minus}75 kV/m ({minus}2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: this group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water recovery sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol.

  7. ARE PEOPLE INEQUALITY AVERSE OR JUST RISK AVERSE?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Daruvala, Dinky; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2001-01-01

    Individuals’ preferences for risk and inequality are measured through experimental choices between hypothetical societies and lotteries. The median relative risk aversion, which is often seen to reflect social inequality aversion, is between 2 and 3. We also estimate the individual inequality aversion, reflecting individuals’ willingness to pay for living in a more equal society. Left-wing voters and women are both more risk- and inequality averse than others. The model allows for non-monoton...

  8. Pre-exposure Schedule Effects on Generalization of Taste Aversion and Palatability for Thirsty and Not Thirsty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Angulo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reported four experiments aiming to test the effects of the pre-exposure schedule and water deprivation on the generalization of a conditioned taste aversion in rats, with a particular focus on testing whether or not the concurrent schedule might enhance generalization. In two experiments, non-water-deprived rats received concurrent, intermixed, or blocked exposure to a sweet-acid solution and a salty-acid solution before conditioning of one of these compounds and testing of both flavors. During pre-exposure, the rats consumed a greater amount of the sweet-acid solution than the salty-acid solution (Experiments 1 and 2, consumption of the former increasing during pre-exposure while consumption of the latter decreased (Experiment 1. Furthermore, consumption of the salty-acid solution was lower during concurrent than intermixed or blocked pre-exposure (Experiment 1 and 2 while consumption of the sweet-acid solution was greater during intermixed than concurrent or blocked pre-exposure (Experiment 1. It is discussed whether the pre-exposure schedule might modify stimulus perception beyond the mere enhancement of stimulus differentiation, by, for instance, affecting the palatability of gustatory stimuli. Evidence for enhanced generalization after concurrent pre-exposure was not found for either deprived (Experiments 1, 2, and 3 or non-deprived rats (Experiments 3 and 4, with deprivation leading to a general increase in consumption of both the conditioned and test flavors. This then raised the question of whether or not concurrent pre-exposure to flavors always increases generalization between them. The present study highlights the importance of this issue for various accounts of perceptual learning.

  9. Endogenous time-varying risk aversion and asset returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Stylized facts about statistical properties for short horizon returns in financial markets have been identified in the literature, but a satisfactory understanding for their manifestation is yet to be achieved. In this work, we show that a simple asset pricing model with representative agent is able to generate time series of returns that replicate such stylized facts if the risk aversion coefficient is allowed to change endogenously over time in response to unexpected excess returns under evolutionary forces. The same model, under constant risk aversion, would instead generate returns that are essentially Gaussian. We conclude that an endogenous time-varying risk aversion represents a very parsimonious way to make the model match real data on key statistical properties, and therefore deserves careful consideration from economists and practitioners alike.

  10. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  11. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Megan K; Floerke, Victoria A; Ju, Wendy; Maddox, Keith; Remedios, Jessica D; Jung, Malte F; Urry, Heather L

    2017-01-01

    Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with) people. However, observation of an "uncanny valley"-a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers-has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task ( N agents = 60) to conduct an experimental test ( N participants = 72) of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous) and agent identity (robot, person), and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1) Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2) Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3) Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding-suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics. This work furthers

  12. A potential sex dimorphism in the relationship between bitter taste and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Emma Louise; Duesing, Konsta; Boyd, Lyndell; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Lucock, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Bitterness is an innate aversive taste important in detecting potentially toxic substances, including alcohol. However, bitter compounds exist in many foods and beverages, and can be desirable, such as in beer. TAS2R38 is a well-studied bitter taste receptor with common polymorphisms. Some have reported relationships between TAS2R38 genotypes, bitter taste phenotype and alcohol intake, however results have been mixed. These mixed results may be explained by the varying taste properties of different alcoholic beverages or a sex dimorphism in responses. Bitter taste phenotype was assessed using PROP taste test and TAS2R38-P49A genotype was assessed by RFLP-PCR. Alcohol intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and classified by beverage type (beer, wine, spirits or mixed drinks). The relationships between bitter taste phenotype and carriage of the P allele of the TAS2R38-A49P gene and alcohol intake were assessed adjusted for and stratified by sex, and the interaction between taste and sex was evaluated. The relationship between alcohol intake and bitter taste phenotype varied by beverage type, with significant results for beer, spirits and mixed drinks, but not wine. When stratified, results varied by sex, and were only significant in males. Significant interactions were found for taster phenotype and sex (total alcohol intake and intake of beer and spirits). Results were similar for carriage of the TAS2R38-P49A P allele. Sex-specific interactions between bitter taste phenotype, TAS2R38 genotype and alcohol intake may explain variance in previous studies and may have implications for sex-specific disease risk and public health interventions.

  13. The Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task: An Individual Level Betrayal Aversion Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimone, Jason; Ball, Sheryl; King-Casas, Brooks

    2015-01-01

    Research on betrayal aversion shows that individuals' response to risk depends not only on probabilities and payoffs, but also on whether the risk includes a betrayal of trust. While previous studies focus on measuring aggregate levels of betrayal aversion, the connection between an individual's own betrayal aversion and other individually varying factors, including risk preferences, are currently unexplored. This paper develops a new task to elicit an individual's level of betrayal aversion that can then be compared to individual characteristics. We demonstrate the feasibility of our new task and show that our aggregate individual results are consistent with previous studies. We then use this classification to ask whether betrayal aversion is correlated with risk aversion. While we find risk aversion and betrayal aversion have no significant relationship, we do observe that risk aversion is correlated with non-social risk preferences, but not the social, betrayal related, risk component of the new task.

  14. Inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly determine the expenditure of effort in project teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojie Han

    Full Text Available The literature on team cooperation has neglected the effects of relative kindness intention on cooperation, which we measure by comparing the kindness intentions of an agent to her group members to the kindness shown by other members to this same agent. We argue that the agent's emotional reaction to material payoff inequity is not constant, but rather affected by her relative kindness intention. Then, we apply the model to team projects with multiple partners and investigate how inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly influence team cooperation. We first consider the case of homogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are the same, and then consider the case of heterogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are not the same. Our results show that inequity-aversion has no effect on effort expenditure in the former case, but does affect it in the latter case. The consideration of relative kindness intention may impact the agents' optimal cooperative effort expenditure when their technical capacities are different. In addition, it is beneficial for team cooperation, and might not only reduce the negative impact but also enhance the positive impact of inequity-aversion on the agents' effort expenditures.

  15. Case Report: Diagnosis of hypogeusia after oral exposure to commercial cleaning agent and considerations for clinical taste testing [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jetté

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Few reports in the literature document acute taste disturbance following exposure to toxic chemicals. We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with primary complaint of tongue numbness and persistent problems with taste 1.5 years following oral exposure to a commercial cleaning agent. A test of olfaction revealed normosmia for age and gender. Lingual tactile two-point discrimination testing showed reduced somatosensation. Taste threshold testing using a 3-drop method demonstrated severe hypogeusia, though the patient was able to discriminate tastants at lower concentrations with a whole mouth swish and spit test. We conclude that clinical evaluation of dysgeusia can be performed using a number of previously published testing methods, however, determining causative factors may be confounded by duration since exposure, lack of knowledge of baseline taste function, and medications. Although many testing options exist, basic taste testing can be performed with minimal expertise or specialized equipment, depending on the patient history and goals of evaluation.

  16. Sarco/Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPases (SERCA contribute to GPCR-mediated taste perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Iguchi

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is important for providing animals with valuable information about the qualities of food, such as nutritional or harmful nature. Mammals, including humans, can recognize at least five primary taste qualities: sweet, umami (savory, bitter, sour, and salty. Recent studies have identified molecules and mechanisms underlying the initial steps of tastant-triggered molecular events in taste bud cells, particularly the requirement of increased cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](c for normal taste signal transduction and transmission. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms controlling the removal of elevated [Ca(2+](c from the cytosol of taste receptor cells (TRCs and how the disruption of these mechanisms affects taste perception. To investigate the molecular mechanism of Ca(2+ clearance in TRCs, we sought the molecules involved in [Ca(2+](c regulation using a single-taste-cell transcriptome approach. We found that Serca3, a member of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (SERCA family that sequesters cytosolic Ca(2+ into endoplasmic reticulum, is exclusively expressed in sweet/umami/bitter TRCs, which rely on intracellular Ca(2+ release for signaling. Serca3-knockout (KO mice displayed significantly increased aversive behavioral responses and greater gustatory nerve responses to bitter taste substances but not to sweet or umami taste substances. Further studies showed that Serca2 was mainly expressed in the T1R3-expressing sweet and umami TRCs, suggesting that the loss of function of Serca3 was possibly compensated by Serca2 in these TRCs in the mutant mice. Our data demonstrate that the SERCA family members play an important role in the Ca(2+ clearance in TRCs and that mutation of these proteins may alter bitter and perhaps sweet and umami taste perception.

  17. Cue-elicited food seeking is eliminated with aversive outcomes following outcome devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David

    2016-01-01

    In outcome-selective Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), stimuli that are predictive of specific outcomes prime instrumental responses that are associated with these outcomes. Previous human studies yielded mixed evidence in respect to whether the PIT effect is affected by a posttraining devaluation of an outcome, with the PIT effect being preserved after a devaluation of a primary reinforcer (food, drugs) but not following the devaluation of a secondary reinforcer (money). The present research examined whether outcome-selective transfer is eliminated when the devaluation of a primary (liquid) reinforcer is strong and aversive. Experiment 1 confirmed these expectations following a devaluation with bad tasting Tween 20. However, outcome-selective transfer was still observed when the earned (devalued) outcome was not consumed immediately after each test (Experiment 2). These results suggest that the capacity of a Pavlovian cue to motivate a specific response is affected by the incentive value of the shared outcome only when the devaluation yields an aversive outcome that is consumed immediately.

  18. Relationship between the grades of a learned aversive-feeding response and the dopamine contents in Lymnaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Aonuma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea learns conditioned taste aversion (CTA and remembers not to respond to food substances that initially cause a feeding response. The possible relationship between how well snails learn to follow taste-aversion training and brain dopamine contents is not known. We examined this relationship and found the following: first, snails in the act of eating just before the commencement of CTA training were poor learners and had the highest dopamine contents in the brain; second, snails which had an ad libitum access to food, but were not eating just before training, were average learners and had lower dopamine contents; third, snails food-deprived for one day before training were the best learners and had significantly lower contents of dopamine compared to the previous two cohorts. There was a negative correlation between the CTA grades and the brain dopamine contents in these three cohorts. Fourth, snails food-deprived for five days before training were poor learners and had higher dopamine contents. Thus, severe hunger increased the dopamine content in the brain. Because dopamine functions as a reward transmitter, CTA in the severely deprived snails (i.e. the fourth cohort was thought to be mitigated by a high dopamine content.

  19. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  20. Understanding the Uncanny: Both Atypical Features and Category Ambiguity Provoke Aversion toward Humanlike Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Strait

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Robots intended for social contexts are often designed with explicit humanlike attributes in order to facilitate their reception by (and communication with people. However, observation of an “uncanny valley”—a phenomenon in which highly humanlike entities provoke aversion in human observers—has lead some to caution against this practice. Both of these contrasting perspectives on the anthropomorphic design of social robots find some support in empirical investigations to date. Yet, owing to outstanding empirical limitations and theoretical disputes, the uncanny valley and its implications for human-robot interaction remains poorly understood. We thus explored the relationship between human similarity and people's aversion toward humanlike robots via manipulation of the agents' appearances. To that end, we employed a picture-viewing task (Nagents = 60 to conduct an experimental test (Nparticipants = 72 of the uncanny valley's existence and the visual features that cause certain humanlike robots to be unnerving. Across the levels of human similarity, we further manipulated agent appearance on two dimensions, typicality (prototypic, atypical, and ambiguous and agent identity (robot, person, and measured participants' aversion using both subjective and behavioral indices. Our findings were as follows: (1 Further substantiating its existence, the data show a clear and consistent uncanny valley in the current design space of humanoid robots. (2 Both category ambiguity, and more so, atypicalities provoke aversive responding, thus shedding light on the visual factors that drive people's discomfort. (3 Use of the Negative Attitudes toward Robots Scale did not reveal any significant relationships between people's pre-existing attitudes toward humanlike robots and their aversive responding—suggesting positive exposure and/or additional experience with robots is unlikely to affect the occurrence of an uncanny valley effect in humanoid robotics

  1. Role for the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus in Signaling the Aversive Properties of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elizabeth J; McDougle, Molly J; Siegel, Griffin S; Jhou, Thomas C; Chandler, L Judson

    2016-08-01

    While the rewarding effects of alcohol contribute significantly to its addictive potential, it is becoming increasingly appreciated that alcohol's aversive properties also play an important role in the propensity to drink. Despite this, the neurobiological mechanism for alcohol's aversive actions is not well understood. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) was recently characterized for its involvement in aversive signaling and has been shown to encode the aversive properties of cocaine, yet its involvement in alcohol's aversive actions have not been elucidated. Adult male and female Long-Evans rats underwent conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedures where exposure to a novel saccharin solution was paired with intraperitoneal administration of saline, lithium chloride (LiCl), or ethanol (EtOH). Control rats underwent the same paradigm except that drug and saccharin exposure were explicitly unpaired. Saccharin consumption was measured on test day in the absence of drug administration, and rats were sacrificed 90 to 105 minutes following access to saccharin. Brains were subsequently harvested and processed for cFos immunohistochemistry. The number of cFos-labeled neurons was counted in the RMTg and the lateral habenula (LHb)-a region that sends prominent glutamatergic input to the RMTg. In rats that received paired drug and saccharin exposure, EtOH and LiCl induced significant CTA compared to saline to a similar degree in males and females. Both EtOH- and LiCl-induced CTA significantly enhanced cFos expression in the RMTg and LHb but not the hippocampus. Similar to behavioral measures, no significant effect of sex on CTA-induced cFos expression was observed. cFos expression in both the RMTg and LHb was significantly correlated with CTA magnitude with greater cFos being associated with more pronounced CTA. In addition, cFos expression in the RMTg was positively correlated with LHb cFos. These data suggest that the RMTg and LHb are involved in the expression of

  2. Loss of ethanol conditioned taste aversion and motor stimulation in knockin mice with ethanol-insensitive α2-containing GABA(A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y A; Borghese, C M; McCracken, M L; Benavidez, J M; Geil, C R; Osterndorff-Kahanek, E; Werner, D F; Iyer, S; Swihart, A; Harrison, N L; Homanics, G E; Harris, R A

    2011-01-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including α2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705-714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95-104, 2008; J Psychiatr Res 42:184-191, 2008). The goal of our study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action. We designed an α2 subunit with serine 270 to histidine and leucine 277 to alanine mutations that was insensitive to potentiation by ethanol yet retained normal GABA sensitivity in a recombinant expression system. Knockin mice containing this mutant subunit were tested in a range of ethanol behavioral tests. These mutant mice did not develop the typical conditioned taste aversion in response to ethanol and showed complete loss of the motor stimulant effects of ethanol. Conversely, they also demonstrated changes in ethanol intake and preference in multiple tests. The knockin mice showed increased ethanol-induced hypnosis but no difference in anxiolytic effects or recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing the α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol that may be relevant to the genetic linkage of this subunit with human alcoholism.

  3. Increase of glucocorticoids is not required for the acquisition, but hinders the extinction, of lithium-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Young-Sang; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2014-05-05

    Lithium chloride at doses sufficient to induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA) causes c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus and increases the plasma level of corticosterone with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study was conducted to define the role of glucocorticoid in the acquisition and extinction of lithium-induced CTA. In experiment 1, Sprague-Dawley rats received dexamethasone (2mg/kg) or RU486 (20mg/kg) immediately after 5% sucrose access, and then an intraperitoneal injection of isotonic lithium chloride (12ml/kg) was followed with 30min interval. Rats had either 1 or 7 days of recovery period before the daily sucrose drinking tests. In experiment 2, rats were conditioned with the sucrose-lithium pairing, and then received dexamethasone or vehicle at 30min before each drinking test. In experiment 3, adrenalectomized (ADX or ADX+B) rats were subjected to sucrose drinking tests after the sucrose-lithium pairing. Dexamethasone, but not RU486, pretreatment blunted the formation of lithium-induced CTA memory. Dexamethasone prior to each drinking test suppressed sucrose consumption and prolonged the extinction of lithium-induced CTA. Sucrose consumption was significantly suppressed not only in ADX+B rats but also in ADX rats during the first drinking session; however, a significant decrease was found only in ADX rats on the fourth drinking session. These results reveal that glucocorticoid is not a necessary component in the acquisition, but an important player in the extinction, of lithium-induced CTA, and suggest that a pulse increase of glucocorticoid may hinder the extinction memory formation of lithium-induced CTA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Loss of Ethanol Conditioned Taste Aversion and Motor Stimulation in Knockin Mice with Ethanol-Insensitive α2-Containing GABAA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, C. M.; McCracken, M. L.; Benavidez, J. M.; Geil, C. R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, E.; Werner, D. F.; Iyer, S.; Swihart, A.; Harrison, N. L.; Homanics, G. E.; Harris, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABAA-R subunit genes, including α2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705–714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95–104, 2008; J Psychiatr Res 42:184–191, 2008). The goal of our study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action. We designed an α2 subunit with serine 270 to histidine and leucine 277 to alanine mutations that was insensitive to potentiation by ethanol yet retained normal GABA sensitivity in a recombinant expression system. Knockin mice containing this mutant subunit were tested in a range of ethanol behavioral tests. These mutant mice did not develop the typical conditioned taste aversion in response to ethanol and showed complete loss of the motor stimulant effects of ethanol. Conversely, they also demonstrated changes in ethanol intake and preference in multiple tests. The knockin mice showed increased ethanol-induced hypnosis but no difference in anxiolytic effects or recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing the α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol that may be relevant to the genetic linkage of this subunit with human alcoholism. PMID:20876231

  5. Ethanol, saccharin, and quinine: early ontogeny of taste responsiveness and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2008-02-01

    Rat pups demonstrate high levels of immediate acceptance of ethanol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Given that the taste of ethanol is most likely perceived by infant rats as a combination of sweet and bitter, high intake of ethanol early in ontogeny may be associated with age-related enhanced responsiveness to the sweet component of ethanol taste, as well as with ontogenetic decreases in sensitivity to its bitter component. Therefore, the present study compared responsiveness to ethanol and solutions with bitter (quinine) and sweet (saccharin) taste in terms of intake and palatability across the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Characteristic patterns of responsiveness to 10% (v/v) ethanol, 0.1% saccharin, 0.2% quinine, and water in terms of taste reactivity and fluid intake were assessed in rat pups tested on postnatal day (P) 4, 9, or 12 using a new technique of on-line monitoring of fluid flow through a two-channel intraoral cannula. Taste reactivity included analysis of ingestive and aversive responses following six intraoral infusions of the test fluids. This taste reactivity probe was followed by the intake test, in which animals were allowed to voluntarily ingest fluids from an intraoral cannula. Pups of all ages showed more appetitive responses to saccharin and ethanol than to water or quinine. No age-related differences were apparent in taste responsiveness to saccharin and ethanol. However, the age-related pattern of ethanol intake drastically differed from that of saccharin. Intake of saccharin increased from P4 to P9 and decreased substantially by P12, whereas intake of ethanol gradually increased from P4 to P12. Intake of ethanol was significantly lower than intake of saccharin on P9, whereas P12 pups took in more ethanol than saccharin. The findings of the present study indicate ontogenetic dissociations between taste reactivity to ethanol and saccharin and intake of these solutions, and suggest that high acceptance of ethanol early in

  6. Tongue and Taste Organ Biology and Function: Homeostasis Maintained by Hedgehog Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Charlotte M; Kumari, Archana

    2017-02-10

    The tongue is an elaborate complex of heterogeneous tissues with taste organs of diverse embryonic origins. The lingual taste organs are papillae, composed of an epithelium that includes specialized taste buds, the basal lamina, and a lamina propria core with matrix molecules, fibroblasts, nerves, and vessels. Because taste organs are dynamic in cell biology and sensory function, homeostasis requires tight regulation in specific compartments or niches. Recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has emerged as an essential regulator that maintains lingual taste papillae, taste bud and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurophysiological function. Activating or suppressing Hh signaling, with genetic models or pharmacological agents used in cancer treatments, disrupts taste papilla and taste bud integrity and can eliminate responses from taste nerves to chemical stimuli but not to touch or temperature. Understanding Hh regulation of taste organ homeostasis contributes knowledge about the basic biology underlying taste disruptions in patients treated with Hh pathway inhibitors.

  7. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Cheled-Shoval

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors—ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems and in-vivo (behavioral detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1, caffeine (ggTas2r2, erythromycin and (+-catechin (ggTas2r7, and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.

  8. From Cell to Beak: In-Vitro and In-Vivo Characterization of Chicken Bitter Taste Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheled-Shoval, Shira; Behrens, Maik; Korb, Ayelet; Di Pizio, Antonella; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Uni, Zehava; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-05-17

    Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors-ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems) and in-vivo (behavioral) detection thresholds. ggTas2r-selective ligands, nicotine (ggTas2r1), caffeine (ggTas2r2), erythromycin and (+)-catechin (ggTas2r7), and the Tas2r-promiscuous ligand quinine (all three ggTas2rs) were studied. Ligands of the same receptor had different in-vivo:in-vitro ratios, and the ggTas2r-promiscuous ligand did not exhibit lower in-vivo:in-vitro ratios than ggTas2r-selective ligands. In-vivo thresholds were similar or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the in-vitro ones.

  9. Nicotine aversion: Neurobiological mechanisms and relevance to tobacco dependence vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates brain reward circuitries, most prominently the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and this action is considered critical in establishing and maintaining the tobacco smoking habit. Compounds that attenuate nicotine reward are considered promising therapeutic candidates for tobacco dependence, but many of these agents have other actions that limit their potential utility. Nicotine is also highly noxious, particularly at higher doses, and aversive reactions to nicotine after initial exposure can decrease the likelihood of developing a tobacco habit in many first time smokers. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of nicotine aversion. The purpose of this review is to present recent new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate avoidance of nicotine. First, the role of the mesocorticolimbic system, so often associated with nicotine reward, in regulating nicotine aversion is highlighted. Second, genetic variation that modifies noxious responses to nicotine and thereby influences vulnerability to tobacco dependence, in particular variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene cluster, will be discussed. Third, the role of the habenular complex in nicotine aversion, primarily medial habenular projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) but also lateral habenular projections to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are reviewed. Forth, brain circuits that are enriched in nAChRs, but whose role in nicotine avoidance has not yet been assessed, will be proposed. Finally, the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic agents for tobacco dependence that act not by blocking nicotine reward but by enhancing nicotine avoidance will be considered. PMID:24055497

  10. Suboptimal nutrient balancing despite dietary choice in glucose-averse German cockroaches, Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2015-10-01

    Insects have evolved fine-tuned gustatory and post-ingestive physiological mechanisms that enable them to self-select an optimal composition of macronutrients. Their ability to forage optimally among multiple food sources and maximize fitness parameters depends on their ability not only to taste and perceive the nutritional value of potential foods but also to avoid deleterious components; the strength of such avoidance should reflect the severity of the perceived hazard. In German cockroaches (Blattella germanica), glucose aversion has evolved in some populations in response to anthropogenic selection with glucose-containing insecticidal baits. In four feeding treatments, we gave newly eclosed glucose-averse female cockroaches free choice to feed from two artificial, nutritionally complementary foods varying in protein and carbohydrate composition, with glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source in either food. After 6days of feeding, we measured diet consumption and the length of basal oocytes as an estimate of sexual maturation. The females did not compromise on their aversion to glucose in order to balance their protein and carbohydrate intake, and experienced lower sexual maturation rates as a consequence. Nutrient specific hunger via feedback mechanisms, and adjustments to gustatory sensitivity thus do not override the deterrence of glucose, likely due to strong selection against ingesting even small amounts of toxin associated with glucose in baits. In the absence of baits, glucose aversion would be expected to incur a fitness cost compared to wild-type individuals due to lower overall food availability but also to larger difficulty in attaining a nutritionally balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Appetite perversions and taste changes triggered or abolished by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewin, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    Special questioning of 819 oncology patients whose treatment included radiotherapy has revealed 147 instances where local tumour radiation - apparently regardless of tumour type, site, or volume radiated - has either triggered (97 cases) or abolished (50 cases) an isolated appetite perversion. Both effects typically occur when a dose of about 500-1500 cGy has been reached and at a stage when little, if any, tumour regression is evident. No correlation can be seen with anorexia or with the usually recognised side effects of radiotherapy. Spontaneous return to normal is quite common in cases triggered by tumour treatment, but rare in cases starting before diagnosis. The latter may cease when the tumour is treated. The explanation for these highly selective and rapidly reversible aversions or cravings is totally obscure, but questioning large numbers of patients has provided certain clues, including frequent descriptions of an underlying change in taste or odour and also close links with two other equally unexplained phenomena - (1) alcohol intolerance in tumour patients and (2) the cravings and aversions of pregnancy. (author)

  12. Habitual Tastes and Embedded Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    The interest of this paper is to position taste within the framework of time. This might seem peculiar given that taste, in its physical sense, is referred to as an ephemeral experience taking place in the mouth. Taste, however, is more than that. It is the transient experience that infiltrates...... may be bridged by story-telling or other ways of handing over historically embedded practices, but this leaves a more fundamental question unanswered. Namely, that given that all remembrance has individual recollection as the point of departure, then how does individual recollection of tastes...

  13. Discrimination of taste qualities among mouse fungiform taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Miyauchi, Aya; Yasuo, Toshiaki; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Murata, Yoshihiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Ueno, Hiroshi; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2009-09-15

    Multiple lines of evidence from molecular studies indicate that individual taste qualities are encoded by distinct taste receptor cells. In contrast, many physiological studies have found that a significant proportion of taste cells respond to multiple taste qualities. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy and to identify taste cells that underlie each taste quality, we investigated taste responses of individual mouse fungiform taste cells that express gustducin or GAD67, markers for specific types of taste cells. Type II taste cells respond to sweet, bitter or umami tastants, express taste receptors, gustducin and other transduction components. Type III cells possess putative sour taste receptors, and have well elaborated conventional synapses. Consistent with these findings we found that gustducin-expressing Type II taste cells responded best to sweet (25/49), bitter (20/49) or umami (4/49) stimuli, while all GAD67 (Type III) taste cells examined (44/44) responded to sour stimuli and a portion of them showed multiple taste sensitivities, suggesting discrimination of each taste quality among taste bud cells. These results were largely consistent with those previously reported with circumvallate papillae taste cells. Bitter-best taste cells responded to multiple bitter compounds such as quinine, denatonium and cyclohexamide. Three sour compounds, HCl, acetic acid and citric acid, elicited responses in sour-best taste cells. These results suggest that taste cells may be capable of recognizing multiple taste compounds that elicit similar taste sensation. We did not find any NaCl-best cells among the gustducin and GAD67 taste cells, raising the possibility that salt sensitive taste cells comprise a different population.

  14. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  15. A Representation Theorem for Guilt Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Martin Kaae; Kozlovskaya, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Guilt aversion has been shown to play an important role in economic decision-making. In this paper, we take an axiomatic approach to guilt by deducing a utility representation from a list of easily interpretable assumptions on an agent's preferences. It turns out that our logarithmic representation can mitigate the problem of multiplicity of equilibria to which psychological games are prone. We apply the model in three well-known games and show that its predictions are consistent with experim...

  16. Enhanced Risk Aversion, But Not Loss Aversion, in Unmedicated Pathological Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Aylward, Jessica; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2017-06-15

    Anxiety disorders are associated with disruptions in both emotional processing and decision making. As a result, anxious individuals often make decisions that favor harm avoidance. However, this bias could be driven by enhanced aversion to uncertainty about the decision outcome (e.g., risk) or aversion to negative outcomes (e.g., loss). Distinguishing between these possibilities may provide a better cognitive understanding of anxiety disorders and hence inform treatment strategies. To address this question, unmedicated individuals with pathological anxiety (n = 25) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 23) completed a gambling task featuring a decision between a gamble and a safe (certain) option on every trial. Choices on one type of gamble-involving weighing a potential win against a potential loss (mixed)-could be driven by both loss and risk aversion, whereas choices on the other type-featuring only wins (gain only)-were exclusively driven by risk aversion. By fitting a computational prospect theory model to participants' choices, we were able to reliably estimate risk and loss aversion and their respective contribution to gambling decisions. Relative to healthy control subjects, pathologically anxious participants exhibited enhanced risk aversion but equivalent levels of loss aversion. Individuals with pathological anxiety demonstrate clear avoidance biases in their decision making. These findings suggest that this may be driven by a reduced propensity to take risks rather than a stronger aversion to losses. This important clarification suggests that psychological interventions for anxiety should focus on reducing risk sensitivity rather than reducing sensitivity to negative outcomes per se. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Loss Aversion and Individual Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that loss aversion affects the valuation of non-market goods. Using stated choice data, this paper presents an empirical investigation of how individual-level loss aversion varies with observable personal characteristics and with the choice context. We investigate loss...... aversion with respect to travel time and money, and find significant loss aversion in both dimensions. The degree of loss aversion in the time dimension is larger than in the money dimension, and depends on age and education. Subjects tend to be more loss averse when the reference is well established....

  18. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  19. Requirement of NMDA receptor reactivation for consolidation and storage of nondeclarative taste memory revealed by inducible NR1 knockout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenzhong; Lindl, Kathryn A; Mei, Bing; Zhang, Shuqing; Tsien, Joe Z

    2005-08-01

    We employed an inducible, reversible and region-specific gene knockout technique to investigate the requirements for cortical NMDA receptors (NMDAR) during the various stages (acquisition, consolidation and storage, and retrieval) of nondeclarative, hippocampal-independent memory in mice using a conditioned taste aversion memory paradigm. Here we show that temporary knockout of the cortical NMDAR during either the learning or postlearning consolidation stage, but not during the retrieval stage, causes severe performance deficits in the 1-month taste memory retention tests. More importantly, we found that the consolidation and storage of the long-term nondeclarative taste memories requires cortical NMDAR reactivation. Thus, the dynamic engagement of the NMDAR during the postlearning stage leads us to postulate that NMDAR reactivation-mediated synaptic re-entry reinforcement is crucial for overcoming the destabilizing effects intrinsic to synaptic protein turnover and for achieving consolidation and storage of nondeclarative memories in the brain.

  20. Breadth of Tuning and Taste Coding in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomchik, Seth M.; Berg, Stephanie; Kim, Joung Woul; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    A longstanding question in taste research concerns taste coding and, in particular, how broadly are individual taste bud cells tuned to taste qualities (sweet, bitter, umami, salty, and sour). Taste bud cells express G-protein-coupled receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami tastes but not in combination. However, responses to multiple taste qualities have been recorded in individual taste cells. We and others have shown previously there are two classes of taste bud cells directly involved in gu...

  1. Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ryota; Sasaki, Yuko; Morita, Hiromi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Goto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Akira; Isono, Kunio

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic Drosophila expressing human T2R4 and T2R38 bitter-taste receptors or PKD2L1 sour-taste receptor in the fly gustatory receptor neurons and other tissues were prepared using conventional Gal4/UAS binary system. Molecular analysis showed that the transgene mRNAs are expressed according to the tissue specificity of the Gal4 drivers. Transformants expressing the transgene taste receptors in the fly taste neurons were then studied by a behavioral assay to analyze whether transgene chemoreceptors are functional and coupled to the cell response. Since wild-type flies show strong aversion against the T2R ligands as in mammals, the authors analyzed the transformants where the transgenes are expressed in the fly sugar receptor neurons so that they promote feeding ligand-dependently if they are functional and activate the neurons. Although the feeding preference varied considerably among different strains and individuals, statistical analysis using large numbers of transformants indicated that transformants expressing T2R4 showed a small but significant increase in the preference for denatonium and quinine, the T2R4 ligands, as compared to the control flies, whereas transformants expressing T2R38 did not. Similarly, transformants expressing T2R38 and PKD2L1 also showed a similar preference increase for T2R38-specific ligand phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and a sour-taste ligand, citric acid, respectively. Taken together, the transformants expressing mammalian taste receptors showed a small but significant increase in the feeding preference that is taste receptor and also ligand dependent. Although future improvements are required to attain performance comparable to the endogenous robust response, Drosophila taste neurons may serve as a potential in vivo heterologous expression system for analyzing chemoreceptor function.

  2. Processing umami and other tastes in mammalian taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potential to shape the final signal output that taste buds transmit to the brain. The following paragraphs summarize current thinking about how taste signals generally, and umami taste in particular, are processed in taste buds.

  3. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJpma, I; Renken, R J; Ter Horst, G J; Reyners, A K L

    2015-02-01

    Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic taste in chemotherapy treated cancer patients. Literature search for metallic taste and chemotherapy was performed in PubMed up to September 2014, resulting in 184 articles of which 13 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria: English publications addressing metallic taste in cancer patients treated with FDA-approved chemotherapy. An additional search in Google Scholar, in related articles of both search engines, and subsequent in the reference lists, resulted in 13 additional articles included in this review. Cancer patient forums were visited to explore management strategies. Prevalence of metallic taste ranged from 9.7% to 78% among patients with various cancers, chemotherapy treatments, and treatment phases. No studies have been performed to investigate the influence of metallic taste on dietary intake, body weight, and quality of life. Several management strategies can be recommended for cancer patients: using plastic utensils, eating cold or frozen foods, adding strong herbs, spices, sweetener or acid to foods, eating sweet and sour foods, using 'miracle fruit' supplements, and rinsing with chelating agents. Although metallic taste is a frequent side effect of chemotherapy and a much discussed topic on cancer patient forums, literature regarding metallic taste among chemotherapy treated cancer patients is scarce. More awareness for this side effect can improve the support for these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Averting the foul taste of pediatric medicines improves adherence and can be lifesaving - Pheburane® (sodium phenylbutyrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael J; Amitai, Yona

    2016-01-01

    Children's aversions to poor and mostly bitter tastes and their inability to swallow tablets and capsules are major challenges in pediatric medicine. Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) is a lifesaving waste nitrogen, alternative to urea nitrogen, for individuals suffering from urea cycle disorders. A major issue in the use of NaPB is its highly foul taste, which often leads to children being unable to consume it, resulting in ineffective treatment, or alternatively, necessitating the application of the drug through a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy. This study reviews the published data on a novel formulation of NaPB, Pheburane ® granules, which begin to release their NaPB after a lag time of ~10 seconds followed by a slow release over several minutes. The taste-masked granule formulation of NaPB dramatically improves the acceptability of the drug by children and appears in initial studies to be both safe and effective. While more studies are needed to substantiate and enrich these initial trials, the available data provide a telling example where masking the drug taste of medicine for children can sometimes be the difference between life and death.

  5. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boatman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has suggested that some students may be averse to taking out loans to finance their college education, there is little empirical evidence showing the extent to which loan aversion exists or how it affects different populations of students. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using survey data collected on more than 6,000 individuals, we examine the frequency of loan aversion in three distinct populations. Depending on the measure, between 20 and 40% of high school seniors exhibit loan aversion with lower rates among community college students and adults not in college. Women are less likely to express loan-averse attitudes than men, and Hispanic respondents are more likely to be loan averse than White respondents.

  6. What is taste and how do we teach taste?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    students to learn about taste. This section presents a systematic division of taste into its four main dimensions: The dimension of good taste, the dimension of healthy taste, the dimension of perceived taste, and the dimension of moral taste. The second section comprises taste as an instrument of teaching....... Here, the intention is to use ‘taste’ as a means to teach home economics and food education. This section answers the question of how to teach in a way that enables the students to develop knowledge and skills in relation to the four dimensions of taste. In this section four knowledge types...... and argument forms are presented, each related to one of the four taste dimensions, because they provide a basis for structuring an appropriate curriculum of taste. The final aim is to enable students to make well-reasoned food decisions with ‘taste’ as the compass of judgment....

  7. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-02-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.

  8. Perception of sweet taste is important for voluntary alcohol consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y A; Walker, D; Martinez, M; Levine, M; Damak, S; Margolskee, R F

    2008-02-01

    To directly evaluate the association between taste perception and alcohol intake, we used three different mutant mice, each lacking a gene expressed in taste buds and critical to taste transduction: alpha-gustducin (Gnat3), Tas1r3 or Trpm5. Null mutant mice lacking any of these three genes showed lower preference score for alcohol and consumed less alcohol in a two-bottle choice test, as compared with wild-type littermates. These null mice also showed lower preference score for saccharin solutions than did wild-type littermates. In contrast, avoidance of quinine solutions was less in Gnat3 or Trpm5 knockout mice than in wild-type mice, whereas Tas1r3 null mice were not different from wild type in their response to quinine solutions. There were no differences in null vs. wild-type mice in their consumption of sodium chloride solutions. To determine the cause for reduction of ethanol intake, we studied other ethanol-induced behaviors known to be related to alcohol consumption. There were no differences between null and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, severity of acute ethanol withdrawal or conditioned place preference for ethanol. Weaker conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to alcohol in null mice may have been caused by weaker rewarding value of the conditioned stimulus (saccharin). When saccharin was replaced by sodium chloride, no differences in CTA to alcohol between knockout and wild-type mice were seen. Thus, deletion of any one of three different genes involved in detection of sweet taste leads to a substantial reduction of alcohol intake without any changes in pharmacological actions of ethanol.

  9. Expression of sulfonylurea receptors in rat taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dian-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhou, Li-Hong; Feng, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Juan

    2011-07-01

    To test the possibility that a fast-onset promoting agent repaglinide may initiate prandial insulin secretion through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release, we explored the expression and distribution character of sulfonylurea receptors in rat taste buds. Twenty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks old were killed after general anesthesia. The circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae and pancreas tissues were separately collected. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression and distribution of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) or sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) in rat taste buds. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression of SUR1 or SUR2 mRNA. The pancreatic tissues from the same rat were used as positive control. This is the first study to report that SUR1 is uniquely expressed in the taste buds of fungiform papillae of each rat tongue, while the expression of SUR1 or SUR2 was not detected in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae. SUR1 is selectively expressed in rat taste buds, and its distribution pattern may be functionally relevant, suggesting that the rapid insulin secretion-promoting effect of repaglinide may be exerted through the cephalic-phase secretion pathway mediated by taste buds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Averting the foul taste of pediatric medicines improves adherence and can be lifesaving – Pheburane® (sodium phenylbutyrate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael J; Amitai, Yona

    2016-01-01

    Background Children’s aversions to poor and mostly bitter tastes and their inability to swallow tablets and capsules are major challenges in pediatric medicine. Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) is a lifesaving waste nitrogen, alternative to urea nitrogen, for individuals suffering from urea cycle disorders. A major issue in the use of NaPB is its highly foul taste, which often leads to children being unable to consume it, resulting in ineffective treatment, or alternatively, necessitating the application of the drug through a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy. Methods This study reviews the published data on a novel formulation of NaPB, Pheburane® granules, which begin to release their NaPB after a lag time of ~10 seconds followed by a slow release over several minutes. Results The taste-masked granule formulation of NaPB dramatically improves the acceptability of the drug by children and appears in initial studies to be both safe and effective. Conclusion While more studies are needed to substantiate and enrich these initial trials, the available data provide a telling example where masking the drug taste of medicine for children can sometimes be the difference between life and death. PMID:27799750

  11. Off-line concomitant release of dopamine and glutamate involvement in taste memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2010-07-01

    It has been postulated that memory consolidation process requires post-learning molecular changes that will support long-term experiences. In the present study, we assessed with in vivo microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis whether such changes involve the release of neurotransmitters at post-acquisition stages. Using conditioned taste aversion paradigm we observed spontaneous off-line (i.e. in absence of stimulation) dopamine and glutamate reactivation within the insular cortex about 45 min after the stimuli association. These increments did not appear in control groups that were unable to acquire the task, and it seems to be dependent on amygdala activity since its reversible inactivation by tetrodotoxin impaired cortical off-line release of both neurotransmitters and memory consolidation. In addition, blockade of dopaminergic D1 and/or NMDA receptors before the off-line activity impaired long- but not short-term memory. These results suggest that off-line extracellular increments of glutamate and dopamine have a significant functional role in consolidation of taste memory.

  12. Dietary customs and food availability shape the preferences for basic tastes: A cross-cultural study among Polish, Tsimane' and Hadza societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Pellegrino, Robert; Butovskaya, Marina; Marczak, Michalina; Niemczyk, Agnieszka; Huanca, Tomas; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced. Hence, our study focused on basic taste preferences in three populations, covering a broad difference in diet due to environmental and cultural conditions, market availability, dietary habits and food acquirement: 1) a modern society (Poles, n = 200), 2) forager-horticulturalists from Amazon/Bolivia (Tsimane', n = 138), and 3) hunter-gatherers from Tanzania (Hadza, n = 85). The preferences for basic tastes were measured with sprays containing supra-threshold levels of sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami taste solutions. We observed several interesting differences between participating societies. We found that Tsimane' and Polish participants liked the sweet taste more than other tastes, while Hadza participants liked salty and sour tastes more than the remaining tastes. Further, Polish people found bitter taste particularly aversive, which was not observed in the traditional societies. Interestingly, no cross-cultural differences were observed for relative liking of umami taste - it was rated closely to neutral by members of all participating societies. Additionally, Hadza showed a pattern to like basic tastes that are more common to their current diet than societies with access to different food sources. These findings demonstrate the impact of diet and market availability on preference for basic tastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss Aversion in the Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, William G.; Oxoby, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a laboratory experiment testing for the existence of loss aversion in a standard risk aversion protocol (Holt and Laury, 2002). In our experiment, participants earn and retain money for a week before using it in an incentivized risk preference elicitation task. We find loss aversion, distinct from risk aversion, has a significant effect on behavior resulting in participants requiring higher compensation to bear risk.

  14. Variant BDNF Val66Met polymorphism affects extinction of conditioned aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Yue; Pattwell, Siobhan; Jing, Deqiang; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Yun; Bath, Kevin G; Lee, Francis S; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2009-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in activity-dependent plasticity processes, such as long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. The recently reported human BDNF Val66Met (BDNF(Met)) polymorphism has been shown to lead to altered hippocampal volume and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory and is associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. There are few studies, however, that investigate the effect of the BDNF(Met) polymorphism on hippocampal-independent memory processes. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task was used for studying the mechanisms of long-term, hippocampal-independent, nondeclarative memory in the mammalian brain. Using the CTA paradigm, we found a novel impairment in extinction learning, but not acquisition or retention, of aversive memories resulting from the variant BDNF(Met). BDNF(Met) mice were slower to extinguish an aversive CTA memory compared with wild-type counterparts. Moreover, the BDNF(Met) was associated with smaller volume and decreased neuronal dendritic complexity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which plays a significant role in extinction of CTA. Finally, this delay in extinction learning could be rescued pharmacologically with a cognitive enhancer, d-cycloserine (DCS). To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the BDNF(Met) polymorphism contributes to abnormalities in memory extinction. This abnormality in extinction learning may be explained by alterations in neuronal morphology, as well as decreased neural activity in the vmPFC. Importantly, DCS was effective in rescuing this delay in extinction, suggesting that when coupled with behavior therapy, DCS may be an effective treatment option for anxiety disorders in humans with this genetic variant BDNF.

  15. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  16. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Finger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells.

  17. Averting the foul taste of pediatric medicines improves adherence and can be lifesaving – Pheburane® (sodium phenylbutyrate)

    OpenAIRE

    Koren G; Rieder MJ; Amitai Y

    2016-01-01

    Gideon Koren,1 Michael J Rieder,1 Yona Amitai2 1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 2Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel Background: Children’s aversions to poor and mostly bitter tastes and their inability to swallow tablets and capsules are major challenges in pediatric medicine. Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) is a lifesaving waste nitrogen, alternative to urea nitrogen, for individuals suffering from urea cycle disorder...

  18. Bitter taste – cheese failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bitter taste is serous and very often cheese failure in modern cheesemaking process. In this paper the sources and bitter taste development in cheese will be presented. Bitterness in cheese is linked to bitter compounds development during cheese ripening. Most of the bitter compounds come from bitter peptides, the mechanism of theirs development being due to proteasepeptidase system of the cured enzymes and the milk cultures as well as other proteases present in cheese. By the action of curd enzymes, the milk protein - casein - is firstly degraded into high molecular weight compounds possessing no bitter taste. Those compounds are then degraded, by milk protease cultures, to hydrophobic bitter peptides of low molecular weight further degraded, by bacterial endopeptidase during cheese ripening, to bitter peptides and amino acids. In the case when no balance exists, between bitter compounds development and breakdown by lactic acid bacteria peptidase, an accumulation of bitter peptides occurs thus having an influence on cheese bitterness. During cheese ripening naturally occurring milk protease – plasmin, and thermostable proteases of raw milk microflora are also involved in proteolytic process. Fat cheese lipases, initiated by lipase originating from psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk as well as other cheese lipases, are also associated with bitter taste generation. The other sources of bitterness come from the forages, the medicament residues as well as washing and disinfecting agents. In order to eliminate these failures a special care should be taken in milk quality as well as curd and milk culture selection. At this point technological norms and procedures, aimed to maintain the proteolysis balance during cheese ripening, should be adjusted, thus eliminating the bitter taste of the cheese.

  19. Loss aversion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémeau, Fabien; Brady, Melissa; Saccente, Erica; Moreno, Alexis; Epstein, Henry; Citrome, Leslie; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    Loss aversion in decision-making refers to a higher sensitivity to losses than to gains. Loss aversion is conceived as an affective interference in cognitive processes such as judgment and decision-making. Loss aversion in non-risky choices has not been studied in schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 42 non-patient control subjects, matched by gender and age, were randomized to two different scenarios (a buying scenario and a selling scenario). Subjects were asked to evaluate the price of a decorated mug. Schizophrenia subjects were re-tested four weeks later with the other scenario. Contrary to non-patient controls, schizophrenia subjects did not show loss aversion. In the schizophrenia group, absence of loss aversion was correlated with age, duration of illness, number of months in State hospitals, and poorer performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but not with current psychopathology and two domains of emotional experience. Absence of loss aversion in schizophrenia represents a deficit in the processing of emotional information during decision-making. It can be interpreted as a lack of integration between the emotional and the cognitive systems, or to a more diffuse and de-differentiated impact of emotional information on decision-making. Future studies should bring more clarity to this question.

  20. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köbberling, V.; Wakker, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    To a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic utility,

  1. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Köbberling (Veronika); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic

  2. Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Carroll, Brittany L.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy. PMID:23626702

  3. Pre-treatment with amifostine protects against cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of taste in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CYP, a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy.

  4. Taste isn't just for taste buds anymore

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is a discriminative sense involving specialized receptor cells of the oral cavity (taste buds) and at least two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptor molecules that detect nutritionally important substances or potential toxins. Yet the receptor mechanisms that drive taste also are utilized by numerous systems throughout the body. How and why these so-called taste receptors are used to regulate digestion and respiration is now a matter of intense study. In this article we provi...

  5. How to make loss aversion disappear and reverse: tests of the decision by sampling origin of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Lukasz; Stewart, Neil

    2015-02-01

    One of the most robust empirical findings in the behavioral sciences is loss aversion--the finding that losses loom larger than gains. We offer a new psychological explanation of the origins of loss aversion in which loss aversion emerges from differences in the distribution of gains and losses people experience. In 4 experiments, we tested this proposition by manipulating the range of gains and losses that individuals saw during the process of eliciting their loss aversion. We were able to find loss aversion, loss neutrality, and even the reverse of loss aversion.

  6. The bitter pill: clinical drugs that activate the human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Anat; Nowak, Stefanie; Peters, Maximilian; Wiener, Ayana; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y

    2014-03-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) mediate aversive response to toxic food, which is often bitter. These G-protein-coupled receptors are also expressed in extraoral tissues, and emerge as novel targets for therapeutic indications such as asthma and infection. Our goal was to identify ligands of the broadly tuned TAS2R14 among clinical drugs. Molecular properties of known human bitter taste receptor TAS2R14 agonists were incorporated into pharmacophore- and shape-based models and used to computationally predict additional ligands. Predictions were tested by calcium imaging of TAS2R14-transfected HEK293 cells. In vitro testing of the virtual screening predictions resulted in 30-80% success rates, and 15 clinical drugs were found to activate the TAS2R14. hERG potassium channel, which is predominantly expressed in the heart, emerged as a common off-target of bitter drugs. Despite immense chemical diversity of known TAS2R14 ligands, novel ligands and previously unknown polypharmacology of drugs were unraveled by in vitro screening of computational predictions. This enables rational repurposing of traditional and standard drugs for bitter taste signaling modulation for therapeutic indications.

  7. Mean-Preserving-Spread Risk Aversion and The CAPM

    OpenAIRE

    Phelim P. Boyle; Chenghu Ma

    2013-01-01

    This paper establishes conditions under which the classical CAPM holds in equilibrium. Our derivation uses simple arguments to clarify and extend results available in the literature. We show that if agents are risk averse in the sense of mean-preserving-spread (MPS) the CAPM will necessarily hold, along with two-fund separation. We derive this result without imposing any distributional assumptions on asset returns. The CAPM holds even when the market contains an infinite number of securities ...

  8. Evaluation of taste-masking effects of pharmaceutical sweeteners with an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Du Hyung; Kim, Nam Ah; Nam, Tack Soo; Lee, Sangkil; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20 mM). The degree of bitterness was measured by a multichannel taste sensor system (an electronic tongue). The data was collected by seven sensors and analyzed by a statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA). The effect of taste masking excipient was dependent on the type of model drug. Changing the concentration of taste masking excipients affected the sensitivity of taste masking effect according to the type of drug. As the excipient concentration increased, the effect of taste masking increased. Moreover, most of the sensors showed a concentration-dependent pattern of the taste-masking agents as higher concentration provided higher selectivity. This might indicate that the sensors can detect small concentration changes of a chemical in solution. These results suggest that the taste masking could be evaluated based on the data of the electronic tongue system and that the formulation development process could be performed in a more efficient way.

  9. Processing Umami and Other Tastes in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen D.; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potentia...

  10. Smell and Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gustatory (taste nerve) cells are clustered in the taste buds of the mouth and throat. They react to ... that can be seen on the tongue contain taste buds. These surface cells send taste information to nearby ...

  11. Myopic loss aversion revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo; Pogrebna, Ganna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we reexamine several experimental papers on myopic loss aversion by analyzing individual rather than aggregate choice patterns. We find that the behavior of the majority of subjects is inconsistent with the hypothesis of myopic loss aversion.

  12. Transgenic labeling of higher order neuronal circuits linked to phospholipase C-β2-expressing taste bud cells in medaka fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieki, Takashi; Okada, Shinji; Aihara, Yoshiko; Ohmoto, Makoto; Abe, Keiko; Yasuoka, Akihito; Misaka, Takumi

    2013-06-01

    The sense of taste plays a pivotal role in the food-selecting behaviors of vertebrates. We have shown that the fish ortholog of the phospholipase C gene (plc-β2) is expressed in a subpopulation of taste bud cells that transmit taste stimuli to the central nervous system to evoke favorable and aversive behaviors. We generated transgenic medaka expressing wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) under the control of a regulatory region of the medaka plc-β2 gene to analyze the neuronal circuit connected to these sensory cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of the transgenic fish 12 days post fertilization revealed that the WGA protein was transferred to cranial sensory ganglia and several nuclei in the hindbrain. WGA signals were also detected in the secondary gustatory nucleus in the hindbrain of 3-month-old transgenic fish. WGA signals were observed in several diencephalic and telencephalic regions in 9-month-old transgenic fish. The age-dependent increase in the labeled brain regions strongly suggests that labeling occurred at taste bud cells and progressively extended to cranial nerves and neurons in the central nervous system. These data are the first to demonstrate the tracing of higher order gustatory neuronal circuitry that is associated with a specific subpopulation of taste bud cells. These results provide insight into the basic neuronal architecture of gustatory information processing that is common among vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison of the Tastes of L-Alanine and Monosodium Glutamate in C57BL/6J Wild Type and T1r3 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Delay, Eugene R

    2017-09-01

    Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these 2 amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, wild-type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of CTA between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes. This was verified by the discrimination experiments in which both mouse genotypes performed at or near chance levels at 75 and 150 mM. Above 150 mM, discrimination performance improved, suggesting the taste qualities of the 2 L-amino acids are not identical. No differences between knockout and wild-type mice in discrimination ability were detected. These results indicate that while the T1r3 receptor is important for tasting L-alanine and L-glutamate, other receptors are also important for tasting these amino acids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A subset of sweet-sensing neurons identified by IR56d are necessary and sufficient for fatty acid taste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs, one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding. Previously, we showed that a broad population of sugar-sensing taste neurons expressing Gustatory Receptor 64f (Gr64f is required for reflexive feeding responses to both FAs and sugars. Here, we report a genetic silencing screen to identify specific populations of taste neurons that mediate fatty acid (FA taste. We find neurons identified by expression of Ionotropic Receptor 56d (IR56d are necessary and sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Functional imaging reveals that IR56d-expressing neurons are responsive to short- and medium-chain FAs. Silencing IR56d neurons selectively abolishes FA taste, and their activation is sufficient to drive feeding responses. Analysis of co-expression with Gr64f identifies two subpopulations of IR56d-expressing neurons. While physiological imaging reveals that both populations are responsive to FAs, IR56d/Gr64f neurons are activated by medium-chain FAs and are sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Moreover, flies can discriminate between sugar and FAs in an aversive taste memory assay, indicating that FA taste is a unique modality in Drosophila. Taken together, these findings localize FA taste within the Drosophila gustatory center and provide an opportunity to investigate discrimination between different categories of appetitive tastants.

  15. A subset of sweet-sensing neurons identified by IR56d are necessary and sufficient for fatty acid taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, John M; Brown, Elizabeth B; Li, Yuanyuan; Yurgel, Maria E; Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2017-11-01

    Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding. Previously, we showed that a broad population of sugar-sensing taste neurons expressing Gustatory Receptor 64f (Gr64f) is required for reflexive feeding responses to both FAs and sugars. Here, we report a genetic silencing screen to identify specific populations of taste neurons that mediate fatty acid (FA) taste. We find neurons identified by expression of Ionotropic Receptor 56d (IR56d) are necessary and sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Functional imaging reveals that IR56d-expressing neurons are responsive to short- and medium-chain FAs. Silencing IR56d neurons selectively abolishes FA taste, and their activation is sufficient to drive feeding responses. Analysis of co-expression with Gr64f identifies two subpopulations of IR56d-expressing neurons. While physiological imaging reveals that both populations are responsive to FAs, IR56d/Gr64f neurons are activated by medium-chain FAs and are sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Moreover, flies can discriminate between sugar and FAs in an aversive taste memory assay, indicating that FA taste is a unique modality in Drosophila. Taken together, these findings localize FA taste within the Drosophila gustatory center and provide an opportunity to investigate discrimination between different categories of appetitive tastants.

  16. Participation of the peripheral taste system in aging-dependent changes in taste sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka; Kurokawa, Azusa; Kohta, Rie; Misaka, Takumi

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that aging modifies taste sensitivity. However, the factors affecting the changes in taste sensitivity remain unclear. To investigate the cause of the age-related changes in taste sensitivity, we compared the peripheral taste detection systems in young and old mice. First, we examined whether taste sensitivity varied according to age using behavioral assays. We confirmed that the taste sensitivities to salty and bitter tastes decreased with aging. In other assays, the gustatory nerve responses to salty and sweet tastes increased significantly with aging, while those to bitter taste did not change. Thus, the profile of the gustatory nerve responses was inconsistent with the profile of the behavioral responses. Next, we evaluated the expressions of taste-related molecules in the taste buds. Although no apparent differences in the expressions of representative taste receptors were observed between the two age groups, the mRNA expressions of signaling effectors were slightly, but significantly, decreased in old mice. No significant differences in the turnover rates of taste bud cells were observed between the two age groups. Thus, we did not observe any large decreases in the expressions of taste-related molecules and turnover rates of taste bud cells with aging. Based on these findings, we conclude that changes in taste sensitivity with aging were not caused by aging-related degradation of peripheral taste organs. Meanwhile, the concentrations of several serum components that modify taste responses changed with age. Thus, taste signal-modifying factors such as serum components may have a contributing role in aging-related changes in taste sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Tasting with Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we eat and drink something, we experience the sense of taste. We attribute the sense of taste to gustation without doubt, but it is not true. The olfaction is the most important component of the flavor. On the other hand, the gustation (basic tastes is affected strongly by the olfaction; when participants tasted solutions containing odors without any tastants, they reported there were some tastes. Odors of the foods and beverages show interaction with (potentiate and/or inhibit basic tastes, and determined the flavor of them. Here, some experiments exploring about the role of the vision in the sense of taste are shown: The color of sushi distorted (enhanced or eliminated the perception of fishy, the color of the packages of chocolate distorted the perception of taste, the color of syrup determined the participants' ability of identification of the flavor, and so on. These results show the vision is an important component of the sense of taste. These visual effects on taste are supposed to be mediated by the olfaction. It is because there are many studies showing the vision affects the olfaction, but studies showing the vision affects gustation are very little and inconsistent with each other.

  18. A comparison of English and Japanese taste languages: taste descriptive methodology, codability and the umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M; Ishii, R

    1986-05-01

    Everyday taste descriptions for a range of stimuli were obtained from selected groups of American and Japanese subjects, using a variety of stimuli, stimulus presentation procedures and response conditions. In English there was a tendency to use a quadrapartite classification system: 'sweet', 'sour', 'salty' and 'bitter'. The Japanese had a different strategy, adding a fifth label: 'Ajinomoto', referring to the taste of monosodium glutamate. This label was generally replaced by umami--the scientific term--by Japanese who were workers or trained tasters involved with glutamate manufacture. Cultural differences in taste language have consequences for taste psychophysicists who impose a quadrapartite restriction on allowable taste descriptions. Stimulus presentation by filter-paper or aqueous solution elicited the same response trends. Language codability was only an indicator of degree of taste mixedness/singularity if used statistically with samples of sufficient size; it had little value as an indicator for individual subjects.

  19. Linking Measured Risk Aversion to Individual Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; Jonker, N.

    2002-01-01

    From the stated price of a specified lottery in three unrelated surveys we deduce individuals' Arrow-Pratt measure of risk aversion. We find that risk aversion indeed falls with income and wealth. Entrepreneurs are less risk averse than employees, civil servants are more risk averse than private

  20. Development of a Taste-Masked Orodispersible Film Containing Dimenhydrinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Breitkreutz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients.

  1. Diminished Neural Processing of Aversive and Rewarding Stimuli During Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ciara; Mishor, Zevic; Cowen, Philip J.; Harmer, Catherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are popular medications for anxiety and depression, but their effectiveness, particularly in patients with prominent symptoms of loss of motivation and pleasure, has been questioned. There are few studies of the effect of SSRIs on neural reward mechanisms in humans. Methods We studied 45 healthy participants who were randomly allocated to receive the SSRI citalopram, the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, or placebo for 7 days in a double-blind, parallel group design. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural response to rewarding (sight and/or flavor of chocolate) and aversive stimuli (sight of moldy strawberries and/or an unpleasant strawberry taste) on the final day of drug treatment. Results Citalopram reduced activation to the chocolate stimuli in the ventral striatum and the ventral medial/orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, reboxetine did not suppress ventral striatal activity and in fact increased neural responses within medial orbitofrontal cortex to reward. Citalopram also decreased neural responses to the aversive stimuli conditions in key “punishment” areas such as the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Reboxetine produced a similar, although weaker effect. Conclusions Our findings are the first to show that treatment with SSRIs can diminish the neural processing of both rewarding and aversive stimuli. The ability of SSRIs to decrease neural responses to reward might underlie the questioned efficacy of SSRIs in depressive conditions characterized by decreased motivation and anhedonia and could also account for the experience of emotional blunting described by some patients during SSRI treatment. PMID:20034615

  2. Age-related changes in mouse taste bud morphology, hormone expression, and taste responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Kyong; Cong, Wei-na; Cai, Huan; Kim, Wook; Maudsley, Stuart; Egan, Josephine M; Martin, Bronwen

    2012-04-01

    Normal aging is a complex process that affects every organ system in the body, including the taste system. Thus, we investigated the effects of the normal aging process on taste bud morphology, function, and taste responsivity in male mice at 2, 10, and 18 months of age. The 18-month-old animals demonstrated a significant reduction in taste bud size and number of taste cells per bud compared with the 2- and 10-month-old animals. The 18-month-old animals exhibited a significant reduction of protein gene product 9.5 and sonic hedgehog immunoreactivity (taste cell markers). The number of taste cells expressing the sweet taste receptor subunit, T1R3, and the sweet taste modulating hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, were reduced in the 18-month-old mice. Concordant with taste cell alterations, the 18-month-old animals demonstrated reduced sweet taste responsivity compared with the younger animals and the other major taste modalities (salty, sour, and bitter) remained intact.

  3. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with

  4. Coordinating Contracts for Two-Stage Fashion Supply Chain with Risk-Averse Retailer and Price-Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minli Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the demand is sensitive to retail price, revenue sharing contract and two-part tariff contract have been shown to be able to coordinate supply chains with risk neutral agents. We extend the previous studies to consider a risk-averse retailer in a two-echelon fashion supply chain. Based on the classic mean-variance approach in finance, the issue of channel coordination in a fashion supply chain with risk-averse retailer and price-dependent demand is investigated. We propose both single contracts and joint contracts to achieve supply chain coordination. We find that the coordinating revenue sharing contract and two-part tariff contract in the supply chain with risk neutral agents are still useful to coordinate the supply chain taking into account the degree of risk aversion of fashion retailer, whereas a more complex sales rebate and penalty (SRP contract fails to do so. When using combined contracts to coordinate the supply chain, we demonstrate that only revenue sharing with two-part tariff contract can coordinate the fashion supply chain. The optimal conditions for contract parameters to achieve channel coordination are determined. Numerical analysis is presented to supplement the results and more insights are gained.

  5. Averting the foul taste of pediatric medicines improves adherence and can be lifesaving – Pheburane® (sodium phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren G

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gideon Koren,1 Michael J Rieder,1 Yona Amitai2 1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 2Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel Background: Children’s aversions to poor and mostly bitter tastes and their inability to swallow tablets and capsules are major challenges in pediatric medicine. Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB is a lifesaving waste nitrogen, alternative to urea nitrogen, for individuals suffering from urea cycle disorders. A major issue in the use of NaPB is its highly foul taste, which often leads to children being unable to consume it, resulting in ineffective treatment, or alternatively, necessitating the application of the drug through a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy. Methods: This study reviews the published data on a novel formulation of NaPB, Pheburane® granules, which begin to release their NaPB after a lag time of ~10 seconds followed by a slow release over several minutes. Results: The taste-masked granule formulation of NaPB dramatically improves the acceptability of the drug by children and appears in initial studies to be both safe and effective. Conclusion: While more studies are needed to substantiate and enrich these initial trials, the available data provide a telling example where masking the drug taste of medicine for children can sometimes be the difference between life and death. Keywords: sodium phenylbutyrate, adherence, urea cycle disorders, Pheburane®, taste, children

  6. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  7. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  8. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  9. Mathematical Modeling for Risk Averse Firm Facing Loss Averse Customer’s Stochastic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbeom Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the firm’s profit during a finite planning horizon, a dynamic programming model is used to make joint pricing and inventory replenishment decision assuming that customers are loss averse and the firm is risk averse. We model the loss averse customer’s demand using the multinomial choice model. In this choice model, we consider the acquisition and transition utilities widely used by a mental accounting theory which also incorporate the reference price and actual price. Then, we show that there is an optimal inventory policy which is base-stock policy depending on the accumulated wealth in each period.

  10. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Visual Aversive Learning Compromises Sensory Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Lee; Paz, Rony; Avidan, Galia

    2018-03-14

    Aversive learning is thought to modulate perceptual thresholds, which can lead to overgeneralization. However, it remains undetermined whether this modulation is domain specific or a general effect. Moreover, despite the unique role of the visual modality in human perception, it is unclear whether this aspect of aversive learning exists in this modality. The current study was designed to examine the effect of visual aversive outcomes on the perception of basic visual and auditory features. We tested the ability of healthy participants, both males and females, to discriminate between neutral stimuli, before and after visual learning. In each experiment, neutral stimuli were associated with aversive images in an experimental group and with neutral images in a control group. Participants demonstrated a deterioration in discrimination (higher discrimination thresholds) only after aversive learning. This deterioration was measured for both auditory (tone frequency) and visual (orientation and contrast) features. The effect was replicated in five different experiments and lasted for at least 24 h. fMRI neural responses and pupil size were also measured during learning. We showed an increase in neural activations in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala during aversive compared with neutral learning. Interestingly, the early visual cortex showed increased brain activity during aversive compared with neutral context trials, with identical visual information. Our findings imply the existence of a central multimodal mechanism, which modulates early perceptual properties, following exposure to negative situations. Such a mechanism could contribute to abnormal responses that underlie anxiety states, even in new and safe environments. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using a visual aversive-learning paradigm, we found deteriorated discrimination abilities for visual and auditory stimuli that were associated with visual aversive stimuli. We showed increased neural

  12. The effect of accountability on loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieider, Ferdinand M

    2009-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of accountability-the expectation on the side of the decision maker of having to justify his/her decisions to somebody else-on loss aversion. Loss aversion is commonly thought to be the strongest component of risk aversion. Accountability is found to reduce the bias of loss aversion. This effect is explained by the higher cognitive effort induced by accountability, which triggers a rational check on emotional reactions at the base of loss aversion, leading to a reduction of the latter. Connections to dual-processing models are discussed.

  13. Peer effects in risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I; Gandelman, Néstor; González, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    We estimate peer effects in risk attitudes in a sample of high school students. Relative risk aversion is elicited from surveys administered at school. Identification of peer effects is based on parents not being able to choose the class within the school of their choice, and on the use of instrumental variables conditional on school-grade fixed effects. We find a significant and quantitatively large impact of peers' risk attitudes on a male individual's coefficient of risk aversion. Specifically, a one standard deviation increase in the group's coefficient of risk aversion increases an individual's risk aversion by 43%. Our findings shed light on the origin and stability of risk attitudes and, more generally, on the determinants of economic preferences. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Modulation of taste sensitivity by GLP-1 signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Dotson, Cedrick D; Shin, Yu-Kyong; Ji, Sunggoan; Drucker, Daniel J; Maudsley, Stuart; Munger, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Modulation of sensory function can help animals adjust to a changing external and internal environment. Even so, mechanisms for modulating taste sensitivity are poorly understood. Using immunohistochemical, biochemical, and behavioral approaches, we found that the peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor (GLP-1R) are expressed in mammalian taste buds. Furthermore, we found that GLP-1 signaling plays an important role in the modulation of taste sensitivity: GLP-1R knockout mice exhibit a dramatic reduction in sweet taste sensitivity as well as an enhanced sensitivity to umami-tasting stimuli. Together, these findings suggest a novel paracrine mechanism for the hormonal modulation of taste function in mammals.

  15. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  16. Risk Aversion and Job Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    van Huizen, T.M.; Alessie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Job mobility is inherently risky as workers have limited ex ante information about the quality of outside jobs. Using a large longitudinal Dutch dataset, which includes data on risk preferences elicited through (incentivized) experiments, we examine the relation between risk aversion and job mobility. The results for men show that risk averse workers are less likely to move to other jobs. For women, the evidence that risk aversion affects job mobility is weak. Our empirical findings indicate ...

  17. Incidental fear cues increase monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulreich, Stefan; Gerhardt, Holger; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2016-04-01

    In many everyday decisions, people exhibit loss aversion-a greater sensitivity to losses relative to gains of equal size. Loss aversion is thought to be (at least partly) mediated by emotional--in particular, fear-related--processes. Decision research has shown that even incidental emotions, which are unrelated to the decision at hand, can influence decision making. The effect of incidental fear on loss aversion, however, is thus far unclear. In two studies, we experimentally investigated how incidental fear cues, presented during (Study 1) or before (Study 2) choices to accept or reject mixed gambles over real monetary stakes, influence monetary loss aversion. We find that the presentation of fearful faces, relative to the presentation of neutral faces, increased risk aversion-an effect that could be attributed to increased loss aversion. The size of this effect was moderated by psychopathic personality: Fearless dominance, in particular its interpersonal facet, but not self-centered impulsivity, attenuated the effect of incidental fear cues on loss aversion, consistent with reduced fear reactivity. Together, these results highlight the sensitivity of loss aversion to the affective context. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Unpleasant odors increase aversion to monetary losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancak, Andrej; Xie, Yuxin; Fallon, Nicholas; Bulsing, Patricia; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Pantelous, Athanasios A

    2015-04-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of equal nominal values. Unpleasant odors not only influence affective state but have also been shown to activate brain regions similar to those mediating loss aversion. Therefore, we hypothesized a stronger loss aversion in a monetary gamble task if gambles were associated with an unpleasant as opposed to pleasant odor. In thirty human subjects, unpleasant (methylmercaptan), pleasant (jasmine), and neutral (clean air) odors were presented for 4 s. At the same time, uncertain gambles offering an equal chance of gain or loss of a variable amount of money, or a prospect of an assured win were displayed. One hundred different gambles were presented three times, each time paired with a different odor. Loss aversion, risk aversion, and logit sensitivity were evaluated using non-linear fitting of individual gamble decisions. Loss aversion was larger when prospects were displayed in the presence of methylmercaptan compared to jasmine or clean air. Moreover, individual differences in changes in loss aversion to the unpleasant as compared to pleasant odor correlated with odor pleasantness but not with odor intensity. Skin conductance responses to losses during the outcome period were larger when gambles were associated with methylmercaptan compared to jasmine. Increased loss aversion while perceiving an unpleasant odor suggests a dynamic adjustment of loss aversion toward greater sensitivity to losses. Given that odors are biological signals of hazards, such adjustment of loss aversion may have adaptive value in situations entailing threat or danger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Bales

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX and in sham-operated controls (SHAM. Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p., but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average. For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001 in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006 in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  20. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-04

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.

  1. Acid stimulation (sour taste elicits GABA and serotonin release from mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT, ATP, and norepinephrine (NE have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells stably co-expressing GABA(B receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca(2+-dependent; removing Ca(2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III cells and not from Receptor (Type II cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion, the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses.

  2. Optimal investment and indifference pricing when risk aversion is not monotone: SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.; Pelsser, A.; Vellekoop, M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the dis- tinguishing feature that they implement the assumption that agents may become less risk-averse for very low values of wealth. This means that SAHARA utility can be used to characterize risk gambling behavior of an

  3. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Targeted taste cell-specific overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adult taste buds elevates phosphorylated TrkB protein levels in taste cells, increases taste bud size, and promotes gustatory innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V; Margolskee, Robert F; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2012-05-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system.

  5. Presynaptic (Type III) cells in mouse taste buds sense sour (acid) taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Stimac, Robert; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-06-15

    Taste buds contain two types of cells that directly participate in taste transduction - receptor (Type II) cells and presynaptic (Type III) cells. Receptor cells respond to sweet, bitter and umami taste stimulation but until recently the identity of cells that respond directly to sour (acid) tastants has only been inferred from recordings in situ, from behavioural studies, and from immunostaining for putative sour transduction molecules. Using calcium imaging on single isolated taste cells and with biosensor cells to identify neurotransmitter release, we show that presynaptic (Type III) cells specifically respond to acid taste stimulation and release serotonin. By recording responses in cells isolated from taste buds and in taste cells in lingual slices to acetic acid titrated to different acid levels (pH), we also show that the active stimulus for acid taste is the membrane-permeant, uncharged acetic acid moiety (CH(3)COOH), not free protons (H(+)). That observation is consistent with the proximate stimulus for acid taste being intracellular acidification, not extracellular protons per se. These findings may also have implications for other sensory receptors that respond to acids, such as nociceptors.

  6. A single alcohol drinking session is sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine

  7. Taste sensing FET (TSFET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K.; Yasuda, R.; Ezaki, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-20

    Taste can be quantified using a multichannel taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes. Its sensitivity and stability are superior to those of humans. A present study is concerned with the first step of miniaturization and integration of the taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes using FET. As a result, it was found that gate-source voltage of the taste sensing FET showed the same behaviors as the conventional taste sensor utilizing the membrane-potential change due to five kinds of taste substances. Discrimination of foodstuffs was very easy. A thin lipid membrane formed using LB technique was also tried. These results will open doors to fabrication of a miniaturized, integrated taste sensing system. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Targeted Taste Cell-specific Overexpression of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Adult Taste Buds Elevates Phosphorylated TrkB Protein Levels in Taste Cells, Increases Taste Bud Size, and Promotes Gustatory Innervation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Irina V.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Nosrat, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most potent neurotrophic factor in the peripheral taste system during embryonic development. It is also expressed in adult taste buds. There is a lack of understanding of the role of BDNF in the adult taste system. To address this, we generated novel transgenic mice in which transgene expression was driven by an α-gustducin promoter coupling BDNF expression to the postnatal expression of gustducin in taste cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly stronger BDNF labeling in taste cells of high BDNF-expressing mouse lines compared with controls. We show that taste buds in these mice are significantly larger and have a larger number of taste cells compared with controls. To examine whether innervation was affected in Gust-BDNF mice, we used antibodies to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and ATP receptor P2X3. The total density of general innervation and specifically the gustatory innervation was markedly increased in high BDNF-expressing mice compared with controls. TrkB and NCAM gene expression in laser capture microdissected taste epithelia were significantly up-regulated in these mice. Up-regulation of TrkB transcripts in taste buds and elevated taste cell-specific TrkB phosphorylation in response to increased BDNF levels indicate that BDNF controls the expression and activation of its high affinity receptor in taste cells. This demonstrates a direct taste cell function for BDNF. BDNF also orchestrates and maintains taste bud innervation. We propose that the Gust-BDNF transgenic mouse models can be employed to further dissect the specific roles of BDNF in the adult taste system. PMID:22442142

  9. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  10. The origin of risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-12-16

    Risk aversion is one of the most basic assumptions of economic behavior, but few studies have addressed the question of where risk preferences come from and why they differ from one individual to the next. Here, we propose an evolutionary explanation for the origin of risk aversion. In the context of a simple binary-choice model, we show that risk aversion emerges by natural selection if reproductive risk is systematic (i.e., correlated across individuals in a given generation). In contrast, risk neutrality emerges if reproductive risk is idiosyncratic (i.e., uncorrelated across each given generation). More generally, our framework implies that the degree of risk aversion is determined by the stochastic nature of reproductive rates, and we show that different statistical properties lead to different utility functions. The simplicity and generality of our model suggest that these implications are primitive and cut across species, physiology, and genetic origins.

  11. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  12. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  13. Taste disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.

  14. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Reduces Taste-Evoked ATP Secretion from Mouse Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony Y; Wu, Sandy Y

    2015-09-16

    Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that peripheral afferent nerve fibers innervating taste buds contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which may be as an efferent transmitter released from peripheral axon terminals. In this report, we determined the targets of CGRP within taste buds and studied what effect CGRP exerts on taste bud function. We isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells, conducted functional imaging using Fura-2, and used cellular biosensors to monitor taste-evoked transmitter release. The findings showed that a subset of Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells (53%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP with an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). In contrast, Receptor (Type II) taste cells rarely (4%) responded to 0.1 μm CGRP. Using pharmacological tools, the actions of CGRP were probed and elucidated by the CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). We demonstrated that this effect of CGRP was dependent on phospholipase C activation and was prevented by the inhibitor U73122. Moreover, applying CGRP caused taste buds to secrete serotonin (5-HT), a Presynaptic (Type III) cell transmitter, but not ATP, a Receptor (Type II) cell transmitter. Further, our previous studies showed that 5-HT released from Presynaptic (Type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells by activating 5-HT1A receptors, and reducing ATP secretion. Our data showed that CGRP-evoked 5-HT release reduced taste-evoked ATP secretion. The findings are consistent with a role for CGRP as an inhibitory transmitter that shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling during processing gustatory information in taste buds. The taste sensation is initiated with a highly complex set of interactions between a variety of cells located within the taste buds before signal propagation to the brain. Afferent signals from the oral cavity are carried to the brain in chemosensory fibers that contribute to chemesthesis, the general chemical sensitivity of the mucus

  15. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.; Ross, Don

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in statements of this calibration puzzle is that small-stakes risk aversion is observed over all levels of wealth...

  16. Genetic or pharmacological reduction of PERK enhances cortical-dependent taste learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounallah-Saad, Hadile; Sharma, Vijendra; Edry, Efrat; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2014-10-29

    Protein translation initiation is controlled by levels of eIF2α phosphorylation (p-eIF2α) on Ser51. In addition, increased p-eIF2α levels impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation, whereas decreased levels enhance them. Levels of p-eIF2α are determined by four kinases, of which protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR), PKR-like endoplastic reticulum kinase (PERK), and general control nonderepressible 2 are extensively expressed in the mammalian mature brain. Following identification of PERK as the major kinase to determine basal levels of p-eIF2α in primary neuronal cultures, we tested its function as a physiological constraint of memory consolidation in the cortex, the brain structure suggested to store, at least in part, long-term memories in the mammalian brain. To that aim, insular cortex (IC)-dependent positive and negative forms of taste learning were used. Genetic reduction of PERK expression was accomplished by local microinfusion of a lentivirus harboring PERK Short hairpin RNA, and pharmacological inhibition was achieved by local microinfusion of a PERK-specific inhibitor (GSK2606414) to the rat IC. Both genetic reduction of PERK expression and pharmacological inhibition of its activity reduced p-eIF2α levels and enhanced novel taste learning and conditioned taste aversion, but not memory retrieval. Moreover, enhanced extinction was observed together with enhanced associative memory, suggesting increased cortical-dependent behavioral plasticity. The results suggest that, by phosphorylating eIF2α, PERK functions in the cortex as a physiological constraint of memory consolidation, and its downregulation serves as cognitive enhancement. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3314624-09$15.00/0.

  17. Adverse effects of the radioprotector WR2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairnie, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR2721) has radioprotective properties, but it is also toxic - in man it causes nausea and vomiting. Since radiation also causes nausea and vomiting it is important to know whether WR2721 would increase or decrease the likelihood of nausea and vomiting after radiation. This question was investigated in rats using the phenomenon of aversion to the taste of saccharin, which is readily inducible and is understood to be controlled in rats by the same pathways that control nausea and vomiting in man. The taste aversion was induced by giving 0.2 Gy 60 Co γ radiation 30 min after drinking 0.1% saccharin, or WR2721 immediately after the saccharin, or giving both radiation and WR2721. There were appropriate controls. In sham-irradiated rats, WR2721 (40 or 200 mg/kg, but not 8 mg/kg) produced a significant taste aversion. When WR2721 (40 or 200 mg/kg) was given immediately after the saccharin to irradiated rats it increased the taste aversion significantly, but it did not have any effect at 8 mg/kg. It was concluded that at doses which were optimal for radioprotection (approx.200 mg/kg) or lower, WR2721 increased in rats the taste aversion induced by radiation. By inference if conditioned taste aversion is an appropriate paradigm, WR2721 would increase nausea and vomiting in man induced by radiation

  18. Interactions between Flavor and Taste: Using Dashi Soup as a Taste Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many researches showing interactions between olfaction and taste. Many of them supported that the interactions are not innate, but are learned through our daily eating experiences. Stevenson (2009 called this phenomenon as “learned synesthesia”. The authors also showed the interactions between flavor and taste are learned and processed by higher cognitive systems in rats and humans (Sakai et al., 2001; Sakai and Imada, 2003. Here the interactions between umami taste and dashi flavors are developed by the daily eating experience of Japanese traditional cuisine. Twenty flavors (such as sea weed, bonito, onion, garlic, ginger etc. by courtesy of YAMAHO CO. Ltd. were used as flavor stimuli. Taste stimuli are monosodium glutamate (umami substance, MSG, miso soup, and Katsuo Dashi (bonito soup stock. Participants tasted these stimuli, 12∼20 stimuli in a day, and evaluated the strength of umami taste, the palatability, congruity between taste and flavor with 100 mm visual analogue scales. The results of evaluations analyzed with the participants' daily eating experience showed the interactions between taste and flavor are developed by their own daily intake of traditional Japanese cuisine, especially dashi soup.

  19. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Whitehead, Mark C

    2006-08-09

    The peripheral taste system likely maintains a specific relationship between ganglion cells that signal a particular taste quality and taste bud cells responsive to that quality. We have explored a measure of the receptoneural relationship in the mouse. By injecting single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified. We found that three to five ganglion cells innervate a single bud. Injecting neighboring buds with different color markers showed that the buds are primarily innervated by separate populations of geniculate cells (i.e., multiply labeled ganglion cells are rare). In other words, each taste bud is innervated by a population of neurons that only connects with that bud. Palate bud injections revealed a similar, relatively exclusive receptoneural relationship. Injecting buds in different regions of the tongue did not reveal a topographic representation of buds in the geniculate ganglion, despite a stereotyped patterned arrangement of fungiform buds as rows and columns on the tongue. However, ganglion cells innervating the tongue and palate were differentially concentrated in lateral and rostral regions of the ganglion, respectively. The principal finding that small groups of ganglion cells send sensory fibers that converge selectively on a single bud is a new-found measure of specific matching between the two principal cellular elements of the mouse peripheral taste system. Repetition of the experiments in the hamster showed a more divergent innervation of buds in this species. The results indicate that whatever taste quality is signaled by a murine geniculate ganglion neuron, that signal reflects the activity of cells in a single taste bud.

  20. Risk aversion and social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovářík, J.; van der Leij, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper first investigates empirically the relationship between risk aversion and social network structure in a large group of undergraduate students. We find that risk aversion is strongly correlated to local network clustering, that is, the probability that one has a social tie to friends of

  1. Loss aversion and rent-seeking: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  2. Fingerprinting taste buds: intermediate filaments and their implication for taste bud formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, M; Reutter, K; Ganchrow, D; Ganchrow, J R

    2000-01-01

    Intermediate filaments in taste organs of terrestrial (human and chick) as well as aquatic (Xenopus laevis) species were detected using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. During development, the potential importance of the interface between the taste bud primordium and non-gustatory adjacent tissues is evidenced by the distinct immunoreactivity of a subpopulation of taste bud cells for cytokeratins and vimentin. In human foetuses, the selective molecular marker for taste bud primor...

  3. Genetically-induced cholinergic hyper-innervation enhances taste learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin eNeseliler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh has been shown to impair many forms of simple learning, and notably conditioned taste aversion (CTA. The most adhered-to theory that has emerged as a result of this work—that ACh increases a taste’s perceived novelty, and thereby its associability—would be further strengthened by evidence showing that enhanced cholinergic function improves learning above normal levels. Experimental testing of this corollary hypothesis has been limited, however, by side-effects of pharmacological ACh agonism and by the absence of a model that achieves long-term increases in cholinergic signaling. Here, we present this further test of the ACh hypothesis, making use of mice lacking the p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor gene, which show a resultant over-abundance of cholinergic neurons in subregions of the basal forebrain (BF. We first demonstrate that the p75-/- abnormality directly affects portions of the CTA circuit, locating mouse gustatory cortex (GC using a functional assay and then using immunohistochemisty to demonstrate cholinergic hyperinnervation of GC in the mutant mice—hyperinnervation that is unaccompanied by changes in cell numbers or compensatory changes in muscarinic receptor densities. We then demonstrate that both p75-/- and wild-type mice learn robust CTAs, which extinguish more slowly in the mutants. Further testing to distinguish effects on learning from alterations in memory retention demonstrate that p75-/- mice do in fact learn stronger CTAs than wild-type mice. These data provide novel evidence for the hypothesis linking ACh and taste learning.

  4. Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2015-02-01

    Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Social influences on inequity aversion in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McAuliffe

    Full Text Available Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1 the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2 the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children's decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of

  6. Quantitative analysis of taste bud cell numbers in fungiform and soft palate taste buds of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2011-01-07

    Mammalian taste bud cells (TBCs) consist of several cell types equipped with different taste receptor molecules, and hence the ratio of cell types in a taste bud constitutes the taste responses of the taste bud. Here we show that the population of immunohistochemically identified cell types per taste bud is proportional to the number of total TBCs in the taste bud or the area of the taste bud in fungiform papillae, and that the proportions differ among cell types. This result is applicable to soft palate taste buds. However, the density of almost all cell types, the population of cell types divided by the area of the respective taste buds, is significantly higher in soft palates. These results suggest that the turnover of TBCs is regulated to keep the ratio of each cell type constant, and that taste responsiveness is different between fungiform and soft palate taste buds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds

  8. Suppressing epidemic spreading by risk-averse migration in dynamical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Tang, Ming; Wang, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interplay between individual behaviors and epidemic spreading in a dynamical network. We distribute agents on a square-shaped region with periodic boundary conditions. Every agent is regarded as a node of the network and a wireless link is established between two agents if their geographical distance is less than a certain radius. At each time, every agent assesses the epidemic situation and make decisions on whether it should stay in or leave its current place. An agent will leave its current place with a speed if the number of infected neighbors reaches or exceeds a critical value E. Owing to the movement of agents, the network's structure is dynamical. Interestingly, we find that there exists an optimal value of E leading to the maximum epidemic threshold. This means that epidemic spreading can be effectively controlled by risk-averse migration. Besides, we find that the epidemic threshold increases as the recovering rate increases, decreases as the contact radius increases, and is maximized by an optimal moving speed. Our findings offer a deeper understanding of epidemic spreading in dynamical networks.

  9. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Blinova, Yulia; Legin, Evgeny; Seleznev, Boris; Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S.; Saunders, Kenneth A.; Legin, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chemically diverse APIs are studied with potentiometric “electronic tongue”. ► Bitter taste of APIs can be predicted with 3wayPLS regression from ET data. ► High correlation of ET assessment with human panel and rat in vivo model. -- Abstract: The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic – azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples × sensors × pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model

  10. Assessment of bitter taste of pharmaceuticals with multisensor system employing 3 way PLS regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa [CESAM and Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Kirsanov, Dmitry, E-mail: d.kirsanov@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Blinova, Yulia [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Legin, Evgeny [Sensor Systems LLC, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Seleznev, Boris [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Clapham, David; Ives, Robert S.; Saunders, Kenneth A. [GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Legin, Andrey [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Chemically diverse APIs are studied with potentiometric “electronic tongue”. ► Bitter taste of APIs can be predicted with 3wayPLS regression from ET data. ► High correlation of ET assessment with human panel and rat in vivo model. -- Abstract: The application of the potentiometric multisensor system (electronic tongue, ET) for quantification of the bitter taste of structurally diverse active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is reported. The measurements were performed using a set of bitter substances that had been assessed by a professional human sensory panel and the in vivo rat brief access taste aversion (BATA) model to produce bitterness intensity scores for each substance at different concentrations. The set consisted of eight substances, both inorganic and organic – azelastine, caffeine, chlorhexidine, potassium nitrate, naratriptan, paracetamol, quinine, and sumatriptan. With the aim of enhancing the response of the sensors to the studied APIs, measurements were carried out at different pH levels ranging from 2 to 10, thus promoting ionization of the compounds. This experiment yielded a 3 way data array (samples × sensors × pH levels) from which 3wayPLS regression models were constructed with both human panel and rat model reference data. These models revealed that artificial assessment of bitter taste with ET in the chosen set of API's is possible with average relative errors of 16% in terms of human panel bitterness score and 25% in terms of inhibition values from in vivo rat model data. Furthermore, these 3wayPLS models were applied for prediction of the bitterness in blind test samples of a further set of API's. The results of the prediction were compared with the inhibition values obtained from the in vivo rat model.

  11. Heterogeneity of Loss Aversion in Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideaki; Kawada, Ryosaku; Tsurumi, Kosuke; Yokoyama, Naoto; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Murao, Takuro; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2016-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is characterized by continual repeated gambling behavior despite negative consequences. PG is considered to be a disorder of altered decision-making under risk, and behavioral economics tools were utilized by studies on decision-making under risk. At the same time, PG was suggested to be a heterogeneous disorder in terms of personality traits as well as risk attitude. We aimed to examine the heterogeneity of PG in terms of loss aversion, which means that a loss is subjectively felt to be larger than the same amount of gain. Thirty-one male PG subjects and 26 male healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a behavioral economics task for estimation of loss aversion and personality traits assessment. Although loss aversion in PG subjects was not significantly different from that in HC subjects, distributions of loss aversion differed between PG and HC subjects. HC subjects were uniformly classified into three levels (low, middle, high) of loss aversion, whereas PG subjects were mostly classified into the two extremes, and few PG subjects were classified into the middle range. PG subjects with low and high loss aversion showed a significant difference in anxiety, excitement-seeking and craving intensity. Our study suggested that PG was a heterogeneous disorder in terms of loss aversion. This result might be useful for understanding cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms and the establishment of treatment strategies for PG.

  12. "Turn Up the Taste": Assessing the Role of Taste Intensity and Emotion in Mediating Crossmodal Correspondences between Basic Tastes and Pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Janice; Wang, Sheila; Spence, Charles

    2016-05-01

    People intuitively match basic tastes to sounds of different pitches, and the matches that they make tend to be consistent across individuals. It is, though, not altogether clear what governs such crossmodal mappings between taste and auditory pitch. Here, we assess whether variations in taste intensity influence the matching of taste to pitch as well as the role of emotion in mediating such crossmodal correspondences. Participants were presented with 5 basic tastants at 3 concentrations. In Experiment 1, the participants rated the tastants in terms of their emotional arousal and valence/pleasantness, and selected a musical note (from 19 possible pitches ranging from C2 to C8) and loudness that best matched each tastant. In Experiment 2, the participants made emotion ratings and note matches in separate blocks of trials, then made emotion ratings for all 19 notes. Overall, the results of the 2 experiments revealed that both taste quality and concentration exerted a significant effect on participants' loudness selection, taste intensity rating, and valence and arousal ratings. Taste quality, not concentration levels, had a significant effect on participants' choice of pitch, but a significant positive correlation was observed between individual perceived taste intensity and pitch choice. A significant and strong correlation was also demonstrated between participants' valence assessments of tastants and their valence assessments of the best-matching musical notes. These results therefore provide evidence that: 1) pitch-taste correspondences are primarily influenced by taste quality, and to a lesser extent, by perceived intensity; and 2) such correspondences may be mediated by valence/pleasantness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Bowles, Spencer G; Salcedo, Ernesto; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds.

  15. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  16. In uncertainty we trust: a median voter model with risk aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal-agent problem and uncertainty are some of the key factors affecting financial and political markets. Fear of the unknown plays an important role in human decision making, including voting. This article describes a theoretical model where voter risk aversion towards uncertainty gives political incumbents a significant advantage over their challengers, exacerbating the principal-agent problem between voters and legislators. The model presented predicts that a rise in voter uncertainty concerning the challenger allows the incumbent to deviate from the median voter’s policy preference without losing the election. This model reconciles the paradoxical coexistence of ideological shirking and high incumbent reelection rates without abandoning the elegant median voter framework.

  17. Changes in taste bud volume during taste disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srur, Ehab; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Just, Tino

    2011-08-01

    On-line mapping and serial volume measurements of taste buds with confocal laser scanning microscopy provide information on the peripheral gustatory organ over time. We report the volumetric measurements of four selected fungiform papillae over 8 weeks in a 62-year-old man with taste disturbance, which was more apparent on the right than on the left side. In the two papillae on the right side, no taste buds were detected within the fungiform papillae in the sixth and eighth week. During sixth and eighth week, there was no response to the highest presented stimuli in electrogustometry (1 mA) on the right-sided tongue tip nor at the tongue edge. The morphology (shape, diameter) of the fungiform papillae on both sides remained unchanged. Comparison of the time course of the volume changes revealed differences corresponding to gustatory sensitivity. These findings suggest that the time course of volume changes indicated taste disturbance in our patient, rather than morphological changes in the fungiform papillae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Risk Aversion on the Operation of Hydroelectric Reservoirs in the Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Jovanović

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing share of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar generation, has a direct impact on the planning and operation of power systems. In addition, the consideration of risk criteria within the decision support tools used by market participants (generation companies, energy services companies, and arbitrageurs is becoming a common activity given the increasing level of uncertainties faced by them. As a consequence, the behavior of market participants is affected by their level of risk aversion, and the application of equilibrium-based models is a common technique used in order to simulate their behavior. This paper presents a multi-stage market equilibrium model of risk-averse agents in order to analyze up to what extent the operation of hydro reservoirs can be affected by the risk-averse profile of market participants in a context of renewable energy source penetration and fuel price volatility.

  19. Acute, but not chronic, exposure to d-cycloserine facilitates extinction and modulates spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, G Andrew; Remus, Jennifer L; Ramos, Linnet; Wilson, Gina N; Biesan, Orion R; Ketchesin, Kyle D

    2012-01-18

    D-cycloserine, the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor partial agonist, has been reported to facilitate the extinction of learned fears acquired in both naturalistic and laboratory settings. The current study extended this literature by evaluating the ability of either chronic or acute administrations of DCS to modulate the extinction and spontaneous recovery of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Twenty-three hour fluid-deprived Sprague-Dawley rats acquired a strong CTA following 3 pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS; 0.3% oral saccharin)+unconditioned stimulus [US; 81 mg/kg (i.p.) lithium chloride (LiCl)]. In separate groups of rats, we then employed 2 different extinction paradigms: (1) CS-only (CSO-EXT) in which saccharin was presented every-other day, or (2) Explicitly Unpaired (EU-EXT) in which both saccharin and LiCl were presented but on alternate days. Previous studies have indicated that the EU-EXT procedure speeds up the extinction process. Further, spontaneous recovery of a CTA emerges following CSO-EXT but the EU-EXT paradigm causes a suppression of spontaneous recovery. DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered immediately after daily liquid presentations (saccharin or water, alternate days) during the extinction period. In an acute drug manipulation, DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline control injections were administered for 4 days only. This was done during one of 3 different phases of extinction [i.e., static (2-5%), early dynamic (8-16%), or middle dynamic (20-40%) saccharin reacceptance]. Other animals assigned to the chronic DCS condition received daily DCS (15 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout extinction. Changes in saccharin drinking in these animals were compared to the data from rats that received no drug (saline controls). Once rats met our criterion for asymptotic extinction (90% reacceptance of the CS) they entered a 30-day latency period during which they received water for 1 h/day. The day after the completion of the latency period, a final

  20. Impact of childhood trauma and cognitive emotion regulation strategies on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Baek, Kwangyeol; Kwon, Jae-Hyung; Jeong, Jaeseung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Although poor decision-making ultimately impairs quality of life in depression, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of patients suffering from dysfunctional decision-making. This study aims to delineate the effect of childhood trauma and other personality factors on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. A total of 50 depressive patients completed surveys for the measurement of sociodemographic factors, trauma loads and other clinical characteristics, including depression, anxiety, and strategies for emotion regulation. Risk aversion and loss aversion were quantified using probability discounting task and a 50:50 gamble on monetary decision-making task under specified risks. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors, predicting risk aversion or loss aversion in depression. Childhood trauma was the most prominent factor predicting loss aversion in patients with depressive disorders. Overall maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with risk aversion. Childhood trauma and specific strategies of emotion regulation contribute to risk or loss aversion in patients with depression. These findings may provide useful insight into elaborative evaluation and interventions to improve decision-making and quality of life in patients with depression.

  1. Responses of cerebral GABA-containing CBM neuron to taste stimulation with seaweed extracts in Aplysia kurodai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusuye, Kenji; Kinugawa, Aiko; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2005-11-01

    Aplysia kurodai distributed along Japan feeds well on Ulva pertusa but rejects Gelidium amansii with distinctive patterned movements of the jaws and radula. On the ventral side of the cerebral M cluster, four cell bodies of higher order neurons that send axons to the buccal ganglia are distributed (CBM neurons). We have previously shown that the dopaminergic CBM1 modulates basic feeding circuits in the buccal ganglia for rejection by firing at higher frequency after application of the aversive taste of seaweed such as Gelidium amansii. In the present experiments immunohistochemical techniques showed that the CBM3 exhibited gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactivity. The CBM3 may be equivalent to the CBI-3 involved in changing the motor programs from rejection to ingestion in Aplysia californica. The responses of the CBM3 to taste stimulation of the lips with seaweed extracts were investigated by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically introduced into a cell body of the CBM3 using a microelectrode. Application of Ulva pertusa or Gelidium amansii extract induced different changes in fluorescence in the CBM3 cell body, indicating that taste of Ulva pertusa initially induced longer-lasting continuous spike responses at slightly higher frequency compared with that of Gelidium amansii. Considering a role of the CBM3 in the pattern selection, these results suggest that elongation of the initial firing response may be a major factor for the CBM3 to switch the buccal motor programs from rejection to ingestion after application of different tastes of seaweeds in Aplysia kurodai. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  3. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiqi; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  4. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Gaillard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds.

  5. β-catenin is required for taste bud cell renewal and behavioral taste perception in adult mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Millar, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Taste stimuli are transduced by taste buds and transmitted to the brain via afferent gustatory fibers. Renewal of taste receptor cells from actively dividing progenitors is finely tuned to maintain taste sensitivity throughout life. We show that conditional β-catenin deletion in mouse taste progenitors leads to rapid depletion of progenitors and Shh+ precursors, which in turn causes taste bud loss, followed by loss of gustatory nerve fibers. In addition, our data suggest LEF1, TCF7 and Wnt3 are involved in a Wnt pathway regulatory feedback loop that controls taste cell renewal in the circumvallate papilla epithelium. Unexpectedly, taste bud decline is greater in the anterior tongue and palate than in the posterior tongue. Mutant mice with this regional pattern of taste bud loss were unable to discern sweet at any concentration, but could distinguish bitter stimuli, albeit with reduced sensitivity. Our findings are consistent with published reports wherein anterior taste buds have higher sweet sensitivity while posterior taste buds are better tuned to bitter, and suggest β-catenin plays a greater role in renewal of anterior versus posterior taste buds. PMID:28846687

  6. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.

  7. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0-2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others.

  8. Effect of ciguatoxin 3C on voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents in mouse taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiaroni, Valeria; Fuwa, Haruhiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Sasaki, Makoto; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Rossini, Gian Paolo; Scalera, Giuseppe; Bigiani, Albertino

    2006-09-01

    The marine dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus produces highly lipophilic, polycyclic ether toxins that cause a seafood poisoning called ciguatera. Ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambierol represent the two major causative agents of ciguatera intoxication, which include taste alterations (dysgeusiae). However, information on the mode of action of ciguatera toxins in taste cells is scarce. Here, we have studied the effect of synthetic CTX3C (a CTX congener) on mouse taste cells. By using the patch-clamp technique to monitor membrane ion currents, we found that CTX3C markedly affected the operation of voltage-gated Na(+) channels but was ineffective on voltage-gated K(+) channels. This result was the exact opposite of what we obtained earlier with gambierol, which inhibits K(+) channels but not Na(+) channels. Thus, CTXs and gambierol affect with high potency the operation of separate classes of voltage-gated ion channels in taste cells. Our data suggest that taste disturbances reported in ciguatera poisoning might be due to the ability of ciguatera toxins to interfere with ion channels in taste buds.

  9. Taste buds: cells, signals and synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a consolidation and refinement of the extraordinary progress made in taste research. This Review describes recent advances in our understanding of taste receptors, taste buds, and the connections between taste buds and sensory afferent fibres. The article discusses new findings regarding the cellular mechanisms for detecting tastes, new data on the transmitters involved in taste processing and new studies that address longstanding arguments about taste coding.

  10. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  11. An Aversion-Desensitization Treatment for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Richard V.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A six-to nine-month interview follow-up showed that five of the seven traceable Ss given the interpersonal aversion-systematic desensitization treatment had been abstinent, compared with only one of seven treated by the interpersonal aversion-control procedure. (Author)

  12. Oxaliplatin Alters Expression of T1R2 Receptor and Sensitivity to Sweet Taste in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Akihiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Yamanaka, Yuri; Miyata, Ai; Ikukawa, Akiko; Yabu, Miharu; Miyamoto, Karin; Bansho, Saho; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    As one of the adverse effects of oxaliplatin, a key agent in colon cancer chemotherapy, a taste disorder is a severe issue in a clinical situation because it decreases the quality of life of patients. However, there is little information on the mechanism underlying the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder. Here, we examined the molecular and behavioral characteristics of the oxaliplatin-induced taste disorder in rats. Oxaliplatin (4-16 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats intraperitoneally for 2 d. Expression levels of mRNA and protein of taste receptors in circumvallate papillae (CP) were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Taste sensitivity was assessed by their behavioral change using a brief-access test. Morphological change of the taste buds in CP was evaluated by hematoxyline-eosin (HE) staining, and the number of taste cells in taste buds was counted by immunohistochemical analysis. Among taste receptors, the expression levels of mRNA and protein of T1R2, a sweet taste receptor subunit, were increased transiently in CP of oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7. In a brief-access test, the lick ratio was decreased in oxaliplatin-administered rats on day 7 and the alteration was recovered to the control level on day 14. There was no detectable alteration in the morphology of taste buds, number of taste cells or plasma zinc level in oxaliplatin-administered rats. These results suggest that decreased sensitivity to sweet taste in oxaliplatin-administered rats is due, at least in part, to increased expression of T1R2, while these alterations are reversible.

  13. TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa. PMID:24961971

  14. Are Teams Less Inequality Averse than Individuals?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in team decision-making becau...

  15. The number of taste buds is related to bitter taste sensitivity in layer and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Shotaro; Bungo, Takashi; Tabata, Shoji

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between taste sensitivity and the number of taste buds using a bitter tastant, quinine hydrochloride, was investigated in White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, and broiler chickens. The White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red strains were able to perceive 2.0 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride, but the taste sensitivity of Rhode Island Red chickens was higher than that of White Leghorn chickens. Broiler chickens perceived 0.5 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride. The number of taste buds in the White Leghorn strain was the lowest, then the Rhode Island Red strain, with the number of taste buds highest in the broiler chickens. The number of taste buds was well correlated with bitter taste sensitivity. Therefore, we suggest that the number of taste buds is a vital factor in the perception of bitter taste and may be useful in selecting appropriate feeds for chickens.

  16. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility and Correlation Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable...... aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles....

  18. How to Make Loss Aversion Disappear and Reverse: Tests of the Decision by Sampling Origin of Loss Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Walasek, Lukasz; Stewart, Neil

    2014-01-01

    One of the most robust empirical findings in the behavioral sciences is loss aversion—the finding that losses loom larger than gains. We offer a new psychological explanation of the origins of loss aversion in which loss aversion emerges from differences in the distribution of gains and losses people experience. In 4 experiments, we tested this proposition by manipulating the range of gains and losses that individuals saw during the process of eliciting their loss aversion. We were able to fi...

  19. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  20. Subtype-dependent postnatal development of taste receptor cells in mouse fungiform taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Iwamoto, Masafumi; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2012-06-01

    Taste buds contain two types of taste receptor cells, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 3-immunoreactive cells (type II cells) and synaptosomal-associating protein-25-immunoreactive cells (type III cells). We investigated their postnatal development in mouse fungiform taste buds immunohistochemically and electrophysiologically. The cell density, i.e. the number of cells per taste bud divided by the maximal area of the horizontal cross-section of the taste bud, of type II cells increased by postnatal day (PD)49, where as that of type III cells was unchanged throughout the postnatal observation period and was equal to that of the adult cells at PD1. The immunoreactivity of taste bud cell subtypes was the same as that of their respective subtypes in adult mice throughout the postnatal observation period. Almost all type II cells were immunoreactive to gustducin at PD1, and then the ratio of gustducin-immunoreactive type II cells to all type II cells decreased to a saturation level, ∼60% of all type II cells, by PD15. Type II and III cells generated voltage-gated currents similar to their respective adult cells even at PD3. These results show that infant taste receptor cells are as excitable as those of adults and propagate in a subtype-dependent manner. The relationship between the ratio of each taste receptor cell subtype to all cells and taste nerve responses are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Neuman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE in the health-care sector to test the loss aversion theory that is derived from reference-dependent preferences: The absolute subjective value of a deviation from a reference point is generally greater when the deviation represents a loss than when the same-sized change is perceived as a gain. As far as is known, this paper is the first to use a DCE to test the loss aversion theory. A DCE is a highly suitable tool for such testing because it estimates the marginal valuations of attributes, based onextit{ deviations from a reference point} (a constant scenario. Moreover, loss aversion can be examined for extit{each attribute separately}. Another advantage of a DCE is that is can be applied toextit{ non-traded goods with non-tangible attributes}. A health-care event is used for empirical illustration: The loss aversion theory is tested within the context of preference structures for maternity-ward attributes, estimated using data gathered from 3850 observations made by a sample of 542 women who had recently given birth. Seven hypotheses are presented and tested. Overall, significant support for behavioral loss aversion theories was found. %JEL codes: D01, D12, I19

  2. Coping with Loss Aversion in the Newsvendor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce loss aversion into the decision framework of the newsvendor model. By introducing the loss aversion coefficient λ, we propose a novel utility function for the loss-averse newsvendor. First, we obtain the optimal order quantity to maximize the expected utility for the loss-averse newsvendor who is risk-neutral. It is found that this optimal order quantity is smaller than the expected profit maximization order quantity in the classical newsvendor model, which may help to explain the decision bias in the classical newsvendor model. Then, to reduce the risk which originates from the fluctuation in the market demand, we achieve the optimal order quantity to maximize CVaR about utility for the loss-averse newsvendor who is risk-averse. We find that this optimal order quantity is smaller than the optimal order quantity to maximize the expected utility above and is decreasing in the confidence level α. Further, it is proved that the expected utility under this optimal order quantity is decreasing in the confidence level α, which verifies that low risk implies low return. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the obtained results and some management insights are suggested for the loss-averse newsvendor model.

  3. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interferon (IFN-γ, and interleukin (IL-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-α and IFN-γ immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds

  4. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Zachary J; Kim, Agnes; Huang, Liquan; Brand, Joseph; Wang, Hong

    2010-06-10

    The mammalian taste bud, a complex collection of taste sensory cells, supporting cells, and immature basal cells, is the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Even though the cells of the taste bud undergo constant turnover, the structural homeostasis of the bud is maintained by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Compared with nongustatory lingual epithelial cells, taste cells express higher levels of several inflammatory receptors and signalling proteins. Whether inflammation, an underlying condition in some diseases associated with taste disorders, interferes with taste cell renewal and turnover is unknown. Here we report the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation on taste progenitor cell proliferation and taste bud cell turnover in mouse taste tissues. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse circumvallate and foliate papillae. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma immunoreactivities were preferentially localized to subsets of cells in taste buds. LPS-induced inflammation significantly reduced the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newborn taste bud cells 1-3 days after LPS injection, suggesting an inhibition of taste bud cell renewal. BrdU pulse-chase experiments showed that BrdU-labeled taste cells had a shorter average life span in LPS-treated mice than in controls. To investigate whether LPS inhibits taste cell renewal by suppressing taste progenitor cell proliferation, we studied the expression of Ki67, a cell proliferation marker. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that LPS markedly reduced Ki67 mRNA levels in circumvallate and foliate epithelia. Immunofluorescent staining using anti-Ki67 antibodies showed that LPS decreased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the basal regions surrounding circumvallate taste buds, the niche for taste progenitor

  5. Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Benedetto; Camerer, Colin F; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-02-23

    Losses are a possibility in many risky decisions, and organisms have evolved mechanisms to evaluate and avoid them. Laboratory and field evidence suggests that people often avoid risks with losses even when they might earn a substantially larger gain, a behavioral preference termed "loss aversion." The cautionary brake on behavior known to rely on the amygdala is a plausible candidate mechanism for loss aversion, yet evidence for this idea has so far not been found. We studied two rare individuals with focal bilateral amygdala lesions using a series of experimental economics tasks. To measure individual sensitivity to financial losses we asked participants to play a variety of monetary gambles with possible gains and losses. Although both participants retained a normal ability to respond to changes in the gambles' expected value and risk, they showed a dramatic reduction in loss aversion compared to matched controls. The findings suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in generating loss aversion by inhibiting actions with potentially deleterious outcomes.

  6. Quantification of taste of green tea with taste sensor; Aji sensor wo mochiita ryokucha no aji no teiryoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezaki, H.; Taniguchi, A. [Anritsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-08-20

    We have developed a multichannel taste sensor with artificial lipid membranes and have applied it to quantification of taste of green tea. We used multiple regression analysis and found high correlations of outputs of the taste sensor with the results of sensory test (taste, flavor and color) and chemical analyses (amino acids and tannin that are main taste substances in green tea). It is concluded that the taste sensor has a potential for quantification of taste of green tea. The taste sensor responds not only to amino acids and tannin, but also to many other taste substances, and hence it contains much more taste information than conventional chemical analyses. 12 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Narrative Aversion: Challenges for the Illness Narrative Advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Kathy

    2017-02-01

    Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed "aversion" to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to the damage illness does to identity and life-trajectory. Underlying these alleged benefits are two key presuppositions: that it is the whole of one's life that is narratively unified, and that one's identity is inextricably bound up with narrative. By letting go of these assumptions, illness narrative advocates can respond to the challenges of narrative aversions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Inequality Aversion and Voting on Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  9. Inequality aversion and voting on redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look...

  10. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Yoshida, Masahide; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2010-08-05

    The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT), acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout) overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin) solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM). OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II) nor Presynaptic (Type III) cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I) taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of appetite

  11. Brief Report: Risk-Aversion and Rationality in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Corentin J; Moutier, Sylvain

    2018-05-30

    Risk-aversion and rationality have both been highlighted as core features of decision making in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study tested whether risk-aversion is related to rational decision-making in ASD individuals. ASD and matched control adults completed a decision-making task that discriminated between the use of risk-averse and rational strategies. Results showed that overall, ASD participants were more risk-averse than control participants. Specifically, both groups made similar choices when risk-aversion was the less rational strategy but ASD participants chose more rational options than control participants when risk-aversion was the most rational strategy. This study confirmed that risk-aversion is a core feature of ASD and revealed that ASD individuals can switch their decision-making strategy adaptively to avoid negative consequences.

  12. Stereoselective synthesis of hernandulcin, peroxylippidulcine A, lippidulcines A, B and C and taste evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco G. Rigamonti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The first stereoselective synthesis of lippidulcines A, B and C has been accomplished starting from (+-hernandulcin, which has been prepared on a multigram scale. The previously assigned absolute configurations have been confirmed. The key steps of this synthesis are based on a modified version of the Kornblum–DeLaMare rearrangement, and on a highly regioselective and stereoselective ketone reduction with the MeCBS reagent. The taste evaluations indicate that none of these sesquiterpenes are sweet, instead the lippidulcine A is a cooling agent with a mint after taste.

  13. Schizophrenia illness severity is associated with reduced loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, James; Buruju, Dheeraj; Perrin, Jennifer S; Reid, Ian C; Steele, J Douglas; Feltovich, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs. The control group demonstrated significantly lower cooperation rates under negative payoffs, compared with the version with only positive payoffs, indicative of loss aversion. The patient group on average showed no loss aversion response. Moreover, the extent of loss aversion in patients was found to be negatively correlated with schizophrenia illness severity, with less ill patients showing loss aversion more similar to controls. Results were found to be robust to the inclusion of potential confounding factors as covariates within rigorous probit regression analyses. Reduced loss aversion is a feature of schizophrenia and related to illness severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Risk aversion and compliance in markets for pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranlund, John K

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the effects of risk aversion on compliance choices in markets for pollution control. A firm's decision to be compliant or not is independent of its manager's risk preference. However, non-compliant firms with risk-averse managers will have lower violations than otherwise identical firms with risk-neutral managers. The violations of non-compliant firms with risk-averse managers are independent of differences in their profit functions and their initial allocations of permits if and only if their managers' utility functions exhibit constant absolute risk aversion. However, firm-level characteristics do impact violation choices when managers have coefficients of absolute risk aversion that are increasing or decreasing in profit levels. Finally, in the equilibrium of a market for emissions rights with widespread non-compliance, risk aversion is associated with higher permit prices, better environmental quality, and lower aggregate violations.

  15. Time-varying risk aversion. An application to energy hedging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, John [Centre for Financial Markets, School of Business, University College Dublin, Blackrock, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Hanly, Jim [School of Accounting and Finance, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    Risk aversion is a key element of utility maximizing hedge strategies; however, it has typically been assigned an arbitrary value in the literature. This paper instead applies a GARCH-in-Mean (GARCH-M) model to estimate a time-varying measure of risk aversion that is based on the observed risk preferences of energy hedging market participants. The resulting estimates are applied to derive explicit risk aversion based optimal hedge strategies for both short and long hedgers. Out-of-sample results are also presented based on a unique approach that allows us to forecast risk aversion, thereby estimating hedge strategies that address the potential future needs of energy hedgers. We find that the risk aversion based hedges differ significantly from simpler OLS hedges. When implemented in-sample, risk aversion hedges for short hedgers outperform the OLS hedge ratio in a utility based comparison. (author)

  16. Time-varying risk aversion. An application to energy hedging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, John; Hanly, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Risk aversion is a key element of utility maximizing hedge strategies; however, it has typically been assigned an arbitrary value in the literature. This paper instead applies a GARCH-in-Mean (GARCH-M) model to estimate a time-varying measure of risk aversion that is based on the observed risk preferences of energy hedging market participants. The resulting estimates are applied to derive explicit risk aversion based optimal hedge strategies for both short and long hedgers. Out-of-sample results are also presented based on a unique approach that allows us to forecast risk aversion, thereby estimating hedge strategies that address the potential future needs of energy hedgers. We find that the risk aversion based hedges differ significantly from simpler OLS hedges. When implemented in-sample, risk aversion hedges for short hedgers outperform the OLS hedge ratio in a utility based comparison. (author)

  17. Acceptable losses: the debatable origins of loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechiam, Eldad

    2018-04-16

    It is often claimed that negative events carry a larger weight than positive events. Loss aversion is the manifestation of this argument in monetary outcomes. In this review, we examine early studies of the utility function of gains and losses, and in particular the original evidence for loss aversion reported by Kahneman and Tversky (Econometrica  47:263-291, 1979). We suggest that loss aversion proponents have over-interpreted these findings. Specifically, the early studies of utility functions have shown that while very large losses are overweighted, smaller losses are often not. In addition, the findings of some of these studies have been systematically misrepresented to reflect loss aversion, though they did not find it. These findings shed light both on the inability of modern studies to reproduce loss aversion as well as a second literature arguing strongly for it.

  18. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  19. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  20. Economic modelling with low-cognition agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2006-10-01

    The standard socio-economic model (SSSM) postulates very considerable cognitive powers on the part of its agents. They are able to gather all relevant information in any given situation, and to take the optimal decision on the basis of it, given their tastes and preferences. This behavioural rule is postulated to be universal. The concept of bounded rationality relaxes this somewhat, by permitting agents to have access to only limited amounts of information. But agents still optimise subject to their information set and tastes. Empirical work in economics over the past 20 years or so has shown that in general these behavioural postulates lack empirical validity. Instead, agents appear to have limited ability to gather information, and use simple rules of thumb to process the information which they have in order to take decisions. Building theoretical models on these realistic foundations which give better accounts of empirical phenomena than does the SSSM is an important challenge to both economists and econophysicists. Considerable progress has already been made in a short space of time, and examples are given in this paper.

  1. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR.

  2. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ke; Yang, Juan-Mei; Huang, Yi-Bo; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-06-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  3. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  4. Is wine savory? Umami taste in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alice, Vilela; António, Inês; Fernanda, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    Umami is an important taste element in natural products like wine. The umami taste has distinctive properties that differentiate it from other tastes, including a taste-enhancing synergism between two umami compounds, L-glutamate and 5’-ribonulceotides, and a prolonged aftertaste. In human taste cells, taste buds transduce the chemicals that elicit the umami tastes into membrane depolarization, which triggers release of transmitter to activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. Umami taste stim...

  5. Postnatal development of bitter taste avoidance behavior in mice is associated with ACTIN-dependent localization of bitter taste receptors to the microvilli of taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Atsuko; Kondo, Kaori; Kunishima, Yoshimi; Iseki, Sachiko; Kondo, Takashi; Ota, Masato S

    2018-01-22

    Bitter taste avoidance behavior (BAB) plays a fundamental role in the avoidance of toxic substances with a bitter taste. However, the molecular basis underlying the development of BAB is unknown. To study critical developmental events by which taste buds turn into functional organs with BAB, we investigated the early phase development of BAB in postnatal mice in response to bitter-tasting compounds, such as quinine and thiamine. Postnatal mice started to exhibit BAB for thiamine and quinine at postnatal day 5 (PD5) and PD7, respectively. Histological analyses of taste buds revealed the formation of microvilli in the taste pores starting at PD5 and the localization of type 2 taste receptor 119 (TAS2R119) at the microvilli at PD6. Treatment of the tongue epithelium with cytochalasin D (CytD), which disturbs ACTIN polymerization in the microvilli, resulted in the loss of TAS2R119 localization at the microvilli and the loss of BAB for quinine and thiamine. The release of ATP from the circumvallate papillae tissue due to taste stimuli was also declined following CytD treatment. These results suggest that the localization of TAS2R119 at the microvilli of taste pores is critical for the initiation of BAB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ambiguity aversion in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available People generally prefer risky options, which have fully specified outcome probabilities, to ambiguous options, which have unspecified probabilities. This preference, formalized in economics, is strong enough that people will reliably prefer a risky option to an ambiguous option with a greater expected value. Explanations for ambiguity aversion often invoke uniquely human faculties like language, self-justification, or a desire to avoid public embarrassment. Challenging these ideas, here we demonstrate that a preference for unambiguous options is shared with rhesus macaques. We trained four monkeys to choose between pairs of options that both offered explicitly cued probabilities of large and small juice outcomes. We then introduced occasional trials where one of the options was obscured and examined their resulting preferences; we ran humans in a parallel experiment on a nearly identical task. We found that monkeys reliably preferred risky options to ambiguous ones, even when this bias was costly, closely matching the behavior of humans in the analogous task. Notably, ambiguity aversion varied parametrically with the extent of ambiguity. As expected, ambiguity aversion gradually declined as monkeys learned the underlying probability distribution of rewards. These data indicate that ambiguity aversion reflects fundamental cognitive biases shared with other animals rather than uniquely human factors guiding decisions.

  7. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  8. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR.Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene.We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of

  9. The chemistry of sour taste and the strategy to reduce the sour taste of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liu, Fang

    2015-10-15

    The contributions of free hydrogen ions, undissociated hydrogen ions in protonated acid species, and anionic acid species to sour taste were studied through sensory experiments. According to tasting results, it can be inferred that the basic substance producing a sour taste is the hydrogen ion, including free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The intensity of a sour taste is determined by the total concentration of free hydrogen ions and undissociated hydrogen ions. The anionic acid species (without hydrogen ions) does not produce a sour taste but can intensify or weaken the intensity of a sour taste. It seems that hydroxyl or conjugated groups in anionic acid species can intensify the sour taste produced by hydrogen ions. The following strategy to reduce the sensory sourness is advanced: not only reduce free hydrogen ions, namely elevate pH value, but also reduce the undissociated hydrogen ions contained in protonated acid species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Single Lgr5- or Lgr6-expressing taste stem/progenitor cells generate taste bud cells ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenwen; Lewandowski, Brian C; Watson, Jaime; Aihara, Eitaro; Iwatsuki, Ken; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Margolskee, Robert F; Jiang, Peihua

    2014-11-18

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) and its homologs (e.g., Lgr6) mark adult stem cells in multiple tissues. Recently, we and others have shown that Lgr5 marks adult taste stem/progenitor cells in posterior tongue. However, the regenerative potential of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) cells and the identity of adult taste stem/progenitor cells that regenerate taste tissue in anterior tongue remain elusive. In the present work, we describe a culture system in which single isolated Lgr5(+) or Lgr6(+) cells from taste tissue can generate continuously expanding 3D structures ("organoids"). Many cells within these taste organoids were cycling and positive for proliferative cell markers, cytokeratin K5 and Sox2, and incorporated 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Importantly, mature taste receptor cells that express gustducin, carbonic anhydrase 4, taste receptor type 1 member 3, nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2, or cytokeratin K8 were present in the taste organoids. Using calcium imaging assays, we found that cells grown out from taste organoids derived from isolated Lgr5(+) cells were functional and responded to tastants in a dose-dependent manner. Genetic lineage tracing showed that Lgr6(+) cells gave rise to taste bud cells in taste papillae in both anterior and posterior tongue. RT-PCR data demonstrated that Lgr5 and Lgr6 may mark the same subset of taste stem/progenitor cells both anteriorly and posteriorly. Together, our data demonstrate that functional taste cells can be generated ex vivo from single Lgr5(+) or Lgr6(+) cells, validating the use of this model for the study of taste cell generation.

  11. Kokumi Substances, Enhancers of Basic Tastes, Induce Responses in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Expressing Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yutaka; Yasuda, Reiko; Kuroda, Motonaka; Eto, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami. PMID:22511946

  12. Development of full sweet, umami, and bitter taste responsiveness requires Regulator of G protein Signaling-21 (RGS21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Adam B; Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Wix, Kim; Siderovski, David P; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Setola, Vincent

    2018-04-26

    The mammalian tastes of sweet, umami, and bitter are initiated by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the T1R and T2R families on taste receptor cells. GPCRs signal via nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis, the latter hastened by GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) that include the Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) protein family. We previously reported that RGS21, uniquely expressed in Type II taste receptor cells, decreases the potency of bitter-stimulated T2R signaling in cultured cells, consistent with its in vitro GAP activity. However, the role of RGS21 in organismal responses to GPCR-mediated tastants was not established. Here, we characterized mice lacking the Rgs21 fifth exon. Eliminating Rgs21 expression had no effect on body mass accumulation (a measure of alimentation), fungiform papillae number and morphology, circumvallate papillae morphology, and taste bud number. Two-bottle preference tests, however, revealed that Rgs21-null mice have blunted aversion to quinine and denatonium, and blunted preference for monosodium glutamate, the sweeteners sucrose and SC45647, and (surprisingly) NaCl. Observed reductions in GPCR-mediated tastant responses upon Rgs21 loss are opposite to original expectations, given that loss of RGS21 -- a GPCR signaling negative regulator -- should lead to increased responsiveness to tastant-mediated GPCR signaling (all else being equal). Yet, reduced organismal tastant responses are consistent with observations of reduced chorda tympani nerve recordings in Rgs21-null mice. Reduced tastant-mediated responses and behaviors exhibited by adult mice lacking Rgs21 expression since birth have thus revealed an underappreciated requirement for a GPCR GAP to establish the full character of tastant signaling.

  13. How does economic risk aversion affect biodiversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouysset, L; Doyen, L; Jiguet, F

    2013-01-01

    Significant decline of biodiversity in farmlands has been reported for several decades. To limit the negative impact of agriculture, many agro-environmental schemes have been implemented, but their effectiveness remains controversial. In this context, the study of economic drivers is helpful to understand the role played by farming on biodiversity. The present paper analyzes the impact of risk aversion on farmland biodiversity. Here "risk aversion" means a cautious behavior of farmers facing uncertainty. We develop a bio-economic model that articulates bird community dynamics and representative farmers selecting land uses within an uncertain macro-economic context. It is specialized and calibrated at a regional scale for France through national databases. The influence of risk aversion is assessed on ecological, agricultural, and economic outputs through projections at the 2050 horizon. A high enough risk aversion appears sufficient to both manage economic risk and promote ecological performance. This occurs through a diversification mechanism on regional land uses. However, economic calibration leads to a weak risk-aversion parameter, which is consistent with the current decline of farmland birds. Spatial disparities however suggest that public incentives could be necessary to reinforce the diversification and bio-economic effectiveness.

  14. Video: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Anette; Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed; Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...

  15. Abstract: Taste - no waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth; Kamuk, Anette; Hoffmeyer, Agnete

    of different foods. In addition, the aim was to create experiences which could show how taste and taste courage are influenced by social interactions and relations. A final aim was to bring awareness of how you can reduce waste with the example of how to use all parts of fruits and vegetables. In total......, approximately 120 children aged 10-12 years participated. In one workshop, children experimented with making juice to explore the basic tastes and worked with the pulp as an example of how to reduce food waste. In another workshop, the children prepared and tasted roasted insects as an example of a future novel...

  16. Bitter or not? BitterPredict, a tool for predicting taste from chemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan-Wiener, Ayana; Nissim, Ido; Ben Abu, Natalie; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Bassoli, Angela; Niv, Masha Y

    2017-09-21

    Bitter taste is an innately aversive taste modality that is considered to protect animals from consuming toxic compounds. Yet, bitterness is not always noxious and some bitter compounds have beneficial effects on health. Hundreds of bitter compounds were reported (and are accessible via the BitterDB http://bitterdb.agri.huji.ac.il/dbbitter.php ), but numerous additional bitter molecules are still unknown. The dramatic chemical diversity of bitterants makes bitterness prediction a difficult task. Here we present a machine learning classifier, BitterPredict, which predicts whether a compound is bitter or not, based on its chemical structure. BitterDB was used as the positive set, and non-bitter molecules were gathered from literature to create the negative set. Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost), based on decision trees machine-learning algorithm was applied to molecules that were represented using physicochemical and ADME/Tox descriptors. BitterPredict correctly classifies over 80% of the compounds in the hold-out test set, and 70-90% of the compounds in three independent external sets and in sensory test validation, providing a quick and reliable tool for classifying large sets of compounds into bitter and non-bitter groups. BitterPredict suggests that about 40% of random molecules, and a large portion (66%) of clinical and experimental drugs, and of natural products (77%) are bitter.

  17. Probabilistic Sophistication, Second Order Stochastic Dominance, and Uncertainty Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Cerreia-Vioglio; Fabio Maccheroni; Massimo Marinacci; Luigi Montrucchio

    2010-01-01

    We study the interplay of probabilistic sophistication, second order stochastic dominance, and uncertainty aversion, three fundamental notions in choice under uncertainty. In particular, our main result, Theorem 2, characterizes uncertainty averse preferences that satisfy second order stochastic dominance, as well as uncertainty averse preferences that are probabilistically sophisticated.

  18. Expression of the synaptic exocytosis-regulating molecule complexin 2 in taste buds and its participation in peripheral taste transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yoshimoto, Joto; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-06-01

    Taste information from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying taste transduction through this pathway have not been fully elucidated. In this study, to identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated whether complexins (Cplxs), which play roles in regulating membrane fusion in synaptic vesicle exocytosis, were expressed in taste bud cells. Among four Cplx isoforms, strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in type III taste cells. To investigate the function of CPLX2 in taste transduction, we observed taste responses in CPLX2-knockout mice. When assessed with electrophysiological and behavioral assays, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2-knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These results suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction from type III taste cells to gustatory neurons. A part of taste information is thought to be transmitted via synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To identify molecules that participate in synaptic taste transduction, we investigated complexins (Cplxs) expression in taste bud cells. Strong expression of Cplx2 mRNA was detected in taste bud cells. Furthermore, taste responses to some sour stimuli in CPLX2- knockout mice were significantly lower than those in wild-type mice. These suggested that CPLX2 participated in synaptic taste transduction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Maintenance service contract model for heavy equipment in mining industry using principal agent theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpahan, Eka K. A.; Iskandar, Bermawi P.

    2015-12-01

    Mining industry is characterized by a high operational revenue, and hence high availability of heavy equipment used in mining industry is a critical factor to ensure the revenue target. To maintain high avaliability of the heavy equipment, the equipment's owner hires an agent to perform maintenance action. Contract is then used to control the relationship between the two parties involved. The traditional contracts such as fixed price, cost plus or penalty based contract studied is unable to push agent's performance to exceed target, and this in turn would lead to a sub-optimal result (revenue). This research deals with designing maintenance contract compensation schemes. The scheme should induce agent to select the highest possible maintenance effort level, thereby pushing agent's performance and achieve maximum utility for both parties involved. Principal agent theory is used as a modeling approach due to its ability to simultaneously modeled owner and agent decision making process. Compensation schemes considered in this research includes fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing. The optimal decision is obtained using a numerical method. The results show that if both parties are risk neutral, then there are infinite combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing produced the same optimal solution. The combination of fixed price and cost sharing contract results in the optimal solution when the agent is risk averse, while the optimal combination of fixed price and revenue sharing contract is obtained when agent is risk averse. When both parties are risk averse, the optimal compensation scheme is a combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing.

  20. Taste-masking assessment of orally disintegrating tablets and lyophilisates with cetirizine dihydrochloride microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Amelian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets and oral lyophilisates are novel attractive dosage forms that disintegrate or dissolve in the buccal cavity within seconds without necessity of drinking. The major limitation in designing of these dosage forms is unpleasant taste of the drug substance. Cetirizine dihydrochloride is a H1-antihistamine substance indicated for the treatment of allergy. It is characterized by extremely bitter taste, therefore in order to deliver cetirizine dihydrochloride using orodispersible formulations, effective taste-masking is required. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride could be successfully used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets by direct compression method and oral lyophilisates by freeze-drying process. Taste masking of cetirizine dihydrochloride was achieved by the spray-drying technique using Eudragit® E PO as the drug agent carrier. Based on the preliminary studies, optimal compositions of microparticles, tablets and lyophilisates were chosen. Obtained dosage forms were characterized for drug content, disintegration time and mechanical properties. In order to determine whether the microparticles subjected to direct compression and freeze-drying process effectively mask the bitter taste of cetirizine dihydrochloride, the in vivo and in vitro evaluation was performed. The results showed that designed formulates with microparticles containing cetirizine dihydrochloride were characterized by appropriate mechanical properties, uniformity of weight and thickness, short disintegration time, and the uniform content of the drug substance. Taste-masking assessment performed by three independent methods (e-tongue evaluation, human test panel and the in vitro drug release revealed that microparticles with Eudragit® E PO are effective taste – masking carriers of cetirizine dihydrochloride and might be used to formulate orally disintegrating tablets and oral

  1. "What's Your Taste in Music?" A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Janice; Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2015-12-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences.

  2. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth......, and that terminal wealth is defined as the sum of extra-lab wealth and any wealth accumulated in the lab. This assumption is often used in Expected Utility Theory, as well as popular alternatives such as RankDependent Utility theory. Another core assumption is that the small-stakes risk aversion is observed over...... all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes...

  3. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a sign...

  4. Peptide regulators of peripheral taste function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Cedrick D; Geraedts, Maartje C P; Munger, Steven D

    2013-03-01

    The peripheral sensory organ of the gustatory system, the taste bud, contains a heterogeneous collection of sensory cells. These taste cells can differ in the stimuli to which they respond and the receptors and other signaling molecules they employ to transduce and encode those stimuli. This molecular diversity extends to the expression of a varied repertoire of bioactive peptides that appear to play important functional roles in signaling taste information between the taste cells and afferent sensory nerves and/or in processing sensory signals within the taste bud itself. Here, we review studies that examine the expression of bioactive peptides in the taste bud and the impact of those peptides on taste functions. Many of these peptides produced in taste buds are known to affect appetite, satiety or metabolism through their actions in the brain, pancreas and other organs, suggesting a functional link between the gustatory system and the neural and endocrine systems that regulate feeding and nutrient utilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk aversion in medical decision making: a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Chicaíza; Mario García; Giancarlo Romano

    2011-01-01

    This article surveys the literature on risk aversion in medical decision making. The search covered Econlit, Jstor Science Direct and Springer Link since 1985. The results are classified in three topics: Risk aversion in the frameworks of Expected Utility and Rank Dependent Expected Utility theories, and the methodologies for measuring risk aversion and its applications to clinical situations from the points of view of economics and psychology. It was found that, despite conceptual and method...

  6. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Chamoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47. Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers.

  7. E-tongue: a tool for taste evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu; Sharma, Aarti; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj K

    2010-01-01

    Taste has an important role in the development of oral pharmaceuticals. With respect to patient acceptability and compliance, taste is one of the prime factors determining the market penetration and commercial success of oral formulations, especially in pediatric medicine. Taste assessment is one important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. Hence, pharmaceutical industries invest time, money and resources into developing palatable and pleasant-tasting products. The primary method for the taste measurement of a drug substance or a formulation is by human sensory evaluation, in which tasting a sample is relayed to inspectors. However, this method is impractical for early stage drug development because the test in humans is expensive and the taste of a drug candidate may not be important to the final product. Therefore, taste-sensing analytical devices, which can detect tastes, have been replacing the taste panelists. In the present review we are presenting different aspect of electronic tongue. The review article also discussed some useful patents and instrument with respect to E-tongue.

  8. Taste in holon paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available in this research the authors tried to investigate and generalize theoretic and applied studies of aesthetic taste, as well as, opportunities of its productivity distribution in terms of socio-cultural, person-professional and psychological levels. The article deals with traditional outlooks upon the origin of taste and its relationship with art and its current situation of taste functioning in terms of increasing globalization, virtualization and informatization of modern society.

  9. Understanding taste dysfunction in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2012-04-01

    Taste dysfunction is a significant but underestimated issue for patients with cancer. Impaired taste results in changes in diet and appetite, early satiety, and impaired social interactions. Nurses can play a key role in educating patients and families on the pathophysiology of taste dysfunction by suggesting interventions to treat the consequences of taste dysfunction, when available, and offering psychosocial support as patients cope with this often devastating consequence of treatment. Taste recognition helps humans identify the nutritional quality of food and signals the digestive tract to begin secreting enzymes. Spoiled or tainted foods typically are recognized by their bad taste. Along with the other sensory systems, taste is crucial for helping patients treated for cancer feel normal. This article will review the anatomy and physiology of taste; define the different types of taste dysfunction, including the underlying pathophysiologic basis related to cancer treatment; and discuss potential nursing interventions to manage the consequences of taste dysfunction.

  10. Taste bud cells and nerves

    OpenAIRE

    武田,正子/内田,暢彦/鈴木,裕子; タケダ,マサコ/ウチダ,ノブヒコ/スズキ,ユウコ; TAKEDA,Masako/UCHIDA,Nobuhiko/SUZUKI,Yuko

    2002-01-01

    Sectioning of glossopharyngeal nerves which innervate the taste buds in the circumvallate papillae caused apoptosis of taste buds, the numbers decreasing and the taste buds disappearing after 11 days. This indicates that gustatory nerves may release a trophic substance that induces and maintains taste buds. Taste bud cells contain neurotrophins, NCAM, NSE, PGP9.5, and NeuroD which are specific markers of neurons. The BDNF and GDNF of neurotrophins, and Trk B and GFRαl of their receptors were ...

  11. Risk Aversion, Price Uncertainty and Irreversible Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kort, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the theory of irreversible investment under uncertainty by allowing for risk averse investors in the absence of com-plete markets.Until now this theory has only been developed in the cases of risk neutrality, or risk aversion in combination with complete markets.Within a

  12. An evolutionary game model for behavioral gambit of loyalists: Global awareness and risk-aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfinito, E.; Barra, A.; Beccaria, M.; Fachechi, A.; Macorini, G.

    2018-02-01

    We study the phase diagram of a minority game where three classes of agents are present. Two types of agents play a risk-loving game that we model by the standard Snowdrift Game. The behaviour of the third type of agents is coded by indifference with respect to the game at all: their dynamics is designed to account for risk-aversion as an innovative behavioral gambit. From this point of view, the choice of this solitary strategy is enhanced when innovation starts, while is depressed when it becomes the majority option. This implies that the payoff matrix of the game becomes dependent on the global awareness of the agents measured by the relevance of the population of the indifferent players. The resulting dynamics is nontrivial with different kinds of phase transition depending on a few model parameters. The phase diagram is studied on regular as well as complex networks.

  13. Randomness in preference orderings, outcomes and attribute tastes: An application to journey time risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batley, Richard; Ibáñez Rivas, Juan Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    estimate a mean ‘reliability ratio’ (ratio of the value of standard deviation of journey time to the value of scheduled journey time) of 2.07, against a median of 0.85. The properties of the distribution of the reliability ratio suggest a predominant behaviour of aversion to journey time risk.......Within the broad area of probabilistic modelling of individual discrete choice, we develop three strands of discussion. First, we outline a theoretical framework for the modelling of individual discrete choice under risk, distinguishing between three specific sources of randomness; in preference...... orderings, in outcomes, and in attribute tastes. Second, we apply this theoretical modelling framework to the domain of journey time risk (or ‘reliability’), a subject which has acquired prominence in the transportation policies of many countries. Third, we apply the modelling framework empirically, based...

  14. Repeatable aversion across threat types is linked with life-history traits but is dependent on how aversion is measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Reichert, Michael S; Crane, Jodie M S; O'Shea, William; Quinn, John L

    2018-02-01

    Personality research suggests that individual differences in risk aversion may be explained by links with life-history variation. However, few empirical studies examine whether repeatable differences in risk avoidance behaviour covary with life-history traits among individuals in natural populations, or how these links vary depending on the context and the way risk aversion is measured. We measured two different risk avoidance behaviours (latency to enter the nest and inspection time) in wild great tits ( Parus major ) in two different contexts-response to a novel object and to a predator cue placed at the nest-box during incubation---and related these behaviours to female reproductive success and condition. Females responded equally strongly to both stimuli, and although both behaviours were repeatable, they did not correlate. Latency to enter was negatively related to body condition and the number of offspring fledged. By contrast, inspection time was directly explained by whether incubating females had been flushed from the nest before the trial began. Thus, our inferences on the relationship between risk aversion and fitness depend on how risk aversion was measured. Our results highlight the limitations of drawing conclusions about the relevance of single measures of a personality trait such as risk aversion.

  15. DEVELOPING A SENSE OF TASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsimali, Marika; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds are found in a distributed array on the tongue surface, and are innervated by cranial nerves that convey taste information to the brain. For nearly a century, taste buds were thought to be induced by nerves late in embryonic development. However, this view has shifted dramatically. A host of studies now indicate that taste bud development is initiated and proceeds via processes that are nerve-independent, occur long before birth, and governed by cellular and molecular mechanisms intrinsic to the developing tongue. Here we review the state of our understanding of the molecular and cellular regulation of taste bud development, incorporating important new data obtained through the use of two powerful genetic systems, mouse and zebrafish. PMID:23182899

  16. Taste didactic reflection theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    and gastrophysicists), and social sciences (anthropologists) as well as educators (preschool, elementary, secondary and vocational schools, colleges and universities) and chefs. Through interdisciplinary research collaboration and communication we attempt to span the perceived chasm separating food-sensory science......, high schools and vocational educations. By integrating research, taste, learning, didactics and communication, our projects focus on three main areas: sensory sciences and didactics; gastrophysics and the integration of scientific disciplines; and innovation and honing of culinary skills. While we...... teach pupils, students and the broader public in educational institutions and festivals about and through taste, we also study their use of taste, taste preferences, and learning processes by gathering empirical data for anthropological, sensory and pedagogical research. At the conference, we wish...

  17. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  19. NaCl responsive taste cells in the mouse fungiform taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, R; Horio, N; Murata, Y; Yasumatsu, K; Shigemura, N; Ninomiya, Y

    2009-03-17

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rodents' chorda tympani (CT) nerve fibers responding to NaCl can be classified according to their sensitivities to the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker amiloride into two groups: amiloride-sensitive (AS) and -insensitive (AI). The AS fibers were shown to respond specifically to NaCl, whereas AI fibers broadly respond to various electrolytes, including NaCl. These data suggest that salt taste transduction in taste cells may be composed of at least two different systems; AS and AI ones. To further address this issue, we investigated the responses to NaCl, KCl and HCl and the amiloride sensitivity of mouse fungiform papilla taste bud cells which are innervated by the CT nerve. Comparable with the CT data, the results indicated that 56 NaCl-responsive cells tested were classified into two groups; 25 cells ( approximately 44%) narrowly responded to NaCl and their NaCl response were inhibited by amiloride (AS cells), whereas the remaining 31 cells ( approximately 56%) responded not only to NaCl, but to KCl and/or HCl and showed no amiloride inhibition of NaCl responses (AI cells). Amiloride applied to the basolateral side of taste cells had no effect on NaCl responses in the AS and AI cells. Single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments indicated that ENaC subunit mRNA was expressed in a subset of AS cells. These findings suggest that the mouse fungiform taste bud is composed of AS and AI cells that can transmit taste information differently to their corresponding types of CT fibers, and apical ENaCs may be involved in the NaCl responses of AS cells.

  20. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  1. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  2. Interoceptive ability predicts aversion to losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or "interoception" may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat-detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals.

  3. Effective return, risk aversion and drawdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacorogna, Michel M.; Gençay, Ramazan; Müller, Ulrich A.; Pictet, Olivier V.

    2001-01-01

    We derive two risk-adjusted performance measures for investors with risk averse preferences. Maximizing these measures is equivalent to maximizing the expected utility of an investor. The first measure, Xeff, is derived assuming a constant risk aversion while the second measure, Reff, is based on a stronger risk aversion to clustering of losses than of gains. The clustering of returns is captured through a multi-horizon framework. The empirical properties of Xeff, Reff are studied within the context of real-time trading models for foreign exchange rates and their properties are compared to those of more traditional measures like the annualized return, the Sharpe Ratio and the maximum drawdown. Our measures are shown to be more robust against clustering of losses and have the ability to fully characterize the dynamic behaviour of investment strategies.

  4. Rewiring the taste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojoon; Macpherson, Lindsey J; Parada, Camilo A; Zuker, Charles S; Ryba, Nicholas J P

    2017-08-17

    In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission. Here we show that bitter and sweet TRCs provide instructive signals to bitter and sweet target neurons via different guidance molecules (SEMA3A and SEMA7A). We demonstrate that targeted expression of SEMA3A or SEMA7A in different classes of TRCs produces peripheral taste systems with miswired sweet or bitter cells. Indeed, we engineered mice with bitter neurons that now responded to sweet tastants, sweet neurons that responded to bitter or sweet neurons responding to sour stimuli. Together, these results uncover the basic logic of the wiring of the taste system at the periphery, and illustrate how a labelled-line sensory circuit preserves signalling integrity despite rapid and stochastic turnover of receptor cells.

  5. Risk Aversion and Engagement in the Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Santana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy is a new online community that has important implications for offline behavior. This study evaluates whether engagement in the sharing economy is associated with an actor’s aversion to risk. Using a web-based survey and a field experiment, we apply an adaptation of Holt and Laury’s (2002 risk lottery game to a representative sample of sharing economy participants. We find that frequency of activity in the sharing economy predicts risk aversion, but only in interaction with satisfaction. While greater satisfaction with sharing economy websites is associated with a decrease in risk aversion, greater frequency of usage is associated with greater risk aversion. This analysis shows the limitations of a static perspective on how risk attitudes relate to participation in the sharing economy.

  6. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Linda A; Klein, Ophir D

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depend on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bradley T.; Tang, Tao; Krimm, Robin F.

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R), were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14) promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox). While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox), this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2) and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4) positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling. PMID:26901525

  8. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T Biggs

    Full Text Available Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2 were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R, were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14 promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox. While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox, this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2 and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4 positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling.

  9. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bradley T; Tang, Tao; Krimm, Robin F

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R), were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14) promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox). While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox), this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2) and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4) positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling.

  10. Empirical analysis of time preferences and risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Q.

    2005-01-01

    One of the important contributions is that a structural model with the reference point and loss aversion for intertemporal choice was developed to estimate the coefficient of loss aversion and the reference points of individuals.

  11. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Steven M; Duffy, John

    2012-01-15

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan.

  12. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks. PMID:28458446

  13. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-03-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks.

  14. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    findings imply a large positive effect on demand for potato chips from higher taste scores: when consumers’ experienced taste from potato chips improves by one unit, the average WTP for a 150 gram bag of chips increases by 20 euro cents. The effect from taste on bread demand seems smaller, but may...

  15. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  16. Salt taste adaptation: the psychophysical effects of adapting solutions and residual stimuli from prior tastings on the taste of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews how adaptation to sodium chloride, changing in concentration as a result of various experimental procedures, affects measurements of the sensitivity, intensity, and quality of the salt taste. The development of and evidence for the current model that the salt taste depends on an adaptation level (taste zero) determined by the sodium cation concentration is examined and found to be generally supported, despite great methodological complications. It would seem that lower adaptation levels elicit lower thresholds, higher intensity estimates, and altered quality descriptions with predictable effects on psychophysical measures.

  17. Risk-Averse Newsvendor Model with Strategic Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic newsvendor problem focuses on maximizing the expected profit or minimizing the expected cost when the newsvendor faces myopic customers. However, it ignores the customer’s bargain-hunting behavior and risk preference measure of the newsvendor. As a result, we carry out the rational expectation (RE equilibrium analysis for risk-averse newsvendor facing forward-looking customers who anticipate future sales and choose purchasing timing to maximize their expected surplus. We propose the equations satisfied by the RE equilibrium price and quantity for the risk-averse retailer in general setting and the explicit equilibrium decisions for the case where demand follows the uniform distribution and utility is a general power function. We identify the impacts of the system parameters on the RE equilibrium for this specific situation. In particular, we show that the RE equilibrium price for some risk-averse newsvendors is lower than for a risk-neutral retailer and the RE equilibrium stocking quantity for some risk-averse newsvendors is higher than for a risk-neutral retailer. We also find that the RE equilibrium sale price for a risk-averse newsvendor is decreasing in salvage price in some situations.

  18. Taste and hypertension in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste...... and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset...... of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs...

  19. Optimal Consumption and Investment under Time-Varying Relative Risk Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    We consider the continuous time consumption-investment problem originally formalized and solved by Merton in case of constant relative risk aversion. We present a complete solution for the case where relative risk aversion with respect to consumption varies with time, having in mind an investor...... with age-dependent risk aversion. This provides a new motivation for life-cycle investment rules. We study the optimal consumption and investment rules, in particular in the case where the relative risk aversion with respect to consumption is increasing with age....

  20. Self-Other Decision Making and Loss Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Evan

    2012-01-01

    In eight studies, we tested the prediction that making choices for others involves less loss aversion than making choices for the self. We found that loss aversion is significantly lessened among people choosing for others in scenarios describing riskless choice (Study 1), gambling (Studies 2 and 3), and social aspects of life, such as likeably…

  1. Risk and Interaction Aversion: Screening Mechanisms in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Gabriel A.; Arenzon, Jeferson J.

    2017-09-01

    When the interactions between cooperators (C) and defectors (D) can be partially avoided within a population, there may be an overall enhancement of cooperation. One example of such screening mechanism occurs in the presence of risk-averse agents (loners, L) that are neutral towards others, i.e., both L and its opponent, whatever its strategy, receive the same payoff. Their presence in the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game sustains the coexistence of cooperators and defectors far beyond the level attained in their absence. Another screening mechanism is a heterogeneous landscape obtained, for example, by site diluting the lattice. In this case, cooperation is enhanced with some fraction of such inactive, interaction-averse sites. By considering the interplay of both mechanisms, we show that there is an explosive increase in the range of densities, just above the percolation threshold, where neutrality is prevented and loners become extinct, the behavior reverting to the pure PD game. Interestingly, this occurs despite defectors being usually abundant in that region. This has to be compared with the corresponding loner-free region in the undiluted case that, besides being very small, is dominated by cooperators.

  2. Aversive smell associations shape social judgment

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Philipp; Ely, Benjamin A.; Yuan, May; Brosch, Tobias; Ng, John; Trope, Yaacov; Schiller, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Once associating another person with an unpleasant smell, how do we perceive and judge this person from that moment on? Here, we used aversive olfactory conditioning followed by a social attribution task during functional magnetic resonance imaging to address this question. After conditioning, where one of two faces was repeatedly paired with an aversive smell, the participants reported negative affect when viewing the smell-conditioned but not the neutral face. When subsequently confronted w...

  3. TGF-beta3 is expressed in taste buds and inhibits proliferation of primary cultured taste epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawai, Takayuki; Kamakura, Takashi; Ookura, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas), expressed in various tissues, play important roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through their effects on cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell death, and cell motility. However, expression of TGF-beta signaling components and their biological effect on taste epithelia has not been elucidated. We performed expression analysis of TGF-beta signaling components in taste epithelia and found that the TGF-beta3 mRNA was specifically expressed in taste buds. Type II TGF-betas receptor (TbetaR-II) mRNA was specifically expressed in the tongue epithelia including the taste epithelia. To elucidate the biological function of TGF-beta3 in taste epithelia, we performed proliferation assay with primary cultured taste epithelial cells. In the presence of TGF-beta3, percentage of BrdU-labeled cells decreased significantly, suggesting that the TGF-beta3 inhibited the proliferation of cultured taste epithelial cells through inhibiting cell-cycle entry into S phase. By quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, we found that the TGF-beta3 resulted in an increased level of expression of p15Ink4b and p21Cip1, suggesting that the TGF-beta3 inhibited the taste epithelial cell proliferation through inhibiting G1cyclin-Cdk complexes. Taken together, these results suggested that the TGF-beta3 may regulate taste epithelial cell homeostasis through controlling cell proliferation.

  4. Memory reconsolidation in aversive and appetitive settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Claire Reichelt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory reconsolidation has been observed across species and in a number of behavioural paradigms. The majority of memory reconsolidation studies have been carried out in pavlovian fear conditioning and other aversive memory settings, with potential implications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, there is a growing literature on memory reconsolidation in appetitive reward-related memory paradigms, including translational models of drug addiction. While there appears to be substantial similarity in the basic phenomenon and underlying mechanisms of memory reconsolidation across unconditioned stimulus valence, there are also notable discrepancies. These arise both when comparing aversive to appetitive paradigms and also across different paradigms within the same valence of memory. We review the demonstration of memory reconsolidation across different aversive and appetitive memory paradigms, the commonalities and differences in underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which each memory undergoes reconsolidation. We focus particularly on whether principles derived from the aversive literature are applicable to appetitive settings, and also whether the expanding literature in appetitive paradigms is informative for fear memory reconsolidation.

  5. Characterizing the genetic influences on risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrati, Amal

    2014-01-01

    Risk aversion has long been cited as an important factor in retirement decisions, investment behavior, and health. Some of the heterogeneity in individual risk tolerance is well understood, reflecting age gradients, wealth gradients, and similar effects, but much remains unexplained. This study explores genetic contributions to heterogeneity in risk aversion among older Americans. Using over 2 million genetic markers per individual from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study, I report results from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on risk preferences using a sample of 10,455 adults. None of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found to be statistically significant determinants of risk preferences at levels stricter than 5 × 10(-8). These results suggest that risk aversion is a complex trait that is highly polygenic. The analysis leads to upper bounds on the number of genetic effects that could exceed certain thresholds of significance and still remain undetected at the current sample size. The findings suggest that the known heritability in risk aversion is likely to be driven by large numbers of genetic variants, each with a small effect size.

  6. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista L. Barberini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  7. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Are Taste Buds? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Are Taste Buds? ...

  8. Tasteful Brands: Products of Brands Perceived to be Warm and Competent Taste Subjectively Better

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Bratanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using survey and experimental data, the present research examines the effect of brand perception on experienced taste. The content of brand perception can be organized along the two social perception dimensions of warmth and competence. We use these two dimensions to systematically investigate the influence of brand perception on experienced taste and consumer behavior toward food products. The brand’s perceived warmth and competence independently influenced taste, both when it was measured as a belief and as an embodied experience following consumption. Taste mediated the link between brand’s warmth and competence perceptions and three consumer behavioral tendencies crucial for the marketing success of brands: buying intentions, brand loyalty, and support for the brand.

  9. Decision-Making in Suicidal Behavior: The Protective Role of Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hökby, Sebastian; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Machín, Núria; Sarchiapone, Marco; Sisask, Merike; Carli, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Loss aversion is a central and well operationalized trait behavior that describes the tendency for humans to strongly prefer avoiding losses to making equivalent gains. Human decision-making is thus biased toward safer choices. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between loss aversion and suicidal behavior in a large cohort of adolescents recruited in 30 schools of seven European countries for a longitudinal study (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN65120704). We hypothesized that individuals with higher loss aversion would be less likely to attempt suicide. A mixed monetary gamble task was used to generate loss aversion scores for each participant. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association between loss aversion and life-time suicide attempts in the baseline sample ( N  = 2,158; 156 attempters), and incident attempts were predicted in a 4-month prospective model ( N  = 1,763; 75 attempters). Multiple regression was used to estimate the association between loss aversion and suicidal ideation. Loss aversion was a significant predictor of attempted suicide in both the cross-sectional (OR = 0.79; P  = 0.005) and prospective analysis (OR = 0.81; P  = 0.040), adjusting for depression, anxiety, stress, and sex. The correlation between pre and post measures of loss aversion was r  = 0.52 ( P  loss aversion was not (cross-sectional model: P  = 0.092; Prospective model: P  = 0.390). This suggests that the concept of loss aversion may be useful in understanding the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts. This and previous studies suggest that altered decision-making is involved in suicide attempts. In our study, we show the involvement of loss aversion in particular, and propose that individuals high in loss aversion are discouraged from carrying out the suicide attempt because of a greater focus on the negative consequences of the decision.

  10. The differential role of cortical protein synthesis in taste memory formation and persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Gal-Ben-Ari, Shunit; Heise, Christopher; Rosenberg, Tali; Elkobi, Alina; Inberg, Sharon; Sala, Carlo; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-05-01

    The current dogma suggests that the formation of long-term memory (LTM) is dependent on protein synthesis but persistence of the memory trace is not. However, many of the studies examining the effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTM persistence were performed in the hippocampus, which is known to have a time-dependent role in memory storage, rather than the cortex, which is considered to be the main structure to store long-term memories. Here we studied the effect of PSIs on LTM formation and persistence in male Wistar Hola (n⩾5) rats by infusing the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (100 μg, 1 μl), into the gustatory cortex (GC) during LTM formation and persistence in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We found that local anisomycin infusion to the GC before memory acquisition impaired LTM formation (P=8.9E-5), but had no effect on LTM persistence when infused 3 days post acquisition (P=0.94). However, when we extended the time interval between treatment with anisomycin and testing from 3 days to 14 days, LTM persistence was enhanced (P=0.01). The enhancement was on the background of stable and non-declining memory, and was not recapitulated by another amnesic agent, APV (10 μg, 1 μl), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (P=0.54). In conclusion, CTA LTM remains sensitive to the action of PSIs in the GC even 3 days following memory acquisition. This sensitivity is differentially expressed between the formation and persistence of LTM, suggesting that increased cortical protein synthesis promotes LTM formation, whereas decreased protein synthesis promotes LTM persistence.

  11. Taste, terroir, and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKWine drinkers have long acknowledged the link between taste and terroir, the often unmistakable connection between the flavor of a wine and the particular patch of ground in which the vines were grown. But the science behind the connection, indeed the whole concept of taste and terroir, has long been disputed. New technological developments in both "neuroenology" – how the brain creates the taste of wine1 – and in wine chemistry2 have offered more insight into the science.

  12. Aversive aftertaste changes visual food cue reactivity: An fMRI study on cross-modal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnegger, Albert; Schwab, Daniela; Schienle, Anne

    2018-04-23

    In western cultures, we are surrounded by appealing visual food cues that stimulate our desire to eat, overeating and subsequent weight gain. Cognitive control of appetite (reappraisal) requires substantial attentional resources and effort in order to work. Therefore, we tested an alternative approach for appetite regulation via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy, normal-weight women were presented with images depicting food (high-/low-caloric), once in combination with a bitter aftertaste (a gustatory stop signal) and once with a neutral taste (water), in a retest design. The aversive aftertaste elicited increased activation in the orbitofrontal/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (OFC, DLPFC), striatum and frontal operculum during the viewing of high-caloric food (vs. low-caloric food). In addition, the increase in DLPFC activity to high-caloric food in the bitter condition was correlated with reported appetite reduction. The findings indicate that this aftertaste procedure was able to reduce the appetitive value of visual food cues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of synaptogyrin-1 in T1R2-expressing type II taste cells and type III taste cells of rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Takeshi; Toyono, Takashi; Seta, Yuji; Kitou, Ayae; Kataoka, Shinji; Toyoshima, Kuniaki

    2013-09-01

    Synaptogyrins are conserved components of the exocytic apparatus and function as regulators of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. The synaptogyrin family comprises three isoforms: two neuronal (synaptogyrin-1 and -3) and one ubiquitous (synaptogyrin-2) form. Although the expression patterns of the exocytic proteins synaptotagmin-1, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin-2 and synaptophysin have been elucidated in taste buds, the function and expression pattern of synaptogyrin-1 in rat gustatory tissues have not been determined. Therefore, we examined the expression patterns of synaptogyrin-1 and several cell-specific markers of type II and III cells in rat gustatory tissues. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assays and immunoblot analysis revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 mRNA and its protein in circumvallate papillae. In fungiform, foliate and circumvallate papillae, the antibody against synaptogyrin-1 immunolabeled a subset of taste bud cells and intra- and subgemmal nerve processes. Double-labeling experiments revealed the expression of synaptogyrin-1 in most taste cells immunoreactive for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and the neural cell adhesion molecule. A subset of synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells also expressed phospholipase Cβ2, gustducin, or sweet taste receptor (T1R2). In addition, most synaptogyrin-1-immunoreactive taste cells expressed synaptobrevin-2. These results suggest that synaptogyrin-1 plays a regulatory role in transmission at the synapses of type III cells and is involved in exocytic function with synaptobrevin-2 in a subset of type II cells in rat taste buds.

  14. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Ernst

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1 does manifest in adolescents, (2 does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3, when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents.

  15. Light and electron microscopic observation of regenerated fungiform taste buds in patients with recovered taste function after severing chorda tympani nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takehisa; Ito, Tetsufumi; Narita, Norihiko; Yamada, Takechiyo; Manabe, Yasuhiro

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mean number of regenerated fungiform taste buds per papilla and perform light and electron microscopic observation of taste buds in patients with recovered taste function after severing the chorda tympani nerve during middle ear surgery. We performed a biopsy on the fungiform papillae (FP) in the midlateral region of the dorsal surface of the tongue from 5 control volunteers (33 total FP) and from 7 and 5 patients with and without taste recovery (34 and 29 FP, respectively) 3 years 6 months to 18 years after surgery. The specimens were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The taste function was evaluated by electrogustometry. The mean number of taste buds in the FP of patients with completely recovered taste function was significantly smaller (1.9 +/- 1.4 per papilla; p taste buds. Nerve fibers and nerve terminals were also found in the taste buds. It was clarified that taste buds containing taste cells and nerve endings do regenerate in the FP of patients with recovered taste function.

  16. Type III Cells in Anterior Taste Fields Are More Immunohistochemically Diverse Than Those of Posterior Taste Fields in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Courtney E; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2017-10-31

    Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking. Here, we compare Type III cells in four taste fields: fungiform, soft palate, circumvallate, and foliate in terms of reactivity to four canonical markers of Type III cells: polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1), synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25), serotonin (5-HT), and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Our findings indicate that while PKD2L1, 5-HT, and SNAP25 are highly coincident in posterior taste fields, they diverge in anterior taste fields. In particular, a subset of taste cells expresses PKD2L1 without the synaptic markers, and a subset of SNAP25 cells lacks expression of PKD2L1. In posterior taste fields, GAD67-positive cells are a subset of PKD2L1 expressing taste cells, but anterior taste fields also contain a significant population of GAD67-only expressing cells. These differences in expression patterns may underlie the observed functional differences between anterior and posterior taste fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Thinking like a trader selectively reduces individuals' loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hsu, Ming; Curley, Nina G; Delgado, Mauricio R; Camerer, Colin F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2009-03-31

    Research on emotion regulation has focused upon observers' ability to regulate their emotional reaction to stimuli such as affective pictures, but many other aspects of our affective experience are also potentially amenable to intentional cognitive regulation. In the domain of decision-making, recent work has demonstrated a role for emotions in choice, although such work has generally remained agnostic about the specific role of emotion. Combining psychologically-derived cognitive strategies, physiological measurements of arousal, and an economic model of behavior, this study examined changes in choices (specifically, loss aversion) and physiological correlates of behavior as the result of an intentional cognitive regulation strategy. Participants were on average more aroused per dollar to losses relative to gains, as measured with skin conductance response, and the difference in arousal to losses versus gains correlated with behavioral loss aversion across subjects. These results suggest a specific role for arousal responses in loss aversion. Most importantly, the intentional cognitive regulation strategy, which emphasized "perspective-taking," uniquely reduced both behavioral loss aversion and arousal to losses relative to gains, largely by influencing arousal to losses. Our results confirm previous research demonstrating loss aversion while providing new evidence characterizing individual differences and arousal correlates and illustrating the effectiveness of intentional regulation strategies in reducing loss aversion both behaviorally and physiologically.

  18. Health shocks and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Simon; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    We empirically assess whether a health shock influences individual risk aversion. We use grip strength data to obtain an objective health shock indicator. In order to account for the non-random nature of our data regression-adjusted matching is employed. Risk preferences are traditionally assumed to be constant. However, we find that a health shock increases individual risk aversion. The finding is robust to a series of sensitivity analyses and persists for at least four years after the shock. Income changes do not seem to be the driving mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  20. Oral lipase activities and fat-taste receptors for fat-taste sensing in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    It has been reported that a functional fat-taste receptor, GPR120, is present in chicken oral tissues, and that chickens can detect fat taste in a behavioral test. However, although triglycerides need to be digested to free fatty acids to be recognized by fat-taste receptors such as GPR120, it remains unknown whether lipase activities exist in chicken oral tissues. To examine this question, we first cloned another fat-taste receptor candidate gene, CD36, from the chicken palate. Then, using RT-PCR, we determined that GPR120 and CD36 were broadly expressed in chicken oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Also by RT-PCR, we confirmed that several lipase genes were expressed in both oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Finally, we analyzed the lipase activities of oral tissues by using a fluorogenic triglyceride analog as a lipase substrate. We found there are functional lipases in oral tissues as well as in the stomach and pancreas. These results suggested that chickens have a basic fat-taste reception system that incorporates a triglycerides/oral-lipases/free fatty acids/GPR120 axis and CD36 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Probability Weighting and Loss Aversion in Futures Hedging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how the introduction of probability weighting and loss aversion in a futures hedging model affects decision making. Analytical findings indicate that probability weighting alone always affects optimal hedge ratios, while loss and risk aversion only have an impact when probability

  2. Feasible sets, comparative risk aversion, and comparative uncertainty aversion in bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driesen, B.W.I.; Lombardi, M.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We study feasible sets of the bargaining problem under two different assumptions: the players are subjective expected utility maximizers or the players are Choquet expected utility maximizers. For the latter case, we consider the effects on bargaining solutions when players become more risk averse

  3. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure signal (unconditioned stimulus, US, animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammilary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  4. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ueji, Kayoko

    2011-01-01

    Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS) is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction) or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure) signal (unconditioned stimulus, US), animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning) are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammillary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  5. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  6. Combined Effects of Glucocorticoid and Noradrenergic Activity on Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Van Wingerden, Marijn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Loss aversion is a well-known behavioral regularity in financial decision making, describing humans' tendency to overweigh losses compared to gains of the same amount. Recent research indicates that stress and associated hormonal changes affect loss aversion, yet the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the causal influence of two major stress neuromodulators, cortisol and noradrenaline, on loss aversion during financial decision making. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subject design, we orally administered either the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (increasing noradrenergic stimulation), hydrocortisone, both substances, or a placebo to healthy young men. We tested the treatments' influence on a financial decision-making task measuring loss aversion and risk attitude. We found that both drugs combined, relative to either drug by itself, reduced loss aversion in the absence of an effect on risk attitude or choice consistency. Our data suggest that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity prompts an alignment of reward- with loss-sensitivity, and thus diminishes loss aversion. Our results have implications for the understanding of the susceptibility to biases in decision making.

  7. Localization of phosphatidylinositol signaling components in rat taste cells: Role in bitter taste transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Verma, A.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in taste transduction we have visualized, in rat tongue, ATP-dependent endoplasmic reticular accumulation of 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor binding sites, and phosphatidylinositol turnover monitored by autoradiography of [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol formed from [ 3 H]cytidine. Accumulated 45 Ca 2+ , inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, and phosphatidylinositol turnover are selectively localized to apical areas of the taste buds of circumvallate papillae, which are associated with bitter taste. Further evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol turnover in bitter taste is our observation of a rapid, selective increase in mass levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate elicited by low concentrations of denatonium, a potently bitter tastant

  8. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  9. Does ambiguity aversion survive in experimental asset markets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Füllbrunn, Sascha; Rau, Holger A.; Weitzel, Utz

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of theoretical studies explain empirical puzzles in finance with ambiguity aversion, it is not a given that individual ambiguity attitudes survive in markets. In fact, despite ample evidence of ambiguity aversion in individual decision making, most studies find no or only limited

  10. Olfaction, taste, and cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rouby, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    .... The book is conveniently divided into sections, including linguistic representations, emotion, memory, neural bases, and individual variation. Leading experts have written chapters on many facets of taste and smell, including odor memory, cortical representations, psychophysics and functional imaging studies, genetic variation in taste, and ...

  11. Inequity aversion revisted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Onderstal, S.; Schram, A.

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first systematic study of the robustness of parameter estimates for the Fehr-Schmidt (1999) model of inequity aversion with respect to (i) the occurrence of efficiency concerns; (ii) the scale of payoffs; and (iii) the game used (i.e., cross-game consistency). Moreover, we provide

  12. Risk Aversion and Expected-Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Rabin.

    2000-01-01

    Within the expected-utility framework, the only explanation for risk aversion is that the utility function for wealth is concave: A person has lower marginal utility for additional wealth when she is wealthy than when she is poor. This paper provides a theorem showing that expected-utility theory is an utterly implausible explanation for appreciable risk aversion over modest stakes: Within expected-utility theory, for any concave utility function, even very little risk aversion over modest st...

  13. Fabrication of taste sensor for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Tahara, Yusuke; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kuriyaki, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    In order to solve the unconcern to usefulness of learning science among high school students in Japan, we developed a simple fabricated taste sensor with sensitivity and selectivity to each taste quality, which can be applied in science class. A commercialized Teflon membrane was used as the polymer membrane holding lipids. In addition, a non-adhesive method is considered to combine the membrane and the sensor electrode using a plastic cap which is easily accessible. The taste sensor for education fabricated in this way showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. By adjusting the composition of trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMA) and phosphoric acid di(2-ethylhexyl) ester (PAEE) included in lipid solution, we improved the selectivity of this simple taste sensor to saltiness and sourness. To verify this taste sensor as a useful science teaching material for science class, we applied this taste sensor into a science class for university students. By comparing the results between the sensory test and the sensor response, humans taste showed the same tendency just as the sensor response, which proved the sensor as a useful teaching material for science class.

  14. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  15. Narp regulates long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reti, Irving M.; Crombag, Hans S.; Takamiya, Kogo; Sutton, Jeffrey M.; Guo, Ning; Dinenna, Megan L.; Huganir, Richard L.; Holland, Peter C.; Baraban, Jay M.

    2008-01-01

    Although long-lasting effects of drug withdrawal are thought to play a key role in motivating continued drug use, the mechanisms mediating this type of drug-induced plasticity are unclear. As Narp is an immediate early gene product that is secreted at synaptic sites and binds to AMPA receptors, it has been implicated in mediating enduring forms of synaptic plasticity. In previous studies, we found that Narp is selectively induced by morphine withdrawal in the extended amygdala, a group of limbic nuclei that mediate aversive behavioral responses. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated whether long-term aversive effects of morphine withdrawal are altered in Narp KO mice. We found that acute physical signs of morphine withdrawal are unaffected by Narp deletion. However, Narp KO mice acquire and sustain more aversive responses to the environment conditioned with morphine withdrawal than WT controls. Paradoxically, Narp KO mice undergo accelerated extinction of this heightened aversive response. Taken together, these studies suggest that Narp modulates both acquisition and extinction of aversive responses to morphine withdrawal and, therefore, may regulate plasticity processes underlying drug addiction. PMID:18729628

  16. Enhancement of Retronasal Odors by Taste

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Barry G.; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste (“sweet,” “sour,” “salty,” and “bitter”) and odor (“ot...

  17. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  18. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C; Carlisi, Christina O; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Myopic loss aversion: Potential causes of replication failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two studies on narrow bracketing and myopic loss aversion. The first study shows that the tendency to segregate multiple gambles is eliminated if subjects face a certainty equivalent or a probability equivalent task instead of a binary choice. The second study argues that the behavioral differences previously attributed entirely to myopic loss aversion are partly because long-term return properties are simply easier to grasp if the return information is already provided in the form of long-term returns rather than one-year returns. Both results may be related to recent failures to replicate myopic loss aversion. When the choice situation is structured in such a way that it draws respondents' attention to the final outcome distribution and/or if severe misestimations of long-term returns based on short-term return information are unlikely, behavioral differences consistent with myopic loss aversion are less likely to be observed.

  20. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Summer N; Clithero, John A; Harris, Alison M; Reed, Catherine L

    2017-01-01

    Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM) to choice and response time (RT) data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier) varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  1. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  2. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  3. Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly documented in adults but never measured in children. Here, we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity aversion in adults but not in children and for greater ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and found that children, like adults, are biased towards the familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion emerges across the course of development between childhood and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present in childhood.

  4. Loss-Averse Retailer’s Optimal Ordering Policies for Perishable Products with Customer Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policies for perishable product with customer returns. With the introduction of the segmental loss utility function, we depict the retailer’s loss aversion decision bias and establish the loss-averse retailer’s ordering policy model. We derive that the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns exists and is unique. By comparison, we obtain that both the risk-neutral and the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantities depend on the inventory holding cost and the marginal shortage cost. Through the sensitivity analysis, we also discuss the effect of loss-averse coefficient and the ratio of return on the loss-averse retailer’s optimal order quantity with customer returns.

  5. Anxiety and spatial attention moderate the electrocortical response to aversive pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-11-01

    Aversive stimuli capture attention and elicit increased neural activity, as indexed by behavioral, electrocortical and hemodynamic measures; moreover, individual differences in anxiety relate to a further increased sensitivity to threatening stimuli. Evidence has been mixed, however, as to whether aversive pictures elicit increased neural response when presented in unattended spatial locations. In the current study, ERP and behavioral data were recorded from 49 participants as aversive and neutral pictures were simultaneously presented in spatially attended and unattended locations; on each trial, participants made same/different judgments about pictures presented in attended locations. Aversive images presented in unattended locations resulted in increased error rate and reaction time. The late positive potential (LPP) component of the ERP was only larger when aversive images were presented in attended locations, and this increase was positively correlated with self-reported state anxiety. Findings are discussed in regard to the sensitivity of ERP and behavioral responses to aversive distracters, and in terms of increased neural processing of threatening stimuli in anxiety.

  6. Loss Aversion Reflects Information Accumulation, Not Bias: A Drift-Diffusion Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer N. Clay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Defined as increased sensitivity to losses, loss aversion is often conceptualized as a cognitive bias. However, findings that loss aversion has an attentional or emotional regulation component suggest that it may instead reflect differences in information processing. To distinguish these alternatives, we applied the drift-diffusion model (DDM to choice and response time (RT data in a card gambling task with unknown risk distributions. Loss aversion was measured separately for each participant. Dividing the participants into terciles based on loss aversion estimates, we found that the most loss-averse group showed a significantly lower drift rate than the other two groups, indicating overall slower uptake of information. In contrast, neither the starting bias nor the threshold separation (barrier varied by group, suggesting that decision thresholds are not affected by loss aversion. These results shed new light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying loss aversion, consistent with an account based on information accumulation.

  7. Expression and secretion of TNF-α in mouse taste buds: a novel function of a specific subset of type II taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Zhao, Hang; Chai, Jinghua; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Taste buds are chemosensory structures widely distributed on the surface of the oral cavity and larynx. Taste cells, exposed to the oral environment, face great challenges in defense against potential pathogens. While immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, are rarely found in taste buds, high levels of expression of some immune-response-associated molecules are observed in taste buds. Yet, the cellular origins of these immune molecules such as cytokines in taste buds remain to be determined. Here, we show that a specific subset of taste cells selectively expresses high levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Based on immuno-colocalization experiments using taste-cell-type markers, the TNF-α-producing cells are predominantly type II taste cells expressing the taste receptor T1R3. These cells can rapidly increase TNF-α production and secretion upon inflammatory challenges, both in vivo and in vitro. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-α expression in taste cells was completely eliminated in TLR2(-/-)/TLR4(-/-) double-gene-knockout mice, which confirms that the induction of TNF-α in taste buds by LPS is mediated through TLR signaling pathways. The taste-cell-produced TNF-α may contribute to local immune surveillance, as well as regulate taste sensation under normal and pathological conditions.

  8. Risk Aversion, Loss Aversion, and the Demand for Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Eeckhoudt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze insurance demand when the utility function depends both upon final wealth and the level of losses or gains relative to a reference point. Besides some comparative statics results, we discuss the links with first-order risk aversion, with the Omega measure, and with a tendency to over-insure modest risks that has been been extensively documented in real insurance markets.

  9. Insights on consciousness from taste memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Taste research in rodents supports the relevance of memory in order to determine the content of consciousness by modifying both taste perception and later action. Associated with this issue is the fact that taste and visual modalities share anatomical circuits traditionally related to conscious memory. This challenges the view of taste memory as a type of non-declarative unconscious memory.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE TASK AVERSIVENESS AND ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magvirasari Lestari Linra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination occurs when certain tasks are considered unpleasant, an unpleasant task and the usual delayed them is the task of writing, reading, studying for the exam, meetings, and administrative. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the task aversiveness with academic procrastination. Subject of the study were 100 students out of a population of 516 students of the Faculty of Psychology class of 2012-2014. The method used in this research is quantitative by using Spearman rho as data analysis techniques. The research instrument consists of academic procrastination scale and the scale of the task aversiveness. Based on the results of correlation is known that there is a positive relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination with a correlation coefficient r = 0.508; p = 0.000. The results showed that of the 100 students of the Faculty of Psychology University of Makassar has a degree of relationship between task aversiveness with academic procrastination is on the very low category (25, 8%. Area / types of tasks delayed is not necessarily an unpleasant task and otherwise unpleasant task may not be postponed. Area task the highest level of aversive and delays are areas the task of writing and reading. This study illustrates that academic procrastination can be lowered by a change in the mindset of an unpleasant task.

  11. Cognitive function is associated with risk aversion in community-based older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Buchman, Aron S; Laibson, David I; Bennett, David A

    2011-09-11

    Emerging data from younger and middle-aged persons suggest that cognitive ability is negatively associated with risk aversion, but this association has not been studied among older persons who are at high risk of experiencing loss of cognitive function. Using data from 369 community-dwelling older persons without dementia from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, an ongoing longitudinal epidemiologic study of aging, we examined the correlates of risk aversion and tested the hypothesis that cognition is negatively associated with risk aversion. Global cognition and five specific cognitive abilities were measured via detailed cognitive testing, and risk aversion was measured using standard behavioral economics questions in which participants were asked to choose between a certain monetary payment ($15) versus a gamble in which they could gain more than $15 or gain nothing; potential gamble gains ranged from $21.79 to $151.19 with the gain amounts varied randomly over questions. We first examined the bivariate associations of age, education, sex, income and cognition with risk aversion. Next, we examined the associations between cognition and risk aversion via mixed models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to ensure that our results were not driven by persons with preclinical cognitive impairment. In bivariate analyses, sex, education, income and global cognition were associated with risk aversion. However, in a mixed effect model, only sex (estimate = -1.49, standard error (SE) = 0.39, p risk aversion. Thus, a lower level of global cognitive function and female sex were associated with greater risk aversion. Moreover, performance on four out of the five cognitive domains was negatively related to risk aversion (i.e., semantic memory, episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed); performance on visuospatial abilities was not. A lower level of cognitive ability and female sex are associated with greater

  12. Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi; Maestripieri, Dario

    2009-09-08

    Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices.

  13. Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Signaling and Modifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste conveys crucial information about the quality and nutritional value of foods before it is ingested. Taste signaling begins with taste cells via taste receptors in oral cavity. Activation of these receptors drives the transduction systems in taste receptor cells. Then particular transmitters are released from the taste cells and activate corresponding afferent gustatory nerve fibers. Recent studies have revealed that taste sensitivities are defined by distinct taste receptors and modulated by endogenous humoral factors in a specific group of taste cells. Such peripheral taste generations and modifications would directly influence intake of nutritive substances. This review will highlight current understanding of molecular mechanisms for taste reception, signal transduction in taste bud cells, transmission between taste cells and nerves, regeneration from taste stem cells, and modification by humoral factors at peripheral taste organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velasco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word “sweet,” and the other including angular shapes and the taste words “salty,” “sour,” and “bitter.” The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular would influence the speed of participants’ responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions.

  16. Taste bud cells of adult mice are responsive to Wnt/β-catenin signaling: implications for the renewal of mature taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Dany; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling initiates taste papilla development in mouse embryos, however, its involvement in taste cell turnover in adult mice has not been explored. Here we used the BATGAL reporter mouse model, which carries an engineered allele in which the LacZ gene is expressed in the presence of activated β-catenin, to determine the responsiveness of adult taste bud cells to canonical Wnt signaling. Double immunostaining with markers of differentiated taste cells revealed that a subset of type I, II and III taste cells express β-galactosidase. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that β-catenin activates the transcription of the LacZ gene mainly in intragemmal basal cells that are immature taste cells, identified by their expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Finally, we showed that β-catenin activity is significantly reduced in taste buds of 25 week-old mice compared to 10 week-old animals. Our data suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling may influence taste cell turnover by regulating cell differentiation. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling in older mice could explain in part the loss of taste sensitivity with aging, implicating a possible deficiency in the rate of taste cell renewal. More investigations are now necessary to understand if and how Wnt signaling regulates adult taste cell turnover. PMID:21328519

  17. Enhanced striatal sensitivity to aversive reinforcement in adolescents versus adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Adriana; McGlennen, Kristine M

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental changes in mesolimbic regions are associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior. Numerous studies have shown exaggerated activation in the striatum in adolescents compared with children and adults during reward processing. However, striatal sensitivity to aversion remains elusive. Given the important role of the striatum in tracking both appetitive and aversive events, addressing this question is critical to understanding adolescent decision-making, as both positive and negative factors contribute to this behavior. In this study, human adult and adolescent participants performed a task in which they received squirts of appetitive or aversive liquid while undergoing fMRI, a novel approach in human adolescents. Compared with adults, adolescents showed greater behavioral and striatal sensitivity to both appetitive and aversive stimuli, an effect that was exaggerated in response to delivery of the aversive stimulus. Collectively, these findings contribute to understanding how neural responses to positive and negative outcomes differ between adolescents and adults and how they may influence adolescent behavior.

  18. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  19. Are group members less inequality averse than individual decision makers?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in te...

  20. The role of risk aversion in non-conscious decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Krajbich, Ian; Adolphs, Ralph; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2012-01-01

    To what extent can people choose advantageously without knowing why they are making those choices? This hotly debated question has capitalized on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), in which people often learn to choose advantageously without appearing to know why. However, because the IGT is unconstrained in many respects, this finding remains debated and other interpretations are possible (e.g., risk aversion, ambiguity aversion, limits of working memory, or insensitivity to reward/punishment can explain the finding of the IGT). Here we devised an improved variant of the IGT in which the deck-payoff contingency switches after subjects repeatedly choose from a good deck, offering the statistical power of repeated within-subject measures based on learning the reward contingencies associated with each deck. We found that participants exhibited low confidence in their choices, as probed with post-decision wagering, despite high accuracy in selecting advantageous decks in the task, which is putative evidence for non-conscious decision making. However, such a behavioral dissociation could also be explained by risk aversion, a tendency to avoid risky decisions under uncertainty. By explicitly measuring risk aversion for each individual, we predicted subjects' post-decision wagering using Bayesian modeling. We found that risk aversion indeed does play a role, but that it did not explain the entire effect. Moreover, independently measured risk aversion was uncorrelated with risk aversion exhibited during our version of the IGT, raising the possibility that the latter risk aversion may be non-conscious. Our findings support the idea that people can make optimal choices without being fully aware of the basis of their decision. We suggest that non-conscious decision making may be mediated by emotional feelings of risk that are based on mechanisms distinct from those that support cognitive assessment of risk.

  1. The formation of endoderm-derived taste sensory organs requires a Pax9-dependent expansion of embryonic taste bud progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Kist

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, taste buds develop in different regions of the oral cavity. Small epithelial protrusions form fungiform papillae on the ectoderm-derived dorsum of the tongue and contain one or few taste buds, while taste buds in the soft palate develop without distinct papilla structures. In contrast, the endoderm-derived circumvallate and foliate papillae located at the back of the tongue contain a large number of taste buds. These taste buds cluster in deep epithelial trenches, which are generated by intercalating a period of epithelial growth between initial placode formation and conversion of epithelial cells into sensory cells. How epithelial trench formation is genetically regulated during development is largely unknown. Here we show that Pax9 acts upstream of Pax1 and Sox9 in the expanding taste progenitor field of the mouse circumvallate papilla. While a reduced number of taste buds develop in a growth-retarded circumvallate papilla of Pax1 mutant mice, its development arrests completely in Pax9-deficient mice. In addition, the Pax9 mutant circumvallate papilla trenches lack expression of K8 and Prox1 in the taste bud progenitor cells, and gradually differentiate into an epidermal-like epithelium. We also demonstrate that taste placodes of the soft palate develop through a Pax9-dependent induction. Unexpectedly, Pax9 is dispensable for patterning, morphogenesis and maintenance of taste buds that develop in ectoderm-derived fungiform papillae. Collectively, our data reveal an endoderm-specific developmental program for the formation of taste buds and their associated papilla structures. In this pathway, Pax9 is essential to generate a pool of taste bud progenitors and to maintain their competence towards prosensory cell fate induction.

  2. The formation of endoderm-derived taste sensory organs requires a Pax9-dependent expansion of embryonic taste bud progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kist, Ralf; Watson, Michelle; Crosier, Moira; Robinson, Max; Fuchs, Jennifer; Reichelt, Julia; Peters, Heiko

    2014-10-01

    In mammals, taste buds develop in different regions of the oral cavity. Small epithelial protrusions form fungiform papillae on the ectoderm-derived dorsum of the tongue and contain one or few taste buds, while taste buds in the soft palate develop without distinct papilla structures. In contrast, the endoderm-derived circumvallate and foliate papillae located at the back of the tongue contain a large number of taste buds. These taste buds cluster in deep epithelial trenches, which are generated by intercalating a period of epithelial growth between initial placode formation and conversion of epithelial cells into sensory cells. How epithelial trench formation is genetically regulated during development is largely unknown. Here we show that Pax9 acts upstream of Pax1 and Sox9 in the expanding taste progenitor field of the mouse circumvallate papilla. While a reduced number of taste buds develop in a growth-retarded circumvallate papilla of Pax1 mutant mice, its development arrests completely in Pax9-deficient mice. In addition, the Pax9 mutant circumvallate papilla trenches lack expression of K8 and Prox1 in the taste bud progenitor cells, and gradually differentiate into an epidermal-like epithelium. We also demonstrate that taste placodes of the soft palate develop through a Pax9-dependent induction. Unexpectedly, Pax9 is dispensable for patterning, morphogenesis and maintenance of taste buds that develop in ectoderm-derived fungiform papillae. Collectively, our data reveal an endoderm-specific developmental program for the formation of taste buds and their associated papilla structures. In this pathway, Pax9 is essential to generate a pool of taste bud progenitors and to maintain their competence towards prosensory cell fate induction.

  3. Optimal Incentives in a Principal–Agent Model with Endogenous Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Marini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the standard predictions of the agency theory is that more incentives can be given to agents with lower risk aversion. In this paper, we show that this relationship may be absent or reversed when the technology is endogenous and projects with a higher efficiency are also riskier. Using a modified version of the Holmstrom and Milgrom’s framework, we obtain that lower agent’s risk aversion unambiguously leads to higher incentives when the technology function linking efficiency and riskiness is elastic, while the risk aversion–incentive relationship can be positive when this function is rigid.

  4. “What’s Your Taste in Music?” A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian (Janice Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks, whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks, compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time. In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences.

  5. “What’s Your Taste in Music?” A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T.; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences. PMID:27551365

  6. Taste as feeling

    OpenAIRE

    Highmore, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This article is premised on two presumptions. The first is, I think, uncontroversial, the second less so. The first presumption is that today, serious discussions about taste usually start out by rehearsing Pierre Bourdieu’s contribution to our understanding of how taste preferences operate in society. This, then, is merely to recognize that when Bourdieu first published books such as The Love of Art (1969, written with Alain Darbel) and Distinctions: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Tas...

  7. Consolidation of long-term memory by insulin in Lymnaea is not brought about by changing the number of insulin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Dai; Okuta, Akiko; Otsuka, Emi; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-05-01

    The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns taste aversion and consolidates it into long-term memory (LTM). This is referred to as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The superfusion of molluscan insulin-related peptides (MIPs) over the isolated snail brain causes a long-term enhancement of synaptic input between the cerebral giant cell and the B1 buccal motor neuron. This enhancement is hypothesized to underlie CTA. The synaptic enhancement caused by the superfusion of MIPs can be blocked by the application of human insulin receptor antibody, which recognizes the extracellular domain of human insulin receptor and acts as an antagonist even for MIP receptors. An injection of the human insulin receptor antibody into the abdominal cavity of trained snails blocks the consolidation process leading to LTM, even though the snails acquire taste aversion. Here, we examined whether or not taste-aversion training changes the mRNA expression level of MIP receptor in the snail brain and found that it does not. This result, taken together with previous findings, suggest that the MIPs' effect on synaptic function in the snail brain is attributable to a change in the MIP concentration, and not to a change in the mRNA expression level of MIP receptor, which is thought to reflect the number of MIP receptors.

  8. Late taste disorders in bone marrow transplantation: clinical evaluation with taste solutions in autologous and allogeneic bone marrow recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, M G; Rizzoni, D; Ferremi, P; Rossi, G; Izzi, T; Brusotti, C

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the type and the significance of taste disorders in allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients. In a retrospective study the taste threshold of a cohort of 15 allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients, 4-51 months after transplantation (mean: 30.6 +/- 15.8), was compared to the taste threshold of 8 autologous bone marrow recipients, 4-48 months after transplantation (mean: 24.12 +/- 12.18), and to the taste threshold of a group of 20 consecutive normal subjects. Allogeneic bone marrow transplanted patients showed a significant hypogeusia for salt (Pearson's chi