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Sample records for targeting mitogen-activated protein

  1. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the kidney: Target for intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, M.H.; Wassef, L.; Kelly, D.J.; van Goor, H.; Navis, Ger Jan

    2006-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are intracellular signal transduction molecules, which connect cell-surface receptor signals to intracellular processes. MAPKs regulate a range of cellular activities including cell proliferation, gene expression, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cytokine

  2. Hub nodes in the network of human Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways: Characteristics and potential as drug targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. MD Aksam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in the cross-talk between ERK1/2, ERK5, JNK, and P38 signalling pathways integrate the network of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways. Graph theory-based approach is used to construct the network of MAPK pathways, and to observe the network organisational principles. Connectivity pattern reveals rich-club among the hubs, enabling structural ordering. A positive correlation between the degree of the nodes and percentage of essential protein showed hubs are central to the network architecture and function. Furthermore, attributes like connectivity, inter/intra-pathway class, position in the pathway, protein type and subcellular localization of the essential and non-essential proteins are characterizing complex functional roles. Shared properties of 34 cancerous essential proteins lack to be drug targets. We identified the seven nodes overlapping properties of the hub, essential and causing side effects on targeting them. We exploit the strategy of cancerous, non-hub and non-essential proteins as potential drug targets and identified 4EBP1, BAD, CHOP10, GADD45, HSP27, MKP1, RNPK, MLTKa/b, cPLA2, eEF2K and elF4E. We have illustrated the implication of targeting hub nodes and proposed network-based drug targets which would cause less side effect.

  3. p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK): A New Therapeutic Target for Reducing the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Papaconstantinou, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) remain as a major clinical and therapeutic problem for intervention and management. Current strategies, based on our knowledge of pathways of preterm labor, have only been effective, in part, due to major gaps in our existing knowledge of risks and risk specific pathways. Areas covered Recent literature has identified physiologic aging of fetal tissues as a potential mechanistic feature of normal parturition. This process is affected by telomere dependent and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) induced senescence activation. Pregnancy associated risk factors can cause pathologic activation of this pathway that can cause oxidative stress induced p38 MAPK activation leading to senescence and premature aging of fetal tissues. Premature aging is associated with sterile inflammation capable of triggering preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. Preterm activation of p38MAPK can be considered as a key contributor to adverse pregnancies. Expert Opinion This review considers p38MAPK activation as a potential target for therapeutic interventions to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes mediated by stress factors. In this review, we propose multiple strategies to prevent p38MAPK activation and its functional effects. PMID:27459026

  4. Constitutive Activation of the Fission Yeast Pheromone-Responsive Pathway Induces Ectopic Meiosis and Reveals Ste11 as a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Søren; Lautrup-Larsen, I.; Truelsen, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, meiosis normally takes place in diploid zygotes resulting from conjugation of haploid cells. In the present study, we report that the expression of a constitutively activated version of the pheromone-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase...

  5. MicroRNA-197 reverses the drug resistance of fluorouracil-induced SGC7901 cells by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIONG, HAI-LIN; ZHOU, SI-WEI; SUN, AI-HUA; HE, YING; LI, JUN; YUAN, XIA

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules, which serve an important function in the development of multidrug resistance in cancer through the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and RNA silencing. In the present study, the functional effects of miR-197 were analyzed in chemo-resistant gastric cancer cells. Low expression levels of miR-197 were observed in the fluorouracil (5-FU)-resistant gastric cell line SGC7901/5-FU when compared with those in the parental gastric cell line SGC7901. Overexpression of miR-197 in SGC7901/5-FU cells was identified to partially restore 5-FU sensitivity. miRNA target prediction algorithms suggested that mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) is a candidate target gene for miR-197. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-197 led to silencing of the MAPK1 gene by recognizing and then specifically binding to the predicted site of the MAPK1 mRNA 3′-untranslated region. When miR-197 was overexpressed in SGC7901 cells, the protein levels of MAPK1 were downregulated. Furthermore, MAPK1 knockdown significantly increased the growth inhibition rate of the SGC7901/5-FU cells compared with those in the control group. These results indicated that miR-197 may influence the sensitivity of 5-FU treatment in a gastric cancer cell line by targeting MAPK1. PMID:26151540

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Maria Cristina Suarez; Petersen, Morten; Mundy, John

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have evolved to transduce environmental and developmental signals into adaptive and programmed responses. MAPK cascades relay and amplify signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases leading to the phosphorylation of subs...... the Arabidopsis thaliana MAPKs MPK3, 4, and 6 and MAP2Ks MKK1, 2, 4, and 5. Future work needs to focus on identifying substrates of MAPKs, and on understanding how specificity is achieved among MAPK signaling pathways.......Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have evolved to transduce environmental and developmental signals into adaptive and programmed responses. MAPK cascades relay and amplify signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases leading to the phosphorylation...... of substrate proteins, whose altered activities mediate a wide array of responses, including changes in gene expression. Cascades may share kinase components, but their signaling specificity is maintained by spaciotemporal constraints and dynamic protein-protein interactions and by mechanisms that include...

  7. Both mitogen activated protein kinase and the mammalian target of rapamycin modulate the development of functional renal proximal tubules in matrigel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ho Jae; Sigurdson, Wade J; Nickerson, Peter A; Taub, Mary

    2004-04-01

    Tubules may arise during branching morphogenesis through several mechanisms including wrapping, budding, cavitation and cord hollowing. In this report we present evidence that is consistent with renal proximal tubule formation through a process of cord hollowing (a process that requires the concomitant establishment of apicobasal polarity and lumen formation). Pockets of lumen filled with Lucifer Yellow were observed within developing cords of rabbit renal proximal tubule cells in matrigel. The observation of Lucifer Yellow accumulation suggests functional polarization. In the renal proximal tubule Lucifer Yellow is initially transported intracellularly by means of a basolaterally oriented p-aminohippurate transport system, followed by apical secretion into the lumen of the nephron. Consistent with such polarization in developing tubules, Triticum vulgare was observed to bind to the lumenal membranes within pockets of Lucifer Yellow-filled lumens. As this lectin binds apically in the rabbit renal proximal tubule, T. vulgare binding is indicative of the emergence of an apical domain before the formation of a contiguous lumen. Both epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor stimulated the formation of transporting tubules. The stimulatory effect of both epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor on tubulogenesis was inhibited by PD98059, a mitogen activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, rather than by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Nevertheless, Lucifer Yellow-filled lumens were observed in tubules that formed in the presence of PD98059 as well as with wortmannin, indicating that these drugs did not prevent the process of cavitation. By contrast, rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, prevented the process of cavitation without affecting the frequency of formation of developing cords. Multicellular cysts were observed to form in 8-bromocyclic AMP-treated cultures. As these cysts did not similarly

  8. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

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    Koul Sweaty

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy.

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the acute diabetic myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnisková, M.; Barančík, M.; Neckář, Jan; Ravingerová, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 249, 1-2 (2003), s. 59-65 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A069 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/2063/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : experimental diabetes * ischemia * mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.763, year: 2003

  10. Overcoming endocrine resistance due to reduced PTEN levels in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer by co-targeting mammalian target of rapamycin, protein kinase B, or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyong; Creighton, Chad J; Biswal, Nrusingh C; Kumar, Vijetha; Shea, Martin; Herrera, Sabrina; Contreras, Alejandro; Gutierrez, Carolina; Wang, Tao; Nanda, Sarmistha; Giuliano, Mario; Morrison, Gladys; Nardone, Agostina; Karlin, Kristen L; Westbrook, Thomas F; Heiser, Laura M; Anur, Pavana; Spellman, Paul; Guichard, Sylvie M; Smith, Paul D; Davies, Barry R; Klinowska, Teresa; Lee, Adrian V; Mills, Gordon B; Rimawi, Mothaffar F; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Gray, Joe W; Joshi, Amit; Osborne, C Kent; Schiff, Rachel

    2014-09-11

    Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer is associated with reduced ER expression and activity, luminal B subtype, and poor outcome. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of this pathway, is typically lost in ER-negative breast cancer. We set out to clarify the role of reduced PTEN levels in endocrine resistance, and to explore the combination of newly developed PI3K downstream kinase inhibitors to overcome this resistance. Altered cellular signaling, gene expression, and endocrine sensitivity were determined in inducible PTEN-knockdown ER-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer cell and/or xenograft models. Single or two-agent combinations of kinase inhibitors were examined to improve endocrine therapy. Moderate PTEN reduction was sufficient to enhance PI3K signaling, generate a gene signature associated with the luminal B subtype of breast cancer, and cause endocrine resistance in vitro and in vivo. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), protein kinase B (AKT), or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors, alone or in combination, improved endocrine therapy, but the efficacy varied by PTEN levels, type of endocrine therapy, and the specific inhibitor(s). A single-agent AKT inhibitor combined with fulvestrant conferred superior efficacy in overcoming resistance, inducing apoptosis and tumor regression. Moderate reduction in PTEN, without complete loss, can activate the PI3K pathway to cause endocrine resistance in ER-positive breast cancer, which can be overcome by combining endocrine therapy with inhibitors of the PI3K pathway. Our data suggests that the ER degrader fulvestrant, to block both ligand-dependent and -independent ER signaling, combined with an AKT inhibitor is an effective strategy to test in patients.

  11. Targeting Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-activated Protein Kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2, MK2): Medicinal Chemistry Efforts to Lead Small Molecule Inhibitors to Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Mario; Forli, Stefano; Manetti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The p38/MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2) pathway is involved in a series of pathological conditions (inflammation diseases and metastasis) and in the resistance mechanism to antitumor agents. None of the p38 inhibitors entered advanced clinical trials because of their unwanted systemic side effects. For this reason, MK2 was identified as an alternative target to block the pathway, but avoiding the side effects of p38 inhibition. However, ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors suffered from low solubility, poor cell permeability, and scarce kinase selectivity. Fortunately, non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of MK2 have been already discovered that allowed circumventing the selectivity issue. These compounds showed the additional advantage to be effective at lower concentrations in comparison to the ATP-competitive inhibitors. Therefore, although the significant difficulties encountered during the development of these inhibitors, MK2 is still considered as an attractive target to treat inflammation and related diseases, to prevent tumor metastasis, and to increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. PMID:26502061

  12. RACK1 Targets the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway To Link Integrin Engagement with Focal Adhesion Disassembly and Cell Motility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vomastek, Tomáš; Iwanicki, M. P.; Schaeffer, J.; J.; Tarcsafalvi, A.; Parsons, J. T.; Weber, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 23 (2007), s. 8296-8305 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200716 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : protein kinase * adhesion * cell Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.420, year: 2007

  13. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

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    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application.

  14. Targeting of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases to early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) in the human paclitaxel-resistance ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meisong; Xiao, Lan; Hu, Jianli; Deng, Suo; Xu, Yan

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between the expression of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) and p38MAPK pathway in the paclitaxel resistance of ovarian carcinoma cells, the effect of p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on cell apoptosis was examined by using Hoechst 33258 staining. The intracellular Rh123 (Rhodamine 123) accumulation was detected by the flow cytometry (FCM). The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of paclitaxel for A2780/Taxol cells was determined by MTT method. Electrophoretic motility shift assay (EMSA) was employed to examine the EGR-1DNA binding activity. MDR1 and EGR-1 mRNA were assessed by RT-PCR. The expressed of p-gp, phosphorylated p53 and p38 were detected by Western blotting. SB203580 could remarkably promote the apoptosis of A2780/Taxol cells, and the cell apoptosis was in a time-dependent manner. Cellular Rh123 accumulation was increased, and the IC50 of paclitaxel for A2780/Taxol cells was decreased significantly. A2780/Taxol cell line after SB203580 treatment was shown to have a significantly higher level of EGR-1 DNA binding activity. SB203580 down-regulated the activity of p38MAPK pathway, but up-regulated EGR-1 expression. SB203580 significantly increased the level of cellular phosphorylated p53 protein, but decreased the p-gp protein level and MDR1 mRNA level in A2780/Taxol cells. There existed a close relationship between p38MAPK pathway and the paclitaxel resistance of ovarian carcinoma cells. The expression of EGR-1 mediated by p38MAPK pathway plays a critical role in paclitaxel resistance of ovarian carcinoma cells.

  15. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

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    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  16. Rapamycin Induces Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) Expression through Activation of Protein Kinase B and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Pathways*

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    Rastogi, Ruchi; Jiang, Zhongliang; Ahmad, Nisar; Rosati, Rita; Liu, Yusen; Beuret, Laurent; Monks, Robert; Charron, Jean; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Samavati, Lobelia

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), also known as dual specificity phosphatase-1 (DUSP-1), plays a crucial role in the deactivation of MAPKs. Several drugs with immune-suppressive properties modulate MKP-1 expression as part of their mechanism of action. We investigated the effect of mTOR inhibition through rapamycin and a dual mTOR inhibitor (AZD2014) on MKP-1 expression. Low dose rapamycin led to a rapid activation of both AKT and ERK pathways with a subsequent increase in MKP-1 expression. Rapamycin treatment led to phosphorylation of CREB, transcription factor 1 (ATF1), and ATF2, three transcription factors that bind to the cyclic AMP-responsive elements on the Mkp-1 promoter. Inhibition of either the MEK/ERK or the AKT pathway attenuated rapamycin-mediated MKP-1 induction. AZD2014 did not activate AKT but activated the ERK pathway, leading to a moderate MKP-1 induction. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) derived from wild-type (WT) mice or mice deficient in AKT1 and AKT2 isoforms or BMDM from targeted deficiency in MEK1 and MEK2, we show that rapamycin treatment led to an increased MKP1 expression in BMDM from WT but failed to do so in BMDMs lacking the AKT1 isoform or MEK1 and MEK2. Importantly, rapamycin pretreatment inhibited LPS-mediated p38 activation and decreased nitric oxide and IL-6 production. Our work provides a conceptual framework for the observed immune modulatory effect of mTOR inhibition. PMID:24126911

  17. Roles of Mitogen-Activating Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase-3 (MAP4K3) in Preterm Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Myogenesis and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Activation Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chu-Yi; Yu, Mu-Xue; Dai, Jie-Min; Pan, Si-Nian; Lu, Zhen-Tong; Qiu, Xiao-Shan; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2017-07-21

    BACKGROUND Preterm skeletal muscle genesis is a paradigm for myogenesis. The role of mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-3 (MAP4K3) in preterm skeletal muscle satellite cells myogenesis or its relationship to mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity have not been previously elaborated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference technology was used to inhibit MAP4K3 expression. Leucine stimulation experiments were performed following MAP4K3-siRNA interference. The differentiation of primary preterm skeletal muscle satellite cells was observed after siRNA-MAP4K3 interference. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of MAP4K3, MyHC, MyoD, myogenin, p-mTOR, and p-S6K1. The immunofluorescence fusion index of MyHC and myogenin were detected. MAP4K3 effects on preterm rat satellite cells differentiation and its relationship to mTORC1 activity are reported. RESULTS MAP4K3 siRNA knockdown inhibited myotube formation and both MyoD and myogenin expression in primary preterm rat skeletal muscle satellite cells, but MAP4K3 siRNA had no effect on the activity of mTORC1. In primary preterm rat skeletal muscle satellite cells, MAP4K3 knockdown resulted in significantly weaker, but not entirely blunted, leucine-induced mTORC1 signaling. CONCLUSIONS MAP4K3 positively regulates preterm skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenesis, but may not regulate mTORC1 activity. MAP4K3 may play a role in mTORC1 full activation in response to leucine.

  18. Systems biology analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecena, Helma; Tveit, Daniel; Wang, Zi; Farhat, Ahmed; Panchal, Parvita; Liu, Jing; Singh, Simar J; Sanghera, Amandeep; Bainiwal, Ajay; Teo, Shuan Y; Meyskens, Frank L; Liu-Smith, Feng; Filipp, Fabian V

    2018-04-04

    Kinase inhibition in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a standard therapy for cancer patients with activating BRAF mutations. However, the anti-tumorigenic effect and clinical benefit are only transient, and tumors are prone to treatment resistance and relapse. To elucidate mechanistic insights into drug resistance, we have established an in vitro cellular model of MAPK inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. The cellular model evolved in response to clinical dosage of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, PLX4032. We conducted transcriptomic expression profiling using RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR arrays. Pathways of melanogenesis, MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and metabolism were significantly enriched among the set of differentially expressed genes of vemurafenib-resistant cells vs control. The underlying mechanism of treatment resistance and pathway rewiring was uncovered to be based on non-genomic adaptation and validated in two distinct melanoma models, SK-MEL-28 and A375. Both cell lines have activating BRAF mutations and display metastatic potential. Downregulation of dual specific phosphatases, tumor suppressors, and negative MAPK regulators reengages mitogenic signaling. Upregulation of growth factors, cytokines, and cognate receptors triggers signaling pathways circumventing BRAF blockage. Further, changes in amino acid and one-carbon metabolism support cellular proliferation despite MAPK inhibitor treatment. In addition, treatment-resistant cells upregulate pigmentation and melanogenesis, pathways which partially overlap with MAPK signaling. Upstream regulator analysis discovered significant perturbation in oncogenic forkhead box and hypoxia inducible factor family transcription factors. The established cellular models offer mechanistic insight into cellular changes and therapeutic targets under inhibitor resistance in malignant melanoma. At a systems biology level, the MAPK pathway undergoes major rewiring while acquiring inhibitor resistance

  19. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 activity during meiosis resumption in mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Radek; Blaha, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2015), s. 495-502 ISSN 0916-8818 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cumulus oocyte complexes * meiosis resumption * mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 1.453, year: 2015

  20. Insulin resistance enhances the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in ovarian granulosa cells.

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    Linghui Kong

    Full Text Available The ovary is the main regulator of female fertility. Granulosa cell dysfunction may be involved in various reproductive endocrine disorders. Here we investigated the effect of insulin resistance on the metabolism and function of ovarian granulosa cells, and dissected the functional status of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in these cells. Our data showed that dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells reduced insulin sensitivity, accompanied with an increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, up-regulation of cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and testosterone and down-regulation of progesterone were observed in insulin-resistant mouse granulosa cells. Inhibition of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase after induction of insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells decreased phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, downregulated cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and lowered progesterone production. This insulin resistance cell model can successfully demonstrate certain mechanisms such as hyperandrogenism, which may inspire a new strategy for treating reproductive endocrine disorders by regulating cell signaling pathways.

  1. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by heat shock treatment in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, F; Torres, M; Duncan, R F

    1995-01-01

    Heat shock treatment of Drosophila melanogaster tissue culture cells causes increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several 44 kDa proteins, which are identified as Drosophila mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation occurs within 5 min, and is maintained at high levels during heat shock. It decreases to basal levels during recovery, concurrent with the repression of heat shock transcription and heat-shock-protein synthesis. The increased MAP kinase tyrosine phosphoryla...

  2. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Ines eLassowskat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phosphoproteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g. WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the PEN pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens. Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org.

  3. Regulation of WRKY46 transcription factor function by mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Arsheed Hussain Sheikh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are central signalling pathways activated in plants after sensing internal developmental and external stress cues. Knowledge about the downstream substrate proteins of MAPKs is still limited in plants. We screened Arabidopsis WRKY transcription factors as potential targets downstream of MAPKs, and concentrated on characterizing WRKY46 as a substrate of the MAPK, MPK3. Mass spectrometry revealed in vitro phosphorylation of WRKY46 at amino acid position S168 by MPK3. However, mutagenesis studies showed that a second phosphosite, S250, can also be phosphorylated. Elicitation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, such as the bacterial flagellin-derived flg22 peptide led to in vivo destabilization of WRKY46 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Mutation of either phosphorylation site reduced the PAMP-induced degradation of WRKY46. Furthermore, the protein for the double phosphosite mutant is expressed at higher levels compared to wild-type proteins or single phosphosite mutants. In line with its nuclear localization and predicted function as a transcriptional activator, overexpression of WRKY46 in protoplasts raised basal plant defence as reflected by the increase in promoter activity of the PAMP-responsive gene, NHL10, in a MAPK-dependent manner. Thus, MAPK-mediated regulation of WRKY46 is a mechanism to control plant defence.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) dynamics determine cell fate in the yeast mating response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Roberts, Julie; AkhavanAghdam, Zohreh; Hao, Nan

    2017-12-15

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the exposure to mating pheromone activates a prototypic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and triggers a dose-dependent differentiation response. Whereas a high pheromone dose induces growth arrest and formation of a shmoo-like morphology in yeast cells, lower pheromone doses elicit elongated cell growth. Previous population-level analysis has revealed that the MAPK Fus3 plays an important role in mediating this differentiation switch. To further investigate how Fus3 controls the fate decision process at the single-cell level, we developed a specific translocation-based reporter for monitoring Fus3 activity in individual live cells. Using this reporter, we observed strikingly different dynamic patterns of Fus3 activation in single cells differentiated into distinct fates. Cells committed to growth arrest and shmoo formation exhibited sustained Fus3 activation. In contrast, most cells undergoing elongated growth showed either a delayed gradual increase or pulsatile dynamics of Fus3 activity. Furthermore, we found that chemically perturbing Fus3 dynamics with a specific inhibitor could effectively redirect the mating differentiation, confirming the causative role of Fus3 dynamics in driving cell fate decisions. MAPKs mediate proliferation and differentiation signals in mammals and are therapeutic targets in many cancers. Our results highlight the importance of MAPK dynamics in regulating single-cell responses and open up the possibility that MAPK signaling dynamics could be a pharmacological target in therapeutic interventions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. DMPD: Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15361242 Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-sig...mmunol Rev. 2004 Oct;201:191-205. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear... gondii infection. PubmedID 15361242 Title Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-k

  6. Tetrandrine potentiates the glucocorticoid pharmacodynamics via inhibiting P-glycoprotein and mitogen-activated protein kinase in mitogen-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wencheng; Meng, Kehan; Tu, Yuanchao; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Sugiyama, Kentaro; Hirano, Toshihiko; Yamada, Haruki

    2017-07-15

    Glucocorticoids play significant roles in treatments of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Some patients show a poor or absent response even to high doses of glucocorticoids. The purpose of this study was to explore whether tetrandrine combined with glucocorticoids could be a new treatment strategy to resolve glucocorticoids resistance. Information on glucocorticoids sensitivity was usually obtained through mitogen-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cell culture procedures. Thus, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was chosen as a model to study the immunosuppressive effect of methylprednisolone combined with tetrandrine, including the possible action mechanisms. Tetrandrine decreased the IC 50 value of methylprednisolone significantly, but it showed little toxic effect on the concanavalin A-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both tetrandrine and methylprednisolone inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 significantly and the combination showed stronger inhibitory ability. Tetrandrine and/or methylprednisolone did not increase the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in CD4 + T cells. However tetrandrine with or without methylprednisolone significantly inhibited the function of drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein 170 of CD4 + , CD8 + T cells and lymphocytes. Tetrandrine tended to suppress the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and this effect was potentiated by methylprednisolone. These tetrandrine effects were suggested to be beneficial for improving the immunosuppressive efficacy of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids combined with tetrandrine could be a new therapeutic approach to resolve glucocorticoids-resistance possibly via inhibiting the function of P-glycoprotein and blocking mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway from but not affecting on CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the porcine retinal arteries and neuroretina following retinal ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesslein, Bodil; Håkansson, Gisela; Carpio, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in the expression of intracellular signal-transduction pathways, specifically mitogen-activated protein kinases, following retinal ischemia-reperfusion....

  8. Mitogen activated protein kinases selectively regulate palytoxin-stimulated gene expression in mouse keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Warmka, Janel K.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2003-01-01

    We have been investigating how the novel skin tumor promoter palytoxin transmits signals through mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Palytoxin activates three major MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, in a keratinocyte cell line derived from initiated mouse skin (308). We previously showed that palytoxin requires ERK to increase matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) gene expression, an enzyme implicated in carcinogenesis. Diverse stimuli require JNK and p38 to increase MMP-13 gene expression, however. We therefore used the JNK and p38 inhibitors SP 600125 and SB 202190, respectively, to investigate the role of these MAPKs in palytoxin-induced MMP-13 gene expression. Surprisingly, palytoxin does not require JNK and p38 to increase MMP-13 gene expression. Accordingly, ERK activation, independent of palytoxin and in the absence of JNK and p38 activation, is sufficient to induce MMP-13 gene expression in 308 keratinocytes. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid that inhibits activator protein-1 (AP-1), blocked palytoxin-stimulated MMP-13 gene expression. Therefore, the AP-1 site present in the promoter of the MMP-13 gene appears to be functional and to play a key role in palytoxin-stimulated gene expression. Previous studies showed that palytoxin simulates an ERK-dependent selective increase in the c-Fos content of AP-1 complexes that bind to the promoter of the MMP-13 gene. JNK and p38 can also modulate c-Fos. Palytoxin does not require JNK or p38 to increase c-Fos binding, however. Altogether, these studies indicate that ERK plays a distinctly essential role in transmitting palytoxin-stimulated signals to specific nuclear targets in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin

  9. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Promotes Fibrosis and Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in MRC-5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tang, Su; Tang, Xiaodong

    2016-07-06

    BACKGROUND Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening hypoxemic respiratory disorder with high incidence and mortality. ALI usually manifests as widespread inflammation and lung fibrosis with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors and collagen. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has a significant role in regulation of inflammation but little is known about its roles in lung fibrosis or ALI. This study aimed to define the role and possible regulatory mechanism of TSLP in lung fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We cultured human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and overexpressed or inhibited TSLP by the vector or small interfering RNA transfection. Then, the pro-fibrotic factors skeletal muscle actin alpha (α-SMA) and collagen I, and the 4 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) - MAPK7, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) - were detected by Western blot. RESULTS Results showed that TSLP promoted the production of α-SMA and collagen I (PMRC-5 cell fibrosis. It also activated the expression of MAPK7, p-p38, p-ERK1, and p-JNK1, but the total MAPK7, p-38, ERK1, and JNK1 protein levels were mostly unchanged, indicating the activated MAPK pathways that might contribute to the promotion of cell fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS This study shows the pro-fibrotic role of TSLP in MRC-5 cells, suggesting TSLP is a potential therapeutic target for treating lung fibrosis in ALI. It possibly functions via activating MAPKs. These findings add to our understanding of the mechanism of fibrosis.

  10. The effect of midazolam on neutrophil mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ghori, Kamran

    2010-06-01

    Neutrophil p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a key enzyme in the intracellular signalling pathway that is responsible for many neutrophil functions, which are important in neutrophil-endothelial interaction. The imidazole compounds are inhibitors of this enzyme system. The objectives of this in-vitro investigation were to examine the effect of midazolam on neutrophil p38 MAPK activation (phosphorylation) following in-vitro ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and the expression of adhesion molecule CD11b\\/CD18.

  11. Cyclic AMP activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Peraldi, P; Van Obberghen, E

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are activated in response to a large variety of extracellular signals, including growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters, which activate distinct intracellular signaling pathways. Their activation by the cAMP-dependent pathway, however, has not been...... reported. In rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, we demonstrate here a stimulation of the MAP kinase isozyme extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) following elevation of intracellular cAMP after exposure of the cells to isobutylmethylxanthine, cholera toxin, forskolin, or cAMP-analogues. cAMP acted...... synergistically with phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, in the stimulation of ERK1. In accordance with this observation, the peptide neurotransmitter pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 (PACAP38), which stimulates cAMP production as well as phosphatidylinositol breakdown in PC12...

  12. p38gamma and p38delta mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs, new stars in the MAPK galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eEscós

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinases p38γ and p38δ belong to the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family. p38MAPK signalling controls many cellular processes and is one of the most conserved mechanisms in eukaryotes for the cellular response to environmental stress and inflammation. Although p38γ and p38δ are widely expressed, it is likely that they perform specific functions in different tissues. Their involvement in human pathologies such as inflammation-related diseases or cancer is starting to be uncovered. In this article we give a general overview and highlight recent advances made in defining the functions of p38γ and p38δ, focusing in innate immunity and inflammation. We consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of MAPK pathways to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and cancer

  13. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ren Chung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK- mediated signaling pathways have been known to have important functions in eukaryotic organisms. The mechanisms by which the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata senses and responds to environmental signals have begun to be elucidated. Available data indicate that A. alternata utilizes the Fus3, Hog1 and Slt2 MAPK-mediated signaling pathways, either separately or in a cooperative manner, for conidia formation, resistance to oxidative and osmotic stress, and pathogenesis to citrus. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of MAPK signaling pathways, in conjunction with the two-component histidine kinase and the Skn7 response regulator, in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.

  14. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 by hepatitis C virus core protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, HT; Pham, Long; Kim, JW

    2013-01-01

    and protein levels of MAPKAPK3 were elevated in both HCV subgenomic replicon cells and cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Silencing of MAPKAPK3 expression resulted in decreases in both protein and HCV infectivity levels but not in the intracellular HCV RNA level. We showed that MAPKAPK3......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular proteins for its own propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assays using the HCV core protein as a probe. Of ~9,000 host proteins immobilized in a microarray......, approximately 100 cellular proteins were identified as HCV core-interacting partners. Of these candidates, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPKAPK3) was selected for further characterization. MAPKAPK3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by stress and growth...

  15. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Dena A J; Negm, Ola H; Alabdullah, M Layth; Mirza, Sameer; Hamed, Mohamed R; Band, Vimla; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A

    2016-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are signalling transduction molecules that have different functions and diverse behaviour in cancer. In breast cancer, MAPK is related to oestrogen receptor (ER) and HER2. Protein expression of a large panel of MAPKs (JNK1/2, ERK, p38, C-JUN and ATF2 including phosphorylated forms) were assessed immunohistochemically in a large (n = 1400) and well-characterised breast cancer series prepared as tissue microarray. Moreover, reverse phase protein array was applied to quantify protein expression of MAPKs in six breast cancer cell lines with different phenotypes including HER2-transfected cells. MAPKs expression was associated with clinicopathological variables characteristic of good prognosis. These associations were most significant in the whole series and in the ER+ subgroup compared to other BC classes. Most of MAPKs showed a positive association with ER, BCL2 and better outcome and were negatively associated with the proliferation marker Ki67 and p53. Association of MAPK with HER2 was mainly seen in the ER- subgroup. Reverse phase protein array confirmed immunohistochemistry results and revealed differential expression of MAPK proteins in ER+ and ER- cell lines. MAPKs are associated with good prognosis and their expression is mainly related to ER. Studying a large panel rather than individual biomarkers may provide improved understanding of the pathway.

  16. In vitro, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways protects against bupivacaine- and ropivacaine-induced neurotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, Philipp; Haller, Ingrid; Colvin, Hans Peter; Lang, Leopold; Tomaselli, Bettina; Klimaschewski, Lars; Gerner, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Animal models show us that specific activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) may be a pivotal step in lidocaine neurotoxicity, but this has not been investigated in the case of two very widely used local anesthetics, bupivacaine and ropivacaine. We investigated the hypotheses

  17. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 alpha Regulates Tubular Damage in Murine Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Ralf; Daniel, Christoph; Hugo, Christian; Amann, Kerstin; Mielenz, Dirk; Endlich, Karlhans; Braun, Tobias; van der Veen, Betty; Heeringa, Peter; Schett, Georg; Zwerina, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is thought to play a central role in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Whether p38MAPK plays a pathogenic role in crescentic GN (GN) and which of its four isoforms is preferentially involved in kidney inflammation is not definitely known. We thus

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinases interacting kinases are autoinhibited by a reprogrammed activation segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Ralf; Cho, Min-Kyu; Jäkel, Stefan; Netter, Catharina; Schreiter, Kay; Aicher, Babette; Zweckstetter, Markus; Jäckle, Herbert; Wahl, Markus C

    2006-09-06

    Autoinhibition is a recurring mode of protein kinase regulation and can be based on diverse molecular mechanisms. Here, we show by crystal structure analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based nucleotide affinity studies and rational mutagenesis that nonphosphorylated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases interacting kinase (Mnk) 1 is autoinhibited by conversion of the activation segment into an autoinhibitory module. In a Mnk1 crystal structure, the activation segment is repositioned via a Mnk-specific sequence insertion at the N-terminal lobe with the following consequences: (i) the peptide substrate binding site is deconstructed, (ii) the interlobal cleft is narrowed, (iii) an essential Lys-Glu pair is disrupted and (iv) the magnesium-binding loop is locked into an ATP-competitive conformation. Consistently, deletion of the Mnk-specific insertion or removal of a conserved phenylalanine side chain, which induces a blockade of the ATP pocket, increase the ATP affinity of Mnk1. Structural rearrangements required for the activation of Mnks are apparent from the cocrystal structure of a Mnk2 D228G -staurosporine complex and can be modeled on the basis of crystal packing interactions. Our data suggest a novel regulatory mechanism specific for the Mnk subfamily.

  19. Selective involvement of ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases in early rheumatoid arthritis (1987 ACR criteria compared to 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria): a prospective study aimed at identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Launay, Daphne; van de Sande, Marleen G. H.; de Hair, Maria J. H.; Grabiec, Aleksander M.; van de Sande, Gijs P. M.; Lehmann, K. Aad; Wijbrandts, Carla A.; van Baarsen, Lisa G. M.; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Tak, Paul P.; Reedquist, Kris A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in patients with early arthritis who are disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naive. Methods A total of 50 patients with early arthritis who were DMARD naive (disease duration <1 year) were

  20. Review: Mitogen-Activated Protein kinases in nutritional signaling in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Chardin, Camille

    2017-04-14

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades are functional modules widespread among eukaryotic organisms. In plants, these modules are encoded by large multigenic families and are involved in many biological processes ranging from stress responses to cellular differentiation and organ development. Furthermore, MAPK pathways are involved in the perception of environmental and physiological modifications. Interestingly, some MAPKs play a role in several signaling networks and could have an integrative function for the response of plants to their environment. In this review, we describe the classification of MAPKs and highlight some of their biochemical actions. We performed an in silico analysis of MAPK gene expression in response to nutrients supporting their involvement in nutritional signaling. While several MAPKs have been identified as players in sugar, nitrogen, phosphate, iron and potassium-related signaling pathways, their biochemical functions are yet mainly unknown. The integration of these regulatory cascades in the current understanding of nutrient signaling is discussed and potential new avenues for approaches toward plants with higher nutrient use efficiencies are evoked.

  1. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Mediate Upregulation of Hypothalamic AT1 Receptors in Heart Failure Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Weiss, Robert M.; Felder, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    In heart failure (HF), angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1-R) expression is upregulated in brain regions regulating sympathetic drive, blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis. However, the mechanism by which brain AT1-R are upregulated in HF remains unknown. The present study examined the hypothesis that the angiotensin II (ANG II)-triggered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p44/42, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) contribute to upregulation of the AT1-R in the hypothalamus of rats with HF. AT1-R protein, AT1-R mRNA and AT1-R immunoreactivity increased in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) and the subfornical organ (SFO) of rats with ischemia-induced HF, compared with sham-operated controls. Phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK, JNK, and p38 MAPK also increased in PVN and SFO. A 4-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of the AT1-R antagonist losartan decreased AT1-R protein and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, JNK and p38 MAPK in the HF rats. A 4-week ICV infusion of the p44/42 MAPK inhibitor PD98059 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly decreased AT1-R protein and AT1-R immunoreactivity in the PVN and SFO, but the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Treatment with ICV losartan, PD98059 and SP600125 had no effect on AT1-R expression by Western blot in sham-operated rats. In untreated HF rats 4 weeks after coronary ligation, a 3-hour ICV infusion of PD98059, SP600125 or losartan reduced AT1-R mRNA in PVN and SFO. These data indicate that MAPK plays an important role in the upregulation of AT1-R in the rat forebrain in heart failure, and suggest that ANG II upregulates its own receptor by this mechanism. PMID:18768402

  2. Obesity Increases Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-3 Levels in the Hypothalamus of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de A. Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 3 (MKP-3 has been involved in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. The absence of MKP-3 is also associated with reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure and improved insulin sensitivity. The MKP-3 is known as the main Erk1/2 phosphatase and FoxO1 activator, which has repercussions on the gluconeogenesis pathway and hyperglycemia in obese mice. Recently, we showed that MKP-3 overexpression decreases FoxO1 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of lean mice. However, the hypothalamic interaction between MKP-3 and FoxO1 during obesity was not investigated yet. Here, the MKP-3 expression and the effects on food intake and energy expenditure, were investigated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The results indicate that obesity in mice increased the MKP-3 protein content in the hypothalamus. This hypothalamic upregulation led to an increase of food intake, adiposity, and body weight. Furthermore, the obese mice with increased MKP-3 showed an insulin signaling impairment with reduction of insulin-induced FoxO1 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus. Moreover, a bioinformatics analysis of data demonstrated that hypothalamic MKP-3 mRNA levels were positively correlated with body weight and negatively correlated to oxygen consumption (VO2 in BXD mice. Taken together, our study reports that obesity is associated with increased protein levels of hypothalamic MKP-3, which is related to the reduction of FoxO1 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus as well as to an increase in body weight and a reduction in energy expenditure.

  3. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Pathway Regulates Branching by Remodeling Epithelial Cell Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihermann-Hella, Anneliis; Lume, Maria; Miinalainen, Ilkka J.; Pirttiniemi, Anniina; Gui, Yujuan; Peränen, Johan; Charron, Jean; Saarma, Mart; Costantini, Frank; Kuure, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Although the growth factor (GF) signaling guiding renal branching is well characterized, the intracellular cascades mediating GF functions are poorly understood. We studied mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway specifically in the branching epithelia of developing kidney by genetically abrogating the pathway activity in mice lacking simultaneously dual-specificity protein kinases Mek1 and Mek2. Our data show that MAPK pathway is heterogeneously activated in the subset of G1- and S-phase epithelial cells, and its tissue-specific deletion results in severe renal hypodysplasia. Consequently to the deletion of Mek1/2, the activation of ERK1/2 in the epithelium is lost and normal branching pattern in mutant kidneys is substituted with elongation-only phenotype, in which the epithelium is largely unable to form novel branches and complex three-dimensional patterns, but able to grow without primary defects in mitosis. Cellular characterization of double mutant epithelium showed increased E-cadherin at the cell surfaces with its particular accumulation at baso-lateral locations. This indicates changes in cellular adhesion, which were revealed by electron microscopic analysis demonstrating intercellular gaps and increased extracellular space in double mutant epithelium. When challenged to form monolayer cultures, the mutant epithelial cells were impaired in spreading and displayed strong focal adhesions in addition to spiky E-cadherin. Inhibition of MAPK activity reduced paxillin phosphorylation on serine 83 while remnants of phospho-paxillin, together with another focal adhesion (FA) protein vinculin, were augmented at cell surface contacts. We show that MAPK activity is required for branching morphogenesis, and propose that it promotes cell cycle progression and higher cellular motility through remodeling of cellular adhesions. PMID:24603431

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway regulates branching by remodeling epithelial cell adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneliis Ihermann-Hella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the growth factor (GF signaling guiding renal branching is well characterized, the intracellular cascades mediating GF functions are poorly understood. We studied mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway specifically in the branching epithelia of developing kidney by genetically abrogating the pathway activity in mice lacking simultaneously dual-specificity protein kinases Mek1 and Mek2. Our data show that MAPK pathway is heterogeneously activated in the subset of G1- and S-phase epithelial cells, and its tissue-specific deletion results in severe renal hypodysplasia. Consequently to the deletion of Mek1/2, the activation of ERK1/2 in the epithelium is lost and normal branching pattern in mutant kidneys is substituted with elongation-only phenotype, in which the epithelium is largely unable to form novel branches and complex three-dimensional patterns, but able to grow without primary defects in mitosis. Cellular characterization of double mutant epithelium showed increased E-cadherin at the cell surfaces with its particular accumulation at baso-lateral locations. This indicates changes in cellular adhesion, which were revealed by electron microscopic analysis demonstrating intercellular gaps and increased extracellular space in double mutant epithelium. When challenged to form monolayer cultures, the mutant epithelial cells were impaired in spreading and displayed strong focal adhesions in addition to spiky E-cadherin. Inhibition of MAPK activity reduced paxillin phosphorylation on serine 83 while remnants of phospho-paxillin, together with another focal adhesion (FA protein vinculin, were augmented at cell surface contacts. We show that MAPK activity is required for branching morphogenesis, and propose that it promotes cell cycle progression and higher cellular motility through remodeling of cellular adhesions.

  5. Cyclic nucleotides and mitogen-activated protein kinases: regulation of simvastatin in platelet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Ssu-Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins have been widely used to reduce cardiovascular risk. These statins (i.e., simvastatin may exert other effects besides from their cholesterol-lowering actions, including inhibition of platelet activation. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Although the inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation has been studied; the detailed signal transductions by which simvastatin inhibit platelet activation has not yet been completely resolved. Methods The aim of this study was to systematically examine the detailed mechanisms of simvastatin in preventing platelet activation. Platelet aggregation, flow cytometric analysis, immunoblotting, and electron spin resonance studies were used to assess the antiplatelet activity of simvastatin. Results Simvastatin (20-50 μM exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen than other agonists (i.e., thrombin. Simvastatin inhibited collagen-stimulated platelet activation accompanied by [Ca2+]i mobilization, thromboxane A2 (TxA2 formation, and phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (i.e., p38 MAPK, JNKs phosphorylation in washed platelets. Simvastatin obviously increased both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. Simvastatin markedly increased NO release, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, markedly reversed the simvastatin-mediated inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation, PLCγ2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and simvastatin-mediated stimulatory effects on VASP and eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion The most important findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that inhibitory effect of simvastatin in platelet activation may involve activation of the cyclic AMP

  6. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P38-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase fromEchinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Guodong; Li, Jing; Zhang, Chuanshan; Li, Liang; Bi, Xiaojuan; Li, Chaowang; Fan, Jinliang; Lu, Xiaomei; Vuitton, Dominique A; Wen, Hao; Lin, Renyong

    2016-12-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) treatment urgently requires a novel drug. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases, but still have to be characterized in Echinococcus granulosus . We identified a 1,107 bp cDNA encoding a 368 amino acid MAPK protein (Egp38) in E. granulosus . Egp38 exhibits 2 distinguishing features of p38-like kinases: a highly conserved T-X-Y motif and an activation loop segment. Structural homology modeling indicated a conserved structure among Egp38, EmMPK2, and H. sapiens p38α, implying a common binding mechanism for the ligand domain and downstream signal transduction processing similar to that described for p38α. Egp38 and its phosphorylated form are expressed in the E. granulosus larval stages vesicle and protoscolices during intermediate host infection of an intermediate host. Treatment of in vitro cultivated protoscolices with the p38-MAPK inhibitor ML3403 effectively suppressed Egp38 activity and led to significant protoscolices death within 5 days. Treatment of in vitro-cultivated protoscolices with TGF-β1 effectively induced Egp38 phosphorylation. In summary, the MAPK, Egp38, was identified in E. granulosus , as an anti-CE drug target and participates in the interplay between the host and E. granulosus via human TGF-β1.

  7. Structure-based Design of Pyridone-aminal eFT508 Targeting Dysregulated Translation by Selective Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Interacting Kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1/2) Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Siegfried H; Sprengeler, Paul A; Chiang, Gary G; Appleman, Jim R; Chen, Joan; Clarine, Jeff; Eam, Boreth; Ernst, Justin T; Han, Qing; Goel, Vikas K; Han, Edward Zr; Huang, Vera; Hung, Ivy Nj; Jemison, Adrianna; Jessen, Katti A; Molter, Jolene; Murphy, Douglas; Neal, Melissa; Parker, Gregory S; Shaghafi, Michael; Sperry, Samuel; Staunton, Jocelyn; Stumpf, Craig R; Thompson, Peggy A; Tran, Chinh; Webber, Stephen E; Wegerski, Christopher J; Zheng, Hong; Webster, Kevin R

    2018-03-10

    Dysregulated translation of mRNA plays a major role in tumorigenesis. MNK1/2 kinases are key regulators of mRNA translation integrating signals from oncogenic and immune signaling pathways through phosphorylation of eIF4E and other mRNA binding proteins. Modulation of these key effector proteins regulates mRNA which control tumor/stromal cell signaling. 23 (eFT508), an exquisitely selective, potent dual MNK1/2 inhibitor, was designed to assess the potential for control of oncogene signaling at the level of mRNA translation. The crystal structure-guided design leverages stereoelectronic interactions unique to MNK culminating in a novel pyridone-aminal structure described for the first time in the kinase literature. 23 has potent in vivo anti-tumor activity in models of DLBCL and solid tumors suggesting that controlling dysregulated translation has real therapeutic potential. 23 is currently being evaluated in Phase 2 clinical trials in solid tumors and lymphoma. 23 is the first highly selective dual MNK inhibitor targeting dysregulated translation being assessed clinically.

  8. Noise exposure immediately activates cochlear mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar N Alagramam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a major public health issue worldwide. Uncovering the early molecular events associated with NIHL would reveal mechanisms leading to the hearing loss. Our aim is to investigate the immediate molecular responses after different levels of noise exposure and identify the common and distinct pathways that mediate NIHL. Previous work showed mice exposed to 116 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL broadband noise for 1 h had greater threshold shifts than the mice exposed to 110 dB SPL broadband noise, hence we used these two noise levels in this study. Groups of 4-8-week-old CBA/CaJ mice were exposed to no noise (control or to broadband noise for 1 h, followed by transcriptome analysis of total cochlear RNA isolated immediately after noise exposure. Previously identified and novel genes were found in all data sets. Following exposure to noise at 116 dB SPL, the earliest responses included up-regulation of 243 genes and down-regulation of 61 genes, while a similar exposure at 110 dB SPL up-regulated 155 genes and down-regulated 221 genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling was the major pathway in both levels of noise exposure. Nevertheless, both qualitative and quantitative differences were noticed in some MAPK signaling genes, after exposure to different noise levels. Cacna1b , Cacna1g , and Pla2g6 , related to calcium signaling were down-regulated after 110 dB SPL exposure, while the fold increase in the expression of Fos was relatively lower than what was observed after 116 dB SPL exposure. These subtle variations provide insight on the factors that may contribute to the differences in NIHL despite the activation of a common pathway.

  9. Noise exposure immediately activates cochlear mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagramam, Kumar N; Stepanyan, Ruben; Jamesdaniel, Samson; Chen, Daniel H-C; Davis, Rickie R

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major public health issue worldwide. Uncovering the early molecular events associated with NIHL would reveal mechanisms leading to the hearing loss. Our aim is to investigate the immediate molecular responses after different levels of noise exposure and identify the common and distinct pathways that mediate NIHL. Previous work showed mice exposed to 116 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL) broadband noise for 1 h had greater threshold shifts than the mice exposed to 110 dB SPL broadband noise, hence we used these two noise levels in this study. Groups of 4-8-week-old CBA/CaJ mice were exposed to no noise (control) or to broadband noise for 1 h, followed by transcriptome analysis of total cochlear RNA isolated immediately after noise exposure. Previously identified and novel genes were found in all data sets. Following exposure to noise at 116 dB SPL, the earliest responses included up-regulation of 243 genes and down-regulation of 61 genes, while a similar exposure at 110 dB SPL up-regulated 155 genes and down-regulated 221 genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was the major pathway in both levels of noise exposure. Nevertheless, both qualitative and quantitative differences were noticed in some MAPK signaling genes, after exposure to different noise levels. Cacna1b , Cacna1g , and Pla2g6 , related to calcium signaling were down-regulated after 110 dB SPL exposure, while the fold increase in the expression of Fos was relatively lower than what was observed after 116 dB SPL exposure. These subtle variations provide insight on the factors that may contribute to the differences in NIHL despite the activation of a common pathway.

  10. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MEK-1 phosphorylation by MEK kinase, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein kinase: analysis of phosphopeptides and regulation of activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, A M; Vaillancourt, R R; Lange-Carter, C A; Johnson, G L

    1994-01-01

    MEK-1 is a dual threonine and tyrosine recognition kinase that phosphorylates and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). MEK-1 is in turn activated by phosphorylation. Raf and MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEKK) independently phosphorylate and activate MEK-1. Recombinant MEK-1 is also capable of autoactivation. Purified recombinant wild type MEK-1 and a mutant kinase inactive MEK-1 were used as substrates for MEKK, Raf, and autophosphorylation. MEK-1 phosphory...

  12. Activation and translocation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase after stimulation of monocytes with contact sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Pia; Plochmann, Sibylle; Valk, Elke; Zahn, Sabine; Saloga, Joachim; Knop, Jürgen; Becker, Detlef

    2002-07-01

    Recently we described the induction of tyrosine phosphorylation by contact sensitizers as an early molecular event during the activation of antigen- presenting cells. In this study, the role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase for the activation of human monocytes after exposure to four structurally unrelated contact sensitizers was analyzed in comparison with the irritant benzalkonium chloride and an inductor of oxidative stress (H2O2) using immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques. Bio chemical analysis revealed a translocation of p38 from the cytoplasm to the detergent-resistant cell fraction only upon stimulation with contact sensitizers. The activity of p38 was studied by quantification of its phosphorylated active form with a specific antibody and by kinase assay. Although all stimulants used in this study led to the activation of p38, a translocation to the detergent-resistant fraction as well phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent transcription factor Elk-1 was induced only by contact sensitizers. Evidence for a functional relevance of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation was provided by measurement of the hapten-induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta. Its release was inhibited by blocking p38-mediated signaling using the imidazole compounds SB203580 and SB202190. These data show that contact sensitizers are strong activators of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Although activation of this stress-associated pathway has been reported for many other stimuli, a unique translocation of p38 from the cytoplasm to the detergent-resistant fraction seems to be a specific event during hapten-induced activation of antigen-presenting cells.

  13. Catalytic reaction pathway for the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, C N; Hagopian, J C; Cobb, M H; Ahn, N G; Lew, J

    2000-05-23

    The structural, functional, and regulatory properties of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) have long attracted considerable attention owing to the critical role that these enzymes play in signal transduction. While several MAP kinase X-ray crystal structures currently exist, there is by comparison little mechanistic information available to correlate the structural data with the known biochemical properties of these molecules. We have employed steady-state kinetic and solvent viscosometric techniques to characterize the catalytic reaction pathway of the MAP kinase ERK2 with respect to the phosphorylation of a protein substrate, myelin basic protein (MBP), and a synthetic peptide substrate, ERKtide. A minor viscosity effect on k(cat) with respect to the phosphorylation of MBP was observed (k(cat) = 10 +/- 2 s(-1), k(cat)(eta) = 0.18 +/- 0.05), indicating that substrate processing occurs via slow phosphoryl group transfer (12 +/- 4 s(-1)) followed by the faster release of products (56 +/- 4 s(-1)). At an MBP concentration extrapolated to infinity, no significant viscosity effect on k(cat)/K(m(ATP)) was observed (k(cat)/K(m(ATP)) = 0.2 +/- 0.1 microM(-1) s(-1), k(cat)/K(m(ATP))(eta) = -0.08 +/- 0.04), consistent with rapid-equilibrium binding of the nucleotide. In contrast, at saturating ATP, a full viscosity effect on k(cat)/K(m) for MBP was apparent (k(cat)/K(m(MBP)) = 2.4 +/- 1 microM(-1) s(-1), k(cat)/K(m(MBP))(eta) = 1.0 +/- 0.1), while no viscosity effect was observed on k(cat)/K(m) for the phosphorylation of ERKtide (k(cat)/K(m(ERKtide)) = (4 +/- 2) x 10(-3) microM(-1) s(-1), k(cat)/K(m(ERKtide))(eta) = -0.02 +/- 0.02). This is consistent with the diffusion-limited binding of MBP, in contrast to the rapid-equilibrium binding of ERKtide, to form the ternary Michaelis complex. Calculated values for binding constants show that the estimated value for K(d(MBP)) (/= 1.5 mM). The dramatically higher catalytic efficiency of MBP in comparison to that

  14. Overexpression of Populus trichocarpa Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase4 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Tobacco

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    Chengjun Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK is one of the factors of cascade reactions affecting responses to signal pathway of environmental stimuli. Throughout the life of plants, MAPK family members participate in signal transduction pathways and regulate various intracellular physiological and metabolic reactions. To gain insights into regulatory function of MAPK kinase (MAPKK in Populus trichocarpa under salt stress, we obtained full-length cDNA of PtMAPKK4 and analyzed different expression levels of PtMAPKK4 gene in leaves, stems, and root organs. The relationship between PtMAPKK4 and salt stress was studied by detecting expression characteristics of mRNA under 150 mM NaCl stress using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that expression of PtMAPKK4 increased under salt (NaCl stress in leaves but initially reduced and then increased in roots. Thus, salt stress failed to induce PtMAPKK4 expression in stems. PtMAPKK4 possibly participates in regulation of plant growth and metabolism, thereby improving its salt tolerance. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVScI to verify subcellular localization of PtMAPKK4 kinase. The yeast strains containing pYES2-PtMAPKK4-GFP plasmid expressed GFP fusion proteins under the induction of d-galactose, and the products were located in nucleus. These results were consistent with network prediction and confirmed location of PtMAPKK4 enzyme in the nucleus. We tested NaCl tolerance in transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing PtMAPKK4 under the control of 35S promoter at germination stage to detect salt tolerance function of PtMAPKK4. Compared withK326 (a wild-type tobacco, lines overexpressing PtMAPKK4 showed a certain degree of improvement in tolerance, germination, and growth. NaCl inhibited growth of overexpressed line and K326 at the seedling stage. However, statistical analysis showed longer root length, higher fresh weight, and lower MDA content in transgenic lines in

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1 is activated in response to curcumin exposure in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Thakare, Mayur Jankiram; Baranwal, Shivani; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh

    2014-12-19

    Curcumin (CUR), an active polyphenol derived from the spice turmeric, has been traditionally used for centuries in ancient Indian medicine to treat a number of diseases. The physiological effects of CUR have been shown to be diverse; however, the target molecules and pathways that CUR affects have yet to be fully described. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the budding yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 is essential for the response to CUR. Moreover, CUR-induced Hog1 phosphorylation was rescued by supplementation of iron to the growth medium. Hog1 was rapidly phosphorylated upon CUR treatment, but unlike the response to hyperosmotic shock (0.8 M NaCl), it remains activated for an extended period of time. A detailed analysis of HOG pathway mutants revealed that Pbs2p, Ptc2p, and Ssk2p are required for optimal CUR-induced Hog1 phosphorylation. We also observed a Hog1 dependent transcriptional response to CUR treatment that involved the up-regulation of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), a factor that is essential for the hyperosmotic stress response. Our present finding revealed the role of Hog1 MAPK in regulation of CUR-induced transcriptional response. We anticipate that our finding will enhance the understanding on the molecular mode of action of CUR on S. cerevisiae.

  16. Changes in resting mitogen-activated protein kinases following resistance exercise overreaching and overtraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Justin X; Fry, Andrew C; Galpin, Andrew J; Sterczala, Adam J; Thomason, Donald B; Moore, Christopher A; Weiss, Lawrence W; Chiu, Loren Z F

    2016-12-01

    Many physiological maladaptations persist after overreaching and overtraining resistance exercise (RE). However, no studies have investigated changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) after overtraining in humans, despite their critical role regulating exercise-induced muscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in total and resting phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK following a period of RE overreaching or overtraining. Following 2-4 weeks of normal training (low volume/low intensity), two groups of males performed either a high-power overreaching protocol (HPOR n = 6, mean ± SD, age 23 ± 3.4 years, mass 86.5 ± 17.7 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.06 m) or high-intensity overtraining protocol (HIOT n = 8, age 19.8 ± 1.8 years, mass 76.8 ± 6.7 kg, height 1.8 ± 0.06 m). Resting muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline (BL; end of normal training period) and 24 h after the final session of stressful training (i.e., HPOR or HIOT programs). Total MAPK and ratio of phosphorylated/total (p-MAPK)- ERK1/2, JNK, and p38-MAPK were analyzed via western blotting. 2 × 2 (group × time) ANOVA determined differences in MAPK between BL and post-training protocols. Compared to BL, total-ERK increased after HPOR, but decreased after HIOT (p ≤ 0.05). p-ERK1/2/total-ERK increased after HIOT (p ≤ 0.05). The ratio of p-JNK/total-JNK and p-ERK1/2/total-ERK decreased after HPOR (p ≤ 0.05); however, this result was primarily due to increased total MAPK content. p-p38-MAPK decreased after HPOR (p ≤ 0.05). Total and p-MAPK are differentially expressed after HPOR and HIOT RE. These changes are likely involved in the maladaptation reported in overreaching and overtraining exercise. This is the first study describing altered MAPK in RE overtrained and overreached humans.

  17. Pre-ERCP infusion of semapimod, a mitogen-activated protein kinases inhibitor, lowers post-ERCP hyperamylasemia but not pancreatitis incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westerloo, David J.; Rauws, Erik A.; Hommes, Daan; de Vos, Alex F.; van der Poll, Tom; Powers, Barbara L.; Fockens, Paul; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Bruno, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia are frequent complications of an ERCP. Semapimod is a synthetic guanylhydrazone that inhibits the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, macrophage activation, and the production of several inflammatory cytokines. OBJECTIVE: This study

  18. Aurora B is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway and is a valuable potential target in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Caroline; Giuliano, Sandy; Ohanna, Mickaël; Bille, Karine; Allegra, Maryline; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Bahadoran, Philippe; Rocchi, Stéphane; Ballotti, Robert; Bertolotto, Corine

    2012-08-24

    Metastatic melanoma is a deadly skin cancer and is resistant to almost all existing treatment. Vemurafenib, which targets the BRAFV600E mutation, is one of the drugs that improves patient outcome, but the patients next develop secondary resistance and a return to cancer. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are needed to treat melanomas and to increase the duration of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) inhibitor response. The ERK pathway controls cell proliferation, and Aurora B plays a pivotal role in cell division. Here, we confirm that Aurora B is highly expressed in metastatic melanoma cells and that Aurora B inhibition triggers both senescence-like phenotypes and cell death in melanoma cells. Furthermore, we show that the BRAF/ERK axis controls Aurora B expression at the transcriptional level, likely through the transcription factor FOXM1. Our results provide insight into the mechanism of Aurora B regulation and the first molecular basis of Aurora B regulation in melanoma cells. The inhibition of Aurora B expression that we observed in vemurafenib-sensitive melanoma cells was rescued in cells resistant to this drug. Consistently, these latter cells remain sensitive to the effect of the Aurora B inhibitor. Noteworthy, wild-type BRAF melanoma cells are also sensitive to Aurora B inhibition. Collectively, our findings, showing that Aurora B is a potential target in melanoma cells, particularly in those vemurafenib-resistant, may open new avenues to improve the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  19. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in acquired gemcitabine-resistant human urothelial carcinoma sublines

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    Yu-Ting Kao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is one of the major challenges in the treatment of cancer. A better understanding of how resistance arises and what molecular alterations correlate with resistance is the key to developing novel effective therapeutic strategies. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of gemcitabine (Gem resistance and provide possible therapeutic options, three Gem-resistant urothelial carcinoma sublines were established (NG0.6, NG0.8, and NG1.0. These cells were cross-resistant to arabinofuranosyl cytidine and cisplatin, but sensitive to 5-fluorouracil. The resistant cells expressed lower values of [hENT1 × dCK/RRM1 × RRM2] mRNA ratio. Two adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette proteins ABCD1 as well as multidrug resistance protein 1 were elevated. Moreover, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 were upregulated, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activity were repressed significantly. Administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the Gem sensitivity in NTUB1 cells, whereas that of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK inhibitor did not. Furthermore, the Gem-resistant sublines also exhibited higher migration ability. Forced expression of p38 MAPK impaired the cell migration activity and augmented Gem sensitivity in NG1.0 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that complex mechanisms were merged in acquiring Gem resistance and provide information that can be important for developing therapeutic targets for treating Gem-resistant tumors.

  20. ASH1L Suppresses Matrix Metalloproteinase through Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway in Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yin; Tianqian, Hui; Fanyuan, Yu; Haiyun, Luo; Xueyang, Liao; Jing, Yang; Chenglin, Wang; Ling, Ye

    2017-02-01

    Pulpitis is an inflammation of dental pulp produced by a response to external stimuli. The response entails substantial cellular and molecular activities. Both genetic and epigenetic regulators contribute to the occurrence of pulpitis. However, the epigenetic mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this research, we studied the role of the absent, small, or homeotic-like (ASH1L) gene in the process of pulpitis. Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Gene expression profiling was performed to assess the occurrence of epigenetic regulators. Pulp tissue from rat experimental pulpitis was subjected to immunofluorescence to detect the occurrence of ASH1L and trimethylation of lysine 4 histone 3 (H3K4me3). The presence of ASH1L in HDPCs that had been generated by TNF-α stimulation was analyzed by Western blot procedures and cellular immunofluorescence. Once detected, ASH1L was silenced through the use of specific small interfering RNA. The effects of ASH1L on the occurrence and operation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were then tested by analysis of quantitative polymerase chain reactions, Western blotting, and zymography. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to detect whether ASH1L and H3K4me3 were present in the promoter regions of MMPs. We then used Western blot procedures to examine the nuclear factor kappa B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) responses to the silencing of ASH1L. We also examined the specific pathway involved in ASH1L regulation of the MMPs. After stimulating HDPCs with TNF-α, ASH1L emerged as 1 of the most strongly induced epigenetic mediators. We found that TNF-α treatment induced the expression of ASH1L through the nuclear factor kappa B and MAPK signal pathways. ASH1L was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. TNF-α treatment was particularly active in inducing the accumulation of ASH1L in cellular cytoplasm. As is also consistent

  1. Fibroblast-Specific Genetic Manipulation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase In Vivo Reveals Its Central Regulatory Role in Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkentin, Jeffery D; Bugg, Darrian; Ghearing, Natasha; Dorn, Lisa E; Kim, Peter; Sargent, Michelle A; Gunaje, Jagadambika; Otsu, Kinya; Davis, Jennifer

    2017-08-08

    In the heart, acute injury induces a fibrotic healing response that generates collagen-rich scarring that is at first protective but if inappropriately sustained can worsen heart disease. The fibrotic process is initiated by cytokines, neuroendocrine effectors, and mechanical strain that promote resident fibroblast differentiation into contractile and extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts. The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38α ( Mapk14 gene) is known to influence the cardiac injury response, but its direct role in orchestrating programmed fibroblast differentiation and fibrosis in vivo is unknown. A conditional Mapk14 allele was used to delete the p38α encoding gene specifically in cardiac fibroblasts or myofibroblasts with 2 different tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expressing gene-targeted mouse lines. Mice were subjected to ischemic injury or chronic neurohumoral stimulation and monitored for survival, cardiac function, and fibrotic remodeling. Antithetically, mice with fibroblast-specific transgenic overexpression of activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6, a direct inducer of p38, were generated to investigate whether this pathway can directly drive myofibroblast formation and the cardiac fibrotic response. In mice, loss of Mapk14 blocked cardiac fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts and ensuing fibrosis in response to ischemic injury or chronic neurohumoral stimulation. A similar inhibition of myofibroblast formation and healing was also observed in a dermal wounding model with deletion of Mapk14 . Transgenic mice with fibroblast-specific activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6-p38 developed interstitial and perivascular fibrosis in the heart, lung, and kidney as a result of enhanced myofibroblast numbers. Mechanistic experiments show that p38 transduces cytokine and mechanical signals into myofibroblast differentiation through the transcription factor serum response factor and the signaling effector

  2. The potent, indirect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator R419 attenuates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, inhibits nociceptor excitability, and reduces pain hypersensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo L. Mejia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There is a great need for new therapeutics for the treatment of pain. A possible avenue to development of such therapeutics is to interfere with signaling pathways engaged in peripheral nociceptors that cause these neurons to become hyperexcitable. There is strong evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways are key modulators of nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK can inhibit signaling in both of these pathways, and AMPK activators have been shown to inhibit nociceptor excitability and pain hypersensitivity in rodents. R419 is one of, if not the most potent AMPK activator described to date. We tested whether R419 activates AMPK in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and if this leads to decreased pain hypersensitivity in mice. We find that R419 activates AMPK in DRG neurons resulting in decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased nascent protein synthesis, and enhanced P body formation. R419 attenuates nerve growth factor (NGF-induced changes in excitability in DRG neurons and blocks NGF-induced mechanical pain amplification in vivo. Moreover, locally applied R419 attenuates pain hypersensitivity in a model of postsurgical pain and blocks the development of hyperalgesic priming in response to both NGF and incision. We conclude that R419 is a promising lead candidate compound for the development of potent and specific AMPK activation to inhibit pain hypersensitivity as a result of injury.

  3. Three mitogen-activated protein kinases required for cell wall integrity contribute greatly to biocontrol potential of a fungal entomopathogen.

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    Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Bck1, Mkk1 and Slt2 are three mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases constituting cell wall integrity (CWI pathway that may control multi-stress responses via crosstalk with high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway in budding yeast. In this study, Bck1, Mkk1 and Slt2 orthologues in Beauveria bassiana were confirmed as the three-module cascade essential for CWI because cell wall impairment occurred in the hyphae and conidia of Δbck1, Δmkk1 and Δslt2 examined in multiple experiments. Strikingly, all the deletion mutants became more sensitive to hyperosmotic NaCl and sorbitol with the Western blot of Hog1 phosphorylation being weakened in Δbck1 and absent in Δmkk1 and Δslt2. Apart from crossing responses to cell wall perturbation and high osmolarity, three deletion mutants exhibited faster growth and conidiation on nutrition-rich medium, much less virulence to Galleria mellonella larvae, and higher sensitivity to nutritional, fungicidal, thermal and UV-B irradiative stresses, accompanied with less accumulation of intracellular mannitol and trehalose. Moreover, Δmkk1 and Δslt2 were equally more sensitive to all the stresses of different types except wet-heat stress than wild type and more or less different from Δbck1 in sensitivity to most of the stresses despite their null responses to two oxidants. All the changes in three deletion mutants were restored by each targeted gene complementation. Taken together, the CWI-required Bck1, Mkk1 and Slt2 are all positive, but differential, regulators of multi-stress tolerance and virulence perhaps due to interplay with the HOG pathway essential for osmoregulation, thereby contributing greatly to the biocontrol potential of the fungal entomopathogen.

  4. Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 prevents the development of tactile sensitivity in a rodent model of neuropathic pain

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    Ndong Christian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain due to nerve injury is one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. Following peripheral nerve injury, neuronal and glial plastic changes contribute to central sensitization and perpetuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodents. The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK family is pivotal in this spinal cord plasticity. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs limit inflammatory processes by dephosphorylating MAPKs. For example, MKP-1 preferentially dephosphorylates p-p38. Since spinal p-p38 is pivotal for the development of chronic hypersensitivity in rodent models of pain, and p-p38 inhibitors have shown clinical potential in acute and chronic pain patients, we hypothesize that induction of spinal MKP-1 will prevent the development of peripheral nerve-injury-induced hypersensitivity and p-p38 overexpression. Results We cloned rat spinal cord MKP-1 and optimize MKP-1 cDNA in vitro using transfections to BV-2 cells. We observed that in vitro overexpression of MKP-1 blocked lipopolysaccharide-induced phosphorylation of p38 (and other MAPKs as well as release of pro-algesic effectors (i.e., cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide. Using this cDNA MKP-1 and a non-viral, in vivo nanoparticle transfection approach, we found that spinal cord overexpression of MKP-1 prevented development of peripheral nerve-injury-induced tactile hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the phosphorylated form of p38. Conclusions Our results indicate that MKP-1, the natural regulator of p-p38, mediates resolution of the spinal cord pro-inflammatory milieu induced by peripheral nerve injury, resulting in prevention of chronic mechanical hypersensitivity. We propose that MKP-1 is a potential therapeutic target for pain treatment or prevention.

  5. Presenilin-2 regulates the degradation of RBP-Jk protein through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Man; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Ann, Eun-Jung; Mo, Jung-Soon; Yoon, Ji-Hye; Park, Hee-Sae

    2012-03-01

    Transcriptional regulation performs a central role in Notch1 signaling by recombining binding protein Suppressor of Hairless (RBP-Jk)--a signaling pathway that is widely involved in determination of cell fate. Our earlier work demonstrated the possible regulation of the Notch1-RBP-Jk pathway through protein degradation of RBP-Jk; however, the potential regulator for the degradation of RBP-Jk remains to be determined. Here, we report that the expression of endogenous and exogenous RBP-Jk was increased significantly in cells treated with proteasome- and lysosome-specific inhibitors. The effects of these inhibitors on RBP-Jk occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The level of RBP-Jk protein was higher in presenilin-2 (PS2)-knockout cells than in presenilin-1 (PS1)-knockout cells. Furthermore, the level of RBP-Jk was decreased by expression of PS2 in PS1 and PS2 double-knockout cells. We also found that PS1-knockout cells treated with a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase ∂ (MAPK) had significantly increased levels of RBP-Jk. p38 MAPK phosphorylates RBP-Jk at Thr339 by physical binding, which subsequently induces the degradation and ubiquitylation of the RBP-Jk protein. Collectively, our results indicate that PS2 modulates the degradation of RBP-Jk through phosphorylation by p38 MAPK.

  6. Modulation of Cyclins, p53 and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by 4-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenoxybenzoic Acid

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    Kuan-Han Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in cancer therapy and early detection, breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor activity of a novel compound, 4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenoxybenzoic acid (TMPBA and its mechanism of action, in breast cancer. Results indicated the relatively high sensitivity of human breast cancer cell-7 and MDA-468 cells towards TMPBA with IC50 values of 5.9 and 7.9 µM, respectively compared to hepatocarcinoma cell line Huh-7, hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, and cervical cancer cell line Hela cells. Mechanistically, TMPBA induced apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells as indicated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI nuclear staining, cell cycle analysis and the activation of caspase-3. Western blot analysis revealed the ability of TMPBA to target pathways mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and p53, of which the concerted action underlined its antitumor efficacy. In addition, TMPBA induced alteration of cyclin proteins’ expression and consequently modulated the cell cycle. Taken together, the current study underscores evidence that TMPBA induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the modulation of cyclins and p53 expression as well as the modulation of AMPK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling. These findings support TMPBA’s clinical promise as a potential candidate for breast cancer therapy.

  7. Heat Shock Proteins and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases in Steatotic Livers Undergoing Ischemia-Reperfusion: Some Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massip-Salcedo, Marta; Casillas-Ramirez, Araní; Franco-Gou, Rosah; Bartrons, Ramón; Ben Mosbah, Ismail; Serafin, Anna; Roselló-Catafau, Joan; Peralta, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning protects steatotic livers against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but just how this is achieved is poorly understood. Here, I/R or preconditioning plus I/R was induced in steatotic and nonsteatotic livers followed by investigating the effect of pharmacological treatments that modulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). MAPKs, HSPs, protein kinase C, and transaminase levels were measured after reperfusion. We report that preconditioning increased HSP72 and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at 6 and 24 hours of reperfusion, respectively. Unlike nonsteatotic livers, steatotic livers benefited from HSP72 activators (geranylgeranylacetone) throughout reperfusion. This protection seemed attributable to HO-1 induction. In steatotic livers, preconditioning and geranylgeranylacetone treatment (which are responsible for HO-1 induction) increased protein kinase C activity. HO-1 activators (cobalt(III) protoporphyrin IX) protected both liver types. Preconditioning reduced p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in HSP72 induction though HO-1 remained unmodified. Like HSP72, both p38 and JNK appeared not to be crucial in preconditioning, and inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) were less effective against hepatic injury than HO-1 activators. These results provide new data regarding the mechanisms of preconditioning and may pave the way to the development of new pharmacological strategies in liver surgery. PMID:16651615

  8. Outer Membrane Protein 25 of Brucella Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathway in Human Trophoblast Cells

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    Jing Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Outer membrane protein 25 (OMP25, a virulence factor from Brucella, plays an important role in maintaining the structural stability of Brucella. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway widely exists in eukaryotic cells. In this study, human trophoblast cell line HPT-8 and BALB/c mice were infected with Brucella abortus 2308 strain (S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant strain. The expression of cytokines and activation of MAPK signal pathway were detected. We found that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-10 (IL-10 were increased in HPT-8 cells infected with S2308 and 2308ΔOmp25 mutant. S2308 also activated p38 phosphorylation protein, extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERK, and Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK from MAPK signal pathway. 2308ΔOmp25 could not activate p38, ERK, and JNK branches. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed that S2308 was able to activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK in BABL/c mice. However, 2308ΔOmp25 could weakly activate phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. These results suggest that Omp25 played an important role in the process of Brucella activation of the MAPK signal pathway.

  9. OncoPPi-informed discovery of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 as a novel binding partner of c-Myc | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) is a dual threonine/tyrosine protein kinase that regulates inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis through specific phosphorylation and activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. However, the role of MKK3 beyond p38-signaling remains elusive. Recently, we reported a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of cancer-associated genes, termed OncoPPi, as a resource for the scientific community to generate new biological models. Analysis of the OncoPPi connectivity identified MKK3 as one of the major hub proteins in the network.

  10. Involvement of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signalling pathway in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert-Gangneux F.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about signalling in Toxoplasma gondii, but it is likely that protein kinases might play a key role in the parasite proliferation, differentiation and probably invasion. We previously characterized Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP kinases in T. gondii lysates. In this study, cultured cells were tested for their susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii infection after tachyzoite pretreatment with drugs interfering with AMP kinase activation pathways. Protein kinases inhibitors, i.e. genistein, R031-8220 and PD098059, reduced tachyzoite infectivity by 38 ± 4.5 %, 85.5 ± 9 % and 56 ± 10 %, respectively. Conversely, protein kinases activators, i.e. bombesin and PMA, markedly increased infectivity (by 202 ± 37 % and 258 ± 14 %, respectively. These results suggest that signalling pathways involving PKC and AAAP kinases play a role in host cell invasion by Toxoplasma.

  11. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J. (Abbott)

    2012-03-02

    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  12. Effect of cyclic hydrodynamic pressure-induced proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle through Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Lin; Wei, Tangqiang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Feng; Wang, Kunjie

    2012-09-01

    To examine the role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 in the cyclic hydrodynamic pressure-induced proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells. Human bladder smooth muscle cells were exposed to cyclic hydrodynamic pressures in vitro with defined parameters (static, 100 cmH(2) O, 200 cmH(2) O and 300 cmH(2) O pressure) for 24 h. The proliferation of cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 messenger ribonucleic acid, and protein expression was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Specificity of the Rac1 was determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot technique with small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection and Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). The proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells was increased. Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 and extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 were activated by 200 and 300 cmH(2) O cyclic hydrodynamic pressure compared with static and 100 cmH(2) O pressure. The "knockdown" of activation of Rac1 using target small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection and Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) decreased proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells, and downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2. The Rac1 pathway is activated in mechanotransduction and regulation of human bladder smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to cyclic hydrodynamic pressure. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Expression and sequence analysis of the Blumeria graminis mitogen-activated protein kinase genes, mpk1 and mpk2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Gurr, S J

    2001-03-21

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases represent a group of serine/threonine kinases which play a pivotal role in signal transduction processes in eukaryotic cells. Using degenerate PCR primer design based on published and aligned MAP kinase sequences we have cloned and characterised two MAP kinase genes from the barley powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis. We have utilised 'step down' PCR to attain the full length mildew genomic clones. The single-copy genes, named mpk1 and mpk2, encode putative proteins of 356 and 410 amino acids and carry three and four introns, respectively. Expression studies, using RT-PCR, reveal a differing pattern of tissue gene expression with mpk1 and mpk2 during germling morphogenesis and this is compared with the constitutive expression of the 'control' beta-tubulin gene.

  14. Fibroblast growth factors 7 and 10 are involved in ameloblastoma proliferation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yu; Mitsuyasu, Takeshi; Kawano, Shintaro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kanda, Shiori; Nakamura, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    Ameloblastoma is an epithelial benign tumor of the odontogenic apparatus and its growth mechanisms are not well understood. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 3, FGF7 and FGF10, which are expressed by the neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal cells, induce the proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells during tooth development. Therefore, we examined the expression and function of these FGFs in ameloblastoma. We examined 32 cases of ameloblastoma as well as AM-1 cells (an ameloblastoma cell line) and studied the expression of FGF3, FGF7, FGF10 and their specific receptors, namely, FGF receptor (FGFR) 1 and FGFR2. Proliferation, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and PI3K signaling were examined in AM-1 cells after the addition of FGF7, FGF10 and these neutralizing antibodies. The expression of FGF7, FGF10, FGFR1 and FGFR2 was detected in ameloblastoma cells and AM-1 cells, while that of FGF3 was not. FGF7 and FGF10 stimulated AM-1 cell proliferation and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK. However, Akt was not phosphorylated. Blocking the p44/42 MAPK pathway by using a specific mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor (U0126) completely neutralized the effects of FGF7 and FGF10 on AM-1 cell proliferation. However, Anti FGF7 and FGF10 neutralizing antibodies did not decrease cell proliferation and MAPK phosphorylation of AM-1 cells. These results suggested that FGF7 and FGF10 are involved in the proliferation of ameloblastoma cells through the MAPK pathway.

  15. Camel Milk Attenuates Rheumatoid Arthritis Via Inhibition of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Hany H; Salama, Samir A; Abdelghany, Tamer M; Omar, Hany A; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Alrobaian, Majed M; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A

    2017-01-01

    Camel milk (CM) has shown beneficial anti-inflammatory actions in several experimental and clinical settings. So far, its effect on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not been previously explored. Thus, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of CM in Adjuvant-induced arthritis and air pouch edema models in rats, which mimic human RA. CM was administered at 10 ml/kg orally for 3 weeks starting on the day of Freund's adjuvant paw inoculation. The levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA while the protein expression of NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of MAPK target proteins was assessed by Western blotting. CM attenuated paw edema, arthritic index and gait score along with dorsal pouch inflammatory cell migration. CM lowered the TNF-α and augmented the anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. It also attenuated the expression of activated NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS in the lining of the dorsal pouch. Notably, CM inhibited the MAPK pathway signal transduction via lowering the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in rat hind paws. Additionally, CM administration lowered the lipid peroxide and nitric oxide levels and boosted glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity in sera and exudates of animals. The observed CM downregulation of the arthritic process may support the interest of CM consumption as an adjunct approach for the management of RA. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Asthmatic airway smooth muscle CXCL10 production: mitogen-activated protein kinase JNK involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashdan, Yazan A.; Alkhouri, Hatem; Chen, Emily; Lalor, Daniel J.; Poniris, Maree; Henness, Sheridan; Brightling, Christopher E.; Burgess, Janette K.; Armour, Carol L.; Ammit, Alaina J.

    2012-01-01

    CXCL10 (IP10) is involved in mast cell migration to airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles in asthma. We aimed to investigate the role of cytokine-induced MAPK activation in CXCL10 production by ASM cells from people with and without asthma. Confluent growth-arrested ASM cells were treated with inhibitors of the MAPKs ERK, p38, and JNK and transcription factor NF-κB, or vehicle, and stimulated with IL-1β, TNF-α, or IFN-γ, alone or combined (cytomix). CXCL10 mRNA and protein, JNK, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, and Iκ-Bα protein degradation were assessed using real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunoblotting, respectively. Cytomix, IL-1β, and TNF-α induced CXCL10 mRNA expression more rapidly in asthmatic than nonasthmatic ASM cells. IL-1β and/or TNF-α combined with IFN-γ synergistically increased asthmatic ASM cell CXCL10 release. Inhibitor effects were similar in asthmatic and nonasthmatic cells, but cytomix-induced release was least affected, with only JNK and NF-κB inhibitors halving it. Notably, JNK phosphorylation was markedly less in asthmatic compared with nonasthmatic cells. However, in both, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced JNK phosphorylation and CXCL10 mRNA levels but did not affect CXCL10 mRNA stability or Iκ-Bα degradation. Together, the JNK and NF-κB inhibitors completely inhibited their CXCL10 release. We concluded that, in asthmatic compared with nonasthmatic ASM cells, JNK activation was reduced and CXCL10 gene expression was more rapid following cytomix stimulation. However, in both, JNK activation did not regulate early events leading to NF-κB activation. Thus JNK and NF-κB provide independent therapeutic targets for limiting CXCL10 production and mast cell migration to the ASM in asthma. PMID:22387292

  17. Camel Milk Attenuates Rheumatoid Arthritis Via Inhibition of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H. Arab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Camel milk (CM has shown beneficial anti-inflammatory actions in several experimental and clinical settings. So far, its effect on rheumatoid arthritis (RA has not been previously explored. Thus, the current work aimed to evaluate the effects of CM in Adjuvant-induced arthritis and air pouch edema models in rats, which mimic human RA. Methods: CM was administered at 10 ml/kg orally for 3 weeks starting on the day of Freund’s adjuvant paw inoculation. The levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were measured by ELISA while the protein expression of NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of MAPK target proteins was assessed by Western blotting. Results: CM attenuated paw edema, arthritic index and gait score along with dorsal pouch inflammatory cell migration. CM lowered the TNF-α and augmented the anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. It also attenuated the expression of activated NF-κBp65, COX-2 and iNOS in the lining of the dorsal pouch. Notably, CM inhibited the MAPK pathway signal transduction via lowering the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 in rat hind paws. Additionally, CM administration lowered the lipid peroxide and nitric oxide levels and boosted glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity in sera and exudates of animals. Conclusion: The observed CM downregulation of the arthritic process may support the interest of CM consumption as an adjunct approach for the management of RA.

  18. Light-mediated Reversible Modulation of the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway during Cell Differentiation and Xenopus Embryonic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vishnu V; Turgeon, Aurora J; Khamo, John S; Mondal, Payel; Sharum, Savanna R; Mei, Wenyan; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Kai

    2017-06-15

    Kinase activity is crucial for a plethora of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. During early embryonic development, kinase activity is highly dynamic and widespread across the embryo. Pharmacological and genetic approaches are commonly used to probe kinase activities. Unfortunately, it is challenging to achieve superior spatial and temporal resolution using these strategies. Furthermore, it is not feasible to control the kinase activity in a reversible fashion in live cells and multicellular organisms. Such a limitation remains a bottleneck for achieving a quantitative understanding of kinase activity during development and differentiation. This work presents an optogenetic strategy that takes advantage of a bicistronic system containing photoactivatable proteins Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and the N-terminal domain of cryptochrome-interacting basic-helix-loop-helix (CIBN). Reversible activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is achieved through light-mediated protein translocation in live cells. This approach can be applied to mammalian cell cultures and live vertebrate embryos. This bicistronic system can be generalized to control the activity of other kinases with similar activation mechanisms and can be applied to other model systems.

  19. Analysis of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Bone and Cartilage of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Abatacept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Kanbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the histological changes related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in bone and cartilage treated with abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. A total of 20 patients of bone and cartilage were assessed: 10 abatacept with methotrexate (MTX-treated RA patients were compared with 10 MTX-treated RA patients (control. The histology of bone and cartilage was observed by staining with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed immunohistochemically for the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, CD4 (T cell, CD68 (macrophage, receptor activator of nuclear kappa-B ligand, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, CD29 (β-1 integrin, phospho-p38 MAPK (Tyr180/Tyr182, phospho-p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/ERK2, and phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The expressions of CD29 known as mechanoreceptor and ERK known as mechanotransduction signal protein in MAP kinases in the bone and cartilage of patients treated with abatacept were significantly different from those of control. These findings suggest that increases in CD29 and ERK in MAP kinases may change the metabolism of bone and cartilage in RA patients treated with abatacept.

  20. Excessive L-cysteine induces vacuole-like cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Sun, Kaiji; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    High intake of dietary cysteine is extremely toxic to animals and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that excessive L-cysteine induces cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in intestinal porcine epithelial cells. Jejunal enterocytes were cultured in the presence of 0-10 mmol/L L-cysteine. Cell viability, morphologic alterations, mRNA levels for genes involved in ER stress, protein abundances for glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) were determined. The results showed that L-cysteine (5-10 mmol/L) reduced cell viability (P cysteine were not affected by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The protein abundances for CHOP, phosphorylated (p)-eIF2α, p-JNK1/2, p-p38 MAPK, and the spliced form of XBP-1 mRNA were enhanced (P cysteine induces vacuole-like cell death via the activation of ER stress and MAPK signaling in small intestinal epithelial cells. These signaling pathways may be potential targets for developing effective strategies to prevent the toxicity of dietary cysteine.

  1. MicroRNA-21 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell proliferation through repression of mitogen-activated protein kinase-kinase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Guangxian; Zhang, Yilin; Wei, Jun; Jia, Wei; Ge, Zhaohui; Zhang, Zhaobo; Liu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    microRNA 21 (miR-21) has been demonstrated to be significantly elevated in many types of cancers, including the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-21 in HCC by identifying its novel targets, as well as its underlying molecular mechanism. The expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase-kinase 3 (MAP2K3) in human HCC tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry staining (IHC) analysis. The 3’-untranslated region (3’-UTR) of MAP2K3 combined with miR-21 was experimentally verified by a miRNA luciferase reporter approach. Moreover, the role of miR-21 in regulating HCC cell proliferation was analyzed by an MTT assay infected with miR-21mimics/sponge inhibitor Adenoviral viral vectors. By immunohistochemistry staining analysis, we found that mitogen-activated protein kinase-kinase 3 (MAP2K3) was strikingly repressed in the human HCC tumor tissues, in comparison with the adjacent non-tumor tissues in clinical settings. More importantly, the repression of MAP2K3 was inversely correlated with the expression of miR-21 in HCC. Further study demonstrated that the MAP2K3 was a novel direct target of miR-21, which was experimentally validated by a miRNA luciferase reporter approach. In HepG2 cells, inhibition of miR-21 expression with an adenoviral miR-21 sponge vector profoundly suppressed cell proliferation by up-regulating MAP2K3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. These results provide a clinical evidence that MAP2K3 may be a tumor repressor gene, and it is a direct target of miR-21 in HCC, indicating an underlying mechanism by which miR-21 is able to directly target MAP2K3 and inhibit its expression during the carcinogenesis of HCC, at both transcriptional and post-translational levels. This study also suggests that targeting miR-21-MAP2K3 pathway may be a promising strategy in the prevention and treatment of HCC

  2. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Are Activated in Placental Injury in Rat Model of Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Teng; Yu, Jia; Wang, Wei-Xing; Zhao, Kai-Liang; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wen-Hong; He, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Peng; Shi, Qiao; Guo, Wen-Yi

    2016-07-01

    To establish a rat model of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy (APIP) and evaluate its general presentations, assess placental injury, and discuss possible mechanisms. The APIP rat model was induced by sodium taurocholate in Sprague-Dawley rats of later gestation. Normal and sham-operated (SO) rats in later gestation were set as controls, 3 time points were set in SO and APIP groups to determine optimal modeling time. Histological changes of pancreas and placenta were assessed. Placental injury was determined by immunohistochemistry stain of caspase-3. Serum levels of amylase, lipase, and Ca; proinflammatory cytokines as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; mitogen-activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated forms by Western blotting. Pancreatic necrotizing and placental injury occurred in time-dependent patterns. Serum levels of amylase and lipase significantly increased but Ca decreased; tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were all increased in the APIP group; c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, and ERK1/2 were activated but with different distributing patterns in the placenta. Placental injury is involved in the rat model of APIP, and a modeling time of 6 hours is optimal and conducive to further studies; c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 may play important roles in placental injury during APIP.

  3. Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shengjun; Xu, Huilian

    2016-01-01

    As a resistance elicitor, riboflavin (vitamin B2) protects plants against a wide range of pathogens. At molecular biological levels, it is important to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying the disease resistance induced by riboflavin. Here, riboflavin was tested to induce resistance against virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis. Results showed that riboflavin induced disease resistance based on MAPK-dependent priming for the expression of PR1 gene. Riboflavin induced transient expression of PR1 gene. However, following Pst DC3000 inoculation, riboflavin potentiated stronger PR1 gene transcription. Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin. Upon infection by Pst DC3000, these two enzymes were more strongly activated. The elevated activation of both MPK3 and MPK6 was responsible for enhanced defense gene expression and resistance after riboflavin treatment. Moreover, riboflavin significantly reduced the transcript levels of MPK3 and MPK6 by application of AsA and BAPTA, an H2O2 scavenger and a calcium (Ca2+) scavenger, respectively. In conclusion, MPK3 and MPK6 were responsible for riboflavin-induced resistance, and played an important role in H2O2- and Ca2+-related signaling pathways, and this study could provide a new insight into the mechanistic study of riboflavin-induced defense responses.

  4. TRAF6 promotes myogenic differentiation via the TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xiao

    Full Text Available p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK is an essential kinase involved in myogenic differentiation. Although many substrates of p38 MAPK have been identified, little is known about its upstream activators during myogenic differentiation. TRAF6 is known to function in cytokine signaling during inflammatory responses. However, not much is known about its role in myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration. We showed here that TRAF6 and its intrinsic ubiquitin E3 ligase activity are required for myogenic differentiation. In mouse myoblasts, knockdown of TRAF6 compromised the p38 MAPK and Akt pathways, while deliberate activation of either pathway rescued the differentiation defect caused by TRAF6 knockdown. TAK1 acted as a key signal transducer downstream of TRAF6 in myogenic differentiation. In vivo, knockdown of TRAF6 in mouse muscles compromised the injury-induced muscle regeneration without impairing macrophage infiltration and myoblast proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrated that TRAF6 promotes myogenic differentiation and muscle regeneration via the TAK1/p38 MAPK and Akt pathways.

  5. Collagen directly stimulates bladder smooth muscle cell growth in vitro: regulation by extracellular regulated mitogen activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Daniel B; Aitken, Karen; Bagli, Darius J

    2003-11-01

    Bladders clinically subjected to excessive pressure or distention demonstrate an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. We determined how an altered collagen substratum might affect bladder smooth muscle cell (bSMC) growth in vitro and probed the mechanism of this response. Primary culture rat bSMCs were seeded onto culture plates pre-coated with normal type I collagen (NC) or heat denatured type I collagen (DNC) under standard culture conditions. In separate experiments bSMCs from the 2 substrates were enzymatically released and changed to growth on normal collagen (NC-->NC or DNC-->NC) or denatured collagen (DNC-->DNC or NC-->DNC). At 24 hours proliferation was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Statistical significance in triplicate wells was determined by ANOVA. The proliferation of bSMCs on DNC was 5-fold greater than on NC (p DNC-->DNC) showed 2-fold further augmentation in proliferation (p DNC-->NC) (p NC) generated a 33% decrease in the already low proliferation rate (p DNC) (p DNC. However, mitogenicity is only partially reversible by re-introducing NC. These results demonstrate striking bSMC responsiveness to ECM conformation. Signaling through the extracellular regulated kinase mitogen activated protein kinase pathway supports bSMC-ECM interaction. We speculate that remodeling the ECM in vivo may regulate bSMC growth.

  6. Chitosan Controls Postharvest Decay on Cherry Tomato Fruit Possibly via the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Hu, Yi; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-08-26

    The inhibitive effects of chitosan on gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea on cherry tomato fruit were evaluated. Decay incidence was tested on tomato stored at 22 °C. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, peroxidase (POD) activity, and several related gene expressions (including MPK3, MPK6, PR1a1, and PR5) were determined. Results showed that 0.2% of chitosan solution significantly inhibited the tomato gray mold 3 days after inoculation. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the fruit epidermal peel along with chitosan treatment, while MDA production was not increased. POD activity was remarkably enhanced by the application of chitosan. The relative expressions of MPK3, MPK6, and PR1a1 were significantly induced in 10 min after chitosan treatment, while PR5 was induced in 20 min. These findings suggested that the effects of chitosan on inhibiting gray mold in cherry tomato fruit were probably associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.

  7. Involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 in the induction of cell dissociation in pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodong; Egami, Hiroshi; Kamohara, Hidenobu; Ishikawa, Shinji; Kurizaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoya; Tamori, Yasuhiko; Takai, Eiji; Hirota, Masahiko; Ogawa, Michio

    2004-01-01

    In our previous investigation, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (MEK2) was detected as a factor which was correlated to the potential of invasion-metastasis. In this study, the immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical and mRNA expressions of MEK2 were examined in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tissue samples, respectively. Constitutive expressions of MEK2 and phosphorylated MEK (p-MEK) were observed in PC-1.0 and ASPC-1 cells, which exhibited a growth pattern of single cells, whereas the relevant expressions were quite faint in PC-1 cells and CAPAN-2 cells, which exhibited a growth pattern of island-like clonies. Simultaneous inductions of MEK2 expressions and cell dissociation were observed after the treatment with a conditioned medium (CM) of PC-1.0 cells. The expression of MEK2 and p-MEK were reduced and the cell aggregation was found in PC-1.0 and ASPC-1 cells after U0126 (a MEK inhibitor) treatment. In vivo, both the MEK2 and p-MEK overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and p-MEK was found to be more strongly expressed in the invasive front than that in the center of tumor (Pcell dissociation. MEK2 activation is probably involved in the first step of the cascade in the invasion-metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Mesothelioma Cells Escape Heat Stress by Upregulating Hsp40/Hsp70 Expression via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy with hyperthermal chemotherapy in pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma had limited benefits for patients. Here we investigated the effect of heat stress on heat shock proteins (HSP, which rescue tumour cells from apoptosis. In human mesothelioma and mesothelial cells heat stress (39–42°C induced the phosphorylation of two mitogen activated kinases (MAPK Erk1/2 and p38, and increased Hsp40, and Hsp70 expression. Mesothelioma cells expressed more Hsp40 and were less sensitive to heat stress compared to mesothelial cells. Inhibition of Erk1/2 MAPK by PD98059 or by Erk1 siRNA down-regulated heat stress-induced Hsp40 and Hsp70 expression and reduced mesothelioma cell survival. Inhibition of p38MAPK by SB203580 or siRNA reduced Hsp40, but not Hsp70, expression and also increased mesothelioma cell death. Thus hyperthermia combined with suppression of p38 MAPK or Hsp40 may represent a novel approach to improve mesothelioma therapy.

  9. Activation of p38 and Erk Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling in Ocular Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladis, Edward J; Swamy, Supraja; Herrmann, Alyssa; Yang, Jinhong; Carlson, J Andrew; Adam, Alejandro P

    2017-02-01

    Rosacea-related cutaneous inflammation is a common cause of ocular surface disease. Currently, there are no specific pharmacologic therapies to treat ocular rosacea. Here, we aimed at determining the differences in intracellular signaling activity in eyelid skin from patients with and without ocular rosacea. This was an observational, comparative case series including 21 patients undergoing lower lid ectropion surgery at one practice during 2013 and 2014 (18 patients with rosacea, 13 control patients), and 24 paraffin-embedded archival samples from Albany Medical Center, selected randomly (12 patients with rosacea, 12 control patients). Cutaneous biopsies resulting from elective lower lid ectropion surgery were analyzed by Proteome Profiler Human Phospho-Kinase Array, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Samples derived from ocular rosacea patients showed increased levels of phosphorylated (active) p38 and Erk kinases. Phosphoproteins were mainly localized to the epidermis of affected eyelids. This finding provides a novel potential therapeutic target for treatment of ocular rosacea and possibly other forms of rosacea. Further testing is required to determine if p38 and Erk activation have a causal role in ocular rosacea. The selective activation of keratinocytes in the affected skin suggests that topical pathway inhibition may be an effective treatment that will ultimately prevent ocular surface damage due to ocular rosacea.

  10. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in beryllium-induced dendritic cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Huang, Z; Gillespie, M; Mroz, P M; Maier, L A

    2014-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a role in the regulation of immune responses to haptens, which in turn impact DC maturation. Whether beryllium (Be) is able to induce DC maturation and if this occurs via the MAPK pathway is not known. Primary monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) models were generated from Be non-exposed healthy volunteers as a non-sensitized cell model, while PBMCs from BeS (Be sensitized) and CBD (chronic beryllium disease) were used as disease models. The response of these cells to Be was evaluated. The expression of CD40 was increased significantly (pBeSO₄-stimulation. BeSO₄ induced p38MAPK phosphorylation, while IκB-α was degraded in Be-stimulated moDCs. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 blocked Be-induced NF-κB activation in moDCs, suggesting that p38MAPK and NF-κB are dependently activated by BeSO₄. Furthermore, in BeS and CBD subjects, SB203580 downregulated Be-stimulated proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased Be-stimulated TNF-α and IFNγ cytokine production. Taken together, this study suggests that Be-induces non-sensitized Glu69+ DCs maturation, and that p38MAPK signaling is important in the Be-stimulated DCs activation as well as subsequent T cell proliferation and cytokine production in BeS and CBD. In total, the MAPK pathway may serve as a potential therapeutic target for human granulomatous lung diseases. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated and linked to TNF-alpha signaling in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waetzig, Georg H; Seegert, Dirk; Rosenstiel, Philip; Nikolaus, Susanna; Schreiber, Stefan

    2002-05-15

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)--Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis--are relapsing chronic inflammatory disorders which involve genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. The regulation of TNF-alpha, a key mediator in the inflammatory process in IBD, is interconnected with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The aim of this study was to characterize the activity and expression of the four p38 subtypes (p38alpha-delta), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 in the inflamed intestinal mucosa. Western blot analysis revealed that p38alpha, JNKs, and ERK1/2 were significantly activated in IBD, with p38alpha showing the most pronounced increase in kinase activity. Protein expression of p38 and JNK was only moderately altered in IBD patients compared with normal controls, whereas ERK1/2 protein was significantly down-regulated. Immunohistochemical analysis of inflamed mucosal biopsies localized the main expression of p38alpha to lamina propria macrophages and neutrophils. ELISA screening of the supernatants of Crohn's disease mucosal biopsy cultures showed that incubation with the p38 inhibitor SB 203580 significantly reduced secretion of TNF-alpha. In vivo inhibition of TNF-alpha by a single infusion of anti-TNF-alpha Ab (infliximab) resulted in a highly significant transient increase of p38alpha activity during the first 48 h after infusion. A significant infliximab-dependent p38alpha activation was also observed in THP-1 myelomonocytic cells. In human monocytes, infliximab enhanced TNF-alpha gene expression, which could be inhibited by SB 203580. In conclusion, p38alpha signaling is involved in the pathophysiology of IBD.

  12. Effects of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linlin; Li, Di; Wang, Juan; Meng, Chao; Cui, Xiaoguang

    2017-08-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) is a pathologic process that is observed in several clinical conditions, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved. Diabetes mellitus (DM) results in an increased incidence of ischemia-induced organ damage. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of DM on LIRI in a rat model of DM and to explore the possible mechanisms in relation to the p38 MAPK pathway. Forty rats were randomly divided into the following five groups (n = 8 each): a control + sham group, a control + IR group (CIR), a DM + sham group, a DM + IR group (DIR), and a DM + IR + SB203580 group. The control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats underwent a sham operation or left hilum occlusion for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 4 h. SB203580 was used to inhibit the p38 MAPK pathway. The pulmonary oxygenation index, inflammatory cytokines in the serum, lung edema, histopathology, oxidant stress, apoptosis, and phosphorylated/total-p38 MAPK protein levels were measured. The DIR group displayed greater concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and increases in the wet weight-to-dry weight ratio, lung injury scores, malondialdehyde levels, and cellular apoptosis, and these effects were accompanied by lower pulmonary oxygenation compared with the CIR group (P < 0.05). In the DIR group, the expression levels of p38 MAPK protein were significantly upregulated compared with those of the CIR group. Additionally, all of these alterations were attenuated in the DM + IR + SB203580 group compared with the DIR group. Diabetes exacerbates LIRI by activating the p38 MAPK pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence of a New Role for the High-Osmolarity Glycerol Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Yeast: Regulating Adaptation to Citric Acid Stress†

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Clare L.; Botting, Catherine H.; Antrobus, Robin; Coote, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Screening the Saccharomyces cerevisiae disruptome, profiling transcripts, and determining changes in protein expression have identified an important new role for the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the regulation of adaptation to citric acid stress. Deletion of HOG1, SSK1, PBS2, PTC2, PTP2, and PTP3 resulted in sensitivity to citric acid. Furthermore, citric acid resulted in the dual phosphorylation, and thus activation, of Hog1p. Despite mino...

  14. A p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Regulated Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2–β-Catenin Interaction Enhances Canonical Wnt Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehyai, Saviz; Dionyssiou, Mathew G.; Gordon, Joseph W.; Williams, Declan; Siu, K. W. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a major role in various biological contexts, such as embryonic development, cell proliferation, and cancer progression. Previously, a connection between p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and Wnt-mediated activation of β-catenin was implied but poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated potential cross talk between p38 MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Here we show that a loss of p38 MAPK α/β function reduces β-catenin nuclear accumulation in Wnt3a-stimulated primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Conversely, active p38 MAPK signaling increases β-catenin nuclear localization and target gene activity in multiple cell types. Furthermore, the effect of p38 MAPK α/β on β-catenin activity is mediated through phosphorylation of a key p38 MAPK target, myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2). Here we report a p38 MAPK-mediated, phosphorylation-dependent interaction between MEF2 and β-catenin in multiple cell types and primary VSMCs that results in (i) increased β-catenin nuclear retention, which is reversed by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated MEF2 gene silencing; (ii) increased activation of MEF2 and Wnt/β-catenin target genes; and (iii) increased Wnt-stimulated cell proliferation. These observations provide mechanistic insight into a fundamental level of cross talk between p38 MAPK/MEF2 signaling and canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:26552705

  15. Identification and functional analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bo; Wu, Feifei; Hao, Xueyu; Liang, Wanwan; Niu, Fangfang; Yan, Jingli; Zhang, Hanfeng; Wang, Boya; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades, consisting of three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK), are involved in important processes including plant immunity and hormone responses. The MAPKKKs comprise the largest family in the MAPK cascades, yet only a few of these genes have been associated with physiological functions, even in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China and worldwide. To explore MAPKKK functions in biotic and abiotic stress responses in canola, 66 MAPKKK genes were identified and 28 of them were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis of these canola MAPKKKs with homologous genes from representative species classified them into three groups (A-C), comprising four MAPKKKs, seven ZIKs, and 17 Raf genes. A further 15 interaction pairs between these MAPKKKs and the downstream BnaMKKs were identified through a yeast two-hybrid assay. The interactions were further validated through bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. In addition, by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, it was further observed that some of these BnaMAPKKK genes were regulated by different hormone stimuli, abiotic stresses, or fungal pathogen treatments. Interestingly, two novel BnaMAPKKK genes, BnaMAPKKK18 and BnaMAPKKK19, which could elicit hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, were successfully identified. Moreover, it was found that BnaMAPKKK19 probably mediated cell death through BnaMKK9. Overall, the present work has laid the foundation for further characterization of this important MAPKKK gene family in canola.

  16. The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase is a key regulator of myelination and remyelination in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S-H; Biswas, S; Selvaraj, V; Liu, X-B; Sohn, J; Jiang, P; Chen, C; Chmilewsky, F; Marzban, H; Horiuchi, M; Pleasure, D E; Deng, W

    2015-05-07

    The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is one of the serine/threonine kinases regulating a variety of biological processes, including cell-type specification, differentiation and migration. Previous in vitro studies using pharmacological inhibitors suggested that p38 MAPK is essential for oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation and myelination. To investigate the specific roles of p38α MAPK in OL development and myelination in vivo, we generated p38α conditional knockout (CKO) mice under the PLP and nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) gene promoters, as these genes are specifically expressed in OL progenitor cells (OPCs). Our data revealed that myelin synthesis was completely inhibited in OLs differentiated from primary OPC cultures derived from the NG2 Cre-p38α CKO mouse brains. Although an in vivo myelination defect was not obvious after gross examination of these mice, electron microscopic analysis showed that the ultrastructure of myelin bundles was severely impaired. Moreover, the onset of myelination in the corpus callosum was delayed in the knockout mice compared with p38α fl/fl control mice. A delay in OL differentiation in the central nervous system was observed with concomitant downregulation in the expression of OPC- and OL-specific genes such as Olig1 and Zfp488 during early postnatal development. OPC proliferation was not affected during this time. These data indicate that p38α is a positive regulator of OL differentiation and myelination. Unexpectedly, we observed an opposite effect of p38α on remyelination in the cuprizone-induced demyelination model. The p38α CKO mice exhibited better remyelination capability compared with p38α fl/fl mice following demyelination. The opposing roles of p38α in myelination and remyelination could be due to a strong anti-inflammatory effect of p38α or a dual reciprocal regulatory action of p38α on myelin formation during development and on remyelination after demyelination.

  17. High Cell Density Upregulates Calcium Oscillation by Increasing Calcium Store Content via Basal Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Morita

    Full Text Available Calcium releases of non-excitable cells are generally a combination of oscillatory and non-oscillatory patterns, and factors affecting the calcium dynamics are still to be determined. Here we report the influence of cell density on calcium increase patterns of clonal cell lines. The majority of HeLa cells seeded at 1.5 x 104/cm2 showed calcium oscillations in response to histamine and ATP, whereas cells seeded at 0.5 x 104/cm2 largely showed transient and sustained calcium increases. Cell density also affected the response of HEK293 cells to ATP in a similar manner. High cell density increased the basal activity of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and calcium store content, and both calcium oscillation and calcium store content were down-regulated by a MAP kinase inhibitor, U0126. Thus, MAP kinase-mediated regulation of calcium store likely underlie the effect of cell density on calcium oscillation. Calcium increase patterns of HeLa cells were conserved at any histamine concentrations tested, whereas the overexpression of histamine H1 receptor, which robustly increased histamine-induced inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, converted calcium oscillations to sustained calcium increases only at high histamine concentrations. Thus, the consequence of modulating inositol phospholipid metabolism was distinct from that of changing cell density, suggesting the effect of cell density is not attributed to inositol phospholipid metabolism. Collectively, our results propose that calcium increase patterns of non-excitable cells reflect calcium store, which is regulated by the basal MAP kinase activity under the influence of cell density.

  18. Involvement of a novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in larval metamorphosis of the polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2010-04-19

    Hydroides elegans is a common marine fouling organism in most tropical and subtropical waters. The life cycle of H. elegans includes a planktonic larval stage in which swimming larvae normally take 5 days to attain competency to settle. Larval metamorphosis marks the beginning of its benthic life; however, the endogenous molecular mechanisms that regulate metamorphosis remain largely unknown. In this study, a PCR-based suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed to screen the genes expressed in competent larvae but not in precompetent larvae. Among the transcripts isolated from the library, 21 significantly matched sequences in the GenBank. Many of these isolated transcripts have putative roles in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal transduction pathway or in response to ROS stress. A putative novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which was also isolated with SSH screen, was then cloned and characterized. The MAPK inhibitors assay showed that both p38 MAPK inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 effectively inhibited the biofilm-induced metamorphosis of H. elegans. A cell stressors assay showed that H2O2 effectively induced larval metamorphosis of H. elegans, but the inductivity of H2O2 was also inhibited by both SB inhibitors. The catalase assay showed that the catalase could effetely inhibit H. elegans larvae from responding to inductive biofilm. These results showed that the p38 MAPK-dependent pathway plays critical role in controlling larval metamorphosis of the marine polychaete H. elegans, and the reactive oxygen radicals produced by biofilm could be the cue inducing larval metamorphosis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. TMPYP4 exerted antitumor effects in human cervical cancer cells through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Jun; Cao, Yun-Gui

    2017-07-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of the 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin (TMPyP4) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms by which TMPyP4 exerted its actions. After human cervical cancer cells were treated with different doses of TMPyP4, cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method, the apoptosis was observed by flow cytometry (FCM), and the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphated p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), capase-3, MAPKAPK2 (MK-2) and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was measured by Western blot analysis. The analysis revealed that TMPyP4 potently suppressed cell viability and induced the apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the up-regulation of p-p38 MAPK expression levels was detected in TMPyP4-treated human cervical cancer cells. However, followed by the block of p38 MAPK signaling pathway using the inhibitor SB203580, the effects of TMPyP4 on proliferation and apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells were significantly changed. It was indicated that TMPyP4-inhibited proliferation and -induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells was accompanied by activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Taken together, our study demonstrates that TMPyP4 may represent a potential therapeutic method for the treatment of cervical carcinoma.

  20. Activation of ZmMKK10, a maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, induces ethylene-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying; Yang, Hailian; Ren, Dongtao; Li, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. Here, we report that ZmMKK10, a maize MAP kinase kinase, positively regulates cell death. Sequence comparison to Arabidopsis MKKs has led to ZmMKK10 being classified as a group D MKK. Kinase activity analysis of recombinant ZmMKK10 showed that the Mg 2+ ion was required for its kinase activity. Transient expression of ZmMKK10 WT or ZmMKK10 DD (the active form of ZmMKK10) in maize mesophyll protoplast significantly increased the cell death rate. Inducible expression of ZmMKK10 WT or ZmMKK10 DD in Arabidopsis transgenic plants caused rapid HR-like cell death, whereas induction of ZmMKK10 KR (the inactive form of ZmMKK10) expression in transgenic plants did not yield the same phenotype. Genetic and pharmacological analysis revealed that ZmMKK10-induced cell death in transgenic plants requires the activation of Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 and that it partially depended on ethylene biosynthesis. ZmMPK3 and ZmMPK7, the orthologues of Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6, interacted with ZmMKK10 in yeast and ZmMKK10 phosphorylated them both in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ZmMKK10 induces cell death in an ethylene-dependent manner. Furthermore, ZmMPK3 and ZmMPK7 may be the downstream MAPKs in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stress-Stimulated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Control the Stability and Activity of the Cdt1 DNA Replication Licensing Factor ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Srikripa; Tan, Ting Xu; Hall, Jonathan R.; Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2011-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly coordinated both with cell cycle cues and with responses to extracellular signals to maintain genome stability. We discovered that human Cdt1, an essential origin licensing protein whose activity must be restricted to G1 phase, is a substrate of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These MAP kinases phosphorylate Cdt1 both during unperturbed G2 phase and during an acute stress response. Phosphorylation renders Cdt1 resistant to ubiquitin-mediated degradation during S phase and after DNA damage by blocking Cdt1 binding to the Cul4 adaptor, Cdt2. Mutations that block normal cell cycle-regulated MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation interfere with rapid Cdt1 reaccumulation at the end of S phase. Phosphomimetic mutations recapitulate the stabilizing effects of Cdt1 phosphorylation but also reduce the ability of Cdt1 to support origin licensing. Two other CRL4Cdt2 targets, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 and the methyltransferase PR-Set7/Set8, are similarly stabilized by MAP kinase activity. These findings support a model in which MAP kinase activity in G2 promotes reaccumulation of a low-activity Cdt1 isoform after replication is complete. PMID:21930785

  2. UVB-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances resistance of normal human keratinocytes to apoptosis by stabilizing cytoplasmic p53.

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, Nadine; Valerie, Kristoffer; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Huot, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Human keratinocytes respond to UV rays by developing a fast adaptive response that contributes to maintaining their functions and survival. We investigated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in transducing the UV signals in normal human keratinocytes. We found that UVA, UVB or UVC induced a marked and persistent activation of p38, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase were less or not activated respectively. Inhibition of p38 activity ...

  3. Acetylcorynoline impairs the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells via suppression of IκB kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Huei Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs are major modulators in the immune system. One active field of research is the manipulation of DCs as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Acetylcorynoline is the major alkaloid component derived from Corydalis bungeana herbs. We assessed the capability of acetylcorynoline to regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our experimental data showed that treatment with up to 20 µM acetylcorynoline does not cause cytotoxicity in cells. Acetylcorynoline significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12p70 by LPS-stimulated DCs. The expression of LPS-induced major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, and CD86 on DCs was also decreased by acetylcorynoline, and the endocytic capacity of LPS-stimulated DCs was restored by acetylcorynoline. In addition, LPS-stimulated DC-elicited allogeneic T-cell proliferation was blocked by acetylcorynoline, and the migratory ability of LPS-stimulated DCs was reduced by acetylcorynoline. Moreover, acetylcorynoline significantly inhibits LPS-induced activation of IκB kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Importantly, administration of acetylcorynoline significantly attenuates 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acetylcorynoline may be one of the potent immunosuppressive agents through the blockage of DC maturation and function.

  4. The pmk1-like mitogen-activated protein kinase from Lecanicillium (Verticillium) fungicola is not required for virulence on Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Patrick D; Amey, Richard C; Sergeant, Martin J; Challen, Michael P; Mills, Peter R; Foster, Gary D; Bailey, Andy M

    2010-05-01

    In plant-pathogenic fungi, the pmk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway plays an essential role in regulating the development of penetration structures and the sensing of host-derived cues, but its role in other pathosystems such as fungal-fungal interactions is less clear. We report the use of a gene disruption strategy to investigate the pmk1-like MAPK, Lf pmk1 in the development of Lecanicillium fungicola (formerly Verticillium fungicola) infection on the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Lf pmk1 was isolated using a degenerate PCR-based approach and was shown to be present in a single copy by Southern blot analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR showed the transcript to be fivefold upregulated in cap lesions compared with pure culture. Agrobacterium-mediated targeted disruption was used to delete a central portion of the Lf pmk1 gene. The resulting mutants showed normal symptom development as assessed by A. bisporus mushroom cap assays, sporulation patterns were normal and there were no apparent changes in overall growth rates. Our results indicate that, unlike the situation in fungal-plant pathogens, the pmk1-like MAPK pathway is not required for virulence in the fungal-fungal interaction between the L. fungicola pathogen and A. bisporus host. This observation may be of wider significance in other fungal-fungal and/or fungal-invertebrate interactions.

  5. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Y. Law

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  6. Decisive role of P42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced migration of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüder, Ellen; Ramer, Robert; Peters, Kirsten; Hinz, Burkhard

    2017-12-01

    In past years, medical interest in Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive ingredient of the Cannabis plant, has been renewed due to the elucidation of the endocannabinoid system and diverse other receptor targets involved in biological cannabinoid effects. The present study therefore investigates the impact of THC on the migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which are known to be involved in various regenerative processes such as bone healing. Using Boyden chamber assays, THC was found to increase the migration of adipose-derived MSCs. Migration by THC was almost completely suppressed by the CB 1 receptor antagonist AM-251 and to a lesser extent by the CB 2 receptor antagonist AM-630. By contrast, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine as well as the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GRP55) agonist O-1602 did not significantly interfere with the promigratory effect of THC. Furthermore, increased migration by THC was fully suppressed by PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and was accompanied by a time-dependent activation of this pathway accordingly. In line with the migration data, additional inhibitor experiments pointed towards a decisive role of the CB 1 receptor in conferring THC-induced activation of p42/44 MAPK. Collectively, this study demonstrates THC to exert a promigratory effect on MSCs via a CB 1 receptor-dependent activation of p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation. This pathway may be involved in regenerative effects of THC and could be a target of pharmacological intervention.

  7. Subtype activation and interaction of protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase controlling receptor expression in cerebral arteries and microvessels after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, S.; Edvinsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still remains elusive. The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase C (PKC) subtypes in the pathophysiology of cerebral...... ischemia after SAH in cerebral arteries and microvessels and to examine temporal activation of the kinases. We hypothesize that treatment with a MAPK or PKC inhibitor will prevent the SAH-induced kinase activation in brain vessels. METHODS: SAH was induced by injecting 250 microL blood...... into the prechiasmatic cistern in the rat. The activation of different MAPK and PKC isotypes in large circle of Willis cerebral arteries and intracerebral microvessels was examined at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after SAH and after intrathecal treatment with PKC or MAPK inhibitor by use of Western blot. RESULTS...

  8. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in arginase-II-mediated eNOS-uncoupling in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Rajapakse, Angana G; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2014-07-18

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-uncoupling links obesity-associated insulin resistance and type-II diabetes to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies have indicated that increased arginase is involved in eNOS-uncoupling through competing with the substrate L-arginine. Given that arginase-II (Arg-II) exerts some of its biological functions through crosstalk with signal transduction pathways, and that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38mapk) is involved in eNOS-uncoupling, we investigated here whether p38mapk is involved in Arg-II-mediated eNOS-uncoupling in a high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model. Obesity was induced in wild type (WT) and Arg-II-deficient (Arg-II(-/-)) mice on C57BL/6 J background by high-fat diet (HFD, 55% fat) for 14 weeks starting from age of 7 weeks. The entire aortas were isolated and subjected to 1) immunoblotting analysis of the protein level of eNOS, Arg-II and p38mapk activation; 2) arginase activity assay; 3) endothelium-dependent and independent vasomotor responses; 4) en face staining of superoxide anion and NO production with Dihydroethidium and 4,5-Diaminofluorescein Diacetate, respectively, to assess eNOS-uncoupling. To evaluate the role of p38mapk, isolated aortas were treated with p38mapk inhibitor SB203580 (10 μmol/L, 1 h) prior to the analysis. In addition, the role of p38mapk in Arg-II-induced eNOS-uncoupling was investigated in cultured human endothelial cells overexpressing Arg-II in the absence or presence of shRNA against p38mapk. HFD enhanced Arg-II expression/activity and p38mapk activity, which was associated with eNOS-uncoupling as revealed by decreased NO and enhanced L-NAME-inhibitable superoxide in aortas of WT obese mice. In accordance, WT obese mice revealed decreased endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine despite of higher eNOS protein level, whereas Arg-II(-/-) obese mice were protected from HFD-induced eNOS-uncoupling and endothelial dysfunction, which

  9. Mutations in the c-Kit Gene Disrupt Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling during Tumor Development in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Tetsu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway is considered to be a positive regulator of tumor initiation, progression, and maintenance. This study reports an opposite finding: we have found strong evidence that the MAPK pathway is inhibited in a subset of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs of the salivary glands. ACC tumors consistently overexpress the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK c-Kit, which has been considered a therapeutic target. We performed mutational analysis of the c-Kit gene (KIT in 17 cases of ACC and found that 2 cases of ACC had distinct missense mutations in KIT at both the genomic DNA and messenger RNA levels. These mutations caused G664R and R796G amino acid substitutions in the kinase domains. Surprisingly, the mutations were functionally inactive in cultured cells. We observed a significant reduction of MAPK (ERK1/2 activity in tumor cells, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. We performed further mutational analysis of the downstream effectors in the c-Kit pathway in the genes HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and PTEN. This analysis revealed that two ACC tumors without KIT mutations had missense mutations in either KRAS or BRAF, causing S17N K-Ras and V590I B-Raf mutants, respectively. Our functional analysis showed that proteins with these mutations were also inactive in cultured cells. This is the first time that MAPK activity from the RTK signaling has been shown to be inhibited by gene mutations during tumor development. Because ACC seems to proliferate despite inactivation of the c-Kit signaling pathway, we suggest that selective inhibition of c-Kit is probably not a suitable treatment strategy for ACC.

  10. Inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 signaling pathway clear prion-infected cells from PrPSc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Elin K; Luhr, Katarina M; Ibáñez, Carlos; Kristensson, Krister

    2005-09-14

    Prions represent a unique class of infectious agents in which the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is converted to an abnormal isoform (PrPSc), which accumulates in the brain and constitutes the major, if not the only, component of the infectious particle. Factors that still remain to be identified may facilitate the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. In the present study, we first demonstrated that a growth factor of the neurotrophin family, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), stimulates the formation of PrPSc in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neuronal cell line (GT1-1 cells) infected with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) strain of scrapie as determined by Western blot analysis. We then observed that the prion-infected cells can be cleared from PrPSc by treatment with three inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenylmercapto)butadiene and 2-(2-amino-3-methyoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, as well as alpha-[amino[(4-aminophenyl)thio]methylene]-2-(trifluoromethyl) benzeneacetonitrile, which passes the blood-brain barrier], a component of one of the intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF. The MEK1/2 inhibitors were also efficient in clearing PrPSc from prion-infected GT1-1 cells stimulated to accumulate high levels of PrPSc by enhanced serum concentrations in the medium or by the use of a serum-free neuron-specific neurobasal medium. PrPSc did not reappear in the cultures within 5 weeks after completion of treatment. We conclude that inhibitors of the MEK1/2 pathway can efficiently and probably irreversibly clear PrP(Sc) from prion-infected cells. The MEK pathway may therefore be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention in prion diseases.

  11. Genome-wide genetic analyses highlight mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uimari, Outi; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Nyholt, Dale R; Vincent, Katy; Missmer, Stacey A; Becker, Christian; Morris, Andrew P; Montgomery, Grant W; Zondervan, Krina T

    2017-04-01

    Do genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for endometriosis provide insight into novel biological pathways associated with its pathogenesis? GWAS analysis uncovered multiple pathways that are statistically enriched for genetic association signals, analysis of Stage A disease highlighted a novel variant in MAP3K4, while top pathways significantly associated with all endometriosis and Stage A disease included several mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related pathways. Endometriosis is a complex disease with an estimated heritability of 50%. To date, GWAS revealed 10 genomic regions associated with endometriosis, explaining endometriosis cases and 7060 controls of European ancestry with genotype data imputed up to 1000 Genomes Phase three reference panel. GWAS was performed for all endometriosis cases and for Stage A (revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) I/II, n = 1686) and B (rAFS III/IV, n = 1364) cases separately. The identified significant pathways were compared with pathways previously investigated in the literature through candidate association studies. The most comprehensive biological pathway databases, MSigDB (including BioCarta, KEGG, PID, SA, SIG, ST and GO) and PANTHER were utilized to test for enrichment of genetic variants associated with endometriosis. Statistical enrichment analysis was performed using the MAGENTA (Meta-Analysis Gene-set Enrichment of variaNT Associations) software. The first genome-wide association analysis for Stage A endometriosis revealed a novel locus, rs144240142 (P = 6.45 × 10-8, OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.23-2.37), an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within MAP3K4. This SNP was not associated with Stage B disease (P = 0.086). MAP3K4 was also shown to be differentially expressed in eutopic endometrium between Stage A endometriosis cases and controls (P = 3.8 × 10-4), but not with Stage B disease (P = 0.26). A total of 14 pathways enriched with genetic endometriosis associations were identified (false

  12. Recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to β1 integrin promotes cancer cell migration via mitogen activated protein kinase activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohannessian Arthur

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions activate signaling cascades such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK. Integrin binding to extracellular matrix increases tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. Inhibition of FAK activity by expression of its carboxyl terminus decreases cell motility, and cells from FAK deficient mice also show reduced migration. Paxillin is a focal adhesion protein which is also phosphorylated on tyrosine. FAK recruitment of paxillin to the cell membrane correlates with Shc phosphorylation and activation of MAPK. Decreased FAK expression inhibits papilloma formation in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model. We previously demonstrated that MAPK activation was required for growth factor induced in vitro migration and invasion by human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC lines. Methods Adapter protein recruitment to integrin subunits was examined by co-immunoprecipitation in SCC cells attached to type IV collagen or plastic. Stable clones overexpressing FAK or paxillin were created using the lipofection technique. Modified Boyden chambers were used for invasion assays. Results In the present study, we showed that FAK and paxillin but not Shc are recruited to the β1 integrin cytoplasmic domain following attachment of SCC cells to type IV collagen. Overexpression of either FAK or paxillin stimulated cancer cell migration on type IV collagen and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane which was dependent on MAPK activity. Conclusions We concluded that recruitment of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin to β1 integrin promoted cancer cell migration via the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway.

  13. Colletotrichum higginsianum Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ChMK1: Role in Growth, Cell Wall Integrity, Colony Melanization and Pathogenicity

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    Wei Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. To facilitate the efficient control of anthracnose disease, it will be important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. higginsianum interact. A key step in understanding this interaction is characterizing the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathway of C. higginsianum. MAPK plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. In this study, a Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK gene, ChMK1, from C. higginsianum was analyzed. The results showed that the Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK ChMK1 plays a significant role in cell wall integrity. Targeted deletion of ChMK1 resulted in a hypersensitivity to cell wall inhibitors, reduced conidiation and albinistic colonies. Further, the deletion mutant was also unable to form melanized appressorium, a specialized infection structure that is necessary for successful infection. Therefore, the deletion mutant loses pathogenicity on A. thaliana leaves, demonstrating that ChMK1 plays an essential role in the early infection step. In addition, the ChMK1 deletion mutant showed an attenuated growth rate that is different from that of its homologue in C. lagenarium, indicating the diverse roles that Fus3/Kss1-related MAPKs plays in phytopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the expression level of three melanin synthesis associated genes were clearly decreased in the albinistic ChMK1 mutant compared to that of the wild type strain, suggesting that ChMK1 is also required for colony melanization in C. higginsianum.

  14. The Role of Unfolded Protein Response and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Neurodegenerative Diseases with Special Focus on Prion Diseases

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    Lifeng Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative pathologies characterized by the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the cellular prion protein named prion protein scrapie (PrPSc in the brain. PrPSc accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER result in a dysregulated calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and subsequent initiation of unfolded protein response (UPR leading to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms for the transition between adaptation to ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are still unclear. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that rule the signaling of many extracellular stimuli from plasma membrane to the nucleus. However the identification of numerous points of cross talk between the UPR and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to our understanding of the consequences of ER stress in prion diseases. Indeed the MAPK signaling network is known to regulate cell cycle progression and cell survival or death responses following a variety of stresses including misfolded protein response stress. In this article, we review the UPR signaling in prion diseases and discuss the triad of MAPK signaling pathways. We also describe the role played by MAPK signaling cascades in Alzheimer’s (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. We will also overview the mechanisms of cell death and the role of MAPK signaling in prion disease progression and highlight potential avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  15. LmxMPK4, an essential mitogen-activated protein kinase of Leishmania mexicana is phosphorylated and activated by the STE7-like protein kinase LmxMKK5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John von Freyend, Simona; Rosenqvist, Heidi; Fink, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The essential mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), LmxMPK4, of Leishmania mexicana is minimally active when purified following recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and was therefore unsuitable for drug screening until now. Using an E. coli protein co-expression system we identifie...... for new therapeutic drugs against leishmaniasis....

  16. Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, M; Kim, S O; Salh, B S

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of proteins that are important in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the stress signaling agents anisomycin, arsenite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulate the specific enzyme activity of CK2...... to be an allosteric mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that anisomycin- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-392, which is important for the transcriptional activity of this growth suppressor protein, requires p38 MAP kinase and CK2 activities....

  17. p38 mitogen activated protein kinase controls two successive-steps during the early mesodermal commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hadadeh, Ola; Peiretti, Franck; Renault, Valérie M; Hadjal, Yasmine; Bernot, Denis; Tournaire, Roselyne; Negre, Didier; Juhan-Vague, Irène; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Binétruy, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate in vitro into all cell lineages. We previously found that the p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38MAPK) pathway controls the commitment of ES cells toward either cardiomyogenesis (p38 on) or neurogenesis (p38 off ). In this study, we show that p38α knock-out ES cells do not differentiate into cardiac, endothelial, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle lineages. Reexpression of p38MAPK in these cells partially rescues their mesodermal differentiation defects and corrects the high level of spontaneous neurogenesis of knock-out cells. Wild-type ES cells were treated with a p38MAPK-specific inhibitor during the differentiation process. These experiments allowed us to identify 2 early independent successive p38MAPK functions in the formation of mesodermal lineages. Further, the first one correlates with the regulation of the expression of Brachyury, an essential mesodermal-specific transcription factor, by p38MAPK. In conclusion, by genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that p38MAPK activity is essential for the commitment of ES cell into cardiac, endothelial, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle mesodermal lineages.

  18. Ethanol extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa potentiates hippocampal synaptic transmission through mitogen-activated protein kinase, adenylyl cyclase, and protein kinase A pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, So Yeon; Jung, In Ho; Yi, Jee Hyun; Choi, Tae Joon; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Yun, Jeanho; Lee, Young Choon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2017-03-22

    As the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F. Chow (Rhamnaceae) has been used to sleep disturbances in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, many previous studies have focused on its sedative effect. Recently, we reported the neuroprotective effect of the effect of Z. jujuba var. spinosa. However, its effects on synaptic function have not yet been studied. In this project, we examined the action of ethanol extract of the seed of Z. jujuba var. spinosa (DHP1401) on synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. To investigate the effects of DHP1401, field recordings were conducted using hippocampal slices (400µm). Object recognition test was introduced to examine whether DHP1401 affect normal recognition memory. DHP1401 (50μg/ml) induced a significant increase in synaptic activity in Shaffer collateral pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase of synaptic responses was blocked by NBQX, a broad spectrum α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor antagonist, but not IEM-1460, a Ca 2+ -permeable AMPAR blocker. Moreover, U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, SQ22536, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, and PKI, a protein kinase A inhibitor, blocked DHP1401-induced increase in synaptic transmission. Finally, DHP1401 facilitated object recognition memory. These results suggest that DHP1401 increase synaptic transmission through increase of synaptic AMPAR transmission via MAPK, AC and PAK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose, other secretagogues, and nerve growth factor stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase in the insulin-secreting beta-cell line, INS-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Sekine, N; Roche, E

    1995-01-01

    The signaling pathways whereby glucose and hormonal secretagogues regulate insulin-secretory function, gene transcription, and proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells are not well defined. We show that in the glucose-responsive beta-cell line INS-1, major secretagogue-stimulated signaling pathways...... converge to activate 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Thus, glucose-induced insulin secretion was found to be associated with a small stimulatory effect on 44-kDa MAP kinase, which was synergistically enhanced by increased levels of intracellular cAMP and by the hormonal secretagogues......-1. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase by both Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent pathways. Nerve growth factor, independently of changes in cytosolic Ca2+, efficiently stimulated 44-kDa MAP kinase without causing insulin release, indicating that activation...

  20. Contractions activate hormone-sensitive lipase in rat muscle by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerol is an important energy store and is also related to insulin resistance. The mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by both adrenaline...... and contractions. Adrenaline acts via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The signalling mediating the effect of contractions is unknown and was explored in this study. Incubated soleus muscles from 70 g male rats were electrically stimulated to perform repeated tetanic contractions for 5 min. The contraction...... of the inhibitors reduced adrenaline-induced HSL activation in soleus muscle. Both phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which activates PKC and, in turn, ERK, and caffeine, which increases intracellular Ca2+ without eliciting contraction, increased HSL activity. Activated ERK increased HSL activity in supernatant...

  1. Genome-wide identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the function of their corresponding orthologs in tetraploid cultivated cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Liman; Xu, Xiaoyang; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2014-12-10

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a crucial role in plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. Knowledge about the MAPK gene family in cotton is limited, and systematic investigation of MAPK family proteins has not been reported. By performing a bioinformatics homology search, we identified 28 putative MAPK genes in the Gossypium raimondii genome. These MAPK members were anchored onto 11 chromosomes in G. raimondii, with uneven distribution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MAPK candidates could be classified into the four known A, B, C and D groups, with more MAPKs containing the TEY phosphorylation site (18 members) than the TDY motif (10 members). Furthermore, 21 cDNA sequences of MAPKs with complete open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in G. hirsutum via PCR-based approaches, including 13 novel MAPKs and eight with homologs reported previously in tetraploid cotton. The expression patterns of 23 MAPK genes reveal their important roles in diverse functions in cotton, in both various developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and in the stress response. Using a reverse genetics approach based on tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV-VIGS), we further verified that MPK9, MPK13 and MPK25 confer resistance to defoliating isolates of Verticillium dahliae in cotton. Silencing of MPK9, MPK13 and MPK25 can significantly enhance cotton susceptibility to this pathogen. This study presents a comprehensive identification of 28 mitogen-activated protein kinase genes in G. raimondii. Their phylogenetic relationships, transcript expression patterns and responses to various stressors were verified. This study provides the first systematic analysis of MAPKs in cotton, improving our understanding of defense responses in general and laying the foundation for future crop improvement using MAPKs.

  2. The Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1, differentially regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamilies after osmotic shrinkage in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Rasmussen, Maria; Darborg, Barbara Vasek

    2007-01-01

    Osmotic stress modulates mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities, leading to altered gene transcription and cell death/survival balance, however, the mechanisms involved are incompletely elucidated. Here, we show, using a combination of biochemical and molecular biology approaches......, that three MAPKs exhibit unique interrelationships with the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, NHE1, after osmotic cell shrinkage: Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK1/2) is inhibited in an NHE1-dependent, pH(i)-independent manner, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) is stimulated, in part through NHE1-mediated...... intracellular alkalinization, and p38 MAPK is activated in an NHE1-independent manner, and contributes to NHE1 activation and ERK inhibition. Shrinkage-induced ERK1/2 inhibition was attenuated in Ehrlich Lettre Ascites cells by NHE1 inhibitors (EIPA, cariporide) or removal of extracellular Na(+), and mimicked...

  3. Beauvericin-induced cell apoptosis through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human nonsmall cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Lin; Lin, Hen-I; Chen, Bing-Fang; Jow, Guey-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide that derives from Codyceps cicadae. Our previous study results indicated that the cytotoxic effects of BEA on human A549 lung cancer cells BEA occur through an apoptotic pathway, which involves the up-regulation of cytochrome c release from mitochondria, upregulation of caspase 3 activity, and cellular and morphological changes. In this study, we identified that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor U0126 inhibits the cytotoxic effects of BEA on A549 cells. After exposing human A549 cells to 10 μM BEA, we observed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the percentage of hypoploid (sub-G1) phase cells in the A549 population. Following the pretreatment of the A549 cells with 25 μM U0126, the distribution of A549 cells in the sub-G1 phase decreased significantly. The BEA treatment resulted in a significant increase apoptosis in A549 cells by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, the MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)-ERK42/44 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases)-90RSK (ribosomal s6 kinase) signaling pathway was activated in BEA-induced apoptotic A549 cells. Furthermore, treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 was capable to attenuate the BEA induced typical apoptotic morphological change, apoptotic cells, and MEK1/2-ERK42/44-90RSK signaling pathway. These results suggested that MEK1/2-ERK42/44-90RSK signaling pathway may play a important role in BEA-induced apoptosis in human NSCLC A549 cancer cells.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors to treat melanoma alone or in combination with other kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghfuri, Elnaz; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Niaz, Kamal; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is an aggressive disease with a rapidly rising incidence due to neoplasm of melanocytes. Molecular targeted therapies have demonstrated lower toxicity and improved overall survival versus conventional therapies of MM. The revealing of mutations in the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway has led to the development of BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib and dabrafenib for the treatment of cutaneous MM. Though, progression of resistance to these agents has prompted attempts to target downstream proteins in this pathway. Trametinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, was approved in 2013 for the treatment of BRAF V600E/K mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients. Areas covered: The aim of the current review is to present an update on the role of MEK in progressive melanomas and summarize latest results of clinical studies with innovative MEK inhibitors and/or combined approaches with other kinase inhibitors such as BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of MM. Expert opinion: Two combined treatments (i.e. trametinib plus dabrafenib and vemurafenib plus cobimetinib) target two different kinases in the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway. The simultaneous prohibition of both MEK and BRAF is associated with more durable response rate than BRAF monotherapy and can overcome acquired resistance.

  5. The p38 mitogen activated protein kinase regulates β-amyloid protein internalization through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Yang, Wei-Na; Chang, Ke-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Zhai, Wan-Ying; Zong, Hang-Fan; Qian, Yi-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) is an early event in AD. It induces the formation of amyloid plaques and neuron damage. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been suggested to play an important role in Aβ caused cognition. It has high affinity with Aβ and could mediate Aβ internalization in vitro. However, whether in mouse brain the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of the α7nAChR mediated Aβ internalization and their role in mitochondria remains little known. Therefore, in this study, we revealed that Aβ is internalized by cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. The internalized Aβ were found deposits in lysosomes/endosomes and mitochondria. Aβ could form Aβ-α7nAChR complex with α7nAChR, activates the p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). And the increasing of α7nAChR could in return mediate Aβ internalization in the cortex and hippocampus. In addition, by using the α7nAChR agonist PNU282987, the p38 phosphorylation level decreases, rescues the biochemical changes which are tightly associated with Aβ-induced apoptosis, such as Bcl2/Bax level, cytochrome c (Cyt c) release. Collectively, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway could regulate the α7nAChR-mediated internalization of Aβ. The activation of α7nAChR or the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway may be a beneficial therapy to AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, FR167653, inhibits parathyroid hormone related protein-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiren Tao

    Full Text Available p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK acts downstream in the signaling pathway that includes receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK, a powerful inducer of osteoclast formation and activation. We investigated the role of p38 MAPK in parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and PTHrP-induced bone resorption in vivo. The ability of FR167653 to inhibit osteoclast formation was evaluated by counting the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive multinucleated cells (TRAP-positive MNCs in in vitro osteoclastgenesis assays. Its mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the expression level of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1 in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs stimulated with sRANKL and M-CSF, and by detecting the expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG and RANKL in bone marrow stromal cells stimulated with PTHrP in the presence of FR167653. The function of FR167653 on bone resorption was assessed by measuring the bone resorption area radiographically and by counting osteoclast number per unit bone tissue area in calvaria in a mouse model of bone resorption by injecting PTHrP subcutaneously onto calvaria. Whole blood ionized calcium levels were also recorded. FR167653 inhibited PTHrP-induced osteoclast formation and PTHrP-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 expression in bone marrow macrophages, but not the expression levels of RANKL and OPG in primary bone marrow stromal cells treated by PTHrP. Furthermore, bone resorption area and osteoclast number in vivo were significantly decreased by the treatment of FR167653. Systemic hypercalcemia was also partially inhibited. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by FR167653 blocks PTHrP-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and PTHrP-induced bone resorption in vivo, suggesting that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in PTHrP-induced osteoclastic bone resorption.

  7. Ibuprofen abates cypermethrin-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and mitogen-activated protein kinases and averts the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish; Tripathi, Pratibha; Prakash, Om; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2016-12-01

    Cypermethrin induces oxidative stress, microglial activation, inflammation and apoptosis leading to Parkinsonism in rats. While ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, relieves from inflammation, its efficacy against cypermethrin-induced Parkinsonism has not yet been investigated. The study aimed to explore the protective role of ibuprofen in cypermethrin-induced Parkinsonism, an environmentally relevant model of Parkinson's disease (PD), along with its underlying mechanism. Animals were treated with/without cypermethrin in the presence/absence of ibuprofen. Behavioural, immunohistochemical and biochemical parameters of Parkinsonism and expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic proteins along with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were determined. Ibuprofen resisted cypermethrin-induced behavioural impairments, striatal dopamine depletion, oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal tissues and loss of the nigral dopamine producing cells and increase in microglial activation along with atypical expression of pro-inflammatory and apoptotic proteins that include cyclooxygenase-2, tumour necrosis factor-α, MAPKs (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase), B cell lymphoma 2-associated protein X, tumour suppressor protein p53, cytochrome c and caspase-3 in the nigrostriatal tissue. The results obtained thus demonstrate that ibuprofen lessens inflammation and regulates MAPKs expression thereby averts cypermethrin-induced Parkinsonism.

  8. Participation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in Luteinizing Hormone-induced Differential Regulation of Steroidogenesis and Steroidogenic Gene Expression in Mural and Cumulus Granulosa Cells of Mouse Preovulatory Follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, You-Qiang; Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft

    2006-01-01

    was to investigate whether these processes that commonly occur in mural granulosa cells (MGCs) also occur in cumulus cells, and whether they are mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), specifically MAPK3/1 (also commonly known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1&2, ERK1/2). The standard...

  9. Biodentine induces human dental pulp stem cell differentiation through mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhirong; Kohli, Meetu R; Yu, Qing; Kim, Syngcuk; Qu, Tiejun; He, Wen-xi

    2014-07-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossès, France), a new tricalcium silicate cement formulation, has been introduced as a bioactive dentine substitute to be used in direct contact with pulp tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to the material and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signal pathways played a regulatory role in Biodentine-induced odontoblast differentiation. hDPCs obtained from impacted third molars were incubated with Biodentine. Odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the analysis of messenger RNA expression of the following differentiation gene markers: osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosprotein (DSPP), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), and bone sialoprotein (BSP). Cell cultures in the presence of Biodentine were exposed to specific inhibitors of MAPK (U0126, SB203580, and SP600125), NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate), and CaMKII (KN-93) pathways to evaluate the regulatory effect on the expression of these markers and mineralization assay. Biodentine significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized nodule formation and the expression of OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP. The MAPK inhibitor for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (U0126) and Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) significantly decreased the Biodentine-induced mineralized differentiation of hDPSCs and OCN, DSPP, DMP1, and BSP messenger RNA expression, whereas p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580) had no effect. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 significantly attenuated and the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate further enhanced the up-regulation of Biodentine-induced gene expression and mineralization. Biodentine is a bioactive and biocompatible material capable

  10. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation Is Required for Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymke Ockenga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-neuronal acetylcholine plays a substantial role in the human skin by influencing adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. These processes are regulated by the Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP kinase cascade. Here we show that in HaCaT keratinocytes all five muscarinic receptor subtypes are expressed, but M1 and M3 are the subtypes involved in mitogenic signaling. Stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol leads to activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase, together with the protein kinase Akt. The activation is fully dependent on the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, which even appears to be the sole pathway for the muscarinic receptors to facilitate MAP kinase activation in HaCaT cells. The transactivation pathway involves a triple-membrane-passing process, based on activation of matrix metalloproteases, and extracellular ligand release; whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src family kinases or protein kinase C do not appear to be involved in MAP kinase activation. Furthermore, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the EGF receptor after cholinergic transactivation are different from that induced by a direct stimulation with EGF, suggesting that ligands other than EGF itself mediate the cholinergic transactivation.

  11. Induction of glutathione synthesis in human hepatocytes by acute and chronic arsenic exposure: Differential roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yongyong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Huihui; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic exposure increased intracellular levels of glutathione. • Mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in glutathione homeostasis. • ERK contributed to glutathione synthesis during acute arsenic exposure. • Glutathione synthesis was regulated by p38 at least in part independent of NRF2 during chronic arsenic exposure. - Abstract: Glutathione (GSH) is a vital component of antioxidant defense which protects cells from toxic insults. Previously we found intracellular GSH was involved in cell resistance against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. However, molecular mechanisms of GSH homeostasis during arsenic exposure are largely undefined. Here, we investigated roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in GSH synthesis pathway with two arsenic exposure strategies by using Chang human hepatocytes. In one strategy, acute arsenic exposure (20 μM, 24 h) was applied, as MAPK signaling is generally considered to be transient. In the other one, chronic arsenic exposure (500 nM, 20 weeks) was applied, which mimicked the general human exposure to arsenic. We found that acute arsenic exposure activated extracellular signal-regulated 1/2 kinases (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in parallel with increased transcription and nuclear translocation of factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and enhanced expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), resulting in elevated intracellular GSH levels. Specific ERK inhibitor abolished arsenic-induced NRF2 nuclear translocation and GSH synthesis. During chronic arsenic exposure which induced a malignant cellular phenotype, continuous p38 activation and NRF2 nuclear translocation were observed with enhanced GSH synthesis. Specific p38 inhibitor attenuated arsenic-enhanced GSH synthesis without changing NRF2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicate MAPK pathways play an important role in cellular GSH homeostasis in response to arsenic. However, the

  12. ZmMKK4, a novel group C mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in maize (Zea mays), confers salt and cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangpei; Pan, Jiaowen; Zhang, Maoying; Xing, Xin; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yang; Li, Dapeng; Li, Dequan

    2011-08-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signalling modules that transduce extracellular signalling to a range of cellular responses. Plant MAPK cascades have been implicated in development and stress response. In this study, we isolated a novel group C MAPKK gene, ZmMKK4, from maize. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the ZmMKK4 transcript expression was up-regulated by cold, high salt and exogenous H(2)O(2,) but down-regulated by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expression of ZmMKK4 in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to cold and salt stresses by increased germination rate, lateral root numbers, plant survival rate, chlorophyll, proline and soluble sugar contents, and antioxidant enzyme [peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT)] activities compared with control plants. Furthermore, ZmMKK4 enhanced a 37 kDa kinase activity after cold and salt stresses. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of stress-responsive transcription factors and functional genes were higher in ZmMKK4-over-expressing plants than in control plants. In addition, ZmMKK4 protein is localized in the nucleus. Taken together, these results indicate that ZmMKK4 is a positive regulator of salt and cold tolerance in plants. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Buddleja officinalis suppresses high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for vascular diseases caused by atherosclerosis. In the development of diabetic atherogenesis, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is recognized as a key event. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Buddleja officinalis (EBO) suppresses high glucose-induced proliferation in primary cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation revealed that incubation of HASMC with a high concentration of glucose (25 mmol/L) increased cell proliferation. The expression levels of cell cycle protein were also increased by treatment with high glucose concentration. Pretreatment of HASMC with EBO significantly attenuated the increase of high glucose-induced cell proliferation as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and JNK phosphorylation. EBO suppressed high glucose-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EBO suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity in high glucose conditions. Taken together, the present data suggest that EBO could suppress high glucose-induced atherosclerotic processes through inhibition of p38, JNK, NF-kappaB and MMP signal pathways in HASMC.

  14. Induction of protection against paraquat-induced oxidative damage by abscisic acid in maize leaves is mediated through mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Shu-Cheng; Sun, Li-Li; Jiang, Ming-Yi; Zhang, A-Ying; Jin, Yin-Gen

    2009-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade has been shown to be important components in stress signal transduction pathway. In the present study, protection of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) against paraquat-generated oxidative toxicity by abscisic acid (ABA), its association with MAPK and ZmMPK5, a candidate for MAPK were investigated. Treatment of maize leaves with exogenous ABA led to significant decreases in the content of malondialdehyde, the percentage of ion leakage and the level of protein oxidation (in terms of carbonyl groups) under paraquat (PQ) stress. However, such decreases were blocked by the pretreatment with two MAPK kinase inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. The damage caused by PQ was further aggravated by inhibitors. Two inhibitors also suppressed the total activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2). Besides, treatment with PQ stimulated the activation of a 46 kDa MAPK, which was identified as ZmMPK5 by in-gel kinase assay with immunoprecipitation. These results reveal that ABA-induced protection against PQ-generated oxidative damage is mediated through MAPK cascade in maize leaves, in which ZmMPK5, a candidate for MAPK, is demonstrated to be involved.

  15. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways by the plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Darborg, Barbara Vasek; Rentsch, Maria Louise

    2006-01-01

    activity is regulated by a three-tiered phosphorelay system, which is in turn regulated by a complex network of signaling events and scaffolding proteins. The ubiquitous plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 is activated by, and implicated in, the physiological/pathophysiological responses to many...

  16. Leptin enhances NR2B-mediated N-methyl-D-aspartate responses via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent process in cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, A J; Wallace, L; Durakoglugil, D; Harvey, J

    2006-01-01

    It is well documented that the hormone leptin regulates energy balance via its actions in the hypothalamus. However, evidence is accumulating that leptin plays a key role in numerous CNS functions. Indeed, leptin receptors are expressed in many extrahypothalamic brain regions, with high levels found in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus leptin has been shown to facilitate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function and modulate synaptic plasticity. A role for leptin in cerebellar function is also indicated as leptin-deficient rodents display reduced mobility that is unrelated to obesity. Here we show that leptin receptor immunolabeling can be detected in cultured cerebellar granule cells, being expressed at the somatic plasma membrane and also concentrated at synapses. Furthermore, leptin facilitated NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx in cerebellar granule cells via a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. These findings provide the first direct evidence for a cellular action of leptin in cerebellar neurons. In addition, given that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity in the cerebellum is crucial for normal locomotor function, these data also have important implications for the potential role of leptin in the control of movement.

  17. Immunomodulatory Activity of Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharide on Purified T Lymphocytes through Ca2+/CaN and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Based on RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Quan-Dan; Yu, Qiang; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-07-05

    Our previous study has demonstrated that Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) has immunomodulatory activity on spleen lymphocytes. However, how PSG-1 exerts its effect on purified lymphocytes is still obscure. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of PSG-1 on purified T lymphocytes and further elucidate the underlying mechanism based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Our results showed that PSG-1 promoted T lymphocytes proliferation and increased the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-12. Meanwhile, RNA-seq analysis found 394 differentially expressed genes. KEGG pathway analysis identified 20 significant canonical pathways and seven biological functions. Furthermore, PSG-1 elevated intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and calcineurin (CaN) activity and raised the p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 expression levels. T lymphocytes proliferation and the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-12 were decreased by the inhibitors of calcium channel and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These results indicated that PSG-1 possesses immunomodulatory activity on purified T lymphocytes, in which Ca 2+ /CaN and MAPK pathways play essential roles.

  18. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50-100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells.

  19. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase attenuates butyrate-induced intestinal barrier impairment in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Zhong-Rong; Zhu, Li-Bin; Huang, Hui-Ya; Hou, Long-Long; Lin, Jing

    2014-08-01

    Butyrate is well known to induce apoptosis in differentiating intestinal epithelial cells. The present study was designed to examine the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in butyrate-induced intestinal barrier impairment. The intestinal barrier was determined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The permeability was determined by measuring transepithelial passage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated inulin (inulin-FITC). The morphology of the monolayers was examined with scanning electron microscopy. The apoptosis status was determined by annexin V-FITC labeling and flow cytometry. The activity of p38 MAPK was determined by the phosphorylation status of p38 with Western blotting. Butyrate at 5 mM increases the apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells and induces impairment of intestinal barrier functions as determined by decreased TER and increased inulin-FITC permeability. Butyrate treatment activates p38 MAPK in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, inhibits butyrate-induced Caco-2 cell apoptosis. Treatment of SB203580 significantly attenuates the butyrate-induced impairment of barrier functions in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. p38 MAPK can be activated by butyrate and is involved in the butyrate-induced apoptosis and impairment of intestinal barrier function. Inhibition of p38 MAPK can significantly attenuate butyrate-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction.

  20. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NFκB in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weidong; Alexis, Neil E.; Chen Xian; Bromberg, Philip A.; Peden, David B.

    2008-01-01

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NFκB were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NFκB activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NFκB activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NFκB activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NFκB activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NFκB

  1. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF-α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system. PMID:28096884

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family across Fungal Lineage Shows Presence of Novel and Diverse Activation Loop Motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Mohanta

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK is characterized by the presence of the T-E-Y, T-D-Y, and T-G-Y motifs in its activation loop region and plays a significant role in regulating diverse cellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. Availability of large-scale genome data in the fungal kingdom encouraged us to identify and analyse the fungal MAPK gene family consisting of 173 fungal species. The analysis of the MAPK gene family resulted in the discovery of several novel activation loop motifs (T-T-Y, T-I-Y, T-N-Y, T-H-Y, T-S-Y, K-G-Y, T-Q-Y, S-E-Y and S-D-Y in fungal MAPKs. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that fungal MAPKs are non-polymorphic, had evolved from their common ancestors around 1500 million years ago, and are distantly related to plant MAPKs. We are the first to report the presence of nine novel activation loop motifs in fungal MAPKs. The specificity of the activation loop motif plays a significant role in controlling different growth and stress related pathways in fungi. Hence, the presences of these nine novel activation loop motifs in fungi are of special interest.

  3. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goon-Tae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β, but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS. In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF-α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system.

  4. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Goon-Tae; Tran, Nguyen Khoi Song; Choi, Eun-Hye; Song, Yoo-Jeong; Song, Jae-Hwi; Shim, Soon-Mi; Park, Tae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Annona muricata , commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. While the cell viability was not altered by the steam GE, it was reduced by the ethanol GE. Both steam and ethanol GE induced the transcriptional expression of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) and interleukin-1 β , but only the steam extract upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In consistence with mRNA expression, the production of TNF- α and nitrite was elevated by both steam and ethanol extracts of Graviola leaves. This is mainly due to activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that Graviola leaves enhance immunity by activation of the MAP kinase pathways. These bioactive properties of Graviola indicate its potential as a health-promoting ingredient to boost the immune system.

  5. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in endothelin ETB receptor up-regulation after organ culture of rat mesenteric artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddman, Erik; Henriksson, Marie; Eskesen, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Organ culture of isolated arteries results in increased levels of endothelin ET(B) (ET(B)) receptor mRNA and in enhanced ET(B) receptor mediated contraction. The present study was designed to pinpoint the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subtype involved in up-regulation of ET(B) receptors...... after organ culture of rat mesenteric arteries. Western blot and selective antibodies towards constitutional and phosphorylated MAPKs revealed the appearance of phosphorylated MAPK of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 type at 3 h of organ culture. The functional ET(B) receptor and its...... mRNA expression were up-regulated after 24 h of organ culture. Following incubation with the MEK 1/2 specific inhibitor SB408039 or the raf inhibitor SB386023b the up-regulation was attenuated both for ET(B) receptor responses and in ET(B) receptor mRNA expression in the vessel segments. Neither...

  6. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates spheroid attachment on fallopian tube epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and down-regulation of olfactomedin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kam-Hei; Kodithuwakku, Suranga P; Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Li, Raymond H W; Chiu, Philip C N; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ng, Ernest H Y; Yeung, William S B; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2015-08-01

    To study the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on olfactomedin-1 (Olfm1) expression and spheroid attachment in human fallopian tube epithelial cells in vitro. Experimental study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Healthy nonpregnant women. No patient interventions. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) and Olfm1 expression in fallopian tube epithelium cell line (OE-E6/E7 cells). OE-E6/E7 cells treated with hCG, U0126 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, or XAV939 Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor were analyzed by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro spheroid attachment assay. Human chorionic gonadotropin increased spheroid attachment on OE-E6/E7 cells through down-regulation of Olfm1 and activation of Wnt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. U0126 down-regulated both MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and up-regulated Olfm1 expression. XAV939 down-regulated only the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway but up-regulated Olfm1 expression. Human chorionic gonadotropin activated both ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and enhanced spheroid attachment on fallopian tube epithelial cells through down-regulation of Olfm1 expression. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mouse model of testosterone-induced muscle fiber hypertrophy: involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danielle; Hikim, Amiya P Sinha; Kovacheva, Ekaterina L; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani

    2009-04-01

    As a prerequisite for studies using mutant mice, we established a mouse model for investigating the molecular mechanisms by which testosterone (T) promotes muscle growth. Groups of six adult male mice (C57BL/6) received one of the following treatments: 1) vehicle (sterile distilled water; normal control) and 2) GnRH antagonist with empty (sham control) or 2 cm T- filled implant. Mice were killed 2, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment. T treatment for 8 weeks resulted in a significant (Phypertrophy was accompanied by up-regulation of the Notch ligand Delta 1 and activation of Notch signaling, as evidenced by increase in activated forms of Notch 1 and Notch 2. Consistent with this, we also observed an increase in the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive nuclei in muscles of T-treated mice, indicating that activation of Notch signaling enhanced cell proliferation. T supplementation not only triggered p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation but also concurrently inhibited c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation within 2 weeks of treatment. Concomitant administration of SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, effectively blocked T-induced activation of Notch signaling and significantly (Phypertrophy through activation of Notch signaling and the inactivation of JNK together with the activation of p38 MAPK may be critical for T-induced activation of Notch signaling and, as a consequence, muscle fiber hypertrophy.

  8. The mitogen-activated protein kinase GlSlt2 regulates fungal growth, fruiting body development, cell wall integrity, oxidative stress and ganoderic acid biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang; Sun, Zehua; Ren, Ang; Shi, Liang; Shi, Dengke; Li, Xiongbiao; Zhao, Mingwen

    2017-07-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are crucial signaling instruments in eukaryotes that play key roles in regulating fungal growth, development, and secondary metabolism and in adapting to the environment. In this study, we characterized an Slt2-type MAPK in Ganoderma lucidum, GlSlt2, which was transcriptionally induced during the primordium and fruiting body stages. RNA interference was used to examine the function of GlSlt2. Knockdown of GlSlt2 caused defects in growth and increased hyphal branching as well as hypersensitivity to cell wall-disturbing substances. Consistently, the chitin and β-1,3-d-glucan contents and the expression of cell wall biosynthesis genes were decreased and down-regulated, respectively, in GlSlt2 knockdown strains compared with those in the wild type (WT). In addition, no primordium or fruiting body could be observed in GlSlt2 knockdown strains. Furthermore, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and ganoderic acid biosynthesis also decreased in GlSlt2 knockdown strains. Addition of H 2 O 2 could recover the decreased ganoderic acid content in GlSlt2 knockdown strains, indicating that GlSlt2 might regulate ganoderic acid biosynthesis via the intracellular ROS level. Overall, GlSlt2 is involved in hyphal growth, fruiting body development, cell wall integrity, oxidative stress and ganoderic acid biosynthesis in G. lucidum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is involved in seed formation and modulation of primary and lateral root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bucio, J S; Dubrovsky, J G; Raya-González, J; Ugartechea-Chirino, Y; López-Bucio, J; de Luna-Valdez, L A; Ramos-Vega, M; León, P; Guevara-García, A A

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) cascades are signal transduction modules highly conserved in all eukaryotes regulating various aspects of plant biology, including stress responses and developmental programmes. In this study, we characterized the role of MAPK 6 (MPK6) in Arabidopsis embryo development and in post-embryonic root system architecture. We found that the mpk6 mutation caused altered embryo development giving rise to three seed phenotypes that, post-germination, correlated with alterations in root architecture. In the smaller seed class, mutant seedlings failed to develop the primary root, possibly as a result of an earlier defect in the division of the hypophysis cell during embryo development, but they had the capacity to develop adventitious roots to complete their life cycle. In the larger class, the MPK6 loss of function did not cause any evident alteration in seed morphology, but the embryo and the mature seed were bigger than the wild type. Seedlings developed from these bigger seeds were characterized by a primary root longer than that of the wild type, accompanied by significantly increased lateral root initiation and more and longer root hairs. Apparently, the increment in primary root growth resulted from an enhanced cell production and cell elongation. Our data demonstrated that MPK6 plays an important role during embryo development and acts as a repressor of primary and lateral root development.

  10. Key signalling nodes in mammary gland development and cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in experimental models of breast cancer progression and in mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Jacqueline; Bergin, Orla; Bianchi, Alessandro; McNally, Sara; Martin, Finian

    2009-01-01

    Seven classes of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signalling cascades exist, four of which are implicated in breast disease and function in mammary epithelial cells. These are the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway, the ERK5 pathway, the p38 pathway and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. In some forms of human breast cancer and in many experimental models of breast cancer progression, signalling through the ERK1/2 pathway, in particular, has been implicated as being important. We review the influence of ERK1/2 activity on the organised three-dimensional association of mammary epithelial cells, and in models of breast cancer cell invasion. We assess the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor family signalling through ERK1/2 in models of breast cancer progression and the influence of ERK1/2 on its substrate, the oestrogen receptor, in this context. In parallel, we consider the importance of these MAPK-centred signalling cascades during the cycle of mammary gland development. Although less extensively studied, we highlight the instances of signalling through the p38, JNK and ERK5 pathways involved in breast cancer progression and mammary gland development.

  11. MicroRNAs involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades pathway during glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, E; Diao, Xuehong; Wang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Ruizhen; Hu, Bing

    2011-08-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key structural feature of diabetic cardiomyopathy in the late stage of diabetes. Recent studies show that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy in diabetic mice, but more novel miRNAs remain to be investigated. In this study, diabetic cardiomyopathy, characterized by hypertrophy, was induced in mice by streptozotocin injection. Using microarray analysis of myocardial tissue, we were able to identify changes in expression in 19 miRNA, of which 16 miRNAs were further validated by real-time PCR and a total of 3212 targets mRNA were predicted. Further analysis showed that 31 GO functions and 16 KEGG pathways were enriched in the diabetic heart. Of these, MAPK signaling pathway was prominent. In vivo and in vitro studies have confirmed that three major subgroups of MAPK including ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, are specifically upregulated in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during hyperglycemia. To further explore the potential involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to high glucose and transfected with miR-373 mimic. Overexpression of miR-373 decreased the cell size, and also reduced the level of its target gene MEF2C, and miR-373 expression was regulated by p38. Our data highlight an important role of miRNAs in diabetic cardiomyopathy, and implicate the reliability of bioinformatics analysis in shedding light on the mechanisms underlying diabetic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-acting β2-agonists increase fluticasone propionate-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1 in airway smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Manetsch

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1 represses MAPK-driven signalling and plays an important anti-inflammatory role in asthma and airway remodelling. Although MKP-1 is corticosteroid-responsive and increased by cAMP-mediated signalling, the upregulation of this critical anti-inflammatory protein by long-acting β2-agonists and clinically-used corticosteroids has been incompletely examined to date. To address this, we investigated MKP-1 gene expression and protein upregulation induced by two long-acting β2-agonists (salmeterol and formoterol, alone or in combination with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate (abbreviated as fluticasone in primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM cells in vitro. β2-agonists increased MKP-1 protein in a rapid but transient manner, while fluticasone induced sustained upregulation. Together, long-acting β2-agonists increased fluticasone-induced MKP-1 and modulated ASM synthetic function (measured by interleukin 6 (IL-6 and interleukin 8 (IL-8 secretion. As IL-6 expression (like MKP-1 is cAMP/adenylate cyclase-mediated, the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol increased IL-6 mRNA expression and secretion. Nevertheless, when added in combination with fluticasone, β2-agonists significantly repressed IL-6 secretion induced by tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα. Conversely, as IL-8 is not cAMP-responsive, β2-agonists significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 in combination with fluticasone, where fluticasone alone was without repressive effect. In summary, long-acting β2-agonists increase fluticasone-induced MKP-1 in ASM cells and repress synthetic function of this immunomodulatory airway cell type.

  13. Analysis of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4) tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Sally J; Choong, David YH; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Ryland, Georgina L; Campbell, Ian G; Gorringe, Kylie L

    2011-01-01

    MAP2K4 is a putative tumor and metastasis suppressor gene frequently found to be deleted in various cancer types. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of this gene to assess its involvement in ovarian cancer. We screened for mutations in MAP2K4 using High Resolution Melt analysis of 149 primary ovarian tumors and methylation at the promoter using Methylation-Specific Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism analysis of 39 tumors. We also considered the clinical impact of changes in MAP2K4 using publicly available expression and copy number array data. Finally, we used siRNA to measure the effect of reducing MAP2K4 expression in cell lines. In addition to 4 previously detected homozygous deletions, we identified a homozygous 16 bp truncating deletion and a heterozygous 4 bp deletion, each in one ovarian tumor. No promoter methylation was detected. The frequency of MAP2K4 homozygous inactivation was 5.6% overall, and 9.8% in high-grade serous cases. Hemizygous deletion of MAP2K4 was observed in 38% of samples. There were significant correlations of copy number and expression in three microarray data sets. There was a significant correlation between MAP2K4 expression and overall survival in one expression array data set, but this was not confirmed in an independent set. Treatment of JAM and HOSE6.3 cell lines with MAP2K4 siRNA showed some reduction in proliferation. MAP2K4 is targeted by genetic inactivation in ovarian cancer and restricted to high grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas in our cohort

  14. Effect of Biodentine and Bioaggregate on odontoblastic differentiation via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J-Y; Woo, S-M; Lee, B-N; Koh, J-T; Nör, J E; Hwang, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    To compare the mineralization inductive capacity of Biodentine and Bioaggregate with Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and to investigate possible signaling pathways of mineralization in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Viability of HDPCs in response to Biodentine, Bioaggregate, and MTA was measured using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide. To investigate their potential to induce odontoblast differentiation, expression of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentine matrix protein1 (DMP1) mRNA level was evaluated by RT-PCR. For the mineralized nodule assay, Alizarin red staining was performed. To determine the role of MAPK signaling in the odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs, activated MAPKs were investigated by Western blot and the effect of MAPK inhibitor was examined by Alizarin red S staining. The results were statistically analysed using one-way anova and the Bonferroni test. The effects of MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate on cell viability were similar. Biodentine and Bioaggregate enhanced DSPP and DMP1 mRNA expression compared to the control group, but to the same extent as MTA (P Biodentine, and Bioaggregate increased the area of calcified nodules compared to the control (P Biodentine, and Bioaggregate increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MAPK inhibitors attenuated mineralized nodule formation, which was increased by MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate, respectively (P Biodentine and Bioaggregate stimulated odontoblastic differentiation and mineralization nodule formation by activating the MAPK pathway as did MTA. This suggests that the new materials could be useful for regenerative endodontic procedures. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. BIRB796, the inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, enhances the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in ABCB1 overexpression cells.

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    Dan He

    Full Text Available ATP-binding-cassette family membrane proteins play an important role in multidrug resistance. In this study, we investigated BIRB796, an orally active inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, reversed MDR induced by ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1. Our results showed that BIRB796 could reverse ABCB1-mediated MDR in both the drug selected and transfected ABCB1-overexpressing cell models, but did not enhance the efficacy of substrate-chemotherapeutical agents in ABCC1 or ABCG2 overexpression cells and their parental sensitive cells. Furthermore, BIRB796 increased the intracellular accumulation of the ABCB1 substrates, such as rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin. Moreover, BIRB796 bidirectionally mediated the ATPase activity of ABCB1, stimulating at low concentration, inhibiting at high concentration. However, BIRB796 did not alter the expression of ABCB1 both at protein and mRNA level. The down-regulation of p38 by siRNA neither affected the expression of ABCB1 nor the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel on KBV200. The binding model of BIRB796 within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1 may form the basis for future lead optimization studies. Importantly, BIRB796 also enhanced the effect of paclitaxel on the inhibition of growth of the ABCB1-overexpressing KBV200 cell xenografts in nude mice. Overall, we conclude that BIRB796 reverses ABCB1-mediated MDR by directly inhibiting its transport function. These findings may be useful for cancer combinational therapy with BIRB796 in the clinic.

  16. Skeletal muscle mitogen-activated protein kinases and ribosomal S6 kinases. Suppression in chronic diabetic rats and reversal by vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Y J; Chen, X; Pelech, S L; Diamond, J; McNeill, J H

    1995-10-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and ribosomal S6 protein kinases in the skeletal muscle of insulin-resistant long-term (2 and 6 months' duration) diabetic rats were investigated to understand further the changes in insulin intracellular signaling pathways that accompany diabetes. The effects of insulin-mimetic vanadium compounds on the activity of these kinases were also examined. In the insulin-resistant 2-month diabetic rats, the basal activities of MAP kinases were relatively unchanged, while the basal activities of S6 kinases were significantly increased. Intravenous injection of insulin moderately activated both the 42-kDa MAP kinase (p42mapk) and a 44-kDa MAP kinase (p44erk1) in the 2-month control rats but not in the 2-month diabetic rats. Insulin treatment markedly stimulated the activity of a novel 31-kDa S6 kinase and the previously described 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase encoded by one of the rsk genes (p90rsk) in the 2-month control rats, while the effect was substantially reduced in the diabetic rats. In the 6-month diabetic rats, the basal phosphotransferase activities of both MAP kinases were depressed threefold or greater. This correlated with reductions in the amount of immunoreactive p42mapk and p44erk1 proteins in extracts from the diabetic rats. The basal activity of the 31-kDa S6 kinase activity was also reduced fourfold in the 6-month diabetic rats. Treatment of the 2-month diabetic rats with vanadyl sulfate resulted in euglycemia, prevented the increase in the basal activity of S6 kinase, and improved the activation of S6 kinase by insulin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Aloin promotes A549 cell apoptosis via the reactive oxygen species‑mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway and p53 phosphorylation.

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    Wan, Li; Zhang, Lin; Fan, Kai; Wang, Jianjun

    2017-11-01

    Aloin has the potential to be a novel anticancer agent in cancer therapies. However, the detailed anticancer effect of Aloin remains to be fully elucidated. The present study analyzed the p53‑dependent mechanisms in response to Aloin treatment. Using the p53‑proficient A549 cells, an Aloin‑induced apoptotic cell model was established, which was used to evaluate the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that 200, 300 and 400 µM Aloin induced intrinsic cell apoptosis, which was further confirmed by disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels, and activation of B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) homologous antagonist killer, Bcl‑2 X‑associated protein, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis and phorbol‑12‑myristate‑13‑acetate‑induced protein 1. Aloin‑induced apoptosis was also accompanied by the induction of p53 phosphorylation on Serine (Ser)15, Threonine 18, Ser20 and Ser392; however, there were no significant differences in the expression of p53 and mouse double minute 2 homolog. Aloin‑induced apoptosis was reactive oxygen species (ROS)‑ and c‑Jun/p38‑dependent, as specific inhibitors for ROS, phosphorylated (p)‑c‑Jun and p‑p38 may attenuate Aloin‑induced A549 cell proliferating inhibition. In conclusion, these results suggested that Aloin may induce apoptosis in A549 cells via the ROS‑mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway, with p53 phosphorylation. These results implicate Aloin as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of lung cancer.

  18. Stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase is necessary but not sufficient for the mitogenic response to angiotensin II. A role for phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, N; Morton, C; Ng, L L; Boarder, M R

    1996-12-13

    Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade has been widely associated with cell proliferation; previous studies have shown that angiotensin II (AII), acting on 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, stimulates the MAPK pathway. In this report we investigate whether the MAPK pathway is required for the mitogenic response to AII stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cells derived from the hypertensive rat (SHR-VSM). AII stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK, as determined by Western blot specific for the tyrosine 204 phosphorylated form of the protein. This MAPK phosphorylation was inhibited by the presence of the inhibitor of MAPK kinase activation, PD 098059. Using a peptide kinase assay shown to measure the p42 and p44 isoforms of MAPK, the stimulated response to AII was inhibited by PD 098059 with an IC50 of 15.6 +/- 1.6 microM. The AII stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation was inhibited by PD 098059 with an IC50 of 17.8 +/- 3.1 microM. PD 098059 had no effect on AII-stimulated phospholipase C or phospholipase D (PLD) activity. When the SHR-VSM cells were stimulated with phorbol ester, there was an activation of MAPK similar in size and duration to the response to AII, but there was no significant enhancement of [3H]thymidine incorporation. There was also no activation of PLD by phorbol ester, while AII produced a robust PLD response. Diversion of the product of the PLD reaction by 1-butanol caused a partial loss of the [3H]thymidine response; this did not occur with tertiary butanol, which did not interfere with the PLD reaction. These results show that in these cells the MAPK cascade is required but not sufficient for the mitogenic response to AII, and suggest that the full mitogenic response requires both MAPK in conjunction with other signaling components, one of which is PLD.

  19. Induction of viral, 7-methyl-guanosine cap-independent translation and oncolysis by mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinase-mediated effects on the serine/arginine-rich protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael C; Bryant, Jeffrey D; Dobrikova, Elena Y; Shveygert, Mayya; Bradrick, Shelton S; Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Bigner, Darell D; Gromeier, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Protein synthesis, the most energy-consuming process in cells, responds to changing physiologic priorities, e.g., upon mitogen- or stress-induced adaptations signaled through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The prevailing status of protein synthesis machinery is a viral pathogenesis factor, particularly for plus-strand RNA viruses, where immediate translation of incoming viral RNAs shapes host-virus interactions. In this study, we unraveled signaling pathways centered on the ERK1/2 and p38α MAPK-interacting kinases MNK1/2 and their role in controlling 7-methyl-guanosine (m(7)G) "cap"-independent translation at enterovirus type 1 internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Activation of Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signals induced viral IRES-mediated translation in a manner dependent on MNK1/2. This effect was not due to MNK's known functions as eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G binding partner or eIF4E(S209) kinase. Rather, MNK catalytic activity enabled viral IRES-mediated translation/host cell cytotoxicity through negative regulation of the Ser/Arg (SR)-rich protein kinase (SRPK). Our investigations suggest that SRPK activity is a major determinant of type 1 IRES competency, host cell cytotoxicity, and viral proliferation in infected cells. We are targeting unfettered enterovirus IRES activity in cancer with PVSRIPO, the type 1 live-attenuated poliovirus (PV) (Sabin) vaccine containing a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES. A phase I clinical trial of PVSRIPO with intratumoral inoculation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) is showing early promise. Viral translation proficiency in infected GBM cells is a core requirement for the antineoplastic efficacy of PVSRIPO. Therefore, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms controlling viral cap-independent translation in infected host cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Gene Family in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Guo, Wenjin; Lu, Junxing; Yu, Hao; Qu, Cunmin; Tang, Zhanglin; Li, Jiana; Chai, Yourong; Liang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell division, development, hormone signaling, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of the MAPK gene family has hitherto not been performed in Brassica rapa. In this study, we identified 32 MAPKs in the B. rapa genome by conducting BLASTP and syntenic block analyses, and screening for the essential signature motif (TDY or TEY) of plant MAPK proteins. Of the 32 BraMAPK genes retrieved from the Brassica Database, 13 exhibited exon splicing errors, excessive splicing of the 5' sequence, excessive retention of the 5' sequence, and sequencing errors of the 3' end. Phylogenetic trees of the 32 corrected MAPKs from B. rapa and of MAPKs from other plants generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods suggested that BraMAPKs could be divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D). Gene number expansion was observed for BraMAPK genes in groups A and D, which may have been caused by the tandem duplication and genome triplication of the ancestral genome of the Brassica progenitor. Except for five members of the BraMAPK10 subfamily, the identified BraMAPKs were expressed in most of the tissues examined, including callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that at least six and five BraMAPKs were induced or repressed by various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, respectively, suggesting their potential roles in the abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in B. rapa. This study provides valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of MAPK genes in B. rapa.

  1. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Roles in early development and immunity-related transcriptional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants. AbMAPK1 harbors a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 23 bps, a coding sequence of 1104 bps, and a 3' UTR of 448 bp. The putative peptide comprises a predicted molecular mass of 42.2 kDa, with a theoretical pI of 6.28. Based on the in silico analysis, AbMAPK1 possesses two N-glycosylation sites, one S_TK catalytic domain, and a conserved His-Arg-Asp domain (HRD). In addition, a conservative glycine rich ATP-phosphate-binding loop and a threonine-x-tyrosine motif (TEY) important for the autophosphorylation were also identified in the protein. Homology assessment of AbMAPK1 showed several conserved regions, and ark clam (Aplysia californica) showed the highest sequence identity (87.9%). The phylogenetic analysis supported close evolutionary kinship with molluscan orthologs. Constitutive expression of AbMAPK1 was observed in six different tissues of disk abalone, with the highest expression in the digestive tract, followed by the gills and hemocytes. Highest AbMAPK1 mRNA expression level was detected at the trochophore developmental stage, suggesting its role in abalone cell differentiation and proliferation. Significant modulation of AbMAPK1 expression under pathogenic stress suggested its putative involvement in the immune defense mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BRAF mutations and phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the development of flat and depressed-type colorectal neoplasias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, K; Takimoto, M; Kaneko, K; Makino, R; Hirayama, Y; Nozawa, H; Kurahashi, T; Kumekawa, Y; Yamamoto, T; Ito, H; Yoshikawa, N; Kusano, M; Nakayama, K; Rembacken, B J; Ota, H; Imawari, M

    2006-01-01

    Although some molecular differences between flat-depressed neoplasias (FDNs) and protruding neoplasias (PNs) have been reported, it is uncertain if the BRAF mutations or the status of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) are different between theses two groups. We evaluated the incidence of BRAF and KRAS mutations, high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H), and the immunohistochemical status of p-MAPK in the nonserrated neoplasias (46 FDNs and 57 PNs). BRAF mutations were detected in four FDNs (9%) and none of PNs (P=0.0369 by Fisher's exact test). KRAS mutations were observed in none of FDNs and in 14 PNs (25%; P=0.0002 by Fisher's exact test). MSI-H was detected in seven out of 44 FDNs (16%) and in one out of 52 of PNs (2%) (P=0.022 by Fisher's exact test). Type B and C immunostaining for p-MAPK was observed in 34 out of 46 FDNs (72%), compared with 24 out of 55 PNs (44%; P=0.0022 by χ2 test). There was no significant difference in the type B and C immunostaining of p-MAPK between FDNs with and without BRAF mutations. BRAF and KRAS mutations are mutually exclusive in the morphological characteristics of colorectal nonserrated neoplasia. Abnormal accumulation of p-MAPK protein is more likely to be implicated in the tumorigenesis of FDNs than of PNs. However, this abnormality in FDNs might occur via the genetic alteration other than BRAF or KRAS mutation. PMID:16404419

  3. Regulation of brain capillary endothelial cells by P2Y receptors coupled to Ca2+, phospholipase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J L; Boyle, J P; Roberts, J A; Challiss, R A; Gubby, S E; Boarder, M R

    1997-11-01

    1. The blood-brain barrier is formed by capillary endothelial cells and is regulated by cell-surface receptors, such as the G protein-coupled P2Y receptors for nucleotides. Here we investigated some of the characteristics of control of brain endothelial cells by these receptors, characterizing the phospholipase C and Ca2+ response and investigating the possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). 2. Using an unpassaged primary culture of rat brain capillary endothelial cells we showed that ATP, UTP and 2-methylthio ATP (2MeSATP) give similar and substantial increases in cytosolic Ca2+, with a rapid rise to peak followed by a slower decline towards basal or to a sustained plateau. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ had little effect on the peak Ca2+-response, but resulted in a more rapid decline to basal. There was no response to alpha,beta-MethylATP (alpha,beta MeATP) in these unpassaged cells, but a response to this P2X agonist was seen after a single passage. 3. ATP (log EC50 -5.1+/-0.2) also caused an increase in the total [3H]-inositol (poly)phosphates ([3H]-InsPx) in the presence of lithium with a rank order of agonist potency of ATP=UTP=UDP>ADP, with 2MeSATP and alpha,beta MeATP giving no detectable response. 4. Stimulating the cells with ATP or UTP gave a rapid rise in the level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3), with a peak at 10 s followed by a decline to a sustained plateau phase. 2MeSATP gave no detectable increase in the level of Ins(1,4,5)P3. 5. None of the nucleotides tested affected basal cyclic AMP, while ATP and ATPgammaS, but not 2MeSATP, stimulated cyclic AMP levels in the presence of 5 microM forskolin. 6. Both UTP and ATP stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), while 2MeSATP gave a smaller increase in this index of MAPK activation. By use of a peptide kinase assay, UTP gave a substantial increase in MAPK activity with a concentration-dependency consistent with

  4. Mitogen activated protein kinase 6 and MAP kinase phosphatase 1 are involved in the response of Arabidopsis roots to L-glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bucio, Jesús Salvador; Raya-González, Javier; Ravelo-Ortega, Gustavo; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia; López-Bucio, José; Guevara-García, Ángel Arturo

    2018-03-01

    The function and components of L-glutamate signaling pathways in plants have just begun to be elucidated. Here, using a combination of genetic and biochemical strategies, we demonstrated that a MAPK module is involved in the control of root developmental responses to this amino acid. Root system architecture plays an essential role in plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic factors via adjusting signal transduction and gene expression. L-Glutamate (L-Glu), an amino acid with neurotransmitter functions in animals, inhibits root growth, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Through a combination of genetic analysis, in-gel kinase assays, detailed cell elongation and division measurements and confocal analysis of expression of auxin, quiescent center and stem cell niche related genes, the critical roles of L-Glu in primary root growth acting through the mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) and the dual specificity serine-threonine-tyrosine phosphatase MKP1 could be revealed. In-gel phosphorylation assays revealed a rapid and dose-dependent induction of MPK6 and MPK3 activities in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings in response to L-Glu. Mutations in MPK6 or MKP1 reduced or increased root cell division and elongation in response to L-Glu, possibly modulating auxin transport and/or response, but in a PLETHORA1 and 2 independent manner. Our data highlight MPK6 and MKP1 as components of an L-Glu pathway linking the auxin response, and cell division for primary root growth.

  5. Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

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    Nasar Virk

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are critical signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli into intracellular response. A relatively large number of MAPKKKs have been identified in a variety of plant genomes but only a few of them have been studied for their biological function. In the present study, we identified an Arabidopsis Raf-like MAPKKK gene Raf43 and studied its function in biotic and abiotic stress response using a T-DNA insertion mutant raf43-1 and two Raf43-overexpressing lines Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13. Expression of Raf43 was induced by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses including treatments with drought, mannitol and oxidative stress or defense signaling molecule salicylic acid and infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Seed germination and seedling root growth of raf43-1 were significantly inhibited on MS medium containing mannitol, NaCl, H2O2 or methyl viologen (MV while seed germination and seedling root growth of the Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13 lines was similar to wild type Col-0 under the above stress conditions. Soil-grown raf43-1 plants exhibited reduced tolerance to MV, drought and salt stress. Abscisic acid inhibited significantly seed germination and seedling root growth of the raf43-1 line but had no effect on the two Raf43-overexpressing lines. Expression of stress-responsive RD17 and DREB2A genes was significantly down-regulated in raf43-1 plants. However, the raf43-1 and Raf43-overexpressing plants showed similar disease phenotype to the wild type plants after infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

  6. Electroacupuncture reduces apoptotic index and inhibits p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Xiao Lan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture attenuates cerebral hypoxia and neuronal apoptosis induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. To further identify the involved mechanisms, we assumed that electroacupuncture used to treat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was associated with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. We established rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using the modified Zea-Longa's method. At 30 minutes before model establishment, p38 MAPK blocker SB20358 was injected into the left lateral ventricles. At 1.5 hours after model establishment, electroacupuncture was administered at acupoints of Chize (LU5, Hegu (LI4, Zusanli (ST36, and Sanyinjiao (SP6 for 20 minutes in the affected side. Results showed that the combination of EA and SB20358 injection significantly decreased neurologic impairment scores, but no significant differences were determined among different interventional groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining also showed reduced brain tissue injuries. Compared with the SB20358 group, the cells were regularly arranged, the structures were complete, and the number of viable neurons was higher in the SB20358 + electroacupuncture group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay showed a decreased apoptotic index in each group, with a significant decrease in the SB20358 + electroacupuncture group. Immunohistochemistry revealed reduced phosphorylated p38 expression at 3 days in the electroacupuncture group and SB20358 + electroacupuncture group compared with the ischemia/reperfusion group. There was no significant difference in phosphorylated p38 expression between the ischemia/reperfusion group and SB20358 group. These findings confirmed that the electroacupuncture effects on mitigating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury are possibly associated with the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. A time period of 3 days could promote the repair of ischemic cerebral nerves.

  7. Upstream and Downstream Co-inhibition of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathways in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

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    Matthew H. Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive cross talk exists between PI3K/Akt/mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, and both are upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Our previous study suggested that epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib which acts upstream of these pathways acts synergistically with PI3K inhibitors in PDAC. Horizontal combined blockade upstream and downstream of these two pathways is therefore explored. METHODS: Erlotinib paired with PI3K inhibitor (BYL719 was tested against erlotinib plus dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ-235, and MEK inhibitor (PD98059 plus BEZ235, on five primary PDAC cell lines and on two pairs of parent and erlotinib-resistant (ER cell lines. A range of in vitro assays including cell proliferation, Western blotting, migration, clonogenic, cell cycle, and apopotic assays was used to test for the efficacy of combined blockade. RESULTS: Dual downstream blockade of the MAPK and PAM pathways was more effective in attenuating downstream molecular signals. Synergy was demonstrated for erlotinib and BEZ235 and for PD-98059 and BEZ-235. This resulted in a trend of increased growth cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and colony and migration suppression. This combination showed more efficacy in cell lines with acquired resistance to erlotinib. CONCLUSIONS: The additional mTOR blockade provided by BEZ235 in combined blockade resulted in increased anticancer effect. The hypersensitivity of ER cell lines to additional mTOR blockade suggested PAM pathway oncogenic dependence via mTOR. Dual downstream combined blockade of MAPK and PAM pathways with MEK and PI3K/mTOR inhibitor appeared most effective and represents an attractive therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer and its associated drug resistance.

  8. Crosstalk between Smad and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases for the Regulation of Apoptosis in Cyclosporine A- Induced Renal Tubular Injury

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    Hideyuki Iwayama

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It remains elusive whether there is a crosstalk between Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and whether it regulates cyclosporine A (CyA-induced apoptosis in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs. Methods: The effect of CyA on nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and MAPKs (measured by Western blotting or immunofluorescence and apoptosis (determined by Hoechst 33258 staining was examined in HK-2 cells. Results: CyA induced apoptosis at 24 h and nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (p-Smad2/3 at 3 h, which was continued till 24 h. CyA enhanced the expression of p-ERK at 1 h, which was continued till 24 h, and of p-p38MAPK at 1–6 h, which returned to control level at 12 h. CyA did not affect JNK. An inhibitor of ERK, PD98059, prevented CyA-induced nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and apoptosis. An inhibitor of p38MAPK, SB202190, deteriorated CyA-induced nuclear translocation of p-Smad2/3. Epidermal growth factor (EGF activated ERK and p38MAPK but not JNK. EGF-induced activation of MAPKs ameliorated CyA-induced nuclear translocation of p-Smad2/3 and apoptosis. Inhibition of p38MAPK but not of ERK abolished the protective effect of EGF on CyA-induced nuclear translocation of p-Smad2/3 and apoptosis. Conclusion: Crosstalk between R-Smad and p38MAPK/ERK, but not JNK differentially regulates apoptosis in CyA-induced RPTC injury.

  9. Xingshentongqiao Decoction Mediates Proliferation, Apoptosis, Orexin-A Receptor and Orexin-B Receptor Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression and Represses Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling

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    Yuanli Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypocretin (HCRT signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy and can be significantly influenced by Chinese herbal therapy. Our previous study showed that xingshentongqiao decoction (XSTQ is clinically effective for the treatment of narcolepsy. To determine whether XSTQ improves narcolepsy by modulating HCRT signaling, we investigated its effects on SH-SY5Y cell proliferation, apoptosis, and HCRT receptor 1/2 (orexin receptor 1 [OX1R] and orexin receptor 2 [OX2R] expression. The signaling pathways involved in these processes were also assessed. Methods: The effects of XSTQ on proliferation and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells were assessed using cell counting kit-8 and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate assays. OX1R and OX2R expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway activation was performed to further assess the signaling mechanism of XSTQ. Results: XSTQ reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. This effect was accompanied by the upregulation of OX1R and OX2R expression and the reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk 1/2, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Conclusions: XSTQ inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. XSTQ also promotes OX1R and OX2R expression. These effects are associated with the repression of the Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK signaling pathways. These results define a molecular mechanism for XSTQ in regulating HCRT and MAPK activation, which may explain its ability to treat narcolepsy.

  10. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulated initiation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) gene transcription involves the synergistic action of multiple cis-acting elements in the proximal promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Stephan; Massiha, Abbas; Piuz, Isabelle; Schlegel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are inactivated by a dual specificity phosphatase, MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). MKP-1 is transcribed as an immediate early response gene (IEG) following various stimuli. In the pituitary cell line GH4C1, MKP-1 gene transcription is strongly induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) as well as by epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a consequence of activated MAPK/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling. Intriguingly, reporter gene analysis with the MKP-1 promoter showed strong basal transcription, but only limited induction by TRH and EGF. Site-directed mutagenesis of the reporter construct combined with band-shift and in vivo studies revealed that part of the constitutive activity of the MKP-1 promoter resides in two GC boxes bound by Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors in the minimal promoter. Basal transcription of transiently transfected luciferase reporter can be initiated by either of the two GC boxes or also by either of the two cAMP/Ca(2+) responsive elements or by the E-box present in the proximal promoter. On the other hand, when analysed by stable transfection, the five responsive elements are acting in synergy to transactivate the MKP-1 proximal promoter. We show in this study that the MKP-1 promoter can function as a constitutive promoter or as a rapid and transient sensor for the activation state of MAPKs/ERKs. This dual mode of transcription initiation may have different consequences for the control of a block to elongation situated in the first exon of the MKP-1 gene, as described previously [Ryser, Tortola, van Haasteren, Muda, Li and Schlegel (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 33319-33327]. PMID:14609431

  12. Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide stimulates release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Choi, Eun-Young; Kim, Eun Gyung; Shin, Su-Hwa; Lee, Ju-Youn; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In-Soon

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lipopolysaccharide from Prevotella intermedia, a major cause of inflammatory periodontal disease, on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA in differentiated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The potential involvement of the three main mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the induction of TNF-alpha production was also investigated. Lipopolysaccharide from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was prepared by the standard hot phenol-water method. THP-1 cells were incubated in the medium supplemented with phorbol myristate acetate to induce differentiation into macrophage-like cells. It was found that P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide can induce TNF-alpha mRNA expression and stimulate the release of TNF-alpha in differentiated THP-1 cells without additional stimuli. Treatment of the cells with P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide resulted in a simultaneous activation of three MAPKs [extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38]. Pretreatment of the cells with MAPK inhibitors effectively suppressed P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production without affecting the expression of TNF-alpha mRNA. These data thus provided good evidence that the MAPK signaling pathways are required for the regulation of P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha synthesis at the level of translation more than at the transcriptional level.

  13. UVB-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase enhances resistance of normal human keratinocytes to apoptosis by stabilizing cytoplasmic p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Nadine; Valerie, Kristoffer; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Huot, Jacques

    2002-07-01

    Human keratinocytes respond to UV rays by developing a fast adaptive response that contributes to maintaining their functions and survival. We investigated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in transducing the UV signals in normal human keratinocytes. We found that UVA, UVB or UVC induced a marked and persistent activation of p38, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase were less or not activated respectively. Inhibition of p38 activity by expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p38 or with SB203580 impaired cell viability and led to an increase in UVB-induced apoptosis. This sensitization to apoptosis was independent of caspase activities. Inhibition of p38 did not sensitize transformed HaCaT keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis. In normal keratinocytes, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of p53 increased UVB-induced cell death, pointing to a role for p53. In these cells, UVB triggered a p38-dependent phosphorylation of p53 on Ser-15. This phosphorylation was associated with an SB203580-sensitive accumulation of p53, even in the presence of a serine phosphatase inhibitor. Accumulated p53 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, independently of CRM1 nuclear export. In HaCaT cells, p53 was localized exclusively in the nucleus and its distribution and level were not affected by UVB or p38 inhibition. However, UVB induced an SB203580-insensitive phosphorylation on Ser-15 of mutated p53. Overall, our results suggest that, in normal human keratinocytes, protection against UVB depends on p38-mediated phosphorylation and stabilization of p53 and is tightly associated with the cytoplasmic sequestration of wild-type p53. We conclude that the p38/p53 pathway plays a key role in the adaptive response of normal human keratinocytes against UV stress.

  14. Extract of Polygala tenuifolia Alleviates Stress-Exacerbated Atopy-Like Skin Dermatitis through the Modulation of Protein Kinase A and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Bongjun; Lee, Bombi; Yoon, Ye Seul; Lim, Pooreum; Hong, Riwon; Yeom, Mijung; Lee, Hyang Sook; Park, Hijoon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Jang, Young Pyo; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2017-01-18

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and stress create a vicious cycle: stress exacerbates atopic symptoms, and atopic disease elicits stress and anxiety. Targeting multiple pathways including stress and allergic inflammation is, therefore, important for treating AD. In this study, we investigated the remedial value of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (PTW) for treating immobilization (IMO) stress-exacerbated atopy-like skin dermatitis and its underlying mechanism. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was applied to dorsal skin for sensitization and subsequently both ears for eliciting T-cell-dependent contact hypersensitivity in mice, which underwent 2 h-IMO stress and PTW administration for the latter 6 and 9 days in the ear exposure period of TMA, respectively. To elicit in vitro degranulation of human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1), 10 µM substance P (SP) and 200 nM corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) were sequentially added with 48 h-interval. PTW extract (500 µg/mL) was added 30 min before CRF treatment. IMO stress exacerbated TMA-induced scratching behavior by 252%, and increased their blood corticosterone levels by two-fold. Treatment with 250 mg/kg PTW significantly restored IMO stress-exacerbated scratching behavior and other indicators such as skin inflammation and water content, lymph node weights, and serum histamine and immunoglobulin E (lgE) levels. Furthermore, it also reversed TMA-stimulated expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 mRNAs in ear tissues. PTW significantly inhibited SP/CRF-stimulated degranulation of HMC-1 cells, subsequent tryptase secretion, and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. PTW also selectively inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in SP/CRF-treated HMC-1 cells. PTW significantly inhibited HMC-1 cell degranulation and alleviated IMO stress-exacerbated atopic dermatitis symptoms by modulating the PKA/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  15. Extract of Polygala tenuifolia Alleviates Stress-Exacerbated Atopy-Like Skin Dermatitis through the Modulation of Protein Kinase A and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongjun Sur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD and stress create a vicious cycle: stress exacerbates atopic symptoms, and atopic disease elicits stress and anxiety. Targeting multiple pathways including stress and allergic inflammation is, therefore, important for treating AD. In this study, we investigated the remedial value of Polygala tenuifolia Willd. (PTW for treating immobilization (IMO stress-exacerbated atopy-like skin dermatitis and its underlying mechanism. Trimellitic anhydride (TMA was applied to dorsal skin for sensitization and subsequently both ears for eliciting T-cell-dependent contact hypersensitivity in mice, which underwent 2 h-IMO stress and PTW administration for the latter 6 and 9 days in the ear exposure period of TMA, respectively. To elicit in vitro degranulation of human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1, 10 µM substance P (SP and 200 nM corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF were sequentially added with 48 h-interval. PTW extract (500 µg/mL was added 30 min before CRF treatment. IMO stress exacerbated TMA-induced scratching behavior by 252%, and increased their blood corticosterone levels by two-fold. Treatment with 250 mg/kg PTW significantly restored IMO stress-exacerbated scratching behavior and other indicators such as skin inflammation and water content, lymph node weights, and serum histamine and immunoglobulin E (lgE levels. Furthermore, it also reversed TMA-stimulated expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-4 mRNAs in ear tissues. PTW significantly inhibited SP/CRF-stimulated degranulation of HMC-1 cells, subsequent tryptase secretion, and protein kinase A (PKA activity. PTW also selectively inhibited p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation in SP/CRF-treated HMC-1 cells. PTW significantly inhibited HMC-1 cell degranulation and alleviated IMO stress-exacerbated atopic dermatitis symptoms by modulating the PKA/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  16. Nitric oxide mediates the indole acetic acid induction activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade involved in adventitious root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Lanteri, María Luciana; Lombardo, María Cristina; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2004-05-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP are involved in the auxin response during the adventitious rooting process in cucumber (Cucumis sativus; Pagnussat et al., 2002, 2003). However, not much is known about the complex molecular network operating during the cell proliferation and morphogenesis triggered by auxins and NO in that process. Anatomical studies showed that formation of adventitious root primordia was clearly detected in indole acetic acid (IAA)- and NO-treated cucumber explants, while neither cell proliferation nor differentiation into root primordia could be observed in control explants 3 d after primary root was removed. In order to go further with signal transduction mechanisms that operate during IAA- and NO-induced adventitious root formation, experiments were designed to test the involvement of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in that process. Cucumber explants were treated with the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or with SNP plus the specific NO-scavenger cPTIO. Protein extracts from those explants were assayed for protein kinase (PK) activity by using myelin basic protein (MBP) as substrate in both in vitro and in-gel assays. The activation of a PK of approximately 48 kD could be detected 1 d after NO treatment with a maximal activation after 3 d of treatment. In control explants, a PK activity was detected only after 4 d of treatment. The MBP-kinase activity was also detected in extracts from IAA-treated explants, while no signal was observed in IAA + cPTIO treatments. The PK activity could be inhibited by the cell-permeable MAPK kinase inhibitor PD098059, suggesting that the NO-dependent MBP-kinase activity is a MAPK. Furthermore, when PD098059 was administered to explants treated with SNP or IAA, it produced a delay in root emergence and a dose-dependent reduction in root number. Altogether, our results suggest that a MAPK signaling cascade is activated during the adventitious rooting process

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and NFκB are involved in SP-A-enhanced responses of macrophages to mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigerust David J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein A (SP-A is a C-type lectin involved in surfactant homeostasis as well as host defense in the lung. We have recently demonstrated that SP-A enhances the killing of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG by rat macrophages through a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. In the current study we have investigated the role of tyrosine kinases and the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, and the transcription factor NFκB in mediating the enhanced signaling in response to BCG in the presence of SP-A. Methods Human SP-A was prepared from alveolar proteinosis fluid, and primary macrophages were obtained by maturation of cells from whole rat bone marrow. BCG-SP-A complexes were routinely prepared by incubation of a ratio of 20 μg of SP-A to 5 × 105 BCG for 30 min at 37°C. Cells were incubated with PBS, SP-A, BCG, or SP-A-BCG complexes for the times indicated. BCG killing was assessed using a 3H-uracil incorporation assay. Phosphorylated protein levels, enzyme assays, and secreted mediator assays were conducted using standard immunoblot and biochemical methods as outlined. Results Involvement of tyrosine kinases was demonstrated by herbimycin A-mediated inhibition of the SP-A-enhanced nitric oxide production and BCG killing. Following infection of macrophages with BCG, the MAPK family members ERK1 and ERK2 were activated as evidence by increased tyrosine phosphorylation and enzymatic activity, and this activation was enhanced when the BCG were opsonized with SP-A. An inhibitor of upstream kinases required for ERK activation inhibited BCG- and SP-A-BCG-enhanced production of nitric oxide by approximately 35%. Macrophages isolated from transgenic mice expressing a NFκB-responsive luciferase gene showed increased luciferase activity following infection with BCG, and this activity was enhanced two-fold in the presence of SP-A. Finally, lactacystin, an inhibitor of IκB degradation, reduced BCG- and SP

  18. Phosphorylation and activation of p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase are required for the P2 purinoceptor stimulation of endothelial prostacyclin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V; Brown, C; Goodwin, A; Wilkie, N; Boarder, M R

    1996-11-15

    Extracellular ATP and ADP, released from platelets and other sites stimulate the endothelial production of prostacyclin (PGI2) by acting on G-protein-coupled P2Y2 and P2Y2 purinoceptors, contributing to the maintenance of a non-thrombogenic surface. The mechanism, widely described as being dependent on elevated cytosolic [Ca2+], also requires protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we show that activation of both these P2 receptor types leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of both the p42 and p44 forms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). 2-Methylthio-ATP and UTP, selectively activating P2Y1 and P2Y2 purinoceptors respectively, and ATP, a non-selective agonist at these two receptors, stimulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of both p42mapk and p44mapk, as revealed by Western blots with an antiserum specific for the tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of the enzymes. By using separation on Resource Q columns, peptide kinase activity associated with the phosphorylated MAPK enzymes distributes into two peaks, one mainly p42mapk and one mainly p44mapk, both of which are stimulated by ATP with respect to kinase activity and phospho-MAPK immunoreactivity. Stimulation of P2Y1 or P2Y2 purinoceptors leads to a severalfold increase in PGI2 efflux; this was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the selective MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059. This drug also blocked the agonist-stimulated increase in phospho-MAPK immunoreactivity for both p42mapk and p44mapk but left the phospholipase C response to P2 agonists essentially unchanged. Olomoucine has been reported to inhibit p44mapk activity. Here we show that in the same concentration range olomoucine inhibits activity in both peaks from the Resource Q column and also the agonist stimulation of 6-keto-PGF1, but has no effect on agonist-stimulated phospho-MAPK immunoreactivity. These results provide direct evidence for the involvement of p42 and p44 MAPK in the PGI2 response of intact endothelial cells: we have shown

  19. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do

    2012-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H 2 O 2 increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells treated with nicotine

  20. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do, E-mail: ydjung@chonnam.ac.kr

    2012-03-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells

  1. N-Farnesyloxy-norcantharimide inhibits progression of human leukemic Jurkat T cells through regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and interleukin-2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Che; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liao, Hui-Fen; Chen, Yu-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the anticancer effects of N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide (NOC15), a newly synthesized norcantharidin (NCTD) analogue, on human leukemic Jurkat T cells and the signaling pathway underlying its effects. We found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of NOC15 on Jurkat T cells is 1.4 μmol/l, which is 11.14-fold (=15.6÷1.4) smaller than the 15.6 μmol/l of NCTD on Jurkat T cells, whereas the IC50 of NOC15 on human normal lymphoblast (HNL) is 207.9 μmol/l, which is 8.17-fold (=1698.0÷207.8) smaller than the 1698.0 μmol/l of NCTD on HNL cells. These results indicated that NOC15 exerts a higher anticancer effect on Jurkat T cells and has higher toxicity toward HNL cells than NCTD. Thus, NOC15 is 1.36-fold (=11.14÷8.17) beneficial as an anticancer agent toward Jurkat T cells compared with NCTD. Moreover, NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and reduce the cell viability of Jurkat T cells, stimulate p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway, and inhibit calcineurin expression and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. However, NOC15 exerted no effects on the Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) signaling pathway, the production of IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We conclude that the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized NOC15 is 1.36-fold beneficial than NCTD as an anticancer agent and that NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase through the stimulation of p38 and ERK1/2 of the MAPK signaling pathway and the inhibition of calcineurin expression and IL-2 production. The NOC15 may have the potential of being developed into an anticancer agent in the future.

  2. Effects of estrogens and bladder inflammation on mitogen-activated protein kinases in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia from adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keast Janet R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition associated with bladder inflammation and, like a number of other chronic pain states, symptoms associated with interstitial cystitis are more common in females and fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to determine if estrogens could directly modulate signalling pathways within bladder sensory neurons, such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. These signalling pathways have been implicated in neuronal plasticity underlying development of inflammatory somatic pain but have not been as extensively investigated in visceral nociceptors. We have focused on lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons projecting to pelvic viscera (L1, L2, L6, S1 of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats and performed both in vitro and in vivo manipulations to compare the effects of short- and long-term changes in estrogen levels on MAPK expression and activation. We have also investigated if prolonged estrogen deprivation influences the effects of lower urinary tract inflammation on MAPK signalling. Results In studies of isolated DRG neurons in short-term (overnight culture, we found that estradiol and estrogen receptor (ER agonists rapidly stimulated ER-dependent p38 phosphorylation relative to total p38. Examination of DRGs following chronic estrogen deprivation in vivo (ovariectomy showed a parallel increase in total and phosphorylated p38 (relative to β-tubulin. We also observed an increase in ERK1 phosphorylation (relative to total ERK1, but no change in ERK1 expression (relative to β-tubulin. We observed no change in ERK2 expression or phosphorylation. Although ovariectomy increased the level of phosphorylated ERK1 (vs. total ERK1, cyclophosphamide-induced lower urinary tract inflammation did not cause a net increase of either ERK1 or ERK2, or their phosphorylation. Inflammation did, however, cause an increase in p38

  3. EphA2 modulates radiosensitive of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Jin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the role of EPH receptor A2 (EphA2 in the modulation of radiosensitivity of hepatic cellular cancer (HCC cells and to determine whether p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK signaling mediated EphA2 function in this respect. The protein expressions of EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were tested in HCC and normal hepatic tissues. In HCC 97H cells, EphA2 was overexpressed and knocked out by transfection with EphA2 expression vector and EphA2-ShRNA, respectively, prior to cell exposure to low-dose irradiation. Significantly upregulated EphA2 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were observed in HCC tissues, compared with those in normal hepatic tissues. Low-dose irradiation (1 Gy only caused minor damage to HCC 97H cells, as assessed by alterations in cell viability, apoptosis rate, and cell healing capacity (p = 0.072, p = 0.078, and p = 0.069 respectively. However, EphA2 knock-out in HCC 97H cells induced significant reduction in cell viability and cell healing capacity after these cells were subjected to low-dose irradiation. Apoptosis rate underwent dramatic increase (p < 0.01. By contrast, EphA2 overexpression in HCC 97H cells reversed these effects and enhanced cell colony formation rate, thus displaying remarkable attenuation of radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells. Further, SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, was added to HCC 97H cells over-expressing EphA2. The effect of EphA2 overexpression on the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells was abrogated. Thus, the present study indicates that EphA2 have the ability to negatively regulate the radiosensitivity of HCC 97H cells, which mainly depends on 38MAPK-mediated signal pathways.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction caused by beta-amyloid peptides via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Paula M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Cunha, Geanne M A; Silva, Carla G; Machado, Nuno J; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Oliveira, Catarina R; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2009-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory impairment, neurochemically by accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (namely Abeta(1-42)) and morphologically by an initial loss of nerve terminals. Caffeine consumption prevents memory dysfunction in different models, which is mimicked by antagonists of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), which are located in synapses. Thus, we now tested whether A(2A)R blockade prevents the early Abeta(1-42)-induced synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction and what are the underlying signaling pathways. The intracerebral administration of soluble Abeta(1-42) (2 nmol) in rats or mice caused, 2 weeks later, memory impairment (decreased performance in the Y-maze and object recognition tests) and a loss of nerve terminal markers (synaptophysin, SNAP-25) without overt neuronal loss, astrogliosis, or microgliosis. These were prevented by pharmacological blockade [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261); 0.05 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1), i.p.; for 15 d] in rats, and genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs in mice. Moreover, these were synaptic events since purified nerve terminals acutely exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm) displayed mitochondrial dysfunction, which was prevented by A(2A)R blockade. SCH58261 (50 nm) also prevented the initial synaptotoxicity (loss of MAP-2, synaptophysin, and SNAP-25 immunoreactivity) and subsequent loss of viability of cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm). This A(2A)R-mediated control of neurotoxicity involved the control of Abeta(1-42)-induced p38 phosphorylation and was independent from cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) pathway. Together, these results show that A(2A)Rs play a crucial role in the development of Abeta-induced synaptotoxicity leading to memory dysfunction through a p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway and provide a molecular basis for the benefits of caffeine consumption in AD.

  5. A mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance, cell wall integrity maintenance and cellulase production regulation in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Wang

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are important signal transduction pathways conserved in essentially all eukaryotes, but haven't been subjected to functional studies in the most important cellulase-producing filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Previous reports suggested the presence of three MAPKs in T. reesei: Tmk1, Tmk2, and Tmk3. By exploring the phenotypic features of T. reesei Δtmk3, we first showed elevated NaCl sensitivity and repressed transcription of genes involved in glycerol/trehalose biosynthesis under higher osmolarity, suggesting Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance via derepression of genes involved in osmotic stabilizer biosynthesis. We also showed significant downregulation of genes encoding chitin synthases and a β-1,3-glucan synthase, decreased chitin content, 'budded' hyphal appearance typical to cell wall defective strains, and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white/Congo red in the tmk3 deficient strain, suggesting Tmk3 is involved in cell wall integrity maintenance in T. reesei. We further observed the decrease of cellulase transcription and production in T. reesei Δtmk3 during submerged cultivation, as well as the presence of MAPK phosphorylation sites on known transcription factors involved in cellulase regulation, suggesting Tmk3 is also involved in the regulation of cellulase production. Finally, the expression of cell wall integrity related genes, the expression of cellulase coding genes, cellulase production and biomass accumulation were compared between T. reesei Δtmk3 grown in solid state media and submerged media, showing a strong restoration effect in solid state media from defects resulted from tmk3 deletion. These results showed novel physiological processes that fungal Hog1-type MAPKs are involved in, and present the first experimental investigation of MAPK signaling pathways in T. reesei. Our observations on the restoration effect during solid state cultivation suggest

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibition and angiotensin II converting inhibition in mice with cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchir, Antoine, E-mail: a.muchir@institut-myologie.org [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Wu, Wei [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Sera, Fusako; Homma, Shunichi [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Worman, Howard J., E-mail: hjw14@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Both ACE and MEK1/2 inhibition are beneficial on cardiac function in Lmna cardiomyopathy. • MEK1/2 inhibitor has beneficial effects beyond ACE inhibition for Lmna cardiomyopathy. • These results provide further preclinical rationale for a clinical trial of a MEK1/2 inhibitor. - Abstract: Background: Mutations in the LMNA gene encoding A-type nuclear lamins can cause dilated cardiomyopathy with or without skeletal muscular dystrophy. Previous studies have shown abnormally increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity in hearts of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice, a small animal model. Inhibition of this abnormal signaling activity with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor has beneficial effects on heart function and survival in these mice. However, such treatment has not been examined relative to any standard of care intervention for dilated cardiomyopathy or heart failure. We therefore examined the effects of an angiotensin II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor on left ventricular function in Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice and assessed if adding a MEK1/2 inhibitor would provide added benefit. Methods: Male Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice were treated with the ACE inhibitor benazepril, the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib or both. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure left ventricular diameters and fractional shortening was calculated. Results: Treatment of Lmna{sup H222P/H222P} mice with either benazepril or selumetinib started at 8 weeks of age, before the onset of detectable left ventricular dysfunction, lead to statistically significantly increased fractional shortening compared to placebo at 16 weeks of age. There was a trend towards a great value for fractional shortening in the selumetinib-treated mice. When treatment was started at 16 weeks of age, after the onset of left ventricular dysfunction, the addition of selumetinib treatment to benazepril lead to a statistically significant increase in left

  7. Wheat mitogen-activated protein kinase gene TaMPK4 improves plant tolerance to multiple stresses through modifying root growth, ROS metabolism, and nutrient acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lin; Wen, Yanli; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Lu, Wenjing; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Wheat MAPK member TaMPK4 responds to abiotic stresses of Pi and N deprivations and high salinity and is crucial in regulating plant tolerance to aforementioned stresses. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are important signal transduction modules in regulating plant responses to various environmental stresses. In this study, a wheat MAPK member referred to TaMPK4 was characterized for its roles in mediating plant tolerance to diverse stresses. TaMPK4 shares conserved domains generally identified in plant MAPKs and possesses in vitro kinase activity. Under stresses of Pi and N deprivations and high salinity, TaMPK4 was strongly upregulated and its expressions were restored upon recovery treatments from above stresses. Sense- and antisense-expressing TaMPK4 in tobacco significantly modified plant growth under the stress conditions and dramatically modified the root architecture through transcriptional regulation of the auxin transport-associated genes NtPIN3 and NtPIN9, whose downregulated expressions dramatically reduced the root growth. Compared with wild type (WT), the antioxidant enzymatic activities under the stress conditions, P accumulation under P deprivation, and N amount under N deficiency were altered dramatically in the transgenic plants, showing higher in the TaMPK4-overexpressing and lower in the TaMPK4-knockout plants, which were in concordance with the modified expressions of a set of antioxidant enzyme genes (NtPOD2;1, NtPOD9, NtSOD2, NtFeSOD, and NtCAT), two phosphate transporter genes (NtPT and NtPT2), and two nitrate transporter genes (NtNRT1.1-s and NtNRT1.1-t), respectively. Downregulated expression of above genes in tobacco largely reduced the plant growth, and Pi and N acquisitions under the stress conditions. TaMPK4 also involved regulations of plant K(+) and osmolyte contents under high salinity. Thus, TaMPK4 is functional in regulating plant tolerance to diverse stresses through modifying various biological processes.

  8. Bioactive glass induced osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells is dependent on cell attachment mechanism and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojansivu, M; Hyväri, L; Kellomäki, M; Hupa, L; Vanhatupa, S; Miettinen, S

    2018-01-30

    Bioactive glasses (BaGs) are widely utilised in bone tissue engineering (TE) but the molecular response of cells to BaGs is poorly understood. To elucidate the mechanisms of cell attachment to BaGs and BaG-induced early osteogenic differentiation, we cultured human adipose stem cells (hASCs) on discs of two silica-based BaGs S53P4 (23.0 Na2O - 20.0 CaO - 4.0 P2O5 - 53.0 SiO2 (wt-%)) and 1-06 (5.9 Na2O - 12.0 K2O - 5.3 MgO - 22.6 CaO - 4.0 P2O5 - 0.2 B2O3 - 50.0 SiO2) in the absence of osteogenic supplements. Both BaGs induced early osteogenic differentiation by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and the expression of osteogenic marker genes RUNX2a and OSTERIX. Based on ALP activity, the slower reacting 1-06 glass was a stronger osteoinducer. Regarding the cell attachment, cells cultured on BaGs had enhanced integrinβ1 and vinculin production, and mature focal adhesions were smaller but more dispersed than on cell culture plastic (polystyrene). Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-induced c-Jun phosphorylations were upregulated by glass contact. Moreover, the BaG-stimulated osteoinduction was significantly reduced by FAK and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, indicating an important role for FAK and MAPKs in the BaG-induced early osteogenic commitment of hASCs. Upon indirect insert culture, the ions released from the BaG discs could not reproduce the observed cellular changes, which highlighted the role of direct cell-BaG interactions in the osteopotential of BaGs. These findings gave valuable insight into the mechanism of BaG-induced osteogenic differentiation and therefore provided knowledge to aid the future design of new functional biomaterials to meet the increasing demand for clinical bone TE treatments.

  9. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors prevents interleukin-1β-induced exacerbation of neuronal toxicity through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR affords robust neuroprotection in a number of brain conditions, although the mechanisms are still unknown. A likely candidate mechanism for this neuroprotection is the control of neuroinflammation, which contributes to the amplification of neurodegeneration, mainly through the abnormal release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin(IL-1β. We investigated whether A2AR controls the signaling of IL-1β and its deleterious effects in cultured hippocampal neurons. Methods Hippocampal neuronal cultures were treated with IL-1β and/or glutamate in the presence or absence of the selective A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nmol/l. The effect of SCH58261 on the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 was evaluated by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The effect of SCH58261 on glutamate-induced neurodegeneration in the presence or absence of IL-1β was evaluated by nucleic acid and by propidium iodide staining, and by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Finally, the effect of A2AR blockade on glutamate-induced intracellular calcium, in the presence or absence of IL-1β, was studied using single-cell calcium imaging. Results IL-1β (10 to 100 ng/ml enhanced both JNK and p38 phosphorylation, and these effects were prevented by the IL-1 type 1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra (5 μg/ml, in accordance with the neuronal localization of IL-1 type 1 receptors, including pre-synaptically and post-synaptically. At 100 ng/ml, IL-1β failed to affect neuronal viability but exacerbated the neurotoxicity induced by treatment with 100 μmol/l glutamate for 25 minutes (evaluated after 24 hours. It is likely that this resulted from the ability of IL-1β to enhance glutamate-induced calcium entry and late calcium deregulation, both of which were unaffected by IL-1β alone. The selective A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nmol

  10. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP Kinase Signaling Components in the Fungal Development, Stress Response and Virulence of the Fungal Cereal Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqiang Leng

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs have been demonstrated to be involved in fungal development, sexual reproduction, pathogenicity and/or virulence in many filamentous plant pathogenic fungi, but genes for MAPKs in the fungal cereal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana have not been characterized. In this study, orthologues of three MAPK genes (CsSLT2, CsHOG1 and CsFUS3 and one MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK gene (CsSTE11 were identified in the whole genome sequence of the B. sorokiniana isolate ND90Pr, and knockout mutants were generated for each of them. The ∆Csfus3 and ∆Csste11 mutants were defective in conidiation and formation of appressoria-like structures, showed hypersensitivity to oxidative stress and lost pathogenicity on non-wounded leaves of barley cv. Bowman. When inoculated on wounded leaves of Bowman, the ∆Csfus3 and ∆Csste11 mutants were reduced in virulence compared to the wild type. No morphological changes were observed in the ∆Cshog1 mutants in comparison with the wild type; however, they were slightly reduced in growth under oxidative stress and were hypersensitive to hyperosmotic stress. The ∆Cshog1 mutants formed normal appressoria-like structures but were reduced in virulence when inoculated on Bowman leaves. The ∆Csslt2 mutants produced more vegetative hyphae, had lighter pigmentation, were more sensitive to cell wall degrading enzymes, and were reduced in virulence on Bowman leaves, although they formed normal appressoria like the wild type. Root infection assays indicated that the ∆Cshog1 and ∆Csslt2 mutants were able to infect barley roots while the ∆Csfus3 and ∆Csste11 failed to cause any symptoms. However, no significant difference in virulence was observed for ∆Cshog1 mutants while ∆Csslt2 mutants showed significantly reduced virulence on barley roots in comparison with the wild type. Our results indicated that all of these MAPK and MAPKKK genes are involved in the regulation of fungal

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways promote low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated internalization of beta-amyloid protein in primary cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Qian, Yi-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Shui; Feng, Gai-Feng; Shi, Li-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Zhao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by the intraneuronal accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Aβ). Reuptake of extracellular Aβ is believed to contribute significantly to the intraneuronal Aβ pool in the early stages of AD. Published reports have claimed that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) mediates Aβ1-42 uptake and lysosomal trafficking in GT1-7 neuronal cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast non-neuronal cells. However, there is no direct evidence supporting the role of LRP1 in Aβ internalization in primary neurons. Our recent study indicated that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are involved in regulating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)-mediated Aβ1-42 uptake in SH-SY5Y cells. This study was designed to explore the regulation of MAPK signaling pathways on LRP1-mediated Aβ internalization in neurons. We found that extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers could be internalized into endosomes/lysosomes and mitochondria in cortical neurons. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were also found co-localized in neurons during Aβ1-42 internalization, and they could form Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex. Knockdown of LRP1 expression significantly decreased neuronal Aβ1-42 internalization. Finally, we identified that p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways regulated the internalization of Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Therefore, these results demonstrated that LRP1, p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 mediated the internalization of Aβ1-42 in neurons and provided evidence that blockade of LRP1 or inhibitions of MAPK signaling pathways might be a potential approach to lowering brain Aβ levels and served a potential therapeutic target for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid, sequential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and transcription factors precedes proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in spleens of mice exposed to the trichothecene vomitoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-Ren; Islam, Zahidul; Pestka, James J

    2003-03-01

    Since proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression is induced within lymphoid tissue in vivo by the trichothecene vomitoxin (VT) in a rapid (1-2 h) and transient (4-8 h) fashion, it was hypothesized that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and transcription factors associated upstream with gene transcription of these cytokines are activated prior to or within these time windows. To test this hypothesis, mice were first treated with a single oral dose of VT and then analyzed for MAPK phosphorylation in the spleen. As little as 1 mg/kg of VT induced JNK 1/2, ERK 1/2, and p38 phosphorylation with maximal effects being observed at 5 to 100 mg/kg of VT. VT transiently induced JNK and p38 phosphorylation over a 60-min time period with peak effects being observed at 15 and 30 min, respectively. In contrast, ERK remained phosphorylated from 15 to 120 min. Next, the binding of activating protein 1 (AP-1), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), CRE-binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using four different consensus transcriptional control motifs at 0, 0.5, 1.5, 4, and 8 h after oral exposure to 25 mg/kg of VT. AP-1 binding activity was differentially elevated from 0.5 h to 8 h, whereas C/EBP binding was elevated only at 0.5 h. CREB binding decreased slightly at 0.5 h but gradually increased, reaching a maximum at 4 h. NF-kappaB binding was increased only slightly at 4 and 8 h. The specificities of AP-1, C/EBP, CREB, and NF-kappaB for relevant DNA motifs were verified by competition assays, using an excess of unlabeled consensus and mutant oligonucleotides. Supershift EMSAs and Western blot analysis identified specific VT-inducible DNA binding proteins for AP-1 (cJun, phospho c-jun, JunB, and JunD), C/EBP (C/EBPbeta), CREB (CREB-1 and ATF-2), and NF-kappaB (p50 and cRel). Finally, when the effects of oral VT exposure on proinflammatory gene expression were assessed at 3, 6, and 9 h

  13. Andrographolide stimulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2-heme oxygenase 1 signaling in primary cerebral endothelial cells for definite protection against ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ting-Lin; Chen, Ray-Jade; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Chih-Hao; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Stroke pathogenesis involves complex oxidative stress-related pathways. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathways have been considered molecular targets in pharmacologic intervention for ischemic diseases. Andrographolide, a labdane diterpene, has received increasing attention in recent years because of its various pharmacologic activities. We determined that andrographolide modulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-Nrf2-HO-1 signaling cascade in primary cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) to provide positive protection against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in rats. In the present study, andrographolide (10 μM) increased HO-1 protein and messenger RNA expressions, Nrf2 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation in CECs, and these activities were disrupted by a p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, but not by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125. Similar results were observed in confocal microscopy analysis. Moreover, andrographolide-induced Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions were significantly inhibited by Nrf2 small interfering RNA. Moreover, HO-1 knockdown attenuated the protective effect of andrographolide against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced CEC death. Andrographolide (0.1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed free radical formation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain infarction in MCAO-insulted rats, and these effects were reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX. The mechanism is attributable to HO-1 activation, as directly evidenced by andrographolide-induced pronounced HO-1 expression in brain tissues, which was highly localized in the cerebral capillary. In conclusion, andrographolide increased Nrf2-HO-1 expression through p38 MAPK regulation, confirming that it provides protection against MCAO-induced brain injury. These findings provide strong evidence that andrographolide could

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi YH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yung Hyun Choi,1,2 Gi-Young Kim,3 Hye Hyeon Lee4 1Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan, 2Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan, 3Laboratory of Immunobiology, Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju, 4Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu, Republic of Korea Abstract: Cordycepin is the main functional component of the Cordyceps species, which has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine. This compound possesses many pharmacological properties, such as an ability to enhance immune function, as well as antioxidant, antiaging, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin using a murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell model. Our data demonstrated that cordycepin suppressed production of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 by inhibiting inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression. Cordycepin also inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1-beta, through downregulation of respective mRNA expression. In addition, pretreatment with cordycepin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activating protein kinases and attenuated nuclear translocation of NF-κB by LPS, which was associated with abrogation of inhibitor kappa B-alpha degradation. Furthermore, cordycepin potently inhibited the binding of LPS to macrophages and LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that the inhibitory effects of cordycepin on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages are associated with suppression of mitogen-activating protein kinases and activation of NF-κB by inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Keywords

  15. Improvement in neurological outcome and abolition of cerebrovascular endothelin B and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B receptor upregulation through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibition after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Rasmussen, Marianne Nelly Paola

    2011-01-01

    (B)) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT(1B)) receptors has been demonstrated in cerebral artery smooth muscles in the delayed ischemic phase after experimental SAH, and intracellular signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway has been shown...... to be involved in this upregulation. The aim in the present study was to determine whether treatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 can prevent cerebrovascular receptor upregulation and improve functional outcome after experimental SAH in rats....

  16. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghong Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ultraviolet B (UVB irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1 gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Methods: Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. Results: After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group. Meanwhile, inhibition of CRTAC1 also reduced both reactive oxygen species (ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm was increased in HLECs. Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and total antioxidative (T-AOC level were significantly increased in CRTAC1-inhibited cells, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were significantly decreased. ELISA analysis of CRTAC1-inhibited cells showed that the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 were significantly decreased, but the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10 was significantly increased. Western blot analyses of eight apoptosis-associated proteins including Bax, Bcl-2, p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2, phospho-JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2, calcium-sensing receptor (CasR, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII indicated that the inhibition of CRTAC1 alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation response, inactivated calcium-signaling pathway, p38 and JNK1/2 signal pathways, and eventually reduced UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Conclusion: These results provided new insights into the mechanism of cataract development, and demonstrated that CRTAC1 could be a potentially novel target for cataract treatment.

  17. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinghong; Rong, Xianfang; Li, Dan; Cai, Lei; Rao, Jun; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group. Meanwhile, inhibition of CRTAC1 also reduced both reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was increased in HLECs. Further studies indicated that superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total antioxidative (T-AOC) level were significantly increased in CRTAC1-inhibited cells, while the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased. ELISA analysis of CRTAC1-inhibited cells showed that the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly decreased, but the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was significantly increased. Western blot analyses of eight apoptosis-associated proteins including Bax, Bcl-2, p38, phospho-p38 (p-p38), Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2), phospho-JNK1/2 (p-JNK1/2), calcium-sensing receptor (CasR), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) indicated that the inhibition of CRTAC1 alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation response, inactivated calcium-signaling pathway, p38 and JNK1/2 signal pathways, and eventually reduced UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. These results provided new insights into the mechanism of cataract development, and demonstrated that CRTAC1 could be a potentially novel target for cataract treatment. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. ZmMKK1, a novel group A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase gene in maize, conferred chilling stress tolerance and was involved in pathogen defense in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Yang; Li, Dequan

    2014-01-01

    As an important intracellular signaling module, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been previously implicated in signal transduction during plants responsing to various environmental stresses as well as pathogen attack. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase acts as the convergent point of MAPK cascades during a variety of stress signaling. In this study, a novel MAPKK gene, ZmMKK1, in maize (Zea mays L.) belonging to group A MAPKK was isolated and functionally characterized. ZmMKK1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and its constitutive kinase-active form ZmMKK1DD was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. QRT-PCR analysis uncovered that ZmMKK1 expression was triggered by abiotic and biotic stresses and exogenous signaling molecules. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Ca(2+) mediated 12°C-induced up-regulated expressing of ZmMKK1 at mRNA level. Ectopic expression of ZmMKK1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) conferred tolerance to chilling stress by higher antioxidant enzyme activities, more accumulation of osmoregulatory substances and more significantly up-expression of ROS-related and stress-responsive genes compared with empty vector control plants. Furthermore, ZmMKK1 played differential functions in biotrophic versus necrotrophic pathogen-induced responses. These results suggested ZmMKK1 played a crucial role in chilling stress and pathogen defense in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway is involved in regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1-mediated β-amyloid protein internalization in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai-Ge; Lv, Jia; Hu, Xiao-Dan; Shi, Li-Li; Chang, Ke-Wei; Chen, Xin-Lin; Qian, Yi-Hua; Yang, Wei-Na; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that intracellular β-amyloid protein (Aβ) alone plays a pivotal role in the progression of AD. Therefore, understanding the signaling pathway and proteins that control Aβ internalization may provide new insight for regulating Aβ levels. In the present study, the regulation of Aβ internalization by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) was analyzed in vivo. The data derived from this investigation revealed that Aβ1-42 were internalized by neurons and astrocytes in mouse brain, and were largely deposited in mitochondria and lysosomes, with some also being found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Aβ1-42-LRP1 complex was formed during Aβ1-42 internalization, and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated by Aβ1-42 via LRP1. Aβ1-42 and LRP1 were co- localized in the cells of parietal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the level of LRP1-mRNA and LRP1 protein involved in Aβ1-42 internalization in mouse brain. The results of this investigation demonstrated that Aβ1-42 induced an LRP1-dependent pathway that related to the activation of p38 MAPK resulting in internalization of Aβ1-42. These results provide evidence supporting a key role for the p38 MAPK signaling pathway which is involved in the regulation of Aβ1-42 internalization in the parietal cortex and hippocampus of mouse through LRP1 in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. AMP N1-Oxide, a Unique Compound of Royal Jelly, Induces Neurite Outgrowth from PC12 Vells via Signaling by Protein Kinase A Independent of that by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Hattori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier we identified adenosine monophosphate (AMP N1-oxide as a unique compound of royal jelly (RJ that induces neurite outgrowth (neuritegenesis from cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells via the adenosine A2A receptor. Now, we found that AMP N1-oxide stimulated the phosphorylation of not only mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK but also that of cAMP/calcium-response element-binding protein (CREB in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MAPK activation by a MEK inhibitor, PD98059, did not influence the AMP N1-oxide-induced neuritegenesis, whereas that of protein kinase A (PKA by a selective inhibitor, KT5720, significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. AMP N1-oxide also had the activity of suppressing the growth of PC12 cells, which correlated well with the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity. KT5720 restored the growth of AMP N1-oxide-treated PC12 cells. It is well known that nerve growth factor suppresses proliferation of PC12 cells before causing stimulation of neuronal differentiation. Thus, AMP N1-oxide elicited neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells, as evidenced by generation of neurites, and inhibited cell growth through adenosine A2A receptor-mediated PKA signaling, which may be responsible for characteristic actions of RJ.

  1. Inhibition of Cartilage Acidic Protein 1 Reduces Ultraviolet B Irradiation Induced-Apoptosis through P38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Yinghong Ji; Xianfang Rong; Dan Li; Lei Cai; Jun Rao; Yi Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. Methods: Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. Results: After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary ap...

  2. The role of protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinases 3/1 and 14 in regulation of meiotic resumption of pig cumulus-oocyte complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Radek; Blaha, Milan; Němcová, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, supplement 1 (2012), s. 1245-1246 ISSN 1355-4786. [28th Annual Meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology . 01.07.2012-04.07.2012, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : protein kinase A * pig oocyte Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://www.eshre.eu/page.aspx/11

  3. Phloretin induces apoptosis in H-Ras MCF10A human breast tumor cells through the activation of p53 via JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Sung; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2009-08-01

    Mutations in Ras play a critical role in the development of human cancers, including breast cancer. We investigated the possible antiproliferative effects of the naturally occurring dihydrochalcone phloretin [2',4',6'-trihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propiophenone] on H-Ras-transformed MCF10A human breast epithelial (H-Ras MCF10A) cells. Phloretin suppressed H-Ras MCF10A cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced nuclear condensation in the cells, indicating that phloretin-induced cell death occurs mainly via the induction of apoptosis. Prominent upregulation of p53 and Bax and cleavage of poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase were also detected in the phloretin-treated cells. Finally, phloretin markedly increased caspase-3 activity as well as JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Our findings suggest that the phloretin-induced apoptosis of breast tumor cells contributes to the chemopreventive potential of phloretin against breast cancer.

  4. Whey protein concentrate enhances intestinal integrity and influences transforming growth factor-β1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways in piglets after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kan; Jiao, Lefei; Cao, Shuting; Song, Zehe; Hu, Caihong; Han, Xinyan

    2016-03-28

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been reported to have protective effects on the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully elucidated. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important component in the WPC, but whether TGF-β1 plays a role in these processes is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of WPC on the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as whether TGF-β1 is involved in these protection processes in a piglet model after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In total, eighteen weanling pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three treatment groups: (1) non-challenged control and control diet; (2) LPS-challenged control and control diet; (3) LPS+5 %WPC diet. After 19 d of feeding with control or 5 %WPC diets, pigs were injected with LPS or saline. At 4 h after injection, pigs were killed to harvest jejunal samples. The results showed that WPC improved (Pprotein, phosphorylated-Smad2 expression and Smad4 and Smad7 mRNA expressions and decreased (Pprotein kinase signalling pathways.

  5. Enhanced expression of WD repeat-containing protein 35 (WDR35 stimulated by domoic acid in rat hippocampus: involvement of reactive oxygen species generation and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunekawa Koji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domoic acid (DA is an excitatory amino acid analogue of kainic acid (KA that acts via activation of glutamate receptors to elicit a rapid and potent excitotoxic response, resulting in neuronal cell death. Recently, DA was shown to elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS production and induce apoptosis accompanied by activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in vitro. We have reported that WDR35, a WD-repeat protein, may mediate apoptosis in several animal models. In the present study, we administered DA to rats intraperitoneally, then used liquid chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify DA in the brains of the rats and performed histological examinations of the hippocampus. We further investigated the potential involvement of glutamate receptors, ROS, p38 MAPK, and WDR35 in DA-induced toxicity in vivo. Results Our results showed that intraperitoneally administered DA was present in the brain and induced neurodegenerative changes including apoptosis in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. DA also increased the expression of WDR35 mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the hippocampus. In experiments using glutamate receptor antagonists, the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist NBQX significantly attenuated the DA-induced increase in WDR35 protein expression, but the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not. In addition, the radical scavenger edaravone significantly attenuated the DA-induced increase in WDR35 protein expression. Furthermore, NBQX and edaravone significantly attenuated the DA-induced increase in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Conclusion In summary, our results indicated that DA activated AMPA/KA receptors and induced ROS production and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, resulting in an increase in the expression of WDR35 in vivo.

  6. Angiotensin II–Induced MMP-2 Activity and MMP-14 and Basigin Protein Expression Are Mediated via the Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1–Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 Pathway in Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marianne; Cousins, Scott W.; Alcazar, Oscar; Striker, Gary E.; Marin-Castaño, Maria E.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of various lipid-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) deposits under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) has been observed in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). RPE-derived matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-14, and basigin (BSG) are major enzymes involved in the maintenance of ECM turnover. Hypertension (HTN) is a systemic risk factor for AMD. It has previously been reported that angiotensin II (Ang II), one of the most important hormones associated with HTN, increases MMP-2 activity and its key regulator, MMP-14, in RPE, inducing breakdown of the RPE basement membrane, which may lead to progression of sub-RPE deposits. Ang II exerts most of its actions by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Herein is explored the MAPK signaling pathway as a potential key intracellular modulator of Ang II–induced increase in MMP-2 activity and MMP-14 and BSG protein expression. It was observed that Ang II stimulates phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK in RPE cells and ERK/p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mice. These effects were mediated by Ang II type 1 receptors. Blockade of ERK or p38 MAPK abrogated the increase in MMP-2 activity and MMP-14 and BSG proteins in ARPE-19 cells. A better understanding of the molecular events by which Ang II induces ECM dysregulation is of critical importance to further define its contribution to the progression of sub-RPE deposits in AMD patients with HTN. PMID:21641389

  7. The action of nitric oxide to enhance cell survival in chick cardiomyocytes is mediated through a cGMP and ERK1/2 pathway while p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways do not alter cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Simon W; Tsang, Michael Y C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the dual action of nitric oxide (NO) on cardiomyocyte cell viability is mediated through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-induced cell death and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2)-mediated cell survival pathways, and whether either of these is mediated through a cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) pathway. Cell viability of embryonic chick cardiomyocytes was assessed by the MTT assay, which is based on the ability of viable cells to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) produced a significant (P death. Sodium nitroprusside induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor PD 98059 significantly increased cell death. In contrast, SB202190, a relatively selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, did not affect SNP-induced cell death. The cardioprotective effect of NO was prbably mediated in part via cGMP because 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a selective inhibitor of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase, produced a significant enhancement of SNP-induced cell death. In contrast, the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not affect cell viability. In summary, these data suggest that NO, via stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, activates MEK1/2 whose product, ERK1/2, protects against cell death. In contrast, SNP-induced p38 MAPK activation does not modulate NO-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Not all cGMP targets affect NO-induced cell death, since the PKG pathway does not enhance or suppress NO-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Enhancement of the ERK1/2 responses to NO may permit the beneficial effects of NO to predominate.

  8. Pro-life role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase at rostral ventrolateral medulla in experimental brain stem death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alice Y W

    2012-11-17

    Based on an experimental brain stem death model, we demonstrated previously that activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)/ mitogen-activated protein kinase signal-interacting kinase 1/2 (MNK1/2) cascade plays a pro-life role in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of a life-and-death signal detected from systemic arterial pressure, which sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect progressive dysfunction of central cardiovascular regulation during the advancement towards brain stem death in critically ill patients. The present study assessed the hypothesis that, in addition to ERK1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), the other two mammalian members of MAPKs that are originally identified as stress-activated protein kinases, are activated specifically by MAPK kinase 4 (MAP2K4) or MAP2K6 and play a pro-life role in RVLM during experimental brain stem death. We further delineated the participation of phosphorylating activating transcriptional factor-2 (ATF-2) and c-Jun, the classical transcription factor activated by JNK or p38MAPK, in this process. An experimental model of brain stem death that employed microinjection of the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev; 10 nmol) bilaterally into RVLM of Sprague-Dawley rats was used, alongside cardiovascular, pharmacological and biochemical evaluations. Results from ELISA showed that whereas the total JNK, p38MAPK, MAP2K4 and MAP2K6 were not affected, augmented phosphorylation of JNK at Thr183 and Tyr185 and p38MAPK at Thr180 and Tyr182, accompanied by phosphorylation of their upstream activators MAP2K4 at Ser257 and Thr261 and MAP2K6 at Ser207 and Thr211 in RVLM occurred preferentially during the pro-life phase of experimental brain stem death. Moreover, the activity of transcription factors ATF-2 at Thr71 and c-Jun at Ser73, rather than Elk-1 at

  9. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) upregulates catalase levels in response to low dose H2O2 treatment through enhancement of mRNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Prosenjit; Chakraborty, Prabir Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra

    2005-08-15

    V79 fibroblasts were repetitively stressed through multiple exposures to a low dose (30 microM) H2O2 in culture for 4 weeks. Catalase activity, protein levels and mRNA levels increased markedly (5-6-fold) during this time and these augmentations were inhibited by the simultaneous presence of SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). p38MAPK became dually phosphorylated and ATF-2, a p38MAPK substrate also became increasingly phosphorylated over the repetitive stress period. Short interfering RNA that induced effective silencing of p38MAPK, was used to silence p38MAPK in V79 fibroblasts. Silencing of p38MAPK drastically hindered the elevation in catalase (protein and mRNA) levels observed after a single low dose (50 microM) of H2O. The rise in catalase mRNA levels induced by low concentration (single and multiple dose) H2O2 treatment was established to be unconnected with transcriptional upregulation but was brought forth primarily by an enhancement in catalase mRNA stability through the action of p38MAPK. Therefore, our data strongly indicate that activation of p38MAPK is a key controlling step in the upregulation of catalase levels by low dose H2O2 treatment.

  10. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors MS-275 and SAHA Suppress the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway and Chemotaxis in Rheumatoid Arthritic Synovial Fibroblastic E11 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Shu Lin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MS-275 (entinostat and SAHA (vorinostat, two histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors currently in oncological trials, have displayed potent anti-rheumatic activities in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. To further elucidate their anti-inflammatory mechanisms, the impact of MS-275 and SAHA on the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway and chemotaxis was assessed in human rheumatoid arthritic synovial fibroblastic E11 cells. MS-275 and SAHA significantly suppressed the expression of p38α  MAPK, but induced the expression of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1, an endogenous suppressor of p38α  in E11 cells. At the same time, the association between p38α and MKP-1 was up-regulated and consequently, the activation (phosphorylation of p38α  was inhibited. Moreover, MS-275 and SAHA suppressed granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in E11 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Subsequently, E11-driven migration of THP-1 and U937 monocytes was inhibited. In summary, suppression of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and chemotaxis appear to be important anti-rheumatic mechanisms of action of these HDAC inhibitors.

  11. Ligustrazine attenuates the platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells by interrupting extracellular signal-regulated kinase and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lifei; Huang, Xiaojing; Huang, Kai; Gui, Chun; Huang, Qiaojuan; Wei, Bin

    2015-07-01

    The abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) leads to intimal thickening of the aorta and is, therefore, important in the development of arteriosclerosis. As a result, the use of antiproliferative and antimigratory agents for VSMCs offers promise for the treatment of vascular disorders. Although several studies have demonstrated that ligustrazine may be used to treat heart and blood vessel diseases, the detailed mechanism underlying its actions remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of ligustrazine on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated VSMC proliferation and migration, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. The findings demonstrated that ligustrazine significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMC proliferation. VSMCs dedifferentiated into a proliferative phenotype under PDGF-BB stimulation, which was effectively reversed by the administration of ligustrazine. In addition, ligustrazine also downregulated the production of nitric oxide and cyclic guanine monophosphate, induced by PDGF-BB. Additionally, ligustrazine significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMC migration. Mechanistic investigation indicated that the upregulation of cell cycle-associated proteins and the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling induced by PDGF-BB was suppressed by the administration of ligustrazine. In conclusion, the present study, demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that ligustrazine downregulated PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration partly, at least, through inhibiting the activation of the ERK and P38 MAPK signaling.

  12. RNA interference-based (RNAi) suppression of AtMPK6, an Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase, results in hypersensitivity to ozone and misregulation of AtMPK3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, Godfrey P.; Samuel, Marcus A.; Zhang Yuelin; Ellis, Brian E.

    2005-01-01

    The recent increase in tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) concentrations promotes additional oxidative stress through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues, resulting in the activation of genes whose products enable the stressed cells to retain their integrity and function. This response is made possible by an integration of highly regulated signaling networks that mediate the perception of, and response to, this oxidative assault. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ROS-induced signaling has been shown to flow through a protein phosphorylation cascade involving the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) AtMPK3 (MPK3) and AtMPK6 (MPK6). We found that RNAi-mediated silencing of MPK6 renders the plant more sensitive to ozone, as determined by visible leaf damage. The MPK6-RNAi genotype also displayed a more intense and prolonged activation of MPK3 compared to that of WT plants. An MPK3 loss-of-function genotype is similarly very sensitive to ozone, and displays an abnormally prolonged MPK6 activation profile, suggesting reciprocity in regulation between these two MAPKs. - MPK6 is pivotal in the overall response to oxidative stress and regulation of MPK3 in Arabidopsis thaliana

  13. “Three Methods and Three Points” regulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37, Yanglingquan (GB34, and Weizhong (BL40. Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood. This study established rat models of sciatic nerve injury using the crushing method. Rats received Chinese tuina in accordance with the principle of “Three Methods and Three Points,” once daily for 20 days. Tuina intervention reduced paw withdrawal latency and improved wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as promoting morphological recovery of sciatic nerve fibers, Schwann cells, and axons. The protein expression levels of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β also decreased. These findings indicate that “Three Methods and Three Points” promoted morphological recovery and improved behavior of rats with peripheral nerve injury.

  14. Proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ modulate epithelial barrier function in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells through mitogen activated protein kinase signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudowicz Kara A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tight junction is a dynamic structure that is regulated by a number of cellular signaling processes. Occludin, claudin-1, claudin-2 and claudin-3 are integral membrane proteins found in the tight junction of MDCK cells. These proteins are restricted to this region of the membrane by a complex array of intracellular proteins which are tethered to the cytoskeleton. Alteration of these tight junction protein complexes during pathological events leads to impaired epithelial barrier function that perturbs water and electrolyte homeostasis. We examined MDCK cell barrier function in response to challenge by the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα and interferon-γ (IFNγ. Results Exposure of MDCK cells to TNFα/IFNγ resulted in a marked sustained elevation of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER as well as elevated paracellular permeability. We demonstrate that the combination of TNFα/IFNγ at doses used in this study do not significantly induce MDCK cell apoptosis. We observed significant alterations in occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-2 protein expression, junctional localization and substantial cytoskeletal reorganization. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 signaling blocked the deleterious effects of the proinflammatory cytokines on barrier function. Conclusion These data strongly suggest that downstream effectors of MAP kinase signaling pathways mediate the TNFα/IFNγ-induced junctional reorganization that modulates MDCK cell barrier function.

  15. Exposure to Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Is Associated With Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases Signaling and Apoptosis in Rat Lungs

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    Kevin M. Rice

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: With recent advances in nanoparticle manufacturing and applications, potential exposure to nanoparticles in various settings is becoming increasing likely. No investigation has yet been performed to assess whether respiratory tract exposure to cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with alterations in protein signaling, inflammation, and apoptosis in rat lungs. Methods: Specific-pathogen-free male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled with either vehicle (saline or CeO2 nanoparticles at a dosage of 7.0 mg/kg and euthanized 1, 3, 14, 28, 56, or 90 days after exposure. Lung tissues were collected and evaluated for the expression of proteins associated with inflammation and cellular apoptosis. Results: No change in lung weight was detected over the course of the study; however, cerium accumulation in the lungs, gross histological changes, an increased Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, elevated cleaved caspase-3 protein levels, increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and diminished phosphorylation of ERK-1/2-MAPK were detected after CeO2 instillation (p<0.05. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that high-dose respiratory exposure to CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with lung inflammation, the activation of signaling protein kinases, and cellular apoptosis, which may be indicative of a long-term localized inflammatory response.

  16. Short communication: Camel milk ameliorates inflammatory responses and oxidative stress and downregulates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Wei; Kong, Gui-Qing; Ma, Ming-Ming; Li, Yan; Huang, Xiao; Wang, Li-Peng; Peng, Zhen-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex syndrome disorder with high mortality rate. Camel milk (CM) contains antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties and protects against numerous diseases. This study aimed to demonstrate the function of CM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS in rats. Camel milk reduced the lung wet:dry weight ratio and significantly reduced LPS-induced increases in neutrophil infiltration, interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, thickness of the alveolar wall, and lung injury scores of lung tissues. It also had antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects on LPS-induced ARDS. After LPS stimulation, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, and IL-1β) in serum and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and total antioxidant capacity) in lung tissue were notably attenuated by CM. Camel milk also downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Given these results, CM is a potential complementary food for ARDS treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipoxin A4 regulates expression of the estrogen receptor and inhibits 17β-estradiol induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in human endometriotic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Wu, Rong-Feng; Su, Lin; Zhou, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Mao-Bi; Chen, Qiong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    To study the role of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) in endometriosis. Molecular analysis in human samples and primary human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). University hospital. Forty-nine premenopausal women (30 patients with endometriosis and 19 controls). Normal and ectopic endometrial biopsies obtained during surgery performed during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle; ESCs used for in vitro studies. Levels of LXA4 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); mRNA levels of the estrogen receptor (ER), progestogen receptor (PR), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) quantified by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR); and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) phosphorylation evaluated by Western blotting. The LXA4 expression level decreased in ectopic tissue as well as ERα and PR, although the expression of ERβ increased in ectopic endometrium compared with the controls. Investigations with correlation analysis revealed the expression of LXA4 was positively correlated with ERα and negatively correlated with ERβ in vivo. Moreover, administering LXA4 could augment ERβ expression in ESCs and inhibit the 17β-estradiol-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK very likely through ERβ. Our findings indicate that LXA4 regulates ERβ expression and inhibits 17β-estradiol-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, very likely through ERβ in ESCs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are involved in Prevotella intermedia-induced proinflammatory cytokines expression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Su-Min; Zhang, Ming; He, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jun-Zheng

    2009-08-28

    Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal connective tissues and alveolar bone. Proinflammatory mediators induced by periodontal pathogens play vital roles in the initiation and progression of the disease. In this study, we examined whether Prevotella intermedia induces proinflammatory cytokines expression in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs). The mRNA expression and protein production were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) respectively. P. intermedia treatment dose- and time-dependently increased IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF, but not IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression and protein secretion. Preincubation of hPDLs with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors PD98059, SP600125, SB203580 and LY294002 resulted in significant reduction in P. intermedia-induced IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF expression. Blocking the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by indomethacin also abolished the stimulatory effects of P. intermedia on cytokines expression. Our results indicate that P. intermedia induces proinflammatory cytokines through MAPKs and PI3K signaling pathways, and PGE(2) is involved in the P. intermedia-induced proinflammatory cytokines upregulation.

  19. IL-20 gene expression is induced by IL-1beta through mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB-dependent mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otkjaer, Kristian; Kragballe, Knud; Johansen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    IL-20 is a novel member of the IL-10 cytokine family with pleiotropic effects. Current knowledge of what triggers and regulates IL-20 gene expression is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of IL-20 expression in cultured normal human keratinocytes. The expression of IL...... the p38 MAPK, MSK1, and NF-kappaB may be important new molecular targets for the modulation of IL-20 expression in these diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...... activation of the downstream kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), indicating transactivation of NF-kappaB driven IL-20 messenger RNA transcription as an important mechanism of action. IL-20 is assumed to be a key cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and possibly cancer, and therefore...

  20. The Effect of a p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitor on Cellular Senescence of Cultivated Human Corneal Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Akane; Okumura, Naoki; Nakahara, Makiko; Kay, EunDuck P; Koizumi, Noriko

    2017-07-01

    We have begun a clinical trial of a cell-based therapy for corneal endothelial dysfunction in Japan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a p38 MAPK inhibitor for prevention cellular senescence in cultivated human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). HCECs of 10 donor corneas were divided and cultured with or without SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor). Cell density and morphology were evaluated by phase-contrast microscopy. Expression of function-related proteins was examined by immunofluorescent staining. Cellular senescence was evaluated by SA-β-gal staining and Western blotting for p16 and p21. Senescence-associated factors were evaluated by membrane blotting array, quantitative PCR, and ELISA. Phase-contrast microscopy showed a significantly higher cell density for HCECs cultured with SB203580 than without SB203580 (2623 ± 657 cells/mm2 and 1752 ± 628 cells/mm2, respectively). The HCECs cultured with SB203580 maintained a hexagonal morphology and expressed ZO-1, N-cadherin, and Na+/K+-ATPase in the plasma membrane, whereas the control HCECs showed an altered staining pattern for these marker proteins. HCECs cultured without SB203580 showed high positive SA-β-gal staining, a low nuclear/cytoplasm ratio, and expression of p16 and p21. IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, and CXCL1 were observed at high levels in low cell density HCECs cultured without SB203580. Activation of p38 MAPK signaling due to culture stress might be a causative factor that induces cellular senescence; therefore, the use of p38 MAPK inhibitor to counteract senescence may achieve sufficient numbers of HCECs for tissue engineering therapy for corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  1. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Inhibits Oral Cancer Cell Metastasis by Regulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, an active component extracted from honeybee hives, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanism by which CAPE affects oral cancer cell metastasis has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of CAPE on the invasive ability of SCC-9 oral cancer cells. Results showed that CAPE attenuated SCC-9 cell migration and invasion at noncytotoxic concentrations (0 μM to 40 μM. Western blot and gelatin zymography analysis findings further indicated that CAPE downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 protein expression and inhibited its enzymatic activity. CAPE exerted its inhibitory effects on MMP-2 expression and activity by upregulating tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2 and potently decreased migration by reducing focal adhesion kinase (FAK phosphorylation and the activation of its downstream signaling molecules p38/MAPK and JNK. These data indicate that CAPE could potentially be used as a chemoagent to prevent oral cancer metastasis.

  2. Characterization of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Expression in Nucleus Accumbens and Hippocampus of Rats Subjected to Food Selection in the Cafeteria Diet Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro-Ramírez, Andrea; Sánchez, Daniel; Tejeda-Padrón, Alma; Buenfil-Canto, Linda Vianey; Valladares-García, Jorge; Pacheco-Pantoja, Elda; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide health problem that requires different experimental perspectives to understand the onset of this disease, including the neurobiological basis of food selection. From a molecular perspective, obesity has been related with activity of several endogenous molecules, including the mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAP-K). The aim of this study was to characterize MAP-K expression in hedonic and learning and memory brain-associated areas such as nucleus accumbens (AcbC) and hippocampus (HIPP) after food selection. We show that animals fed with cafeteria diet during 14 days displayed an increase in p38 MAP-K activity in AcbC if chose cheese. Conversely, a diminution was observed in animals that preferred chocolate in AcbC. Also, a decrease of p38 MAP-K phosphorylation was found in HIPP in rats that selected either cheese or chocolate. Our data demonstrate a putative role of MAP-K expression in food selection. These findings advance our understanding of neuromolecular basis engaged in obesity.

  3. Inhibition of Dengue Virus Replication by a Class of Small-Molecule Compounds That Antagonize Dopamine Receptor D4 and Downstream Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica L.; Stein, David A.; Shum, David; Fischer, Matthew A.; Radu, Constantin; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Djaballah, Hakim; Nelson, Jay A.; Früh, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    compounds targeting the same cellular pathways, may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of dengue virus infections. PMID:24599995

  4. Th1 cytokine-induced syndecan-4 shedding by airway smooth muscle cells is dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiahui; Khalil, Najwa; Tesarik, Candice; Vanapalli, Karunasri; Yaputra, Viki; Alkhouri, Hatem; Oliver, Brian G G; Armour, Carol L; Hughes, J Margaret

    2012-04-01

    In asthma, airway smooth muscle (ASM) chemokine secretion can induce mast cell recruitment into the airways. The functions of the mast cell chemoattractant CXCL10, and other chemokines, are regulated by binding to heparan sulphates such as syndecan-4. This study is the first demonstration that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) from people with and without asthma express and shed syndecan-4 under basal conditions. Syndecan-4 shedding was enhanced by stimulation for 24 h with the Th1 cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but not interferon-γ (IFNγ), nor the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. ASMC stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFNγ (cytomix) induced the highest level of syndecan-4 shedding. Nonasthmatic and asthmatic ASM cell-associated syndecan-4 protein expression was also increased by TNF-α or cytomix at 4-8 h, with the highest levels detected in cytomix-stimulated asthmatic cells. Cell-associated syndecan-4 levels were decreased by 24 h, whereas shedding remained elevated at 24 h, consistent with newly synthesized syndecan-4 being shed. Inhibition of ASMC matrix metalloproteinase-2 did not prevent syndecan-4 shedding, whereas inhibition of ERK MAPK activation reduced shedding from cytomix-stimulated ASMC. Although ERK inhibition had no effect on syndecan-4 mRNA levels stimulated by cytomix, it did cause an increase in cell-associated syndecan-4 levels, consistent with the shedding being inhibited. In conclusion, ASMC produce and shed syndecan-4 and although this is increased by the Th1 cytokines, the MAPK ERK only regulates shedding. ASMC syndecan-4 production during Th1 inflammatory conditions may regulate chemokine activity and mast cell recruitment to the ASM in asthma.

  5. Nobiletin induces inhibitions of Ras activity and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling to suppress cell proliferation in C6 rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koichi; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Fukunaga, Kohji; Yamakuni, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    Ras, a small G-protein, physiologically directs cell proliferation and cell cycle via regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. Dysregulation of Ras/MEK/ERK signaling has been reported to cause tumorigenesis and gliomas. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-tumor cells action. However, it remains elusive whether nobiletin could affect Ras activity. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nobiletin suppresses the proliferation by inhibiting Ras activity in C6 glioma cells, a rat glioma cell line. First, Ras pull-down assay showed that nobiletin inhibits Ras activity in a concentration-dependent manner in C6 cells. Second, farnesyltransferase inhibitor I, a Ras inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK inhibitor, induced an inhibition of the cell proliferation in C6 cells, while the cell proliferation was inhibited by nobiletin as well. Third, western blotting revealed that nobiletin showed inhibitory effects on MEK and ERK phopsphorylation levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Finally, such an inhibitory effect on the level of ERK phosphorylation by nobiletin was appreciably prevented by Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of conventional protein kinase Cs (PKCs) showing Ca(2+)-sensitivity, while GF109203X, a general inhibitor for PKCs, and BAPTA, a cell-permeable Ca(2+) chelator, to a lesser extent, suppressed a reduction of the phosphorylation. These findings suggest that the proliferation of C6 cells is Ras- and MEK/ERK signaling-dependent, and that nobiletin suppresses the cell proliferation by inhibiting Ras activity and MEK/ERK signaling cascade probably via a Ca(2+)-sensitive PKC-dependent mechanism. Thus, the natural compound has potential to be a therapeutic agent for glioma.

  6. Curcumin-induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells is p53-independent and involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and downregulation of Bcl-2 and survivin expression and Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane L; Greenshields, Anna; Hill, Richard; Hilchie, Ashley; Lee, Patrick W; Giacomantonio, Carman A; Hoskin, David W

    2010-01-01

    New cytotoxic agents are urgently needed for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer because of the poor long-term response of this disease to conventional chemotherapy. Curcumin, obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has potent anticancer activity; however, the mechanism of curcumin-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells remains a mystery. In this study we show that curcumin exhibited time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity against monolayer cultures of ovarian carcinoma cell lines with differing p53 status (wild-type p53: HEY, OVCA429; mutant p53: OCC1; null p53: SKOV3). In addition, p53 knockdown or p53 inhibition did not diminish curcumin killing of HEY cells, confirming p53-independent cytotoxicity. Curcumin also killed OVCA429, and SKOV3 cells grown as multicellular spheroids. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation, as well as DNA fragmentation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage in curcumin-treated HEY cells, indicated cell death by apoptosis. Procaspase-3, procaspase-8, and procaspase-9 cleavage, in addition to cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage into truncated Bid, revealed that curcumin activated both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Bax expression was unchanged but Bcl-2, survivin, phosphorylated Akt (on serine 473), and total Akt were downregulated in curcumin-treated HEY cells. Curcumin also activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) without altering extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity. We conclude that p53-independent curcumin-induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells involves p38 MAPK activation, ablation of prosurvival Akt signaling, and reduced expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin. These data provide a mechanistic rationale for the potential use of curcumin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Progesterone increases brain-derived neuroptrophic factor expression and protects against glutamate toxicity in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide-3 kinase-dependent manner in cerebral cortical explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Jodhka, Parmeet K; Underwood, Wendy A; Bowles, Courtney A; de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M; Singh, Meharvan

    2007-08-15

    The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... heat shock, UV irradiation and also to inflammatory cytokines. ERK is mainly activated by growth factors and phorbol esters. (Lewis et al. 1998; Cowan and Storey 2003). The activation of some MAPK family members by. M. tuberculosis H37Rv in human monocytes has already been reported. Song et al.

  9. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are ...

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CD44, an adhesion molecule, has been reported to be a binding site for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) in macrophages and it also mediates mycobacterial phagocytosis, macrophage recruitment and protective immunity against pulmonary tuberculosis in vivo. However, the signalling pathways that are ...

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... to the site of infection (Leemans et al. 2003). Numerous other studies based on stimulation with several mycobacterial antigens (Ags) (Waters et al. 2003, 2009; Li et al. 2008;. Giri et al. 2009) also support the role of CD44 in protective immunity against tuberculosis. However, the signalling path- ways that ...

  12. Escherichia coli-derived and Staphylococcus aureus-derived extracellular vesicles induce MUC5AC expression via extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang Hoon; Choi, Yoon Seok; Song, Si-Youn; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Yong-Dae

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) release extracellular vesicles (EVs). E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs are associated with neutrophilic respiratory inflammation. In neutrophilic respiratory inflammation of human, expression of mucin is increased in airway epithelial cells and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. However, no study on the effects of EVs on expression of mucin genes has been reported in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to examine the effects and the brief signaling pathways of E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs on MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. In mucin-producing human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells and primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells, the effects and signaling pathways of E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs on MUC5AC expression were examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoblot analysis with several specific inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA). E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs induced MUC5AC expression. E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs significantly activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38 MAPK. ERK1/2 MAPK inhibitor, p38 MAPK inhibitor, ERK1/2 MAPK siRNA, and p38 MAPK siRNA significantly blocked E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs induced MUC5AC messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. The results of this study suggest that E. coli-derived and S. aureus-derived EVs induced MUC5AC expression via ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human airway epithelial cells. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  13. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor and p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signals Inversely Regulate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Activity to Control Human Dental Pulp Stem Cell Quiescence, Propagation, and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandomme, Jerome; Touil, Yasmine; Ostyn, Pauline; Olejnik, Cecile; Flamenco, Pilar; El Machhour, Raja; Segard, Pascaline; Masselot, Bernadette; Bailliez, Yves; Formstecher, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) remain quiescent until activated in response to severe dental pulp damage. Once activated, they exit quiescence and enter regenerative odontogenesis, producing reparative dentin. The factors and signaling molecules that control the quiescence/activation and commitment to differentiation of human DPSCs are not known. In this study, we determined that the inhibition of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling commonly activates DPSCs and promotes their exit from the G0 phase of the cell cycle as well as from the pyronin Ylow stem cell compartment. The inhibition of these two pathways, however, inversely determines DPSC fate. In contrast to p38 MAPK inhibitors, IGF-1R inhibitors enhance dental pulp cell sphere-forming capacity and reduce the cells' colony-forming capacity without inducing cell death. The inverse cellular changes initiated by IGF-1R and p38 MAPK inhibitors were accompanied by inverse changes in the levels of active signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) factor, inactive glycogen synthase kinase 3, and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, a marker of early odontoblast differentiation. Our data suggest that there is cross talk between the IGF-1R and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in DPSCs and that the signals provided by these pathways converge at STAT3 and inversely regulate its activity to maintain quiescence or to promote self-renewal and differentiation of the cells. We propose a working model that explains the possible interactions between IGF-1R and p38 MAPK at the molecular level and describes the cellular consequences of these interactions. This model may inspire further fundamental study and stimulate research on the clinical applications of DPSC in cellular therapy and tissue regeneration. PMID:24266654

  14. Fluid shear stress stimulates osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Peng, Zhuli; Mai, Zhihui; Chen, Lin; Mao, Qin; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Qi; Liu, Limin; Wang, Yuxuan; Ai, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Fluid shear stress (FSS) is a major type of mechanical stress that is loaded on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) during mastication and orthodontic tooth movement. This study aims to clarify the effect of FSS on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs and to further verify the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in this process. After isolation and characterization, hPDLCs were subjected to 2-hour FSS at 12 dynes/cm(2), and cell viability, osteogenic gene mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, secretion of Type I collagen (COL-I), and calcium deposition were assayed. The levels of phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in response to FSS were detected by Western blot, and the involvement of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in hPDLC osteogenesis under FSS was investigated using the specific MAPK inhibitors U0126 (2Z,3Z)-2,3-bis[amino(2-aminophenylthio)methylene]succinonitrile,ethanol) and SB203580 (4-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-[methylsulfinyl]phenyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]pyridine). The application of FSS on hPDLCs induced an early morphologic change and rearrangement of filamentous actin. ALP activity, messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of osteogenic genes, COL-I, and osteoid nodules were significantly increased by FSS. Moreover, ERK1/2 and p38 were activated in different ways after FSS exposure. U0126 and SB203580 completely blocked the FSS-induced increases in ALP activity and osteogenic gene mRNA expression and osteoid nodules formation. FSS is an effective approach for stimulating osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. The ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways are involved in this cellular process.

  15. PsMPK7, a stress-associated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Phytophthora sojae, is required for stress tolerance, reactive oxygenated species detoxification, cyst germination, sexual reproduction and infection of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Cao, Mingna; Ye, Wenwu; Li, Haiyang; Kong, Liang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-01-01

    The sensing of stress signals and their transduction into appropriate responses are crucial for the adaptation, survival and infection of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Amongst evolutionarily conserved pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades function as key signal transducers that use phosphorylation to convey information. In this study, we identified a gene, designated PsMPK7, one of 14 predicted genes encoding MAPKs in Phytophthora sojae. PsMPK7 was highly transcribed in each tested stage, but was up-regulated in the zoospore, cyst and cyst germination stages. Silencing of PsMPK7 affected the growth of germinated cysts, oospore production and the pathogenicity of soybean. PsMPK7 transcription was induced by stresses from sorbitol, NaCl and hydrogen peroxide. Transformants in which PsMPK7 expression was silenced (PsMPK7-silenced) were significantly more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stress. Aniline blue and diaminobenzidine staining revealed that the silenced lines did not suppress the host reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, indicating that either the inoculated plants activated stronger defence responses to the transformants and/or the PsMPK7-silenced transformants failed to overcome plant defences. In addition, extracellular secretion of laccase decreased in the silenced lines. Overall, our results indicate that the PsMPK7 gene encodes a stress-associated MAPK in P. sojae that is important not only for responses to various stresses, but also for ROS detoxification, cyst germination, sexual oospore production and infection of soybean. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Opposite effects of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras on radiation-induced apoptosis via differential activation of PI3K/Akt and Rac/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-A.; Kang, C.-M.; Lee, Y.-S.; Lee, S.-J.; Bae, S.-W.; Cho, C.-K.

    2003-01-01

    It has been well known that Ras signaling is involved in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, distinct cellular functions of Ras isozymes are not fully understood. Here we show the opposing roles of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras genes in the modulation of cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Overexpression of active isoform of Ha-Ras (12V-Ha- Ras) in Rat2 cells increases resistance to the ionizing radiation. Constitutive activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt is detected specifically in 12V-Ha-Ras-overexpressing cells. The specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibits PI3K/Akt signaling and potentiates the radiation-induced apoptosis, suggesting that activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the increased radio-resistance in cells overexpressing 12V-Ha-Ras. Overexpression of activated Ki-Ras (12V-Ki-Ras), on the other hand, markedly increases radiation sensitivity. The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity is selectively enhanced by ionizing radiation in cells overexpressing 12V-Ki-Ras. The specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, PD169316, or dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase decreases radiation-induced cell death. We further show that the mechanism that underlies potentiation of cell death in cells overexpressing 12V-Ki-Ras involves Bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane. Elevated Bax translocation following ionizing irradiation in 12V-Ki-Ras-overexpressing cells is completely inhibited by PD169316 or dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase. In addition, introduction of cells with RacN17, a dominant negative mutant of Rac, resulted in a marked inhibition of radiation-induced Bax translocation and apoptotic cell death as well as p38 MAP kinase activation. Taken together, these findings explain the opposite effects of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras on modulation of radio-sensitivity, and suggest that differential activation of PI3K/Akt and Rac/p38 MAP kinase signaling by Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras may

  17. Combined prescription (OAH19T) of Aralia cordata Thunb and Cimicifuga heracleifolia Komar and its major compounds inhibit matrix proteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor through the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Yae-Ji; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Dong; Choi, Do-Young; Park, Dong-Suk

    2011-05-17

    OAH19T, a new herbal extract from a mixture of Aralia cordata Thunb and Cimicifuga heracleifolia, is traditionally used for the treatment of arthritis in far East Asia. To investigate the chondroprotective effects of OAH19T on osteoarthritis was examined and compared with its major compounds pimaradienoic acid (PA) and ferulic acid (FA) of human osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes. Chondrocytes, alone or in the presence of IL-1β, were cultured with or without OAH19T, PA or FA (10, 20, 40 μg/ml). The release of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was measured by colorimetric assay using 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMB) reagent from the cultured media. The level of aggrecanases and VEGF was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 analyzed by real time RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was performed by immunoblotting in OA chondrocytes. The proliferation was examined by the BrdU assay. OAH19T markedly inhibited the release of proteoglycan and the degradation of aggrecan, in a dose-dependent manner in OA chondrocytes. OAH19T also inhibited the level of aggrecanase-1, aggrecanase-2, MMP-1, MMP-3, and VEGF in OA chondrocytes. PA and FA also inhibited the level of aggrecanase-2, MMP-3 and VEGF, while did not significantly affect the levels of aggrecanase-1, MMP-3 in OA chondrocytes. OAH19T exhibited the down-regulation of p38 MAP kinase unlike PA and FA in OA chondrocytes without cytotoxicity. In addition, p38 inhibitor SB203580 abolished the antiproliferative activity and proteoglycan degradation by OAH19T, while had no effect by PA or FA. OAH19T have shown the chondroprotective effect by inhibiting cell proliferation, expression of cartilage-specific matrix proteinases and release of VEGF, but bigger than PA or FA, through down-regulation of p38 MAP kinase in human OA chondocyte. These results provide pharmacological basis for use in

  18. Ghrelin protects against depleted uranium-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells through oxidative stress-mediated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yuhui; Liu, Cong; Huang, Jiawei; Gu, Ying; Li, Hong; Yang, Zhangyou; Liu, Jing; Wang, Weidong; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) mainly accumulates in the bone over the long term. Osteoblast cells are responsible for the formation of bone, and they are sensitive to DU damage. However, studies investigating methods of reducing DU damage in osteoblasts are rarely reported. Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that stimulates growth hormones released from the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, and it is believed to play an important physiological role in bone metabolism. This study evaluates the impact of ghrelin on DU-induced apoptosis of the osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and investigates its underlying mechanisms. The results show that ghrelin relieved the intracellular oxidative stress induced by DU, eliminated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing intracellular GSH levels; in addition, ghrelin effectively suppressed apoptosis, enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibited cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation after DU exposure. Moreover, ghrelin significantly reduced the expression of DU-induced phosphorylated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). A specific inhibitor (SB203580) or specific siRNA of p38-MAPK could significantly suppress DU-induced apoptosis and related signals, whereas ROS production was not affected. In addition, ghrelin receptor inhibition could reduce the anti-apoptosis effect of ghrelin on DU and reverse the effect of ghrelin on intracellular ROS and p38-MAPK after DU exposure. These results suggest that ghrelin can suppress DU-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells, reduce DU-induced oxidative stress by interacting with its receptor, and inhibit downstream p38-MAPK activation, thereby suppressing the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. - Highlights: • Ghrelin suppressed DU-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. • Ghrelin inhibited DU-induced oxidative stress and further p38-MAPK activation. • Ghrelin further suppressed mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway. • The anti-oxidation effect of

  19. Negative Feed-forward Control of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) by Tristetraprolin (ZFP36) Is Limited by the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase, Dual-specificity Phosphatase 1 (DUSP1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Suharsh; Mostafa, Mahmoud M.; McWhae, Andrew; Traves, Suzanne L.; Newton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    TNF is central to inflammation and may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The 3′-untranslated region of the TNF transcript contains AU-rich elements (AREs) that are targeted by the RNA-binding protein, tristetraprolin (also known as zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36)), which is itself up-regulated by inflammatory stimuli, to promote mRNA degradation. Using primary human bronchial epithelial and pulmonary epithelial A549 cells, we confirm that interleukin-1β (IL1B) induces expression of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), ZFP36, and TNF. Whereas IL1B-induced DUSP1 is involved in feedback control of MAPK pathways, ZFP36 exerts negative (incoherent) feed-forward control of TNF mRNA and protein expression. DUSP1 silencing increased IL1B-induced ZFP36 expression at 2 h and profoundly repressed TNF mRNA at 6 h. This was partly due to increased TNF mRNA degradation, an effect that was reduced by ZFP36 silencing. This confirms a regulatory network, whereby DUSP1-dependent negative feedback control reduces feed-forward control by ZFP36. Conversely, whereas DUSP1 overexpression and inhibition of MAPKs prevented IL1B-induced expression of ZFP36, this was associated with increased TNF mRNA expression at 6 h, an effect that was predominantly due to elevated transcription. This points to MAPK-dependent feed-forward control of TNF involving ZFP36-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In terms of repression by dexamethasone, neither silencing of DUSP1, silencing of ZFP36, nor silencing of both together prevented the repression of IL1B-induced TNF expression, thereby demonstrating the need for further repressive mechanisms by anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids. In summary, these data illustrate why understanding the competing effects of feedback and feed-forward control is relevant to the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:26546680

  20. Thromboxane A2 Receptor Inhibition Suppresses Multiple Myeloma Cell Proliferation by Inducing p38/c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-mediated G2/M Progression Delay and Cell Apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Tao, Bo; Liu, Guizhu; Chen, Guilin; Zhu, Qian; Yu, Ying; Yu, Yu; Xiong, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy without effective therapeutics. Thromboxane A2 (TxA2)/TxA2 receptor (T prostanoid receptor (TP)) modulates the progression of some carcinomas; however, its effects on MM cell proliferation remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes and downstream prostaglandin profiles in human myeloma cell lines RPMI-8226 and U-266 and analyzed the effects of COX-1/-2 inhibitors SC-560 and NS-398 on MM cell proliferation. Our observations implicate COX-2 as being involved in modulating cell proliferation. We further incubated MM cells with prostaglandin receptor antagonists or agonists and found that only the TP antagonist, SQ29548, suppressed MM cell proliferation. TP silencing and the TP agonist, U46619, further confirmed this finding. Moreover, SQ29548 and TP silencing promoted MM cell G2/M phase delay accompanied by reducing cyclin B1/cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1) mRNA and protein expression. Notably, cyclin B1 overexpression rescued MM cells from G2/M arrest. We also found that the TP agonist activated JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibitors of JNK and p38 MAPK depressed U46619-induced proliferation and cyclin B1/CDK1 protein expression. In addition, SQ29548 and TP silencing led to the MM cell apoptotic rate increasing with improving caspase 3 activity. The knockdown of caspase 3 reversed the apoptotic rate. Taken together, our results suggest that TxA2/TP promotes MM cell proliferation by reducing cell delay at G2/M phase via elevating p38 MAPK/JNK-mediated cyclin B1/CDK1 expression and hindering cell apoptosis. The TP inhibitor has potential as a novel agent to target kinase cascades for MM therapy. PMID:26724804

  1. Negative Feed-forward Control of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) by Tristetraprolin (ZFP36) Is Limited by the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase, Dual-specificity Phosphatase 1 (DUSP1): IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATION BY GLUCOCORTICOIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Suharsh; Mostafa, Mahmoud M; McWhae, Andrew; Traves, Suzanne L; Newton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    TNF is central to inflammation and may play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The 3'-untranslated region of the TNF transcript contains AU-rich elements (AREs) that are targeted by the RNA-binding protein, tristetraprolin (also known as zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36)), which is itself up-regulated by inflammatory stimuli, to promote mRNA degradation. Using primary human bronchial epithelial and pulmonary epithelial A549 cells, we confirm that interleukin-1β (IL1B) induces expression of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), ZFP36, and TNF. Whereas IL1B-induced DUSP1 is involved in feedback control of MAPK pathways, ZFP36 exerts negative (incoherent) feed-forward control of TNF mRNA and protein expression. DUSP1 silencing increased IL1B-induced ZFP36 expression at 2 h and profoundly repressed TNF mRNA at 6 h. This was partly due to increased TNF mRNA degradation, an effect that was reduced by ZFP36 silencing. This confirms a regulatory network, whereby DUSP1-dependent negative feedback control reduces feed-forward control by ZFP36. Conversely, whereas DUSP1 overexpression and inhibition of MAPKs prevented IL1B-induced expression of ZFP36, this was associated with increased TNF mRNA expression at 6 h, an effect that was predominantly due to elevated transcription. This points to MAPK-dependent feed-forward control of TNF involving ZFP36-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In terms of repression by dexamethasone, neither silencing of DUSP1, silencing of ZFP36, nor silencing of both together prevented the repression of IL1B-induced TNF expression, thereby demonstrating the need for further repressive mechanisms by anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids. In summary, these data illustrate why understanding the competing effects of feedback and feed-forward control is relevant to the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapies. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) during hypoxia in cerebral cortical nuclei of guinea pig fetus at term: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Dev; Ashraf, Qazi M; Mishra, Om P; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria

    2008-07-04

    Previously we have shown that cerebral tissue hypoxia results in generation of nitric oxide (NO) free radicals as well as increased expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase like extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The present study tested the hypothesis that administration of l-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, prior to hypoxia prevents the hypoxia-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and in the cerebral cortex of the term guinea pig fetus. To test this hypothesis normoxic (Nx, n=6), hypoxic (Hx, n=7) and hypoxic pretreated with l-NAME (Hx+L-NAME, n=6) guinea pig fetuses at 60 days gestation were studied to determine the phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pregnant guinea pigs to FiO2 of 0.07 for 1h. l-NAME (30mg/kg i.p.) was administered to pregnant mothers 60min prior to hypoxia. Cerebral tissue hypoxia was documented biochemically by determining the tissue levels of ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr). Neuronal nuclei were isolated, purified and proteins separated using 12% SDS-PAGE, and then probed with specific phosphorylated ERK, JNK and p38 antibodies. Protein bands were detected by enhanced chemiluminescence, analyzed by imaging densitometry and expressed as absorbance (ODxmm2). The relative level of p-p38 was 51.41+/-9.80 (Nx), 173.67+/-3.63 (Hx), 58.56+/-3.40 (Hx+L-NAME), phypoxia decreased the relative level of phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK at term gestation. Since a NOS inhibitor prevented the hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK, we conclude that the hypoxia-induced activation of p38, ERK and JNK in the cerebral cortical nuclei of guinea pig fetus at term is NO-mediated. We speculate that NO-mediated modification of cysteine residue leading to inhibition of MAP kinase phosphatases results in increased activation of p38, ERK and JNK

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Wang, Hsin-Shih; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Lee, Chyi-Long; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Leung, Peter CK

    2013-01-01

    More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have an invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in reproduction. In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GnRH-I receptor protein in human endometrial cancer. The activity of MMP-2 in the conditioned medium was determined by gelatin zymography. Cell motility was assessed by invasion and migration assay. GnRH-I receptor si-RNA was applied to knockdown GnRH-I receptor. The GnRH-I receptor was expressed in the endometrial cancer cells. The GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GnRH-II agonist induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the phosphorylation was abolished by ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Cell motility promoted by GnRH-II agonist was suppressed in cells that were pretreated with U0126 and SP600125. Moreover, U0126 and SP600125 abolished the GnRH-II agonist-induced activation of MMP-2. The inhibition of MMP-2 with MMP-2 inhibitor (OA-Hy) suppressed the increase in cell motility in response to the GnRH-II agonist. Enhanced cell motility mediated by GnRH-II agonist was also suppressed by the knockdown of the endogenous GnRH-I receptor using siRNA. Our study indicates that GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor via the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the subsequent, MAPK-dependent activation of MMP-2. Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanism of GnRH-II-induced cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GnRH-II as a potential therapeutic target for the

  4. Effects of the activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway via the c-ros receptor tyrosine kinase on the T47D breast cancer cell line following alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Tae; Kim, Se Kye; Choi, Mi Ran; Park, Ji Hyun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2013-03-01

    Compared to other cancers affecting women, breast cancer is significantly associated with alcohol consumption. However, the principles underlying the carcinogenesis of alcohol-induced breast cancer and the related metastatic mechanisms have yet to be established. To observe the effect of alcohol on the growth regulation in breast cancer cells, we identified differentially expressed proteins in alcohol-exposed human breast cancer T47D cells using gel-based proteomics analysis. The expression of c-ros receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1) was increased and activated by autophosphorylation, thereby activating mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1) through the mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway; activated MSK1, in turn, phosphorylated histone 3 serine 10 (H3S10p) residues in the nucleus. The increase in H3S10 phosphorylation consequently increased the level of expression of immediate-early gene such as c-fos. This study demonstrated that when breast cancer cells are exposed to alcohol, phosphorylated ROS1 activates MSK1 via Erk1/2 in the MAPK pathway, which then induces modifications to histone residues that regulate gene expression by 14-3-3 protein recruitment, leading to a lack of control of breast cancer cell proliferation.

  5. Proliferation-stimulating effect of colony stimulating factor 2 on porcine trophectoderm cells is mediated by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooyoung Jeong

    Full Text Available Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2, also known as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, facilitates mammalian embryonic development and implantation. However, biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of action of porcine endometrial CSF2 in peri-implantation events have not been elucidated. The aim of present study was to determine changes in cellular activities induced by CSFs and to access CSF2-induced intracellular signaling in porcine primary trophectoderm (pTr cells. Differences in expression of CSF2 mRNA in endometrium from cyclic and pregnant gilts were evaluated. Endometrial CSF2 mRNA expression increases during the peri-implantation period, Days 10 to 14 of pregnancy, as compared to the estrous cycle. pTr cells obtained in Day 12 of pregnancy were cultured in the presence or absence of CSF2 (20 ng/ml and LY294002 (20 µM, U0126 (20 µM, rapamycin (20 nM, and SB203580 (20 µM. CSF2 in pTr cell culture medium at 20 ng/ml significantly induced phosphorylation of AKT1, ERK1/2, MTOR, p70RSK and RPS6 protein, but not STAT3 protein. Also, the PI3K specific inhibitor (LY294002 abolished CSF2-induced increases in p-ERK1/2 and p-MTOR proteins, as well as CSF2-induced phosphorylation of AKT1. Changes in proliferation and migration of pTr cells in response to CSF2 were examined in dose- and time-response experiments. CSF2 significantly stimulated pTr cell proliferation and, U0126, rapamycin and LY294002 blocked this CSF2-induced proliferation of pTr cells. Collectively, during the peri-implantation phase of pregnancy in pigs, endometrial CSF2 stimulates proliferation of trophectoderm cells by activation of the PI3K-and ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent MTOR signal transduction cascades.

  6. Hyperosmotic stress strongly potentiates serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcriptional activity in ehrlich lettré ascites cells through a mechanism involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbatenko, Andrej; Wiwel, Maria; Klingberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    ) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are differentially regulated in ELA cells. SRF Ser103 phosphorylation and SRF-dependent transcriptional activity were strongly augmented 5–30¿min and 24¿h, respectively, after hyperosmotic stress (50% increase in extracellular ionic strength), in a p38...... is transiently inhibited while p38 MAPK is activated, in turn impacting on cell survival (Pedersen et al., 2007, Cell Physiol Biochem 20: 735–750). Here, we show that downstream of these kinases, two transcription factors with major roles in control of cell proliferation and death, serum response factor (SRF......Long-term osmotic stress results in altered gene transcription, however, with the exception of the TonE/TonEBP system, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that upon osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) fibroblasts, the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway...

  7. Alteration of energy metabolism gene expression in cumulus cells affects oocyte maturation via MOS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in dairy cows with an unfavorable "Fertil-" haplotype of one female fertility quantitative trait locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisard, Daphné; Desmarchais, Alice; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Lardic, Lionel; Freret, Sandrine; Elis, Sebastien; Nuttinck, Fabienne; Camous, Sylvaine; Dupont, Joelle; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2014-03-01

    Prim'Holstein heifers selected for the "Fertil-" homozygous haplotype of QTL-Female-Fert ility-BTA3 showed a greater rate of early pregnancy failure and slower embryo development after IVM suggesting lower oocyte quality than those selected for "Fertile+". We aimed to ascertain intrafollicular factors related to lower oocyte quality in "Fertil-" cows. Analysis of individual oocytes showed meiotic progression delay in "Fertil-" compared with "Fertil+" dairy cows after in vivo maturation and IVM (P metabolism, apoptosis, extracellular matrix, and QTL-F-Fert-BTA3 genes were analyzed in surrounding cumulus cells (CC). In vivo, a significant decrease in prostaglandin synthase PTGES1 and PTGS2 expression coupled with lower PTGS2 protein abundance in CC and reduced expression of MOS in enclosed metaphase-II oocytes from "Fertil-" cows was observed. IVM strongly deregulated gene expression in CC and in oocytes compared with in vivo; nevertheless, differential expression of several genes including PEX19, NAMPT and MOS was observed between the two haplotypes. During IVM, PTGS2 activity inhibitor NS398 (50 μM) led to lower expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in CC and of MOS in treated metaphase-II oocytes. Using immunofluorescence, MOS protein was localized to a midbody-like contractile ring separating the polar body from the ooplasm, suggesting a role in the terminal stage of oocyte maturation. Our results suggest that factors involved in prostaglandin synthesis and lipid metabolism in CC could impair oocyte maturation, and might be involved in the reduced fertility of "Fertil-" cows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cao, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy.

  9. Soluble Calreticulin Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α and Interleukin (IL-6 Production by Macrophages through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK and NFκB Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Cui Duo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that soluble calreticulin (CRT accumulates in the sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, following self-oligomerization, soluble recombinant CRT (rCRT polypeptides exhibit potent immunostimulatory activities including macrophage activation in vitro and antibody induction in vivo. This study was designed to further investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms for soluble CRT-induced macrophage activation. Treatment of murine macrophages with oligomerized rCRT (OrCRT led to (i TNF-α and IL-6 transcription and protein expression without affecting intracellular mRNA stability; and (ii IκBα degradation, NFκB phosphorylation and sustained MAPK phosphorylation in cells. Inhibition of IKK and JNK in macrophages substantially abrogated production of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by OrCRT, while ERK suppression only reduced IL-6 expression in parallel experiments. In vitro, fucoidan, a scavenger receptor A (SRA-specific ligand, significantly reduced the uptake of FITC-labeled OrCRT by macrophages and subsequent MAPK and NFκB activation, thereby suggesting SRA as one of the potential cell surface receptors for soluble CRT. Together, these data indicate that soluble CRT in oligomerized form could play a pathogenic role in autoimmune diseases through induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α and IL-6 by macrophages via MAPK-NFκB signaling pathway.

  10. Targeting proteins for degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Erin K; Harstad, Kristine G; Matouschek, Andreas

    2009-11-01

    Protein degradation plays a central role in many cellular functions. Misfolded and damaged proteins are removed from the cell to avoid toxicity. The concentrations of regulatory proteins are adjusted by degradation at the appropriate time. Both foreign and native proteins are digested into small peptides as part of the adaptive immune response. In eukaryotic cells, an ATP-dependent protease called the proteasome is responsible for much of this proteolysis. Proteins are targeted for proteasomal degradation by a two-part degron, which consists of a proteasome binding signal and a degradation initiation site. Here we describe how both components contribute to the specificity of degradation.

  11. Inhibition of estrogen receptor β-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription via the suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling plays an important role in 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2-induced apoptosis in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Kei; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ plays a role in cancer development in addition to its role in glucose metabolism. The natural ligand of PPAR-γ, namely, 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ 2 ), has been shown to possess antineoplastic activity in cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity remains to be elucidated. Inhibition of the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a major determinant of telomerase activity, reportedly induces rapid apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ 2 on hTERT expression. We found that 15d-PGJ 2 induced apoptosis in the MIAPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells and dose-dependently decreased hTERT mRNA and protein expression. Down-regulation of hTERT expression by hTERT-specific small inhibitory RNA also induced apoptosis. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ 2 attenuated the DNA binding of estrogen receptor (ER). MIAPaCa-2 expressed only ERβ, and although its expression did not decrease due to 15d-PGJ 2 , its phosphorylation was suppressed. Additionally, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor decreased ERβ phosphorylation, and 15d-PGJ 2 attenuated MAPK activity. We conclude that hTERT down-regulation by 15d-PGJ 2 plays an important role in the proapoptotic property of the latter. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ 2 inhibits ERβ-mediated hTERT gene transcription by suppressing ERβ phosphorylation via the inhibition of MAP kinase signaling

  12. Overexpression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    drought, salinity and nutrient deficits. Sensing and relay of extracellular stimuli to initiate adaptive responses are the key processes leading to stress tolerance in plant (Chinnusamy et al. 2004). Despite adaptive responses, abiotic stresses represent http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. [Lee S-K, Kim B-G, Kwon T-R, Jeong M-J, Park ...

  13. Overexpression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The gene is mainly induced by drought stress. In phylogenetic analysis, OsMAPK33 (Os02g0148100) showed approximately 47–93% identity at the amino acid level with other plant MAPKs. It was found to exhibit organ-specific expression with relatively higher expression in leaves as compared with roots or stems, and to ...

  14. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and abscisic acid signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.; Testerink, C.; Wang, M.

    1998-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical plant hormone, responsible for regulation of abscission, diverse aspects of plant and seed development, stress responses and germination. It was found that ABA signal transduction in plants can involve the activity of type 2C-phosphatases (PP2C),

  15. Overexpression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plants by placing the 2-week-old seedlings in Yoshida nutrient solution containing 200 mM NaCl. Abscisic acid. (ABA) and H2O2 treatments were prepared by spraying a. 100 μM ABA solution and 1 mM H2O2 onto leaves, respectively. After imposing stresses, leaf and root samples were rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen and ...

  16. Protein targeting protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clegg, Roger A

    1998-01-01

    ... of intracellular environment. Because the concept of protein targeting is intuitive rather than explicitly defined, it has been variously used by different groups of researchers in cell biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. For those working in the field of intracellular signaling, an influential introduction to the topic was the seminal article by Hubbard & Cohen (TIBS [1993] 18, 172- 177), which was based on the work of Cohen's laboratory on protein phosphatases. Subsequently, the ideas that t...

  17. Evolution of insulin-like growth factor-1, prostaglandin E2, and mitogenic activity of bovine mammary primary lymph during the dry period and lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Block, E; Turner, J; Woodward, T; Couture, Y; Petitclerc, D

    1996-10-01

    Four pregnant cows near the end of lactation were fitted with a catheter in a lymph duct afferent to the supramammary lymph node. Cows were dried off 3 d after surgery, and samples of lymph were collected daily from the day of surgery until 4 d postpartum. Samples of blood and mammary secretions were taken before and after drying off and at parturition. Concentrations of most metabolites were lower in lymph than in serum. Concentrations of IGF-I and prostaglandin E2 were not affected at drying off but decreased and increased, respectively, at parturition. All IGF-binding proteins that were present in serum were also present in lymph fluid, but the binding activity was lower. Mitogenic activities of lymph samples taken at various physiological stages were determined on mammary epithelial (MAC-T) and fibroblast cell lines. Lymph was mitogenic, but mitogenic activity was not related to physiological stages. The correlation was high between mitogenic activity of lymph on MAC-T cells and the content of prostaglandin E2 in lymph. Supplementation of lymph with additional prostaglandin E2 increased mitogenic activity, and neutralization of lymph by antibodies reduced mitogenic activity. Basal medium conditioned by the epithelial cell line contained 100 to 250 pg/ml of immunoassayable prostaglandin E2.

  18. Acidic pH stimulates the production of the angiogenic CXC chemokine, CXCL8 (interleukin-8), in human adult mesenchymal stem cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-kappaB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, David S; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Makhijani, Nalini S; Yamaguchi, Dean T

    2008-07-01

    Blood vessel injury results in limited oxygen tension and diffusion leading to hypoxia, increased anaerobic metabolism, and elevated production of acidic metabolites that cannot be easily removed due to the reduced blood flow. Therefore, an acidic extracellular pH occurs in the local microenvironment of disrupted bone. The potential role of acidic pH and glu-leu-arg (ELR(+)) CXC chemokines in early events in bone repair was studied in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) treated with medium of decreasing pH (7.4, 7.0, 6.7, and 6.4). The cells showed a reciprocal increase in CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8) mRNA levels as extracellular pH decreased. At pH 6.4, CXCL8 mRNA was induced >60x in comparison to levels at pH 7.4. hMSCs treated with osteogenic medium (OGM) also showed an increase in CXCL8 mRNA with decreasing pH; although, at a lower level than that seen in cells grown in non-OGM. CXCL8 protein was secreted into the medium at all pHs with maximal induction at pH 6.7. Inhibition of the G-protein-coupled receptor alpha, G(alphai), suppressed CXCL8 levels in response to acidic pH; whereas phospholipase C inhibition had no effect on CXCL8. The use of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction inhibitors indicated that the pH-dependent increase in CXCL8 mRNA is due to activation of ERK and p38 pathways. The JNK pathway was not involved. NF-kappaB inhibition resulted in a decrease in CXCL8 levels in hMSCs grown in non-OGM. However, OGM-differentiated hMSCs showed an increase in CXCL8 levels when treated with the NF-kappaB inhibitor PDTC, a pyrrolidine derivative of dithiocarbamate. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I obliterates the pregnancy-associated protection against mammary carcinogenesis in rats: evidence that IGF-I enhances cancer progression through estrogen receptor-α activation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thordarson, Gudmundur; Slusher, Nicole; Leong, Harriet; Ochoa, Dafne; Rajkumar, Lakshmanaswamy; Guzman, Raphael; Nandi, Satyabrata; Talamantes, Frank

    2004-01-01

    rats. We argue that tumor initiation (transformation and fixation of mutations) may be similar in parous and age-matched virgin animals, suggesting that the main differences in tumor formation lie in differences in tumor progression caused by the altered hormonal environment associated with parity. Furthermore, we provide evidence supporting the notion that tumor growth promotion seen in IGF-I-treated parous rats is caused by activation of estrogen receptor-α via the Raf/Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade

  20. Mitogen activated protein kinases blockade improves lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal motor disturbances El bloqueo de las proteínas cinasas activadas por mitógenos mejora las alteraciones motoras inducidas por el lipopolisacárido en íleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gonzalo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: several diseases such as sepsis can affect the ileum. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin present in the cell wall of gram negative bacteria, is a causative agent of sepsis. Objectives: the aims of this study were: a to investigate the role of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs in the effect of LPS on the acetylcholine-induced contractions of rabbit ileum; and b to study the localization of MAPKs in the ileum. Material and methods: ileal contractility was studied in an organ bath and MAPKs were localized by immunohistochemistry. Results: acetylcholine-induced contractions decreased with LPS. SB203580, SP600125 and U0126 blocked the effect of LPS on the acetylcholine-induced contractions. Phosphorylated p38 and ERK were detected in neurons of myenteric plexus and phosphorylated p38 and JNK in smooth muscle cells of ileum. Conclusion: we can suggest that p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs are involved in the mechanism of action of LPS in the ileum.Introducción: varias enfermedades como la sepsis pueden afectar al íleon. El lipopolisacárido (LPS, una endotoxina presente en la pared celular de las bacterias gram-negativas, es un agente causal de la sepsis. Objetivos: los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: a investigar el papel de las proteína cinasas activadas por mitógenos (MAPKs en los efectos del LPS en las contracciones inducidas por acetilcolina en el íleon de conejo; y b estudiar la localización de las MAPKs en el íleon. Material y métodos: la contractilidad ileal se estudió en un baño de órganos y las MAPKs se localizaron mediante inmunohistoquímica. Resultados: el LPS disminuyó las contracciones inducidas por acetilcolina. El SB203580, el SP600125 y el U0126 bloquearon los efectos del LPS sobre las contracciones inducidas por acetilcolina. La p38 y la ERK fosforiladas se detectaron en las neuronas del plexo mientérico y la p38 y la JNK fosforiladas en las células del músculo liso del íleon. Conclusi

  1. Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eAst

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular compartmentalization into organelles serves to separate biological processes within the environment of a single cell. While some metabolic reactions are specific to a single organelle, others occur in more than one cellular compartment. Specific targeting of proteins to compartments inside of eukaryotic cells is mediated by defined sequence motifs. To achieve multiple targeting to different compartments cells use a variety of strategies. Here, we focus on mechanisms leading to dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins. In many instances, isoforms of peroxisomal proteins with distinct intracellular localization are encoded by separate genes. But also single genes can give rise to differentially localized proteins. Different isoforms can be generated by use of alternative transcriptional start sites, by differential splicing or ribosomal read-through of stop codons. In all these cases different peptide variants are produced, of which only one carries a peroxisomal targeting signal. Alternatively, peroxisomal proteins contain additional signals that compete for intracellular targeting. Dual localization of proteins residing in both the cytoplasm and in peroxisomes may also result from use of inefficient targeting signals. The recent observation that some bona fide cytoplasmic enzymes were also found in peroxisomes indicates that dual targeting of proteins to both the cytoplasm and the peroxisome might be more widespread. Although current knowledge of proteins exhibiting only partial peroxisomal targeting is far from being complete, we speculate that the metabolic capacity of peroxisomes might be larger than previously assumed.

  2. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause

  3. A systematic study of protein labeling by fluorogenic probes using cysteine targeting vinyl sulfone-cyclooctyne tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söveges, B; Imre, T; Szende, T; Póti, Á L; Cserép, G B; Hegedűs, T; Kele, P; Németh, K

    2016-07-07

    Fluorescent tagging of proteins via accessible cysteine residues is of paramount importance. In this study, model proteins of interest (mitogen-activated protein kinases) were labeled successfully in native state on their free thiols by direct fluorescence derivatization, or in a sequential manner where conjugation of the site specific linker and the fluorophore is carried out in two steps. To this end we designed and prepared two novel chemical reporters carrying vinyl sulfone as Cys targeting function and cyclooctyne motifs, suitable for subsequent conjugation with fluorogenic azides via copper free strain-promoted azide-alkyne click chemistry. Direct and sequential labeling reaction steps were analyzed by native PAGE, capillary zone electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry. The efficiency of tagging was correlated with solvent accessibility of the Cys residues. Our results indicated that conjugation of native proteins by vinyl sulfone linkers was fast and thiol-selective. Subsequent click reaction with fluorogenic dyes generates intensive fluorescence signals and fulfills all requirements of bioorthogonality.

  4. Heat- and radiation effects on the hemaglutinating- and mitogenic activity of phytohemaglutinins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini Filho, J.; Vizeu, D.M.; Lajolo, F.M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on hemaglutinating and mitogenic activity of phytohemaglutinins (PHA) in solution is studied. 10 Krad (electron beam) are neede for the destruction of 50% of the aglutinating capacity. The mitogenic effect is more resistent to irradiation (70 Krad for 50% inactivation) may be because both effects are due to different molecules. Changes were also followed by electrophoresis in polyacrylamida. The resistence to irradiation showed to be exponential function of the concentration of PHA in solution. (author) [pt

  5. Poxviral protein A52 stimulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by causing tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) self-association leading to transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Julianne; Hurst, Tara P; Flannery, Sinead M; Brennan, Kiva; Rupp, Sebastian; Oda, Shun-ichiro; Khan, Amir R; Bowie, Andrew G

    2013-11-22

    Vaccinia virus encodes a number of proteins that inhibit and manipulate innate immune signaling pathways that also have a role in virulence. These include A52, a protein shown to inhibit IL-1- and Toll-like receptor-stimulated NFκB activation, via interaction with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2 (IRAK2). Interestingly, A52 was also found to activate p38 MAPK and thus enhance Toll-like receptor-dependent IL-10 induction, which was TRAF6-dependent, but the manner in which A52 manipulates TRAF6 to stimulate p38 activation was unclear. Here, we show that A52 has a non-canonical TRAF6-binding motif that is essential for TRAF6 binding and p38 activation but dispensable for NFκB inhibition and IRAK2 interaction. Wild-type A52, but not a mutant defective in p38 activation and TRAF6 binding (F154A), caused TRAF6 oligomerization and subsequent TRAF6-TAK1 association. The crystal structure of A52 shows that it adopts a Bcl2-like fold and exists as a dimer in solution. Residue Met-65 was identified as being located in the A52 dimer interface, and consistent with that, A52-M65E was impaired in its ability to dimerize. A52-M65E although capable of interacting with TRAF6, was unable to cause either TRAF6 self-association, induce the TRAF6-TAK1 association, or activate p38 MAPK. The results suggest that an A52 dimer causes TRAF6 self-association, leading to TAK1 recruitment and p38 activation. This reveals a molecular mechanism whereby poxviruses manipulate TRAF6 to activate MAPKs (which can be proviral) without stimulating antiviral NFκB activation.

  6. Redox-dependent dimerization of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Rekha; Burgoyne, Joseph R; DeNicola, Gian F; Rudyk, Olena; DeSantis, Vittorio; Charles, Rebecca L; Eaton, Philip; Marber, Michael S

    2017-09-29

    The kinase p38α MAPK (p38α) plays a pivotal role in many biological processes. p38α is activated by canonical upstream kinases that phosphorylate the activation region. The purpose of our study was to determine whether such activation may depend on redox-sensing cysteines within p38α. p38α was activated and formed a disulfide-bound heterodimer with MAP2K3 (MKK3) in rat cardiomyocytes and isolated hearts exposed to H 2 O 2 This disulfide heterodimer was sensitive to reduction by mercaptoethanol and was enhanced by the thioredoxin-reductase inhibitor auranofin. We predicted that Cys-119 or Cys-162 of p38α, close to the known MKK3 docking domain, were relevant for these redox characteristics. The C119S mutation decreased whereas the C162S mutation increased the dimer formation, suggesting that these two Cys residues act as vicinal thiols, consistent with C119S/C162S being incapable of sensing H 2 O 2 Similarly, disulfide heterodimer formation was abolished in H9C2 cells expressing both MKK3 and p38α C119S/C162S and subjected to simulated ischemia and reperfusion. However, the p38α C119S/C162S mutants did not exhibit appreciable alteration in activating dual phosphorylation. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory agent 10-nitro-oleic acid (NO 2 -OA), a component of the Mediterranean diet, reduced p38α activation and covalently modified Cys-119/Cys-162, probably obstructing MKK3 access. Moreover, NO 2 -OA reduced the dephosphorylation of p38α by hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP). Furthermore, steric obstruction of Cys-119/Cys-162 by NO 2 -OA pretreatment in Langendorff-perfused murine hearts prevented the p38-MKK3 disulfide dimer formation and attenuated H 2 O 2 -induced contractile dysfunction. Our findings suggest that cysteine residues within p38α act as redox sensors that can dynamically regulate the association between p38 and MKK3. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Isolation of a glucosamine binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity towards splenocytes and anti-proliferative activity towards tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa glucosamine-specific lectin was purified from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. "brown kidney bean." The simple 2-step purification protocol involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The lectin was absorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a major absorbance peak that gave a single 32-kDa band in SDS-PAGE. Hemagglutinating activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was in the range of 20 °C-60 °C. However, drastic reduction of the activity occurred at temperatures above 65 °C. Full hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was observed at an ambient pH of 3 to 12. About 50% activity remained at pH 0-2, and only residual activity was observed at pH 13-14. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucosamine. The brown kidney bean lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes at 2.5 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly completely eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucosamine. The lectin also increased mRNA expression of the cytokines IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. The lectin exhibited antiproliferative activity toward human breast cancer (MCF7) cells, hepatoma (HepG2) cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE1 and CNE2) cells with IC(50) of 5.12 µM, 32.85 µM, 3.12 µM and 40.12 µM respectively after treatment for 24 hours. Flow cytometry with Annexin V and propidum iodide staining indicated apoptosis of MCF7 cells. Hoechst 33342 staining also indicated formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF7 cells after exposure to brown kidney bean lectin. Western blotting revealed that the lectin-induced apoptosis involved ER stress and unfolded protein response.

  8. A glucuronic acid binding leguminous lectin with mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-02-01

    A dimeric 64-kDa lectin was purified from seeds of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivar number 1. The purification protocol entailed Q-Sepharose, Affi-gel blue gel, Mono S and Superdex 75. The lectin-enriched fraction was adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and Affi-gel blue gel and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Hemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on Mono S and eluted with a linear 0.3-1 M NaCl gradient. Gel filtration on Superdex 75 yielded a single absorbance peak which appeared as a single 32-kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate poylacylamide gel electrophoresis. Full hemagglutinating activity was observed when the lectin was exposed to a pH ranging from 3 to 11. About 50% activity remained at pH 12, and about 25% at pH 0 to pH 2. Activity was totally abolished at pH 13-14. The activity was completely preserved when the ambient temperature was 20 °C-60 °C. However, only 50% and 12.5% of the activity remained at 65 °C and 70 °C, respectively. Activity was barely discernible at 75 °C and completely abrogated at and above 80 °C. Hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by glucuronic acid. Maximum mitogenic activity of the lectin toward murine splenocytes occurred at a lectin concentration of 0.488 µM. The mitogenic activity was nearly eliminated in the presence of 250 mM glucuronic acid. The lectin did not exhibit antiproliferative activity toward hepatoma (HepG2) cells, breast cancer (MCF7) cells, and nasopharynegeal carcinoma CNE stage 1 and stage 2 cells. It was also devoid of significant anti-HIV reverse transcriptase activity.

  9. Lack of direct mitogenic activity of dichloroacetate and trichloroacetate in cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walgren, Jennie L.; Kurtz, David T.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.

    2005-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) are hepatocarcinogenic metabolites of the common groundwater contaminant, 1,1,2-trichloroethylene. DCA and TCA have been shown to induce hepatocyte proliferation in vivo, but it is not known if this response is the result of direct mitogenic activity or whether cell replication occurs indirectly in response to tissue injury or inflammation. In this study we used primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, a species susceptible to DCA- but not TCA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, to determine whether DCA and TCA are direct hepatocyte mitogens. Rat hepatocytes, cultured in growth factor-free medium, were treated with 0.01-1.0 mM DCA or TCA for 10-40 h; cell replication was then assessed by measuring incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into DNA and by cell counts. DCA or TCA treatment did not alter 3 H-thymidine incorporation in the cultured hepatocytes. Although an increase in cell number was not observed, DCA treatment significantly abrogated the normal background cell loss, suggesting an ability to inhibit apoptotic cell death in primary hepatocyte cultures. Furthermore, treatment with DCA synergistically enhanced the mitogenic response to epidermal growth factor. The data indicate that DCA and TCA are not direct mitogens in hepatocyte cultures, which is of interest in view of their ability to stimulate hepatocyte replication in vivo. Nevertheless, the synergistic enhancement of epidermal growth factor-induced hepatocyte replication by DCA is of particular interest and warrants further study

  10. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Promote WNT/beta-Catenin Signaling via Phosphorylation of LRP6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, I.; Wolf, J.; Mašek, J.; Krejčí, Pavel; Wilcox, W. R.; Kozubík, Alois; Schulte, G.; Gutkind, J.S.; Bryja, Vítězslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2011), s. 179-189 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC204/09/J030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : WNT RECEPTOR ACTIVATION * BETA-CATENIN * CORECEPTOR LRP6 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.527, year: 2011

  11. p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Metastasis Associated with Transforming Growth Factor Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Borrelli , M. J.; Xu, Z. Q.; Meredith, M. J.; Domann, F. E.; Freeman, M. L. Inhibition of the 26S proteasome induces expression of GLCLC, the catalytic...Wound Closure and Transwell Motility Assays—For wound closure assays, confluent cell monolayers were wounded by manually scraping the cells with a...Cytogenetics 163 (2005) 123–129[20] Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual . 2nd ed. NewYork, NY: Cold Spring Harbor

  12. Cyclic AMP activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Peraldi, P; Van Obberghen, E

    1994-01-01

    reported. In rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, we demonstrate here a stimulation of the MAP kinase isozyme extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) following elevation of intracellular cAMP after exposure of the cells to isobutylmethylxanthine, cholera toxin, forskolin, or cAMP-analogues. cAMP acted...... upstream activator of ERK1 in the MAP kinase cascade. Supporting this view, forskolin and a cAMP analogue were found to increase the activity of MAP kinase kinase in PC12 cells, alone as well as in combination with phorbol ester. PACAP38 also stimulated in vivo 32P-labeling of ERK1 and MAP kinase kinase...... activity. Finally, cAMP or PACAP38 increased by 3-fold nerve growth factor-stimulated neurite formation in PC12 cells, which may be correlated with the potentiating effect of these agents on nerve growth factor-stimulated ERK1 activity....

  13. JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase limits calcium-dependent chloride secretion across colonic epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnellan, Fergal

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimmune agonists induce epithelial Cl(-) secretion through elevations in intracellular Ca2+ or cAMP. Previously, we demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and subsequent ERK MAPK activation limits secretory responses to Ca2+-dependent, but not cAMP-dependent, agonists. Although JNK MAPKs are also expressed in epithelial cells, their role in regulating transport function is unknown. Here, we investigated the potential role for JNK in regulating Cl(-) secretion in T(84) colonic epithelial cells. Western blot analysis revealed that a prototypical Ca2+-dependent secretagogue, carbachol (CCh; 100 microM), induced phosphorylation of both the 46-kDa and 54-kDa isoforms of JNK. This effect was mimicked by thapsigargin (TG), which specifically elevates intracellular Ca2+, but not by forskolin (FSK; 10 microM), which elevates cAMP. CCh-induced JNK phosphorylation was attenuated by the EGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin-AG1478 (1 microM). Pretreatment of voltage-clamped T(84) cells with SP600125 (2 microM), a specific JNK inhibitor, potentiated secretory responses to both CCh and TG but not to FSK. The effects of SP600125 on CCh-induced secretion were not additive with those of the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Finally, in apically permeabilized T(84) cell monolayers, SP600125 potentiated CCh-induced K+ conductances but not Na+\\/K+ATPase activity. These data demonstrate a novel role for JNK MAPK in regulating Ca2+ but not cAMP-dependent epithelial Cl(-) secretion. JNK activation is mediated by EGFR transactivation and exerts its antisecretory effects through inhibition of basolateral K+ channels. These data further our understanding of mechanisms regulating epithelial secretion and underscore the potential for exploitation of MAPK-dependent signaling in treatment of intestinal transport disorders.

  14. A Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates reactive oxygen species homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakagami, H.; Soukupová, Hana; Schikora, A.; Žárský, Viktor; Hirt, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 50 (2006), s. 38697-38704 ISSN 0021-9258 Grant - others:Marie Curie Training program(XE) EU-HPRN-CT-2002-00265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : OXIDATIVE STRESS * MAP * PATHWAYS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.808, year: 2006

  15. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase modulates exocrine secretion in rabbit lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Stina K; Gierow, J Peter

    2012-03-01

    The lacrimal gland (LG) is an exocrine gland important for secretion of the tear film. The kinase p38 has important signal transduction functions, e.g. in gene transcription, but has previously not been known to modulate exocrine secretion. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of p38 in carbachol (Cch)-induced LG secretion in LG acinar cells in vitro. Western blotting was used to determine the phosphorylation status of p38 and p42/44 and determine expression of p38 isoforms. To determine the effect of p38 inhibition on LG secretion, PD 169316, a general p38 inhibitor, and SB 239063, an inhibitor of p38α and β, were added to the cells prior to secretion measurements. The results revealed activation of p38 mediated by Cch stimulation and inhibition of Cch-induced secretion as a result of p38 inhibition. The inhibition was observed with PD 169316 isoforms, but not with SB 239063. The p38δ isoform was shown to have robust expression both by Western blotting of acinar cells and immunofluorescence of the whole gland. In conclusion, p38 activation mediates secretion in cholinergic stimulation of rabbit LG cells.

  16. Small molecules targeting heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2018-05-05

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of cell surface receptors regulating many human and animal physiological functions. Their implication in human pathophysiology is obvious with almost 30-40% medical drugs commercialized today directly targeting GPCRs as molecular entities. However, upon ligand binding GPCRs signal inside the cell through many key signaling, adaptor and regulatory proteins, including various classes of heterotrimeric G proteins. Therefore, G proteins are considered interesting targets for the development of pharmacological tools that are able to modulate their interaction with the receptors, as well as their activation/deactivation processes. In this review, old attempts and recent advances in the development of small molecules that directly target G proteins will be described with an emphasis on their utilization as pharmacological tools to dissect the mechanisms of activation of GPCR-G protein complexes. These molecules constitute a further asset for research in the "hot" areas of GPCR biology, areas such as multiple G protein coupling/signaling, GPCR-G protein preassembly, and GPCR functional selectivity or bias. Moreover, this review gives a particular focus on studies in vitro and in vivo supporting the potential applications of such small molecules in various GPCR/G protein-related diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Protein Targeting to the Plastid of Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnford, Dion G; Schwartzbach, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    The lateral transfer of photosynthesis between kingdoms through endosymbiosis is among the most spectacular examples of evolutionary innovation. Euglena, which acquired a chloroplast indirectly through an endosymbiosis with a green alga, represents such an example. As with other endosymbiont-derived plastids from eukaryotes, there are additional membranes that surround the organelle, of which Euglena has three. Thus, photosynthetic genes that were transferred from the endosymbiont to the host nucleus and whose proteins are required in the new plastid, are now faced with targeting and plastid import challenges. Early immunoelectron microscopy data suggested that the light-harvesting complexes, photosynthetic proteins in the thylakoid membrane, are post-translationally targeted to the plastid via the Golgi apparatus, an unexpected discovery at the time. Proteins targeted to the Euglena plastid have complex, bipartite presequences that direct them into the endomembrane system, through the Golgi apparatus and ultimately on to the plastid, presumably via transport vesicles. From transcriptome sequencing, dozens of plastid-targeted proteins were identified, leading to the identification of two different presequence structures. Both have an amino terminal signal peptide followed by a transit peptide for plastid import, but only one of the two classes of presequences has a third domain-the stop transfer sequence. This discovery implied two different transport mechanisms; one where the protein was fully inserted into the lumen of the ER and another where the protein remains attached to, but effectively outside, the endomembrane system. In this review, we will discuss the biochemical and bioinformatic evidence for plastid targeting, discuss the evolution of the targeting system, and ultimately provide a working model for the targeting and import of proteins into the plastid of Euglena.

  18. Targeting protein-protein interactions for parasite control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Taylor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding new drug targets for pathogenic infections would be of great utility for humanity, as there is a large need to develop new drugs to fight infections due to the developing resistance and side effects of current treatments. Current drug targets for pathogen infections involve only a single protein. However, proteins rarely act in isolation, and the majority of biological processes occur via interactions with other proteins, so protein-protein interactions (PPIs offer a realm of unexplored potential drug targets and are thought to be the next-generation of drug targets. Parasitic worms were chosen for this study because they have deleterious effects on human health, livestock, and plants, costing society billions of dollars annually and many sequenced genomes are available. In this study, we present a computational approach that utilizes whole genomes of 6 parasitic and 1 free-living worm species and 2 hosts. The species were placed in orthologous groups, then binned in species-specific orthologous groups. Proteins that are essential and conserved among species that span a phyla are of greatest value, as they provide foundations for developing broad-control strategies. Two PPI databases were used to find PPIs within the species specific bins. PPIs with unique helminth proteins and helminth proteins with unique features relative to the host, such as indels, were prioritized as drug targets. The PPIs were scored based on RNAi phenotype and homology to the PDB (Protein DataBank. EST data for the various life stages, GO annotation, and druggability were also taken into consideration. Several PPIs emerged from this study as potential drug targets. A few interactions were supported by co-localization of expression in M. incognita (plant parasite and B. malayi (H. sapiens parasite, which have extremely different modes of parasitism. As more genomes of pathogens are sequenced and PPI databases expanded, this methodology will become increasingly

  19. Protein-protein interactions and cancer: targeting the central dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Amanda L; Janda, Kim D

    2011-01-01

    Between 40,000 and 200,000 protein-protein interactions have been predicted to exist within the human interactome. As these interactions are of a critical nature in many important cellular functions and their dysregulation is causal of disease, the modulation of these binding events has emerged as a leading, yet difficult therapeutic arena. In particular, the targeting of protein-protein interactions relevant to cancer is of fundamental importance as the tumor-promoting function of several aberrantly expressed proteins in the cancerous state is directly resultant of its ability to interact with a protein-binding partner. Of significance, these protein complexes play a crucial role in each of the steps of the central dogma of molecular biology, the fundamental processes of genetic transmission. With the many important discoveries being made regarding the mechanisms of these genetic process, the identification of new chemical probes are needed to better understand and validate the druggability of protein-protein interactions related to the central dogma. In this review, we provide an overview of current small molecule-based protein-protein interaction inhibitors for each stage of the central dogma: transcription, mRNA splicing and translation. Importantly, through our analysis we have uncovered a lack of necessary probes targeting mRNA splicing and translation, thus, opening up the possibility for expansion of these fields.

  20. Targeted Delivery of Protein Drugs by Nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Battisti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in biotechnology demonstrate that peptides and proteins are the basis of a new generation of drugs. However, the transportation of protein drugs in the body is limited by their high molecular weight, which prevents the crossing of tissue barriers, and by their short lifetime due to immuno response and enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the ability to selectively deliver drugs to target organs, tissues or cells is a major challenge in the treatment of several human diseases, including cancer. Indeed, targeted delivery can be much more efficient than systemic application, while improving bioavailability and limiting undesirable side effects. This review describes how the use of targeted nanocarriers such as nanoparticles and liposomes can improve the pharmacokinetic properties of protein drugs, thus increasing their safety and maximizing the therapeutic effect.

  1. Computational probing protein-protein interactions targeting small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Cui; Chen, Shi-Long; Deng, Nai-Yang; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-15

    With the booming of interactome studies, a lot of interactions can be measured in a high throughput way and large scale datasets are available. It is becoming apparent that many different types of interactions can be potential drug targets. Compared with inhibition of a single protein, inhibition of protein-protein interaction (PPI) is promising to improve the specificity with fewer adverse side-effects. Also it greatly broadens the drug target search space, which makes the drug target discovery difficult. Computational methods are highly desired to efficiently provide candidates for further experiments and hold the promise to greatly accelerate the discovery of novel drug targets. Here, we propose a machine learning method to predict PPI targets in a genomic-wide scale. Specifically, we develop a computational method, named as PrePPItar, to Predict PPIs as drug targets by uncovering the potential associations between drugs and PPIs. First, we survey the databases and manually construct a gold-standard positive dataset for drug and PPI interactions. This effort leads to a dataset with 227 associations among 63 PPIs and 113 FDA-approved drugs and allows us to build models to learn the association rules from the data. Second, we characterize drugs by profiling in chemical structure, drug ATC-code annotation, and side-effect space and represent PPI similarity by a symmetrical S-kernel based on protein amino acid sequence. Then the drugs and PPIs are correlated by Kronecker product kernel. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM), is trained to predict novel associations between drugs and PPIs. We validate our PrePPItar method on the well-established gold-standard dataset by cross-validation. We find that all chemical structure, drug ATC-code, and side-effect information are predictive for PPI target. Moreover, we can increase the PPI target prediction coverage by integrating multiple data sources. Follow-up database search and pathway analysis indicate that our new

  2. Antisperm protein targets in azoospermia men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Sadegh Soltani Zangbar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of couples that meet the definition of infertility at reproductive ages is increasing worldwide. One of the most known conditions of infertility in males is azoospermia, defined as complete absence of spermatozoa in the semen. Azoospermia manifests in two forms, namely obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. Although the presence of antisperm antibody (ASA has been reported in 88% of the patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA, interestingly, there is no data regarding ASA targets in OA individuals. AIM: The present study aimed to identify sperm antibody targets in a group of OA men. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study was carried out on 27 OA infertile men and 27 healthy fertile age-matched males as cases and controls, respectively. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sperm proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis technique, transferred onto the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane, and blotted with the sera of a group of OA men. Then, it was compared with the membranes blotted with the sera of a group of healthy fertile men. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify the different blotted spots and finally the results of the mass analysis were confirmed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: The results indicated that OA patients might produce antibody against two sperm proteins, Tektin-2 and triose phosphate isomerase. Moreover, the expressions of the two targeted proteins were confirmed at RNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study revealed two functionally important sperm proteins as antibody targets in azoospermic men.

  3. Targeting protein biotinylation enhances tuberculosis chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Divya; Park, Sae Woong; Essawy, Maram M; Dawadi, Surendra; Mason, Alan; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Zimmerman, Matthew; Mina, Marizel; Ho, Hsin Pin; Engelhart, Curtis A; Ioerger, Thomas; Sacchettini, James C; Rhee, Kyu; Ehrt, Sabine; Aldrich, Courtney C; Dartois, Véronique; Schnappinger, Dirk

    2018-04-25

    Successful drug treatment for tuberculosis (TB) depends on the unique contributions of its component drugs. Drug resistance poses a threat to the efficacy of individual drugs and the regimens to which they contribute. Biologically and chemically validated targets capable of replacing individual components of current TB chemotherapy are a major unmet need in TB drug development. We demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the bacterial biotin protein ligase (BPL) with the inhibitor Bio-AMS (5'-[ N -(d-biotinoyl)sulfamoyl]amino-5'-deoxyadenosine) killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the bacterial pathogen causing TB. We also show that genetic silencing of BPL eliminated the pathogen efficiently from mice during acute and chronic infection with Mtb Partial chemical inactivation of BPL increased the potency of two first-line drugs, rifampicin and ethambutol, and genetic interference with protein biotinylation accelerated clearance of Mtb from mouse lungs and spleens by rifampicin. These studies validate BPL as a potential drug target that could serve as an alternate frontline target in the development of new drugs against Mtb . Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Antibiotics in development targeting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Joyce A

    2011-12-01

    The resolution of antibiotic-ribosomal subunit complexes and antibacterial-protein complexes at the atomic level has provided new insights into modifications of clinically relevant antimicrobials and provided new classes that target the protein cellular apparatus. New chemistry platforms that use fragment-based drug design or allow novel modifications in known structural classes are being used to design new antibiotics that overcome known resistance mechanisms and extend spectrum and potency by circumventing ubiquitous efflux pumps. This review provides details on seven antibiotics in development for treatment of moderate-to-severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and/or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: solithromycin, cethromycin, omadacycline, CEM-102, GSK1322322, radezolid, and tedizolid. Two antibiotics of the oxazolidinone class, PF-02341272 and AZD5847, are being developed as antituberculosis agents. Only three antibiotics that target the protein cellular machinery, TP-434, GSK2251052, and plazomicin, have a spectrum that encompasses multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. These compounds provide hope for treating key pathogens that cause serious disease in both the community and the hospital. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Pharmacological Agents Targeting the Cellular Prion Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Barreca

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC, a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of a wide variety of cell types, into a misfolded conformer (the scrapie form of PrP, or PrPSc that accumulates in brain tissues of affected individuals. PrPSc is a self-catalytic protein assembly capable of recruiting native conformers of PrPC, and causing their rearrangement into new PrPSc molecules. Several previous attempts to identify therapeutic agents against prion diseases have targeted PrPSc, and a number of compounds have shown potent anti-prion effects in experimental models. Unfortunately, so far, none of these molecules has successfully been translated into effective therapies for prion diseases. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that PrPSc might be a difficult pharmacological target because of its poorly defined structure, heterogeneous composition, and ability to generate different structural conformers (known as prion strains that can elude pharmacological intervention. In the last decade, a less intuitive strategy to overcome all these problems has emerged: targeting PrPC, the common substrate of any prion strain replication. This alternative approach possesses several technical and theoretical advantages, including the possibility of providing therapeutic effects also for other neurodegenerative disorders, based on recent observations indicating a role for PrPC in delivering neurotoxic signals of different misfolded proteins. Here, we provide an overview of compounds claimed to exert anti-prion effects by directly binding to PrPC, discussing pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of each chemical class.

  6. Silica nanoparticles induce endoplasmic reticulum stress response and activate mitogen activated kinase (MAPK signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Christen

    Full Text Available Humans may be exposed to engineered silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs but potential adverse effects are poorly understood, in particular in relation to cellular effects and modes of action. Here we studied effects of SiO2-NPs on cellular function in human hepatoma cells (Huh7. Exposure for 24 h to 10 and 50 μg/ml SiO2-NPs led to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress as demonstrated by transcriptional induction of DNAJB9, GADD34, CHOP, as well as CHOP target genes BIM, CHAC-1, NOXA and PUMA. In addition, CHOP protein was induced. In addition, SiO2-NPs induced an inflammatory response as demonstrated by induction of TNF-α and IL-8. Activation of MAPK signalling was investigated employing a PCR array upon exposure of Huh7 cells to SiO2-NPs. Five of 84 analysed genes, including P21, P19, CFOS, CJUN and KSR1 exhibited significant transcriptional up-regulation, and 18 genes a significant down-regulation. Strongest down-regulation occurred for the proto-oncogene BRAF, MAPK11, one of the four p38 MAPK genes, and for NFATC4. Strong induction of CFOS, CJUN, FRA1 and CMYC was found after exposure to 50 μg/ml SiO2-NPs for 24 h. To analyse for effects derived from up-regulation of TNF-α, Huh7 cells were exposed to SiO2-NPs in the presence of the TNF-α inhibitor sauchinone, which reduced the induction of the TNF-α transcript by about 50%. These data demonstrate that SiO2-NPs induce ER stress, MAPK pathway and lead to inflammatory reaction in human hepatoma cells. Health implications of SiO2-NPs exposure should further be investigated for a risk assessment of these frequently used nanoparticles. Keywords: Silica nanoparticles, Endoplasmic reticulum stress, MAPK, TNF-α, Huh7 cells

  7. Targeted proteins for diabetes drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan Trang Nguyen, Ngoc; Thi Le, Ly

    2012-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolism disorder characterized by high glucose in the bloodstream, especially in the case of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Nowadays, it is very common in middle-aged people and involves such dangerous symptoms as increasing risk of stroke, obesity and heart failure. In Vietnam, besides the common treatment of insulin injection, some herbal medication is used but no unified optimum remedy for the disease yet exists and there is no production of antidiabetic drugs in the domestic market yet. In the development of nanomedicine at the present time, drug design is considered as an innovative tool for researchers to study the mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level. The aim of this article is to review some common protein targets involved in type 2 diabetes, offering a new idea for designing new drug candidates to produce antidiabetic drugs against type 2 diabetes for Vietnamese people.

  8. Targeted proteins for diabetes drug design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trang Nguyen, Ngoc Doan; Le, Ly Thi

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolism disorder characterized by high glucose in the bloodstream, especially in the case of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Nowadays, it is very common in middle-aged people and involves such dangerous symptoms as increasing risk of stroke, obesity and heart failure. In Vietnam, besides the common treatment of insulin injection, some herbal medication is used but no unified optimum remedy for the disease yet exists and there is no production of antidiabetic drugs in the domestic market yet. In the development of nanomedicine at the present time, drug design is considered as an innovative tool for researchers to study the mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level. The aim of this article is to review some common protein targets involved in type 2 diabetes, offering a new idea for designing new drug candidates to produce antidiabetic drugs against type 2 diabetes for Vietnamese people. (review)

  9. Targeting functional motifs of a protein family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadola, Pradeep; Deo, Nivedita

    2016-10-01

    The structural organization of a protein family is investigated by devising a method based on the random matrix theory (RMT), which uses the physiochemical properties of the amino acid with multiple sequence alignment. A graphical method to represent protein sequences using physiochemical properties is devised that gives a fast, easy, and informative way of comparing the evolutionary distances between protein sequences. A correlation matrix associated with each property is calculated, where the noise reduction and information filtering is done using RMT involving an ensemble of Wishart matrices. The analysis of the eigenvalue statistics of the correlation matrix for the β -lactamase family shows the universal features as observed in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE). The property-based approach captures the short- as well as the long-range correlation (approximately following GOE) between the eigenvalues, whereas the previous approach (treating amino acids as characters) gives the usual short-range correlations, while the long-range correlations are the same as that of an uncorrelated series. The distribution of the eigenvector components for the eigenvalues outside the bulk (RMT bound) deviates significantly from RMT observations and contains important information about the system. The information content of each eigenvector of the correlation matrix is quantified by introducing an entropic estimate, which shows that for the β -lactamase family the smallest eigenvectors (low eigenmodes) are highly localized as well as informative. These small eigenvectors when processed gives clusters involving positions that have well-defined biological and structural importance matching with experiments. The approach is crucial for the recognition of structural motifs as shown in β -lactamase (and other families) and selectively identifies the important positions for targets to deactivate (activate) the enzymatic actions.

  10. miR-143 targets MAPK7 in CHO cells and induces a hyperproductive phenotype to enhance production of difficult-to-express proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhorn, Melanie; Fischer, Simon; Wagner, Andreas; Handrick, René; Otte, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the number of complex but clinically effective biologicals such as multi-specific antibody formats and fusion proteins has increased dramatically. However, compared to classical monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), these rather artificially designed therapeutic proteins have never undergone millions of years of evolution and thus often turn out to be difficult-to-express using mammalian expression systems such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. To provide access to these sophisticated but effective drugs, host cell engineering of CHO production cell lines represents a promising approach to overcome low production yields. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently gained much attention as next-generation cell engineering tools. However, only very little is known about the capability of miRNAs to specifically increase production of difficult-to-express proteins. In a previous study we identified miR-143 amongst others to improve protein production in CHO cells. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine if miR-143 might be suitable to improve production of low yield protein candidates. Both transient and stable overexpression of miR-143 significantly improved protein production without negatively affecting cell growth and viability of different recombinant CHO cells. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MAPK7) was identified as a putative target gene of miR-143-3p in CHO cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knock-down of MAPK7 could be demonstrated to phenocopy pro-productive effects of miR-143. In summary, our data suggest that miR-143 might represent a novel genetic element to enhance production of difficult-to-express proteins in CHO cells which may be partly mediated by down-regulation of MAPK7. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1046-1058, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. Targeting Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg Cells with an Inhibitor of Heat-Shock Protein 90: Molecular Pathways of Response and Potential Mechanisms of Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Segges

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL cells overexpress heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90, an important intracellular signaling hub regulating cell survival, which is emerging as a promising therapeutic target. Here, we report the antitumor effect of celastrol, an anti-inflammatory compound and a recognized HSP90 inhibitor, in Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg cell lines. Two disparate responses were recorded. In KM-H2 cells, celastrol inhibited cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 arrest, and triggered apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3/7. Conversely, L428 cells exhibited resistance to the compound. A proteomic screening identified a total of 262 differentially expressed proteins in sensitive KM-H2 cells and revealed that celastrol’s toxicity involved the suppression of the MAPK/ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. The apoptotic effects were preceded by a decrease in RAS (proto-oncogene protein Ras, p-ERK1/2 (phospho-extracellular signal-regulated Kinase-1/2, and c-Fos (proto-oncogene protein c-Fos protein levels, as validated by immunoblot analysis. The L428 resistant cells exhibited a marked induction of HSP27 mRNA and protein after celastrol treatment. Our results provide the first evidence that celastrol has antitumor effects in cHL cells through the suppression of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Resistance to celastrol has rarely been described, and our results suggest that in cHL it may be mediated by the upregulation of HSP27. The antitumor properties of celastrol against cHL and whether the disparate responses observed in vitro have clinical correlates deserve further research.

  12. Plant pathology: monitoring a pathogen-targeted host protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jeff; Dodds, Peter

    2003-05-13

    A plant protein RIN4 is targeted and modified by bacterial pathogens as part of the disease process. At least two host resistance proteins monitor this pathogen interference and trigger the plant's defence responses.

  13. Identifying unexpected therapeutic targets via chemical-protein interactome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Yang

    Full Text Available Drug medications inevitably affect not only their intended protein targets but also other proteins as well. In this study we examined the hypothesis that drugs that share the same therapeutic effect also share a common therapeutic mechanism by targeting not only known drug targets, but also by interacting unexpectedly on the same cryptic targets. By constructing and mining an Alzheimer's disease (AD drug-oriented chemical-protein interactome (CPI using a matrix of 10 drug molecules known to treat AD towards 401 human protein pockets, we found that such cryptic targets exist. We recovered from CPI the only validated therapeutic target of AD, acetylcholinesterase (ACHE, and highlighted several other putative targets. For example, we discovered that estrogen receptor (ER and histone deacetylase (HDAC, which have recently been identified as two new therapeutic targets of AD, might already have been targeted by the marketed AD drugs. We further established that the CPI profile of a drug can reflect its interacting character towards multi-protein sets, and that drugs with the same therapeutic attribute will share a similar interacting profile. These findings indicate that the CPI could represent the landscape of chemical-protein interactions and uncover "behind-the-scenes" aspects of the therapeutic mechanisms of existing drugs, providing testable hypotheses of the key nodes for network pharmacology or brand new drug targets for one-target pharmacology paradigm.

  14. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in tauroursodeoxycholic acid-induced bile formation in cholestatic rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denk, Gerald Ulrich; Hohenester, Simon; Wimmer, Ralf; Boehland, Claudia; Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Ursodeoxycholic acid exerts anticholestatic effects in various cholestatic disorders and experimental models of cholestasis. Its taurine conjugate (TUDCA) stimulates bile salt secretion in isolated perfused rat livers (IPRL) under physiological, non-cholestatic conditions, in part by

  15. Aloe Metabolites Prevent LPS-Induced Sepsis and Inflammatory Response by Inhibiting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Yang; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Hung, Yung-Li; Yang, Meng-Syuan; Yu, Chung-Ping; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Hou, Yu-Chi; Fang, Shih-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Aloe, a polyphenolic anthranoid-containing Aloe vera leaves, is a Chinese medicine and a popular dietary supplement worldwide. In in vivo situations, polyphenolic anthranoids are extensively broken down into glucuronides and sulfate metabolites by the gut and the liver. The anti-inflammatory potential of aloe metabolites has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of aloe metabolites from in vitro (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophages) and ex vivo (LPS-activated peritoneal macrophages) to in vivo (LPS-induced septic mice). The production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-12) and NO was determined by ELISA and Griess reagents, respectively. The expression levels of iNOS and MAPKs were analyzed by Western blot. Our results showed that aloe metabolites inhibited the expression of iNOS, decreased the production of TNF-[Formula: see text], IL-12, and NO, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs by LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, aloe metabolites reduced the production of NO, TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-12 by murine peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, aloe administration significantly reduced the NO level and exhibited protective effects against sepsis-related death in LPS-induced septic mice. These results suggest that aloe metabolites exerted anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and that these effects were associated with the inhibition of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, aloe could be considered an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis.

  16. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) overexpression in clinical staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat; Asnir, R. A.; Yudhistira, A.; Daulay, E. R.; Muzakkir, M. M.; Yulius, S.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular biological research on nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been widely practiced, such as VEGF, EGFR, COX-2 expression and so on. MAPK plays a role in cell growth such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, primarily contributing to gene expression, where p38 MAPK pathway mostly associate with anti-apoptosis and cause cell transformation. The aim of this study is to determine the expression of p38 MAPK in clinical stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma so that the result can be helpful in prognosis and adjunctive therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The research design is descriptive. It was done in THT- KL Department of FK USU/RSUP Haji Adam Malik, Medan and Pathology Anatomical Department of FK USU. The study was conducted from December 2011 to May 2012. The Samples are all patients who diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in oncology division of Otorhinolaryngology Department. p38 MAPK overexpression was found in 21 samples (70%) from 30 nasopharyngeal carcinoma samples. The elevated of p38 MAPK expression most found on T4 by eight samples (38.1%), N3 lymph node group by nine samples (42.9%), stage IV of clinical staging is as many as 15 samples (71.4%). p38 MAPK most expressed in stage IV clinical staging of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  17. Transcriptional coregulation by the cell integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase Slt2 and the cell cycle regulator Swi4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baetz, K; Moffat, J; Haynes, J; Chang, M; Andrews, B

    2001-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the heterodimeric transcription factor SBF (for SCB binding factor) is composed of Swi4 and Swi6 and activates gene expression at the G(1)/S-phase transition of the mitotic cell cycle. Cell cycle commitment is associated not only with major alterations in gene expression

  18. Elevated transforming growth factor β and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate fibrotic traits of Dupuytren's disease fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Carola; Kloen, Peter; ten Dijke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Dupuytren's disease is a fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fascia. The treatment used to date has mostly been surgery, but there is a high recurrence rate. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) has been implicated as a key stimulator of myofibroblast activity and fascial contraction

  19. EFFECTS OF STATINS AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS UPON ACTIVATION OF MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shirinsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this study, we evaluated effects of statins and other biological preparations upon spontaneous and stimulated activation of МАРК p38 and ERK1/2 in monocytes from the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We used peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from RA patients and healthy donors. PBMC were cultured in presence of 0, 0.1, 1 or 10 мM mevastatin, 10 мg/ml IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, 5 мg/ml infliximab, and 5 мg/ml soluble pegylated p55 TNF-receptor (r-met-Hu-sTNF-RI. To study the mechanisms of mevastatin effects upon МАРК p38 and ERK1/2 activities, L-mevalonate was added to the cultures. The cells were stained with anti-phospho-MAPK p38, or anti-phospho-ERK1/2, and analyzed with flow cytometry. We have shown that IL-1Ra and r-met-Hu-sTNF-RI inhibited spontaneous MAPK р38 activation. Mevastatin reduced spontaneous MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Mevastatininduced suppression of MAPK p38 and ERK1/2 activation was not dose-dependent. L-mevalonate completely prevented mevastatin-induced reduction of MAPK р38 phosphorylation and partially reversed inhibition of МАРК ERK1/2. In conclusion, decrease in MAPK activation represents a common mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects exerted by statins and some other biologicals.

  20. Targeting protein-protein interactions with trimeric ligands: high affinity inhibitors of the MAGUK protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Klaus B; Haugaard-Kedström, Linda M; Wilbek, Theis S; Nielsen, Line S; Åberg, Emma; Kristensen, Anders S; Bach, Anders; Jemth, Per; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins contain three consecutive PDZ domains, hence we envisioned that targeting all three PDZ domains simultaneously would lead to more potent and potentially more specific interactions with the MAGUK proteins. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of trimeric ligands targeting all three PDZ domains of PSD-95 and the related MAGUK proteins, PSD-93, SAP-97 and SAP-102. Using our dimeric ligands targeting the PDZ1-2 tandem as starting point, we designed novel trimeric ligands by introducing a PDZ3-binding peptide moiety via a cysteine-derivatized NPEG linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic experiments using stopped-flow spectrometry showed that the increase in affinity is caused by a decrease in the dissociation rate of the trimeric ligand as compared to the dimeric ligands, likely reflecting the lower probability of simultaneous dissociation of all three PDZ ligands. Thus, we have provided novel inhibitors of the MAGUK proteins with exceptionally high affinity, which can be used to further elucidate the therapeutic potential of these proteins.

  1. Targeted Diazotransfer Reagents Enable Selective Modification of Proteins with Azides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Jonas; Swier, Lotteke J Y M; Oudshoorn, Ruben C; Médard, Guillaume; Kuster, Bernhard; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Witte, Martin D

    2017-04-19

    In chemical biology, azides are used to chemically manipulate target structures in a bioorthogonal manner for a plethora of applications ranging from target identification to the synthesis of homogeneously modified protein conjugates. While a variety of methods have been established to introduce the azido group into recombinant proteins, a method that directly converts specific amino groups in endogenous proteins is lacking. Here, we report the first biotin-tethered diazotransfer reagent DtBio and demonstrate that it selectively modifies the model proteins streptavidin and avidin and the membrane protein BioY on cell surface. The reagent converts amines in the proximity of the binding pocket to azides and leaves the remaining amino groups in streptavidin untouched. Reagents of this novel class will find use in target identification as well as the selective functionalization and bioorthogonal protection of proteins.

  2. Chromatin proteins and modifications as drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, Kristian; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2013-01-01

    is a frequent event in disease, and the first epigenetic-based therapies for cancer treatment have been approved. A generation of new classes of potent and specific inhibitors for several chromatin-associated proteins have shown promise in preclinical trials. Although the biology of epigenetic regulation...

  3. Pupylation: proteasomal targeting by a protein modifier in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kristin E; Darwin, K Heran

    2012-01-01

    Proteins targeted for degradation by the mycobacterial proteasome are covalently modified with prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) in a process termed "pupylation." Despite its name, Pup is only ubiquitin-like in function and not sequence or structure. Furthermore, the enzymology of pupylation appears to be distinct from protein modification by ubiquitin (Ub) and other ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls). Nonetheless, we have adapted methods established in the Ub field for the production of reagents to isolate, identify, and analyze pupylated proteins in mycobacteria. These methods can be modified to study specific pupylated proteins in various Pup-bearing bacteria or to identify posttranslational modifiers in other prokaryotes.

  4. Targeted therapy for biliary tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Jason E; Zhu, Andrew X

    2012-07-01

    Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies, with a historically poor prognosis as a whole. Until recently, the development of effective therapeutics was hampered by the relatively low incidence, heterogeneity in patients and tumors, and correspondingly poor clinical trial enrollments. With the publication of the landmark phase III ABC-02 trial demonstrating the superiority of gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy, the landscape changed for the development of new agents. Despite this progress, there are currently no approved targeted agents for BTC. This review will focus on recent developments in targeted therapeutics, directed against several key signaling pathways in BTC, including epidermal growth factor receptor, angiogenesis, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Data from recent phase I and II trials will be discussed, along with a preview of upcoming trials involving targeted therapies.

  5. Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions with Trimeric Ligands: High Affinity Inhibitors of the MAGUK Protein Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Klaus B; Kedström, Linda Maria Haugaard; Wilbek, Theis S

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95 and the ......PDZ domains in general, and those of PSD-95 in particular, are emerging as promising drug targets for diseases such as ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that dimeric ligands that simultaneously target PDZ1 and PDZ2 of PSD-95 are highly potent inhibitors of PSD-95. However, PSD-95...... linker. The trimeric ligands generally displayed increased affinities compared to the dimeric ligands in fluorescence polarization binding experiments and optimized trimeric ligands showed low nanomolar inhibition towards the four MAGUK proteins, thus being the most potent inhibitors described. Kinetic...

  6. Targeted deletion of fibrinogen like protein 1 reveals a novel role in energy substrate utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Demchev

    Full Text Available Fibrinogen like protein 1(Fgl1 is a secreted protein with mitogenic activity on primary hepatocytes. Fgl1 is expressed in the liver and its expression is enhanced following acute liver injury. In animals with acute liver failure, administration of recombinant Fgl1 results in decreased mortality supporting the notion that Fgl1 stimulates hepatocyte proliferation and/or protects hepatocytes from injury. However, because Fgl1 is secreted and detected in the plasma, it is possible that the role of Fgl1 extends far beyond its effect on hepatocytes. In this study, we show that Fgl1 is additionally expressed in brown adipose tissue. We find that signals elaborated following liver injury also enhance the expression of Fgl1 in brown adipose tissue suggesting that there is a cross talk between the injured liver and adipose tissues. To identify extra hepatic effects, we generated Fgl1 deficient mice. These mice exhibit a phenotype suggestive of a global metabolic defect: Fgl1 null mice are heavier than wild type mates, have abnormal plasma lipid profiles, fasting hyperglycemia with enhanced gluconeogenesis and exhibit differences in white and brown adipose tissue morphology when compared to wild types. Because Fgl1 shares structural similarity to Angiopoietin like factors 2, 3, 4 and 6 which regulate lipid metabolism and energy utilization, we postulate that Fgl1 is a member of an emerging group of proteins with key roles in metabolism and liver regeneration.

  7. KEAP1 loss modulates sensitivity to kinase targeted therapy in lung cancer. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhibitors that target the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway have led to clinical responses in lung and other cancers, but some patients fail to respond and in those that do resistance inevitably occurs (Balak et al., 2006; Kosaka et al., 2006; Rudin et al., 2013; Wagle et al., 2011). To understand intrinsic and acquired resistance to inhibition of MAPK signaling, we performed CRISPR-Cas9 gene deletion screens in the setting of BRAF, MEK, EGFR, and ALK inhibition.

  8. Targeting protein-protein interaction between MLL1 and reciprocal proteins for leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Dong-Dong; Chen, Wei-Lin; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Xiao-Ke

    2018-01-15

    The mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1), as a lysine methyltransferase, predominantly regulates the methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) and functions in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. MLL1 gene fuses with partner genes that results in the generation of MLL1 fusion proteins (MLL1-FPs), which are frequently detected in acute leukemia. In the progress of leukemogenesis, a great deal of proteins cooperate with MLL1 to form multiprotein complexes serving for the dysregulation of H3K4 methylation, the overexpression of homeobox (HOX) cluster genes, and the consequent generation of leukemia. Hence, disrupting the interactions between MLL1 and the reciprocal proteins has been considered to be a new treatment strategy for leukemia. Here, we reviewed potential protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between MLL1 and its reciprocal proteins, and summarized the inhibitors to target MLL1 PPIs. The druggability of MLL1 PPIs for leukemia were also discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Targeted Diazotransfer Reagents Enable Selective Modification of Proteins with Azides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, Jonas; Swier, Lotteke; Oudshoorn, Ruben; Médard, Guillaume; Kuster, Bernhard; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Witte, Martin D

    In chemical biology, azides are used to chemically manipulate target structures in a bioorthogonal manner for a plethora of applications ranging from target identification to the synthesis of homogeneously modified protein conjugates. While a variety of methods have been established to introduce the

  10. Hot-spot analysis for drug discovery targeting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Mireia; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important for biological processes and pathological situations, and are attractive targets for drug discovery. However, rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions is still highly challenging. Hot-spot residues are seen as the best option to target such interactions, but their identification requires detailed structural and energetic characterization, which is only available for a tiny fraction of protein interactions. Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover a variety of computational methods that have been reported for the energetic analysis of protein-protein interfaces in search of hot-spots, and the structural modeling of protein-protein complexes by docking. This can help to rationalize the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interfaces of therapeutic interest. Computational analysis and docking can help to locate the interface, molecular dynamics can be used to find suitable cavities, and hot-spot predictions can focus the search for inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Expert opinion: A major difficulty for applying rational drug design methods to protein-protein interactions is that in the majority of cases the complex structure is not available. Fortunately, computational docking can complement experimental data. An interesting aspect to explore in the future is the integration of these strategies for targeting PPIs with large-scale mutational analysis.

  11. Targets of curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Beevers, Christopher S.; Huang, Shile

    2010-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an orange-yellow component of turmeric or curry powder, is a polyphenol natural product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparation or used as a food-coloring agent. In recent years, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies suggested curcumin has anticancer, antiviral, antiarthritic, anti-amyloid, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are diverse and appear to involve the regulation of various molecular targets, including transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB), growth factors (such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor), inflammatory cytokines (such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1 and interleukin 6), protein kinases (such as mammalian target of rapamycin, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and Akt) and other enzymes (such as cyclooxygenase 2 and 5 lipoxygenase). Thus, due to its efficacy and regulation of multiple targets, as well as its safety for human use, curcumin has received considerable interest as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and/or treatment of various malignant diseases, arthritis, allergies, Alzheimer’s disease, and other inflammatory illnesses. This review summarizes various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological aspects of curcumin as well as the underlying action mechanisms. The recently identified molecular targets and signaling pathways modulated by curcumin are also discussed here. PMID:20955148

  12. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R deficient mice exhibit increased exploration in a new environment and impaired novel object recognition memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, M.; Bakker, B.; Duijn, L.M. van; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Zee, C.E.E.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Mouse gene Ptprr encodes multiple protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type R (PTPRR) isoforms that negatively regulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. In the mouse brain, PTPRR proteins are expressed in cerebellum, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, amygdala and perirhinal

  13. Systematic Protein Prioritization for Targeted Proteomics Studies through Literature Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Lee, Tsung-Lu; Wang, Chi-Shiang; Chen, Yu-Ju; Ré, Christopher; Kou, Samuel C; Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Kohane, Isaac S; Snyder, Michael

    2018-03-05

    There are more than 3.7 million published articles on the biological functions or disease implications of proteins, constituting an important resource of proteomics knowledge. However, it is difficult to summarize the millions of proteomics findings in the literature manually and quantify their relevance to the biology and diseases of interest. In this study, we developed a fully-automated bioinformatics framework to identify and prioritize proteins associated with any biological entity. We used the 22 targeted areas of the Biology/Disease-driven (B/D)-Human Proteome Project (HPP) as examples, prioritized the relevant proteins through their Protein Universal Reference Publication-Originated Search Engine (PURPOSE) scores, validated the relevance of the score by comparing the protein prioritization results with a curated database, computed the scores of proteins across the topics of B/D-HPP, and characterized the top proteins in the common model organisms. We further extended the bioinformatics workflow to identify the relevant proteins in all organ systems and human diseases and deployed a cloud-based tool to prioritize proteins related to any custom search terms in real time. Our tool can facilitate the prioritization of proteins for any organ system or disease of interest and can contribute to the development of targeted proteomic studies for precision medicine. Our cloud-based real-time search tool is freely available for academic and non-profit use at http://rebrand.ly/proteinpurpose.

  14. Filling and mining the reactive metabolite target protein database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlik, Robert P; Fang, Jianwen; Koen, Yakov M

    2009-04-15

    The post-translational modification of proteins is a well-known endogenous mechanism for regulating protein function and activity. Cellular proteins are also susceptible to post-translational modification by xenobiotic agents that possess, or whose metabolites possess, significant electrophilic character. Such non-physiological modifications to endogenous proteins are sometimes benign, but in other cases they are strongly associated with, and are presumed to cause, lethal cytotoxic consequences via necrosis and/or apoptosis. The Reactive Metabolite Target Protein Database (TPDB) is a searchable, freely web-accessible (http://tpdb.medchem.ku.edu:8080/protein_database/) resource that attempts to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date listing of known reactive metabolite target proteins. In this report we characterize the TPDB by reviewing briefly how the information it contains came to be known. We also compare its information to that provided by other types of "-omics" studies relevant to toxicology, and we illustrate how bioinformatic analysis of target proteins may help to elucidate mechanisms of cytotoxic responses to reactive metabolites.

  15. Alkylation damage by lipid electrophiles targets functional protein systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G; Ullery, Jody C; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Beavers, William N; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-03-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions.

  16. Alkylation Damage by Lipid Electrophiles Targets Functional Protein Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Simona G.; Ullery, Jody C.; Zhu, Jing; Tallman, Keri A.; Beavers, William N.; Porter, Ned A.; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Zhang, Bing; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Protein alkylation by reactive electrophiles contributes to chemical toxicities and oxidative stress, but the functional impact of alkylation damage across proteomes is poorly understood. We used Click chemistry and shotgun proteomics to profile the accumulation of proteome damage in human cells treated with lipid electrophile probes. Protein target profiles revealed three damage susceptibility classes, as well as proteins that were highly resistant to alkylation. Damage occurred selectively across functional protein interaction networks, with the most highly alkylation-susceptible proteins mapping to networks involved in cytoskeletal regulation. Proteins with lower damage susceptibility mapped to networks involved in protein synthesis and turnover and were alkylated only at electrophile concentrations that caused significant toxicity. Hierarchical susceptibility of proteome systems to alkylation may allow cells to survive sublethal damage while protecting critical cell functions. PMID:24429493

  17. Toxicological relationships between proteins obtained from protein target predictions of large toxicity databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigsch, Florian; Mitchell, John B.O.

    2008-01-01

    The combination of models for protein target prediction with large databases containing toxicological information for individual molecules allows the derivation of 'toxiclogical' profiles, i.e., to what extent are molecules of known toxicity predicted to interact with a set of protein targets. To predict protein targets of drug-like and toxic molecules, we built a computational multiclass model using the Winnow algorithm based on a dataset of protein targets derived from the MDL Drug Data Report. A 15-fold Monte Carlo cross-validation using 50% of each class for training, and the remaining 50% for testing, provided an assessment of the accuracy of that model. We retained the 3 top-ranking predictions and found that in 82% of all cases the correct target was predicted within these three predictions. The first prediction was the correct one in almost 70% of cases. A model built on the whole protein target dataset was then used to predict the protein targets for 150 000 molecules from the MDL Toxicity Database. We analysed the frequency of the predictions across the panel of protein targets for experimentally determined toxicity classes of all molecules. This allowed us to identify clusters of proteins related by their toxicological profiles, as well as toxicities that are related. Literature-based evidence is provided for some specific clusters to show the relevance of the relationships identified

  18. Human MAP Tau Based Targeted Cytolytic Fusion Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusiji A. Akinrinmade

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most promising small molecule toxins used to generate antibody drug conjugates (ADCs include anti-mitotic agents (e.g., auristatin and its derivatives which are designed to attack cancerous cells at their most vulnerable state during mitosis. We were interested in identifying a human cystostatic protein eventually showing comparable activities and allowing the generation of corresponding targeted fully human cytolytic fusion proteins. Recently, we identified the human microtubule associated protein tau (MAP tau, which binds specifically to tubulin and modulates the stability of microtubules, thereby blocking mitosis and presumably vesicular transport. By binding and stabilizing polymerized microtubule filaments, MAP tau-based fusion proteins skew microtubule dynamics towards cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This biological activity makes rapidly proliferating cells (e.g., cancer and inflammatory cells an excellent target for MAP tau-based targeted treatments. Their superior selectivity for proliferating cells confers additional selectivity towards upregulated tumor-associated antigens at their surface, thereby preventing off-target related toxicity against normal cells bearing tumor-associated antigens at physiologically normal to low levels. In this review, we highlight recent findings on MAP tau-based targeted cytolytic fusion proteins reported in preclinical immunotherapeutic studies.

  19. Pericentriolar Targeting of the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus GAG Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhi Zhang

    Full Text Available The Gag protein of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV is the chief determinant of subcellular targeting. Electron microscopy studies show that MMTV Gag forms capsids within the cytoplasm and assembles as immature particles with MMTV RNA and the Y box binding protein-1, required for centrosome maturation. Other betaretroviruses, such as Mason-Pfizer monkey retrovirus (M-PMV, assemble adjacent to the pericentriolar region because of a cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the Matrix protein. Previous studies suggest that the MMTV Matrix protein may also harbor a similar cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal. Herein, we show that a substantial fraction of MMTV Gag localizes to the pericentriolar region. This was observed in HEK293T, HeLa human cell lines and the mouse derived NMuMG mammary gland cells. Moreover, MMTV capsids were observed adjacent to centrioles when expressed from plasmids encoding either MMTV Gag alone, Gag-Pro-Pol or full-length virus. We found that the cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal in the MMTV Matrix protein was sufficient for pericentriolar targeting, whereas mutation of the glutamine to alanine at position 56 (D56/A resulted in plasma membrane localization, similar to previous observations from mutational studies of M-PMV Gag. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy studies showed that MMTV capsids accumulate around centrioles suggesting that, similar to M-PMV, the pericentriolar region may be a site for MMTV assembly. Together, the data imply that MMTV Gag targets the pericentriolar region as a result of the MMTV cytoplasmic targeting and retention signal, possibly aided by the Y box protein-1 required for the assembly of centrosomal microtubules.

  20. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  1. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  2. Smac Mimetics to Therapeutically Target IAP Proteins in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, S

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Therefore, they are considered as promising targets for the design of therapeutic strategies. Smac mimetics mimic the endogenous mitochondrial protein Smac that antagonizes IAP proteins upon its release into the cytosol. Multiple preclinical studies have documented the ability of Smac mimetics to either directly induce cell death of cancer cells or to prime them to agents that trigger cell death. At present, several Smac mimetics are being evaluated in early clinical trials. The current review provides an overview on the potential of Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics to target IAP proteins for cancer therapy. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein targeting protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 88

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clegg, Roger A

    1998-01-01

    ... of intracellular environment. Because the concept of protein targeting is intuitive rather than explicitly defined, it has been variously used by different groups of researchers in cell biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. For those working in the field of intracellular signaling, an influential introduction to the topic was the seminal article by Hubbard & Cohen (TIBS [1993] 18, 172- 177), which was based on the work of Cohen's laboratory on protein phosphatases. Subsequently, the ideas that t...

  4. Engineered protein nano-compartments for targeted enzyme localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Choudhary

    Full Text Available Compartmentalized co-localization of enzymes and their substrates represents an attractive approach for multi-enzymatic synthesis in engineered cells and biocatalysis. Sequestration of enzymes and substrates would greatly increase reaction efficiency while also protecting engineered host cells from potentially toxic reaction intermediates. Several bacteria form protein-based polyhedral microcompartments which sequester functionally related enzymes and regulate their access to substrates and other small metabolites. Such bacterial microcompartments may be engineered into protein-based nano-bioreactors, provided that they can be assembled in a non-native host cell, and that heterologous enzymes and substrates can be targeted into the engineered compartments. Here, we report that recombinant expression of Salmonella enterica ethanolamine utilization (eut bacterial microcompartment shell proteins in E. coli results in the formation of polyhedral protein shells. Purified recombinant shells are morphologically similar to the native Eut microcompartments purified from S. enterica. Surprisingly, recombinant expression of only one of the shell proteins (EutS is sufficient and necessary for creating properly delimited compartments. Co-expression with EutS also facilitates the encapsulation of EGFP fused with a putative Eut shell-targeting signal sequence. We also demonstrate the functional localization of a heterologous enzyme (β-galactosidase targeted to the recombinant shells. Together our results provide proof-of-concept for the engineering of protein nano-compartments for biosynthesis and biocatalysis.

  5. Targeting endogenous proteins for degradation through the affinity-directed protein missile system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Luke J; Hutchinson, Luke D; Macartney, Thomas J; Turnbull, Craig; Sapkota, Gopal P

    2017-05-01

    Targeted proteolysis of endogenous proteins is desirable as a research toolkit and in therapeutics. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts are irreversible and often not feasible for many genes. Similarly, RNA interference approaches necessitate prolonged treatments, can lead to incomplete knockdowns and are often associated with off-target effects. Targeted proteolysis can overcome these limitations. In this report, we describe an affinity-directed protein missile (AdPROM) system that harbours the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein, the substrate receptor of the Cullin2 (CUL2) E3 ligase complex, tethered to polypeptide binders that selectively bind and recruit endogenous target proteins to the CUL2-E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. By using synthetic monobodies that selectively bind the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and a camelid-derived VHH nanobody that selectively binds the human ASC protein, we demonstrate highly efficient AdPROM-mediated degradation of endogenous SHP2 and ASC in human cell lines. We show that AdPROM-mediated loss of SHP2 in cells impacts SHP2 biology. This study demonstrates for the first time that small polypeptide binders that selectively recognize endogenous target proteins can be exploited for AdPROM-mediated destruction of the target proteins. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Targeting extracellular matrix remodeling in disease: Could resveratrol be a potential candidate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Agarwal, Puneet

    2017-02-01

    Disturbances of extracellular matrix homeostasis are associated with a number of pathological conditions. The ability of extracellular matrix to provide contextual information and hence control the individual or collective cellular behavior is increasingly being recognized. Hence, newer therapeutic approaches targeting extracellular matrix remodeling are widely investigated. We reviewed the current literature showing the effects of resveratrol on various aspects of extracellular matrix remodeling. This review presents a summary of the effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix deposition and breakdown. Mechanisms of action of resveratrol in extracellular matrix deposition involving growth factors and their signaling pathways are discussed. Involvement of phosphoinositol-3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and role of transcription factors and sirtuins on the effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix homeostasis are summarized. It is evident from the literature presented in this review that resveratrol has significant effects on both the synthesis and breakdown of extracellular matrix. The major molecular targets of the action of resveratrol are growth factors and their signaling pathways, phosphoinositol-3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, transcription factors, and SIRT-1. The effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix and the molecular targets appear to be related to experimental models, experimental environment as well as the doses.

  7. Black Rice Anthocyanins Suppress Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting RAS/RAF/MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Yan; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Li-Ping; Han, Bin; Li, Fei; Chen, Jing-Yao; Zhu, Yan-Feng; Chen, Wei; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) drives the biology of 30% of breast cancer cases. As a transducer of HER2 signaling, RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effects of black rice anthocyanins (BRACs) extract and identified their molecular targets in HER2(+) breast cancer cells. Treatment of MDA-MB-453 cells (HER2(+)) with BRACs inhibited cell migration and invasion, suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (RAF), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and downregulated the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9. BRACs also weakened the interactions of HER2 with RAF, MEK, and JNK proteins, respectively, and decreased the mRNA expression of raf, mek, and jnk. Further, we found combined treatment with BRACs and RAF, MEK, or JNK inhibitors could enhance the antimetastatic activity, compared with that of each treatment. Transient transfection with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific for raf, mek, and jnk inhibited their mRNA expression in MDA-MB-453 cells. Moreover, cotreatment with BRACs and siRNA induces a more remarkable inhibitory effect than that by either substance alone. In summary, our study suggested that BRACs suppress metastasis in breast cancer cells by targeting the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway.

  8. Targeting Human Cancer by a Glycosaminoglycan Binding Malaria Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Clausen, Thomas M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.

    2015-01-01

    be specifically targeted by recombinant VAR2CSA (rVAR2). In tumors, placental-like CS chains are linked to a limited repertoire of cancer-associated proteoglycans including CD44 and CSPG4. The rVAR2 protein localizes to tumors in vivo and rVAR2 fused to diphtheria toxin or conjugated to hemiasterlin compounds...

  9. Y-Trap Cancer Immunotherapy Drug Targets Two Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two groups of researchers, working independently, have fused a TGF-beta receptor to a monoclonal antibody that targets a checkpoint protein. The result, this Cancer Currents blog describes, is a single hybrid molecule called a Y-trap that blocks two pathways used by tumors to evade the immune system.

  10. Chromatin-regulating proteins as targets for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oike, Takahiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Kohno, Takashi; Amornwichet, Napapat; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin-regulating proteins represent a large class of novel targets for cancer therapy. In the context of radiotherapy, acetylation and deacetylation of histones by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks generated by ionizing irradiation, and are therefore attractive targets for radiosensitization. Small-molecule inhibitors of HATs (garcinol, anacardic acid and curcumin) and HDACs (vorinostat, sodium butyrate and valproic acid) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to ionizing irradiation in preclinical models, and some of these molecules are being tested in clinical trials, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy. Meanwhile, recent large-scale genome analyses have identified frequent mutations in genes encoding chromatin-regulating proteins, especially in those encoding subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, in various human cancers. These observations have driven researchers toward development of targeted therapies against cancers carrying these mutations. DOT1L inhibition in MLL-rearranged leukemia, EZH2 inhibition in EZH2-mutant or MLL-rearranged hematologic malignancies and SNF5-deficient tumors, BRD4 inhibition in various hematologic malignancies, and BRM inhibition in BRG1-deficient tumors have demonstrated promising anti-tumor effects in preclinical models, and these strategies are currently awaiting clinical application. Overall, the data collected so far suggest that targeting chromatin-regulating proteins is a promising strategy for tomorrow's cancer therapy, including radiotherapy and molecularly targeted chemotherapy. (author)

  11. Improved protein model quality assessments by changing the target function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziela, Karolis; Menéndez Hurtado, David; Shu, Nanjiang; Wallner, Björn; Elofsson, Arne

    2018-03-09

    Protein modeling quality is an important part of protein structure prediction. We have for more than a decade developed a set of methods for this problem. We have used various types of description of the protein and different machine learning methodologies. However, common to all these methods has been the target function used for training. The target function in ProQ describes the local quality of a residue in a protein model. In all versions of ProQ the target function has been the S-score. However, other quality estimation functions also exist, which can be divided into superposition- and contact-based methods. The superposition-based methods, such as S-score, are based on a rigid body superposition of a protein model and the native structure, while the contact-based methods compare the local environment of each residue. Here, we examine the effects of retraining our latest predictor, ProQ3D, using identical inputs but different target functions. We find that the contact-based methods are easier to predict and that predictors trained on these measures provide some advantages when it comes to identifying the best model. One possible reason for this is that contact based methods are better at estimating the quality of multi-domain targets. However, training on the S-score gives the best correlation with the GDT_TS score, which is commonly used in CASP to score the global model quality. To take the advantage of both of these features we provide an updated version of ProQ3D that predicts local and global model quality estimates based on different quality estimates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. GABARAPL1 antibodies: target one protein, get one free!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grand, Jaclyn Nicole; Chakrama, Fatima Zahra; Seguin-Py, Stéphanie; Fraichard, Annick; Delage-Mourroux, Régis; Jouvenot, Michèle; Risold, Pierre-Yves; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël

    2011-11-01

    Atg8 is a yeast protein involved in the autophagic process and in particular in the elongation of autophagosomes. In mammals, several orthologs have been identified and are classed into two subfamilies: the LC3 subfamily and the GABARAP subfamily, referred to simply as the LC3 or GABARAP families. GABARAPL1 (GABARAP-like protein 1), one of the proteins belonging to the GABARAP (GABA(A) receptor-associated protein) family, is highly expressed in the central nervous system and implicated in processes such as receptor and vesicle transport as well as autophagy. The proteins that make up the GABARAP family demonstrate conservation of their amino acid sequences and protein structures. In humans, GABARAPL1 shares 86% identity with GABARAP and 61% with GABARAPL2 (GATE-16). The identification of the individual proteins is thus very limited when working in vivo due to a lack of unique peptide sequences from which specific antibodies can be developed. Actually, and to our knowledge, there are no available antibodies on the market that are entirely specific to GABARAPL1 and the same may be true of the anti-GABARAP antibodies. In this study, we sought to examine the specificity of three antibodies targeted against different peptide sequences within GABARAPL1: CHEM-CENT (an antibody raised against a short peptide sequence within the center of the protein), PTG-NTER (an antibody raised against the N-terminus of the protein) and PTG-FL (an antibody raised against the full-length protein). The results described in this article demonstrate the importance of testing antibody specificity under the conditions for which it will be used experimentally, a caution that should be taken when studying the expression of the GABARAP family proteins.

  13. Structural basis for target protein recognition by the protein disulfide reductase thioredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxin is ubiquitous and regulates various target proteins through disulfide bond reduction. We report the structure of thioredoxin (HvTrxh2 from barley) in a reaction intermediate complex with a protein substrate, barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI). The crystal structure...

  14. Urea transporter proteins as targets for small-molecule diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, Alan S

    2015-02-01

    Conventional diuretics such as furosemide and thiazides target salt transporters in kidney tubules, but urea transporters (UTs) have emerged as alternative targets. UTs are a family of transmembrane channels expressed in a variety of mammalian tissues, in particular the kidney. UT knockout mice and humans with UT mutations exhibit reduced maximal urinary osmolality, demonstrating that UTs are necessary for the concentration of urine. Small-molecule screening has identified potent and selective inhibitors of UT-A, the UT protein expressed in renal tubule epithelial cells, and UT-B, the UT protein expressed in vasa recta endothelial cells. Data from UT knockout mice and from rodents administered UT inhibitors support the diuretic action of UT inhibition. The kidney-specific expression of UT-A1, together with high selectivity of the small-molecule inhibitors, means that off-target effects of such small-molecule drugs should be minimal. This Review summarizes the structure, expression and function of UTs, and looks at the evidence supporting the validity of UTs as targets for the development of salt-sparing diuretics with a unique mechanism of action. UT-targeted inhibitors may be useful alone or in combination with conventional diuretics for therapy of various oedemas and hyponatraemias, potentially including those refractory to treatment with current diuretics.

  15. In silico structure-based approaches to discover protein-protein interaction-targeting drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Christoffer, Charles W; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-12-01

    A core concept behind modern drug discovery is finding a small molecule that modulates a function of a target protein. This concept has been successfully applied since the mid-1970s. However, the efficiency of drug discovery is decreasing because the druggable target space in the human proteome is limited. Recently, protein-protein interaction (PPI) has been identified asan emerging target space for drug discovery. PPI plays a pivotal role in biological pathways including diseases. Current human interactome research suggests that the number of PPIs is between 130,000 and 650,000, and only a small number of them have been targeted as drug targets. For traditional drug targets, in silico structure-based methods have been successful in many cases. However, their performance suffers on PPI interfaces because PPI interfaces are different in five major aspects: From a geometric standpoint, they have relatively large interface regions, flat geometry, and the interface surface shape tends to fluctuate upon binding. Also, their interactions are dominated by hydrophobic atoms, which is different from traditional binding-pocket-targeted drugs. Finally, PPI targets usually lack natural molecules that bind to the target PPI interface. Here, we first summarize characteristics of PPI interfaces and their known binders. Then, we will review existing in silico structure-based approaches for discovering small molecules that bind to PPI interfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Frontal-subcortical protein expression following prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Y Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal immune activation (MIA during prenatal life is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Such conditions are associated with alterations in fronto-subcortical circuits, but their molecular basis is far from clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry, with targeted western blot analyses for confirmation, we investigated the impact of MIA on the prefrontal and striatal proteome from an established MIA mouse model generated in C57B6 mice, by administering the viral analogue PolyI:C or saline vehicle (control intravenously on gestation day (GD 9. In striatum, 11 proteins were up-regulated and 4 proteins were down-regulated in the PolyI:C mice, while 10 proteins were up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in prefrontal cortex (PFC. These were proteins involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway, oxidation and auto-immune targets, including dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 4A-II, creatine kinase (CK-B, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-B, WD repeat-containing protein and NADH dehydrogenase in the striatum; and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein, 14-3-3 protein, alpha-enolase, olfactory maker protein and heat shock proteins (HSP 60, and 90-beta in the PFC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This data fits with emerging evidence for disruption of critical converging intracellular pathways involving MAPK pathways in neurodevelopmental conditions and it shows considerable overlap with protein pathways identified by genetic modeling and clinical post-mortem studies. This has implications for understanding causality and may offer potential biomarkers and novel treatment targets for neurodevelopmental conditions.

  17. Emerging targeted therapies for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas B; Pollack, Megan H; Sosman, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy associated with poor response to traditional therapies. Recent regulatory approval for immune checkpoint inhibitors and agents targeting mutated BRAF has led to a tremendous expansion of effective treatment options for patients with advanced melanoma. Unfortunately, primary or acquired resistance develops in most patients, highlighting the need for additional therapies. Numerous genetic and other molecular features of this disease may provide effective targets for therapy development. This article reviews available melanoma treatments, including immune and molecularly-targeted therapies. We then discuss agents in development, with a focus on targeted (rather than immune) therapies. In particular, we discuss agents that block mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, as well as other emerging approaches such as antibody-drug conjugates, cell-cycle targeting, and novel genetically-informed clinical trials. Despite the incredible advances in melanoma therapeutics over the last several years, a clear need to develop more effective therapies remains. Molecularly-targeted therapy approaches will likely remain a cornerstone of melanoma treatment in parallel to immune therapy strategies.

  18. Homing in: Mechanisms of Substrate Targeting by Protein Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chad J; Turk, Benjamin E

    2018-03-12

    Protein phosphorylation is the most common reversible post-translational modification in eukaryotes. Humans have over 500 protein kinases, of which more than a dozen are established targets for anticancer drugs. All kinases share a structurally similar catalytic domain, yet each one is uniquely positioned within signaling networks controlling essentially all aspects of cell behavior. Kinases are distinguished from one another based on their modes of regulation and their substrate repertoires. Coupling specific inputs to the proper signaling outputs requires that kinases phosphorylate a limited number of sites to the exclusion of hundreds of thousands of off-target phosphorylation sites. Here, we review recent progress in understanding mechanisms of kinase substrate specificity and how they function to shape cellular signaling networks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic targeting strategies using endogenous cells and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayath, Neha N; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-07-28

    Targeted drug delivery has become extremely important in enhancing efficacy and reducing the toxicity of therapeutics in the treatment of various disease conditions. Current approaches include passive targeting, which relies on naturally occurring differences between healthy and diseased tissues, and active targeting, which utilizes various ligands that can recognize targets expressed preferentially at the diseased site. Clinical translation of these mechanisms faces many challenges including the immunogenic and toxic effects of these non-natural systems. Thus, use of endogenous targeting systems is increasingly gaining momentum. This review is focused on strategies for employing endogenous moieties, which could serve as safe and efficient carriers for targeted drug delivery. The first part of the review involves cells and cellular components as endogenous carriers for therapeutics in multiple disease states, while the second part discusses the use of endogenous plasma components as endogenous carriers. Further understanding of the biological tropism with cells and proteins and the newer generation of delivery strategies that exploits these endogenous approaches promises to provide better solutions for site-specific delivery and could further facilitate clinical translations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatitis B core protein as a therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lung-Yi; Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Seto, Wai-Kay; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man Fung

    2017-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is difficult to cure, due to the presence of covalently-closed-circular DNA and virus-mediated blunting of host immune response. Existing therapies with nucleos(t)ide analogue or pegylated-interferon are not sufficient to achieve a high rate of HBV surface antigen seroclearance, a more desirable treatment outcome. Novel therapeutic agents targeting alternative viral replication steps are being developed. In this review, we will discuss the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) as a therapeutic target. Areas covered: The basic structure and fundamental functions of HBcAg including nucleocapsid assembly, pre-genomic RNA encapsidation, reverse transcription, virion formation, cccDNA amplification, immune response regulation, and HBx protein interaction will be reviewed. Most of these are identified as therapeutic targets and tested in in vitro and in vivo studies, although clinical trials are scanty. Among the different components, the core protein allosteric modulators (CpAM) have been most widely investigated and appear promising in clinical trials. Expert opinion: The multiple and essential functions of HBcAg for HBV life cycle are important and attractive targets for HBV therapeutic interventions. Controlled trials involving CpAM are awaited. Apart from CpAM, drugs directed against different functions of HBcAg may be further explored to maximize the chance of cure.

  1. The protein micro-crystallography beamlines for targeted protein research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Kunio; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2010-01-01

    In order to collect proper diffraction data from outstanding micro-crystals, a brand-new data collection system should be designed to provide high signal-to noise ratio in diffraction images. SPring-8 and KEK-PF are currently developing two micro-beam beamlines for Targeted Proteins Research Program by MEXT of Japan. The program aims to reveal the structure and function of proteins that are difficult to solve but have great importance in both academic research and industrial application. At SPring-8, a new 1-micron beam beamline for protein micro-crystallography, RIKEN Targeted Proteins Beamline (BL32XU), is developed. At KEK-PF a new low energy micro-beam beamline, BL-1A, is dedicated for SAD micro-crystallography. The two beamlines will start operation in the end of 2010. The present status of the research and development for protein micro-crystallography will be presented. (author)

  2. Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics

    KAUST Repository

    Chevalier, Aaron

    2017-09-26

    De novo protein design holds promise for creating small stable proteins with shapes customized to bind therapeutic targets. We describe a massively parallel approach for designing, manufacturing and screening mini-protein binders, integrating large-scale computational design, oligonucleotide synthesis, yeast display screening and next-generation sequencing. We designed and tested 22,660 mini-proteins of 37-43 residues that target influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B, along with 6,286 control sequences to probe contributions to folding and binding, and identified 2,618 high-affinity binders. Comparison of the binding and non-binding design sets, which are two orders of magnitude larger than any previously investigated, enabled the evaluation and improvement of the computational model. Biophysical characterization of a subset of the binder designs showed that they are extremely stable and, unlike antibodies, do not lose activity after exposure to high temperatures. The designs elicit little or no immune response and provide potent prophylactic and therapeutic protection against influenza, even after extensive repeated dosing.

  3. Targeting protein kinases to reverse multidrug resistance in sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Shen, Jacson; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-02-01

    Sarcomas are a group of cancers that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. They can be classified into over 50 subtypes, accounting for approximately 1% of adult and 15% of pediatric cancers. Wide surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most common treatments for the majority of sarcomas. Among these therapies, chemotherapy can palliate symptoms and prolong life for some sarcoma patients. However, sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR attenuates the efficacy of anticancer drugs and results in treatment failure for sarcomas. Therefore, overcoming MDR is an unmet need for sarcoma therapy. Certain protein kinases demonstrate aberrant expression and/or activity in sarcoma cells, which have been found to be involved in the regulation of sarcoma cell progression, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and survival. Inhibiting these protein kinases may not only decrease the proliferation and growth of sarcoma cells, but also reverse their resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs to subsequently reduce the doses of anticancer drugs and decrease drug side-effects. The discovery of novel strategies targeting protein kinases opens a door to a new area of sarcoma research and provides insight into the mechanisms of MDR in chemotherapy. This review will focus on the recent studies in targeting protein kinase to reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in sarcoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Specific capture of uranyl protein targets by metal affinity chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basset, C.; Dedieu, A.; Guerin, P.; Quemeneur, E.; Meyer, D.; Vidaud, C. [CEA Valrho, DSV, IBEB, Serv Biochim et Toxicol Nucl, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    To improve general understanding of biochemical mechanisms in the field of uranium toxicology, the identification of protein targets needs to be intensified. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been widely developed as a powerful tool for capturing metal binding proteins from biological extracts. However uranyl cations (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) have particular physico-chemical characteristics which prevent them from being immobilized on classical metal chelating supports. We report here on the first development of an immobilized uranyl affinity chromatography method, based on the cation-exchange properties of amino-phosphonate groups for uranyl binding. The cation distribution coefficient and loading capacity on the support were determined. Then the stability of the uranyl-bonded phase under our chromatographic conditions was optimized to promote affinity mechanisms. The successful enrichment of uranyl binding proteins from human serum was then proven using proteomic and mass spectral analysis. (authors)

  5. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-01-01

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome

  6. Targeting proteins to liquid-ordered domains in lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C; Hayden, Carl C; Sanchez, Mari Angelica A; Wang, Julia; Bunker, Bruce C; Voigt, James A; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2011-02-15

    We demonstrate the construction of novel protein-lipid assemblies through the design of a lipid-like molecule, DPIDA, endowed with tail-driven affinity for specific lipid membrane phases and head-driven affinity for specific proteins. In studies performed on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) with varying mole fractions of dipalymitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), cholesterol, and diphytanoylphosphatidyl choline (DPhPC), DPIDA selectively partitioned into the more ordered phases, either solid or liquid-ordered (L(o)) depending on membrane composition. Fluorescence imaging established the phase behavior of the resulting quaternary lipid system. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy confirmed the fluidity of the L(o) phase containing DPIDA. In the presence of CuCl(2), the iminodiacetic acid (IDA) headgroup of DPIDA forms the Cu(II)-IDA complex that exhibits a high affinity for histidine residues. His-tagged proteins were bound specifically to domains enriched in DPIDA, demonstrating the capacity to target protein binding selectively to both solid and L(o) phases. Steric pressure from the crowding of surface-bound proteins transformed the domains into tubules with persistence lengths that depended on the phase state of the lipid domains.

  7. Protein knockouts in living eukaryotes using deGradFP and green fluorescent protein fusion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caussinus, Emmanuel; Kanca, Oguz; Affolter, Markus

    2013-09-24

    This unit describes deGradFP (degrade Green Fluorescent Protein), an easy-to-implement protein knockout method applicable in any eukaryotic genetic system. Depleting a protein in order to study its function in a living organism is usually achieved at the gene level (genetic mutations) or at the RNA level (RNA interference and morpholinos). However, any system that acts upstream of the proteic level depends on the turnover rate of the existing target protein, which can be extremely slow. In contrast, deGradFP is a fast method that directly depletes GFP fusion proteins. In particular, deGradFP is able to counteract maternal effects in embryos and causes early and fast onset loss-of-function phenotypes of maternally contributed proteins. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Recombinant protein expression by targeting pre-selected chromosomal loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krömer Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells is mostly achieved by stable integration of transgenes into the chromosomal DNA of established cell lines. The chromosomal surroundings have strong influences on the expression of transgenes. The exploitation of defined loci by targeting expression constructs with different regulatory elements is an approach to design high level expression systems. Further, this allows to evaluate the impact of chromosomal surroundings on distinct vector constructs. Results We explored antibody expression upon targeting diverse expression constructs into previously tagged loci in CHO-K1 and HEK293 cells that exhibit high reporter gene expression. These loci were selected by random transfer of reporter cassettes and subsequent screening. Both, retroviral infection and plasmid transfection with eGFP or antibody expression cassettes were employed for tagging. The tagged cell clones were screened for expression and single copy integration. Cell clones producing > 20 pg/cell in 24 hours could be identified. Selected integration sites that had been flanked with heterologous recombinase target sites (FRTs were targeted by Flp recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE. The results give proof of principle for consistent protein expression upon RMCE. Upon targeting antibody expression cassettes 90-100% of all resulting cell clones showed correct integration. Antibody production was found to be highly consistent within the individual cell clones as expected from their isogenic nature. However, the nature and orientation of expression control elements revealed to be critical. The impact of different promoters was examined with the tag-and-targeting approach. For each of the chosen promoters high expression sites were identified. However, each site supported the chosen promoters to a different extent, indicating that the strength of a particular promoter is dominantly defined by its chromosomal context

  9. Protein-Protein Interactions of Viroporins in Coronaviruses and Paramyxoviruses: New Targets for Antivirals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Torres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroporins are members of a rapidly growing family of channel-forming small polypeptides found in viruses. The present review will be focused on recent structural and protein-protein interaction information involving two viroporins found in enveloped viruses that target the respiratory tract; (i the envelope protein in coronaviruses and (ii the small hydrophobic protein in paramyxoviruses. Deletion of these two viroporins leads to viral attenuation in vivo, whereas data from cell culture shows involvement in the regulation of stress and inflammation. The channel activity and structure of some representative members of these viroporins have been recently characterized in some detail. In addition, searches for protein-protein interactions using yeast-two hybrid techniques have shed light on possible functional roles for their exposed cytoplasmic domains. A deeper analysis of these interactions should not only provide a more complete overview of the multiple functions of these viroporins, but also suggest novel strategies that target protein-protein interactions as much needed antivirals. These should complement current efforts to block viroporin channel activity.

  10. Kaempferol acts through mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase B/AKT to elicit protection in a model of neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SE; Sapkota, K; Kim, S; Kim, H; Kim, SJ

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid and phyto-oestrogen, is known to have anti-inflammatory properties. Microglial activation has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol and the underlying mechanisms were investigated by using LPS-stimulated microglial BV2 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cell viability was measured using MTT and neutral red assays. elisa, Western blot, immunocytochemistry and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay were used to analyse NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1β production, inducible NOS (iNOS), COX-2 expression and the involvement of signalling pathways such as toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), MAPK cascades, PKB (AKT) and NF-κB. Accumulation of reaction oxygen species (ROS) was measured by nitroblue tetrazolium and 2′7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. Matrix metalloproteinase activity was investigated by zymography and immunoblot assay. Phagocytotic activity was assessed by use of latex beads. KEY RESULTS Kaempferol significantly attenuated LPS-induced NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β and ROS production and phagocytosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol suppressed the expression of iNOS, COX-2, MMP-3 and blocked the TLR4 activation. Moreover, kaempferol inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation and p38 MAPK, JNK and AKT phosphorylation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Kaempferol was able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory mediators through the down-regulation of TLR4, NF-κB, p38 MAPK, JNK and AKT suggesting that kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:21449918

  11. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2000-01-01

    , inhibitors of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn), PLC, PKC and MEK and an activator of PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). MEK2 transfection rescued cells treated with all inhibitors. The same was found for PMA treatment, except when cells concomitantly were treated with the MEK inhibitor....... Arachidonic acid rescued cells treated with antibodies to the FGF receptor or the PLC inhibitor, but not cells in which the activity of PKC, p59(fyn), FAK, Ras, or MEK was inhibited. Interaction of NCAM with a synthetic NCAM peptide ligand, known to induce neurite outgrowth, was shown to stimulate...

  12. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N

    2000-01-01

    transfected with expression plasmids encoding constitutively active forms of Ras, Raf, MAP kinase kinases MEK1 and 2, dominant negative forms of Ras and Raf, and the FAK-related nonkinase. Alternatively, PC12-E2 cells were submitted to treatment with antibodies to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor......, inhibitors of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn), PLC, PKC and MEK and an activator of PKC, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). MEK2 transfection rescued cells treated with all inhibitors. The same was found for PMA treatment, except when cells concomitantly were treated with the MEK inhibitor....... Arachidonic acid rescued cells treated with antibodies to the FGF receptor or the PLC inhibitor, but not cells in which the activity of PKC, p59(fyn), FAK, Ras, or MEK was inhibited. Interaction of NCAM with a synthetic NCAM peptide ligand, known to induce neurite outgrowth, was shown to stimulate...

  13. siRNAs Targeting Viral Protein 5: The Major Capsid Protein of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether siRNA targeting viral protein 5 (VP5) can become a new treatment for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Methods: Flow cytometry was performed to determine the ratio of siRNA and lipo2000 to reach the highest transfection efficiency. Western blot and q-PCR were performed to determine ...

  14. Induced Mitogenic Activity in AML-12 Mouse Hepatocytes Exposed to Low-dose Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Tchounwou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra–wideband (UWB technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23°C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5-20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8-24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05 dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma.

  15. BH3-only protein BIM: An emerging target in chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shatrunajay; Saxena, Sugandh; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Kakkar, Poonam

    2017-12-01

    BH3-only proteins constitute major proportion of pro-apoptotic members of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of apoptotic regulatory proteins and participate in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and immunity. Absence of BH3-only proteins contributes to autoimmune disorders and tumorigenesis. Bim (Bcl-2 Interacting Mediator of cell death), most important member of BH3-only proteins, shares a BH3-only domain (9-16 aa) among 4 domains (BH1-BH4) of Bcl-2 family proteins and highly pro-apoptotic in nature. Bim initiates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway under both physiological and patho-physiological conditions. Reduction in Bim expression was found to be associated with tumor promotion and autoimmunity, while overexpression inhibited tumor growth and drug resistance as cancer cells suppress Bim expression and stability. Apart from its role in normal homeostasis, Bim has emerged as a central player in regulation of tumorigenesis, therefore gaining attention as a plausible target for chemotherapy. Regulation of Bim expression and stability is complicated and regulated at multiple levels viz. transcriptional, post-transcriptional, post-translational (preferably by phosphorylation and ubiquitination), epigenetic (by promoter acetylation or methylation) including miRNAs. Furthermore, control over Bim expression and stability may be exploited to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy, overcome drug resistance and select anticancer drug regimen as various chemotherapeutic agents exploit Bim as an executioner of cell death. Owing to its potent anti-tumorigenic activity many BH3 mimetics e.g. ABT-737, ABT-263, obatoclax, AT-101and A-1210477 have been developed and entered in clinical trials. It is more likely that in near future strategies commanding Bim expression and stability ultimately lead to Bim based therapeutic regimen for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Gab Adapter Proteins as Therapeutic Targets for Hematologic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grb-2 associated binder (Gab family of scaffolding/adaptor/docking proteins is a group of three molecules with significant roles in cytokine receptor signaling. Gabs possess structural motifs for phosphorylation-dependent receptor recruitment, Grb2 binding, and activation of downstream signaling pathways through p85 and SHP-2. In addition, Gabs participate in hematopoiesis and regulation of immune response which can be aberrantly activated in cancer and inflammation. The multifunctionality of Gab adapters might suggest that they would be too difficult to consider as candidates for “targeted” therapy. However, the one drug/one target approach is giving way to the concept of one drug/multiple target approach since few cancers are addicted to a single signaling molecule for survival and combination drug therapies can be problematic. In this paper, we cover recent findings on Gab multi-functionality, binding partners, and their role in hematological malignancy and examine the concept of Gab-targeted therapy.

  17. Structure determination of drug target proteins by neutron crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu

    2010-01-01

    High resolution X-ray crystallography provides information for most of the atoms comprising the proteins, with the exception of hydrogen atoms. Whereas, neutron crystallography, which is a powerful technique for locating hydrogen atoms, enables us to obtain accurate atomic positions within proteins. Neutron diffraction data can provide information of the location of hydrogen atoms to the structural information determined by X-ray crystallography. Here, we show the recent results of the structural determination of drug-target proteins, porcine pancreatic elastase and human immuno-deficiency virus type-1 protease by both X-ray and neutron diffraction. The structure of porcine pancreatic elastase with its potent inhibitor was determined to 0.094 nm resolution by X-ray diffraction and 0.165 nm resolution by neutron diffraction. The structure of HIV-PR with its potent inhibitor was also determined to 0.093 nm resolution by X-ray diffraction and 0.19 nm resolution by neutron diffraction. The ionization state and the location of hydrogen atoms of the catalytic residue in these enzymes were determined by neutron diffraction. Furthermore, collaborative use of both X-ray and neutron crystallography to identify the location of ambiguous hydrogen atoms will be shown. (author)

  18. Purification and characterization of erythrogenic toxins of Streptococcus pyogenes. VI. Mitogenic activity of isoelectrically focused erythrogenic toxin preparations and culture supernatants of group A streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöll, H; Gerlach, D; Ozegowski, J H; Hribalová, V; Köhler, W

    1983-11-01

    Isoelectric focusing (IF) was used to separate erythrogenic toxins (ET) type A, B and C from concentrated culture filtrates of Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The ET's were identified by their mitogenic activity on human lymphocytes in the lymphocyte transformation test: purified ET type A appeared at pH 5.3, ET type C at pH 6.8 and ET type B at pH 7.5 to 8.5; the ET type B was only biologically active when PAGE IF was used. IF on Sephadex G 100 failed to yield active B toxin. The application of as little as 0.1 micrograms ET type A to an isoelectric focusing gel was still sufficient to detect a mitogenic peak in the eluates. ET type A was identified in nine out of 10 culture filtrates, ET type C in 4 out of 10. Detection of ET type B (identical with streptococcal proteinase proenzyme) in culture filtrates after IF proved to be difficult. Here the pH of cultivation media and the autocatalytic conversion of streptococcal proteinase proenzyme to activated proteinase have to be considered.

  19. The use of a spaceflight-compatible device to perform WBC surface marker staining and whole-blood mitogenic activation for cytokine detection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Sams, C. F.

    1999-01-01

    Significant changes have recently been described regarding circulating peripheral immune cells immediately following spaceflight. Existing methods for immunophenotype staining of peripheral blood in terrestrial labs do not meet the constraints for flight on the Space Shuttle. We have recently described the development and use of the Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD), a simple device for staining flow cytometry specimens during spaceflight. When preparing samples with the WBSD, all liquids are safely contained as the cells are moved through staining, lysis and fixation steps. Here we briefly review the use of the WBSD, and then describe another versatile adaptation, a modification to perform intracellular staining of cytokines for detection by flow cytometry. Alterations in cytokine production have been reported both in ground-based simulated microgravity culture and in astronaut samples returning from spaceflight. Data regarding microgravity effects on cytokine production for specific subpopulations of cells is lacking. Flow cytometric cytokine analysis offers the unique ability to perform simultaneous surface marker analysis and positively identity cytokine producing subsets of cells. The utilization of the WBSD provides the ability to perform rapid and routine mitogenic activation during spaceflight coupled with the ability to perform simultaneous surface marker analysis. The only external requirements for this procedure are an in-flight 37-degree incubator and the capacity for 4-degree storage.

  20. Large-scale identification of potential drug targets based on the topological features of human protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan-Chao; Zhong, Wen-Qian; Liu, Zhi-Qing; Huang, Meng-Hua; Xie, Yun; Dai, Zong; Zou, Xiao-Yong

    2015-04-29

    Identifying potential drug target proteins is a crucial step in the process of drug discovery and plays a key role in the study of the molecular mechanisms of disease. Based on the fact that the majority of proteins exert their functions through interacting with each other, we propose a method to recognize target proteins by using the human protein-protein interaction network and graph theory. In the network, vertexes and edges are weighted by using the confidence scores of interactions and descriptors of protein primary structure, respectively. The novel network topological features are defined and employed to characterize protein using existing databases. A widely used minimum redundancy maximum relevance and random forests algorithm are utilized to select the optimal feature subset and construct model for the identification of potential drug target proteins at the proteome scale. The accuracies of training set and test set are 89.55% and 85.23%. Using the constructed model, 2127 potential drug target proteins have been recognized and 156 drug target proteins have been validated in the database of drug target. In addition, some new drug target proteins can be considered as targets for treating diseases of mucopolysaccharidosis, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, Bernard-Soulier syndrome and pseudo-von Willebrand, etc. It is anticipated that the proposed method may became a powerful high-throughput virtual screening tool of drug target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stabilization of methionine-rich protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: targeting of BZN protein into the peroxisome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaud, J M; Raynal, A; Beyou, A; Merkamm, M; Ito, H; Labat, N

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a gene coding for the 12-kDa intermediate form of the 2s methionine-rich protein from Bertholletia excelsa seeds. This protein, expressed intracellularly in yeast, is characterised by a 20-min half-life. By adding 11 amino acids corresponding to the peroxisome-targeting sequence (PTSc) of luciferase, we have significantly increased its half-life. This stabilization allowed accumulation of the BZN protein into the peroxisome as judged by cell fractionation. Accumulation of the 12-kDa protein results in a significant increase of the total methionine content in yeast cells (30%) indicating that such a microorganism could represent a practicable protected shuttle for an animal-feed additive.

  2. Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) is a major venue for controlled intracellular protein degradation in Eukaryota. The machinery of several hundred proteins is involved in recognizing, tagging, transporting, and cleaving proteins, all in a highly regulated manner. Short-lived transcription factors, misfolded translation products, stress-damaged polypeptides, or worn-out long-lived proteins, all can be found among the substrates of UPP. Carefully choreographed protein-protein interactions (PPI) are involved in each step of the pathway. For many of the steps small-molecule inhibitors have been identified and often they directly or indirectly target PPI. The inhibitors may destabilize intracellular proteostasis and trigger apoptosis. So far this is the most explored option used as an anticancer strategy. Alternatively, substrate-specific polyubiquitination may be regulated for a precise intervention aimed at a particular metabolic pathway. This very attractive opportunity is moving close to clinical application. The best known drug target in UPP is the proteasome: the end point of the journey of a protein destined for degradation. The proteasome alone is a perfect object to study the mechanisms and roles of PPI on many levels. This giant protease is built from multisubunit modules and additionally utilizes a service from transient protein ligands, for example, delivering substrates. An elaborate set of PPI within the highest-order proteasome assembly is involved in substrate recognition and processing. Below we will outline PPI involved in the UPP and discuss the growing prospects for their utilization in pharmacological interventions. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The potential for targeting extracellular LOX proteins in human malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayorca Guiliani, Alejandro Enrique; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the physical scaffold where cells are organized into tissues and organs. The ECM may be modified during cancer to allow and promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The family of lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes cross-links collagens and elastin and, therefore......, is a central player in ECM deposition and maturation. Extensive research has revealed how the LOX proteins participate in every stage of cancer progression, and two family members, LOX and LOX-like 2, have been linked to metastasis, the final stage of cancer responsible for over 90% of cancer patient deaths....... However, LOX biosynthesis results in by-product with antiproliferative properties in certain cancers, and LOX enzymes may have different effects depending on the molecular network in which they are active. Therefore, the design of therapies targeting the LOX family needs to be guided by the molecular...

  4. Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting Activator Protein 1 (AP-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a pivotal transcription factor that regulates a wide range of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and transformation. Accumulating evidence supports that AP-1 plays an important role in several severe disorders including cancer, fibrosis, and organ injury, as well as inflammatory disorders such as asthma, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. AP-1 has emerged as an actively pursued drug discovery target over the past decade. Excitingly, a selective AP-1 inhibitor T-5224 (51) has been investigated in phase II human clinical trials. Nevertheless, no effective AP-1 inhibitors have yet been approved for clinical use. Despite significant advances achieved in understanding AP-1 biology and function, as well as the identification of small molecules modulating AP-1 associated signaling pathways, medicinal chemistry efforts remain an urgent need to yield selective and efficacious AP-1 inhibitors as a viable therapeutic strategy for human diseases. PMID:24831826

  5. C-Myc Protein-Protein and Protein-DNA Interactions: Targets for Therapeutic Intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackwell, T

    1997-01-01

    Members of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors are involved in various aspects of cell growth and differentiation, and the bHLH protein c-Myc has been implicated in breast cancer...

  6. IAP proteins as targets for drug development in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrez L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Dubrez,1,2 Jean Berthelet,1,2 Valérie Glorian,1,21Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm, Dijon, France; 2Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, FranceAbstract: The inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs constitute a family of proteins involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell death, immune and inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell motility. There is accumulating evidence supporting IAP-targeting in tumors: IAPs regulate various cellular processes that contribute to tumor development, such as cell death, cell proliferation, and cell migration; their expression is increased in a number of human tumor samples, and IAP overexpression has been correlated with tumor growth, and poor prognosis or low response to treatment; and IAP expression can be rapidly induced in response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy because of the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES-dependent mechanism of translation initiation, which could contribute to resistance to antitumor therapy. The development of IAP antagonists is an important challenge and was subject to intense research over the past decade. Six molecules are currently in clinical trials. This review focuses on the role of IAPs in tumors and the development of IAP-targeting molecules for anticancer therapy.Keywords: Smac mimetics, apoptosis, antitumor therapy

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Entry Inhibitors Targeting the F Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the main viral cause of respiratory tract infection in infants as well as some elderly and high-risk adults with chronic pulmonary disease and the severely immunocompromised. So far, no specific anti-RSV therapeutics or effective anti-RSV vaccines have been reported. Only one humanized monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, has been approved for use in high-risk infants to prevent RSV infection. Ribavirin is the only drug licensed for therapy of RSV infection, but its clinical use is limited by its nonspecific anti-RSV activity, toxic effect, and relatively high cost. Therefore, development of novel effective anti-RSV therapeutics is urgently needed. The RSV envelope glycoprotein F plays an important role in RSV fusion with, and entry into, the host cell and, consequently, serves as an attractive target for developing RSV entry inhibitors. This article reviews advances made in studies of the structure and function of the F protein and the development of RSV entry inhibitors targeting it.

  8. Overcoming Chemical, Biological, and Computational Challenges in the Development of Inhibitors Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Luca; McKenzie, Grahame; Spring, David R.; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.; Huggins, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlie the majority of biological processes, signaling, and disease. Approaches to modulate PPIs with small molecules have therefore attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, there are a number of challenges inherent in developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors that have prevented these approaches from reaching their full potential. From target validation to small-molecule screening and lead optimization, identifying therapeutically relevant PPIs that can be successfully modulated by small molecules is not a simple task. Following the recent review by Arkin et al., which summarized the lessons learnt from prior successes, we focus in this article on the specific challenges of developing PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs. PMID:26091166

  9. Regulation of the heat stress response in Arabidopsis by MPK6-targeted phosphorylation of the heat stress factor HsfA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Evrard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available So far little is known on the functional role of phosphorylation in the heat stress response of plants. Here we present evidence that heat stress activates the Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK6. In vitro and in vivo evidence is provided that MPK6 specifically targets the major heat stress transcription factor HsfA2. Activation of MPK6 results in complex formation with HsfA2. MPK6 phosphorylates HsfA2 on T249 and changes its intracellular localisation. Protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitor studies indicate that HsfA2 protein stability is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, but this mechanism is independent of MPK6. Overall, our data show that heat stress-induced targeting of HsfA2 by MPK6 participates in the complex regulatory mechanism how plants respond to heat stress.

  10. Natural products used as a chemical library for protein-protein interaction targeted drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuemei; Lee, Kyungro; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Hyun Sil; Yook, Jong In; Choi, Jiwon; No, Kyoung Tai

    2018-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which are essential for cellular processes, have been recognized as attractive therapeutic targets. Therefore, the construction of a PPI-focused chemical library is an inevitable necessity for future drug discovery. Natural products have been used as traditional medicines to treat human diseases for millennia; in addition, their molecular scaffolds have been used in diverse approved drugs and drug candidates. The recent discovery of the ability of natural products to inhibit PPIs led us to use natural products as a chemical library for PPI-targeted drug discovery. In this study, we collected natural products (NPDB) from non-commercial and in-house databases to analyze their similarities to small-molecule PPI inhibitors (iPPIs) and FDA-approved drugs by using eight molecular descriptors. Then, we evaluated the distribution of NPDB and iPPIs in the chemical space, represented by the molecular fingerprint and molecular scaffolds, to identify the promising scaffolds, which could interfere with PPIs. To investigate the ability of natural products to inhibit PPI targets, molecular docking was used. Then, we predicted a set of high-potency natural products by using the iPPI-likeness score based on a docking score-weighted model. These selected natural products showed high binding affinities to the PPI target, namely XIAP, which were validated in an in vitro experiment. In addition, the natural products with novel scaffolds might provide a promising starting point for further medicinal chemistry developments. Overall, our study shows the potency of natural products in targeting PPIs, which might help in the design of a PPI-focused chemical library for future drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Activity Based Protein Profiling Leads to Identification of Novel Protein Targets for Nerve Agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmany, Dan; Walz, Andrew J; Hsu, Fu-Lian; Benton, Bernard; Burnett, David; Gibbons, Jennifer; Noort, Daan; Glaros, Trevor; Sekowski, Jennifer W

    2017-04-17

    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents continue to be a threat at home and abroad during the war against terrorism. Human exposure to nerve agents such as VX results in a cascade of toxic effects relative to the exposure level including ocular miosis, excessive secretions, convulsions, seizures, and death. The primary mechanism behind these overt symptoms is the disruption of cholinergic pathways. While much is known about the primary toxicity mechanisms of nerve agents, there remains a paucity of information regarding impacts on other pathways and systemic effects. These are important for establishing a comprehensive understanding of the toxic mechanisms of OP nerve agents. To identify novel proteins that interact with VX, and that may give insight into these other mechanisms, we used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) employing a novel VX-probe on lysates from rat heart, liver, kidney, diaphragm, and brain tissue. By making use of a biotin linked VX-probe, proteins covalently bound by the probe were isolated and enriched using streptavidin beads. The proteins were then digested, labeled with isobarically distinct tandem mass tag (TMT) labels, and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Quantitative analysis identified 132 bound proteins, with many proteins found in multiple tissues. As with previously published ABPP OP work, monoacylglycerol lipase associated proteins and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were shown to be targets of VX. In addition to these two and other predicted neurotransmitter-related proteins, a number of proteins involved with energy metabolism were identified. Four of these enzymes, mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (IDH3), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and succinyl CoA (SCS) ligase, were assayed for VX inhibition. Only IDH2 NADP+ activity was shown to be inhibited directly. This result is consistent with other work reporting animals exposed to OP compounds exhibit

  12. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of an alpha-helix mimetic library targeting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaginian, Alex; Whitby, Landon R; Hong, Sukwon; Hwang, Inkyu; Farooqi, Bilal; Searcey, Mark; Chen, Jiandong; Vogt, Peter K; Boger, Dale L

    2009-04-22

    The design and solution-phase synthesis of an alpha-helix mimetic library as an integral component of a small-molecule library targeting protein-protein interactions are described. The iterative design, synthesis, and evaluation of the candidate alpha-helix mimetic was initiated from a precedented triaryl template and refined by screening the designs for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding. Upon identifying a chemically and biologically satisfactory design and consistent with the screening capabilities of academic collaborators, the corresponding complete library was assembled as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds (20 x 20 x 20-mix), where the added subunits are designed to mimic all possible permutations of the naturally occurring i, i + 4, i + 7 amino acid side chains of an alpha-helix. The library (8000 compounds) was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol enlisting acid/base liquid-liquid extractions for purification on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening of the library for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding not only identified the lead alpha-helix mimetic upon which the library was based, but also suggests that a digestion of the initial screening results that accompany the use of such a comprehensive library can provide insights into the nature of the interaction (e.g., an alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interaction) and define the key residues and their characteristics responsible for recognition.

  13. Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases MKK1 and MKK2 have overlapping functions in defense signaling mediated by MEKK1, MPK4, and MKS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Jin-Long; Zhou, Lu; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2008-01-01

    by biochemical and molecular analyses implicating the kinases in jasmonate- and salicylate-dependent defense responses, mediated in part via the MPK4 substrate MKS1. In addition, transcriptome analyses delineate overlapping and specific effects of the kinases on global gene expression patterns demonstrating both...

  14. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  15. Lipid-soluble smoke particles upregulate vascular smooth muscle ETB receptors via activation of mitogen-activating protein kinases and NF-kappaB pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.B.; Zheng, J.P.; Zhang, W.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to cigarette smoke-associated cardiovascular disease remain elusive. With functional and molecular methods, we demonstrate for the first time that lipid-soluble cigarette smoke...... particles (dimethylsulfoxide-soluble cigarette smoke particles; DSP) increased the expression of endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells. The increased ET(B) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells was documented as enhanced contractility (sensitive myograph technique...

  16. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates growth arrest or E1A-dependent apoptosis in SKBR3 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, M V

    1998-11-09

    Previously, we have shown that phorbol ester (PMA) induces p21(WAF1/CIP1)-dependent growth arrest in SKBr3 breast cancer and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Here, I demonstrate that inhibition of Raf-1 kinase by dominant-negative Raf-1 or pharmacological depletion of Raf-1 prevented PMA-mediated induction of p21(WAF1/CIP1). Similarly, PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK, abolished p21(WAF1/CIP1) induction and PMA-induced growth arrest. Like PMA, the H-ras oncogene, another activator of the Raf-1/MEK/MAPK pathway, transactivated p21(WAF1/CIP1) in SKBr3 cells. I further investigated PMA-induced growth arrest following infection of SKBr3 cells with 12S E1A-expressing adenovirus. Although high levels of E1A oncoprotein prevented both PMA-induced p21(WAF1/CIP1) and growth arrest, smaller amounts of E1A abrogated growth arrest without down-regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1). Therefore, E1A can stimulate proliferation downstream of p21(WAF1/CIP1). Albeit less effective than full activity, either Rb- or p300-binding activity of E1A was sufficient for the abrogation of PMA-mediated growth arrest. E1A-driven proliferation of PMA-treated SKBr3 cells was accompanied by apoptosis. New therapeutic approaches can be envisioned that would utilize stimulation of the Raf-1/MEK/MAPK pathway to inhibit growth of PMA-sensitive cancer cells.

  17. The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, VdHog1, regulates osmotic stress response, microsclerotia formation and virulence in Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Verticillium dahliae has gained worldwide notoriety as a destructive plant pathogen, causing vascular wilt diseases on diverse plant species. The fungus produces melanized resting bodies, known as microsclerotia that can survive for 15 years in the soil, and are thus critically important ...

  18. Salidroside attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing nuclear factor-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Depeng; Fu, Yunhe; Zhang, Wen; Su, Gaoli; Liu, Bo; Guo, Mengyao; Li, Fengyang; Liang, Dejie; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Xichen; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng; Yang, Zhengtao

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is defined as inflammation of the mammary gland in domestic dairy animals and humans. Salidroside, a major component isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent anti-inflammatory properties, but whether it can be used in mastitis treatment has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of salidroside against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and the mechanism of action. We used a mouse mastitis model in which mammary gland inflammation was induced by LPS challenge. Salidroside administered 1 h before LPS infusion significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase in mammary tissue, and decreased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that salidroside down-regulated phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) in the NF-κB signal pathway, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in MAPKs signal pathways. This study demonstrates that salidroside is an effective suppressor of inflammation and may be a candidate for the prophylaxis of mastitis.

  19. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E.; Mecawi, André S.; Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C.; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Queiroz, Regina H.; Touyz, Rhian M.; Tirapelli, Carlos R.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT 1 receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT 1 -dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT 1 receptor activation. ► Translocation of p47phox and MAPKs phosphorylation are downstream effectors. ► Acute ethanol consumption increases the risk for acute vascular injury.

  20. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation. ► Translocation of p47phox and MAPKs phosphorylation are downstream effectors. ► Acute ethanol consumption increases the risk for acute vascular injury.

  1. c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inactivation by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 1 Determines Resistance to Taxanes and Anthracyclines in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Raúl; Zazo, Sandra; Chamizo, Cristina; Manso, Rebeca; González-Alonso, Paula; Martín-Aparicio, Ester; Cristóbal, Ion; Cañadas, Carmen; Perona, Rosario; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Albanell, Joan; Rovira, Ana; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

    2016-11-01

    MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is overexpressed during malignant transformation of the breast in many patients, and it is usually associated with chemoresistance through interference with JNK-driven apoptotic pathways. Although the molecular settings of the mechanism have been documented, details about the contribution of MKP-1 to the failure of chemotherapeutic interventions are unclear. Transient overexpression of MKP-1 and treatment with JNK-modulating agents in breast carcinoma cells confirmed the mediation of MKP-1 in the resistance to taxanes and anthracyclines in breast cancer, through the inactivation of JNK1/2. We next assessed MKP-1 expression and JNK1/2 phosphorylation status in a large cohort of samples from 350 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. We detected that MKP-1 overexpression is a recurrent event predominantly linked to dephosphorylation of JNK1/2 with an adverse impact on relapse of the tumor and overall and disease-free survival. Moreover, MKP-1 and p-JNK1/2 determinations in 64 locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy showed an inverse correlation between MKP-1 overexpression (together with JNK1/2 inhibition) and the pathologic response of the tumors. Our results emphasize the importance of MKP-1 as a potential predictive biomarker for a subset of breast cancer patients with worse outcome and less susceptibility to treatment. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2780-90. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang, E-mail: 18710470987@163.com; Ye, Chaofei, E-mail: yechaofei001@163.com; Zhao, Rui, E-mail: 571828628@qq.com; Li, Xin, E-mail: 1458272138@qq.com; Liu, Wu-zhen, E-mail: happywuzhenliu@163.com; Wu, Feifei, E-mail: 283915941@qq.com; Yan, Jingli, E-mail: yanjingli512@163.com; Jiang, Yuan-Qing, E-mail: jiangyq@nwafu.edu.cn; Yang, Bo, E-mail: yangwl@nwafu.edu.cn

    2015-11-27

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Expression of rapeseed MAPKKK4 induced ROS accumulation and cell death in leaves. • Cell death induced by MAPKKK4 is associated with membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. • MAPKKK4 interacts with MKK5 and MPK3. • MAPKKK4-induced ROS accumulation and cell death require downstream WIPK and SIPK. • MAPKKK4 is a novel MAPKKK modulating ROS accumulation and cell death.

  3. Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1 ? ??

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Matthew J.; Spiess, Page C.; Hristova, Milena; Hondal, Robert J.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS) can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal). Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx)-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec) residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant impl...

  4. Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Randall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal. Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1, a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant implications for its enzymatic function, we explored the potential importance of TrxR1 alkylation in acrolein-induced activation or injury of bronchial epithelial cells. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial HBE1 cells to acrolein (1–30 μM resulted in dose-dependent loss of TrxR thioredoxin reductase activity, which coincided with its alkylation, as determined by biotin hydrazide labeling, and was independent of initial GSH status. To test the involvement of TrxR1 in acrolein responses in HBE1 cells, we suppressed TrxR1 using siRNA silencing or augmented TrxR1 by cell supplementation with sodium selenite. Acrolein exposure of HBE1 cells induced dose-dependent activation of the MAP kinases, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38, and activation of JNK was markedly enhanced after selenite-mediated induction of TrxR1, and was associated with increased alkylation of TrxR1. Conversely, siRNA silencing of TrxR1 significantly suppressed the ability of acrolein to activate JNK, and also appeared to attenuate acrolein-dependent activation of ERK and p38. Alteration of initial TrxR1 levels by siRNA or selenite supplementation also affected initial Trx1 redox status and acrolein-mediated alkylation of Trx1, but did not significantly affect acrolein-mediated activation of HO-1 or cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that alkylation of TrxR1 and/or Trx1 may contribute directly to acrolein-mediated activation of MAP kinases such as JNK, and may therefore be important in acrolein-induced alterations in airway epithelial function, as a contributing mechanism in tobacco-related respiratory disease.

  5. Biochemical evidence for the activation of distinct subsets of mitogen-activated protein kinases by voltage and defense-related stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Link, V.; Hofmann, M.; Sinha, A.; Ehness, R.; Strnad, Miroslav; Roitsch, T.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 1 (2002), s. 271-281 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 844.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : TOBACCO SUSPENSION CULTURE * CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES * CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM ION Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.800, year: 2002

  6. Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Matthew J; Spiess, Page C; Hristova, Milena; Hondal, Robert J; van der Vliet, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS) can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal). Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx)-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec) residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant implications for its enzymatic function, we explored the potential importance of TrxR1 alkylation in acrolein-induced activation or injury of bronchial epithelial cells. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial HBE1 cells to acrolein (1-30 μM) resulted in dose-dependent loss of TrxR thioredoxin reductase activity, which coincided with its alkylation, as determined by biotin hydrazide labeling, and was independent of initial GSH status. To test the involvement of TrxR1 in acrolein responses in HBE1 cells, we suppressed TrxR1 using siRNA silencing or augmented TrxR1 by cell supplementation with sodium selenite. Acrolein exposure of HBE1 cells induced dose-dependent activation of the MAP kinases, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, and activation of JNK was markedly enhanced after selenite-mediated induction of TrxR1, and was associated with increased alkylation of TrxR1. Conversely, siRNA silencing of TrxR1 significantly suppressed the ability of acrolein to activate JNK, and also appeared to attenuate acrolein-dependent activation of ERK and p38. Alteration of initial TrxR1 levels by siRNA or selenite supplementation also affected initial Trx1 redox status and acrolein-mediated alkylation of Trx1, but did not significantly affect acrolein-mediated activation of HO-1 or cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that alkylation of TrxR1 and/or Trx1 may contribute directly to acrolein-mediated activation of MAP kinases such as JNK, and may therefore be important in acrolein-induced alterations in airway epithelial function, as a contributing mechanism in tobacco-related respiratory disease.

  7. Involvement of YODA and mitogen activated protein kinase 6 in Arabidopsis post-embryogenic root development through auxin up-regulation and cell division plane orientation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smékalová, V.; Luptovčiak, I.; Komis, G.; Šamajová, O.; Ovečka, M.; Doskočilová, A.; Takáč, T.; Vadovič, P.; Novák, Ondřej; Pechan, T.; Ziemann, A.; Košútová, P.; Šamaj, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 4 (2014), s. 1175-1193 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis * cell division plane * MAP65-1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.672, year: 2014

  8. Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Standardized Annona muricata (Graviola) Leaf Extract via Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Goon-Tae; Tran, Nguyen Khoi Song; Choi, Eun-Hye; Song, Yoo-Jeong; Song, Jae-Hwi; Shim, Soon-Mi; Park, Tae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside by LC-MS/MS. When treated with steam or 50% ethanol GE, cell morphology was altered due to initiation of cell differentiation. ...

  9. Estrogen induction of telomerase activity through regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK dependent pathway in human endometrial cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhou

    Full Text Available Given that prolonged exposure to estrogen and increased telomerase activity are associated with endometrial carcinogenesis, our objective was to evaluate the interaction between the MAPK pathway and estrogen induction of telomerase activity in endometrial cancer cells. Estradiol (E2 induced telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression in the estrogen receptor (ER-α positive, Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line. UO126, a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/MEK2, inhibited telomerase activity and hTERT mRNA expression induced by E2. Similar results were also found after transfection with ERK 1/2-specific siRNA. Treatment with E2 resulted in rapid phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK and increased MAPK activity which was abolished by UO126. The hTERT promoter contains two estrogen response elements (EREs, and luciferase assays demonstrate that these EREs are activated by E2. Exposure to UO126 or ERK 1/2-specific siRNA in combination with E2 counteracted the stimulatory effect of E2 on luciferase activity from these EREs. These findings suggest that E2-induction of telomerase activity is mediated via the MAPK pathway in human endometrial cancer cells.

  10. Eotaxin induces degranulation and chemotaxis of eosinophils through the activation of ERK2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampen, G T; Stafford, S; Adachi, T

    2000-01-01

    not be detected. The kinase activity of ERK2 and p38 paralleled phosphorylation. PD980 59, an inhibitor of the ERK2-activating enzyme MEK (MAP ERK kinase), blocked phosphorylation of ERK2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The functional relevance of ERK2 and p38 was studied using PD98 059 and the p38 inhibitor...... was assessed using Boyden microchambers. Eotaxin (10(-11) to 10(-7) mol/L) induced concentration-dependent phosphorylation of ERK2 and p38. Phosphorylation was detectable after 30 seconds, peaked at about 1 minute, and returned to baseline after 2 to 5 minutes. Phosphorylation of JNK above baseline could...... SB202 190. PD98 059 and SB202 190 both caused inhibition of eotaxin-induced ECP release and chemotaxis. We conclude that eotaxin induces a rapid concentration-dependent activation of ERK2 and p38 in eosinophils and that the activation of these MAP kinases is required for eotaxin...

  11. Silencing of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) Fus3 and Slt2 in Pseudocercospora fijiensis Reduces Growth and Virulence on Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyilo, Francis; Tusiime, Geoffrey; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Chen, Li-Hung; Falk, Bryce; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Kubiriba, Jerome; Tripathi, Leena

    2018-01-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis , causal agent of the black Sigatoka disease (BSD) of Musa spp., has spread globally since its discovery in Fiji 1963 to all the banana and plantain growing areas across the globe. It is becoming the most damaging and economically important disease of this crop. The identification and characterization of genes that regulate infection processes and pathogenicity in P. fijiensis will provide important knowledge for the development of disease-resistant cultivars. In many fungal plant pathogens, the Fus3 and Slt2 are reported to be essential for pathogenicity. Fus3 regulates filamentous-invasion pathways including the formation of infection structures, sporulation, virulence, and invasive and filamentous growth, whereas Slt2 is involved in the cell-wall integrity pathway, virulence, invasive growth, and colonization in host tissues. Here, we used RNAi-mediated gene silencing to investigate the role of the Slt2 and Fus3 homologs in P. fijiensis in pathogen invasiveness, growth and pathogenicity. The PfSlt2 and PfFus3 silenced P. fijiensis transformants showed significantly lower gene expression and reduced virulence, invasive growth, and lower biomass in infected leaf tissues of East African Highland Banana (EAHB). This study suggests that Slt2 and Fus3 MAPK signaling pathways play important roles in plant infection and pathogenic growth of fungal pathogens. The silencing of these vital fungal genes through host-induced gene silencing (HIG) could be an alternative strategy for developing transgenic banana and plantain resistant to BSD.

  12. Silencing of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK Fus3 and Slt2 in Pseudocercospora fijiensis Reduces Growth and Virulence on Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Onyilo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocercospora fijiensis, causal agent of the black Sigatoka disease (BSD of Musa spp., has spread globally since its discovery in Fiji 1963 to all the banana and plantain growing areas across the globe. It is becoming the most damaging and economically important disease of this crop. The identification and characterization of genes that regulate infection processes and pathogenicity in P. fijiensis will provide important knowledge for the development of disease-resistant cultivars. In many fungal plant pathogens, the Fus3 and Slt2 are reported to be essential for pathogenicity. Fus3 regulates filamentous-invasion pathways including the formation of infection structures, sporulation, virulence, and invasive and filamentous growth, whereas Slt2 is involved in the cell-wall integrity pathway, virulence, invasive growth, and colonization in host tissues. Here, we used RNAi-mediated gene silencing to investigate the role of the Slt2 and Fus3 homologs in P. fijiensis in pathogen invasiveness, growth and pathogenicity. The PfSlt2 and PfFus3 silenced P. fijiensis transformants showed significantly lower gene expression and reduced virulence, invasive growth, and lower biomass in infected leaf tissues of East African Highland Banana (EAHB. This study suggests that Slt2 and Fus3 MAPK signaling pathways play important roles in plant infection and pathogenic growth of fungal pathogens. The silencing of these vital fungal genes through host-induced gene silencing (HIG could be an alternative strategy for developing transgenic banana and plantain resistant to BSD.

  13. Differential Expression of Phosphorylated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (pMAPK) in the Lateral Amygdala of Mice Selectively Bred for High and Low Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    into years, and the learning is more diverse than you had any idea it would be. In some ways, the learning and growth that occurs is hard to...with me thanks to your tutelage. To all of the veterinarians, veterinary staff, animal husbandry division (AHD), and the IA CUC, thank-you for...conditioning is an exceptionally robust behavioral paradigm, circadian rhythms in hormonal and molecular systems influencing learning and memory may

  14. Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Matthew J.; Spiess, Page C.; Hristova, Milena; Hondal, Robert J.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS) can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal). Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx)-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec) residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant implications for its enzymatic function, we explored the potential importance of TrxR1 alkylation in acrolein-induced activation or injury of bronchial epithelial cells. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial HBE1 cells to acrolein (1–30 μM) resulted in dose-dependent loss of TrxR thioredoxin reductase activity, which coincided with its alkylation, as determined by biotin hydrazide labeling, and was independent of initial GSH status. To test the involvement of TrxR1 in acrolein responses in HBE1 cells, we suppressed TrxR1 using siRNA silencing or augmented TrxR1 by cell supplementation with sodium selenite. Acrolein exposure of HBE1 cells induced dose-dependent activation of the MAP kinases, extracellular regulated1 kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, and activation of JNK was markedly enhanced after selenite-mediated induction of TrxR1, and was associated with increased alkylation of TrxR1. Conversely, siRNA silencing of TrxR1 significantly suppressed the ability of acrolein to activate JNK, and also appeared to attenuate acrolein-dependent activation of ERK and p38. Alteration of initial TrxR1 levels by siRNA or selenite supplementation also affected initial Trx1 redox status and acrolein-mediated alkylation of Trx1, but did not significantly affect acrolein-mediated activation of HO-1 or cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that alkylation of TrxR1 and/or Trx1 may contribute directly to acrolein-mediated activation of MAP kinases such as JNK, and may therefore be important in acrolein-induced alterations in airway epithelial function, as a contributing mechanism in tobacco-related respiratory disease. PMID:24024160

  15. Immunomodulatory beta-glucan from Lentinus edodes activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Pan, Chen; Zhang, Lina; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2011-09-09

    Lentinan, a cell wall β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, is well known to be a biological defense modifier, but the signal transduction pathway(s) induced by Lentinan have not been elucidated. In this study, we extracted Lentinan (LNT-S) by ultrasonication from Lentinus edodes and report that, in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, LNT-S glucan activated NF-κB p65 and triggered its nuclear translocation as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, LNT-S enhanced NF-κB-luciferase activity in the Dual-Luciferase gene system assay. Its upstream signaling molecules, MAPKs such as ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, were shown to be activated by assessing the level of phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but its downstream proinflammatory enzyme, inducible NOS, was not observed. The data evaluated using a TNF-α ELISA kit and Griess reagent further demonstrated that no proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and NO were produced by LNT-S stimulation in RAW 264.7 cells. In contrast, LPS significantly induced inducible NOS expression and increased NO and TNF-α production, which are associated with activation of the NF-κB p65/p50 heterodimer complex. It is possible that LNT-S did not activate NF-κB p65/p50, and the activation of NF-κB p65 was not sufficient to stimulate cytokine production. These data demonstrate that LNT-S glucan carries out its immunomodulating activity by activating MAPK signaling pathways without secretion of TNF-α and NO.

  16. Regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p44 ERK activity during anoxia/recovery in rainbow trout hypodermal fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossum, Carlo G; Wulff, Tune; Hoffmann, Else K

    2006-01-01

    was secondary to activation of p38(MAPK) and the increase was MEK dependent, as SB203580 inhibited the dephosphorylation during anoxia and the presence of PD98059 inhibited phosphorylation of p44ERK during recovery. In addition, we demonstrated that the reactivation of p44ERK during recovery also was dependent...

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) 4 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a novel member inducing ROS accumulation and cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Ye, Chaofei; Zhao, Rui; Li, Xin; Liu, Wu-zhen; Wu, Feifei; Yan, Jingli; Jiang, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    MAPKKK is the largest family of MAPK cascade, which is known to play important roles in plant growth, development and immune responses. So far, only a few have been functionally characterized even in the model plant, Arabidopsis due to the potential functional redundancy of MAPKKK. We previously identified and cloned a few MAPKKK family genes from rapeseed. In this study, BnaMAPKKK4 was characterized as a member in eliciting accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. This is accompanied with accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), anthocyanin as well as nuclear DNA fragmentation. The transcript abundance of a series of ROS accumulation, cell death, and defense response related genes were up-regulated by the expression of MAPKKK4. Further investigation identified BnaMAPKKK4 elicited ROS through the downstream MPK3. These results indicate that BnaMAPKKK4 and its downstream components function in the ROS-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Expression of rapeseed MAPKKK4 induced ROS accumulation and cell death in leaves. • Cell death induced by MAPKKK4 is associated with membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation. • MAPKKK4 interacts with MKK5 and MPK3. • MAPKKK4-induced ROS accumulation and cell death require downstream WIPK and SIPK. • MAPKKK4 is a novel MAPKKK modulating ROS accumulation and cell death.

  18. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate does not inhibit gonadotropin-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 in pig cumulus-oocyte complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaha, Milan; Němcová, Lucie; Procházka, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2015) ISSN 1477-7827 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/0593; GA MZe QI101A166 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : pig * oocyte * cGMP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.147, year: 2015

  19. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH, Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly, and Porphyra (P334 were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK. These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies.

  20. The Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is associated with γ-tubulin on microtubules, phosphorylates EB1c and maintains spindle orientation under nitrosative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutová, Lucie; Kourová, Hana; Nagy, S. K.; Volc, Jindřich; Halada, Petr; Mészáros, T.; Meskiene, I.; Bögre, L.; Binarová, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2015), s. 1061-1074 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AT013; GA ČR GAP501/12/2333 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arabidopsis * cell division * EB1c Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.210, year: 2015

  1. 2-Aminopyridine-Based Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Inhibitors: Assessment of Mechanism-Based Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Robert L; Ammirati, Mark; Bagley, Scott W; Bhattacharya, Samit K; Buckbinder, Leonard; Cortes, Christian; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Ford, Kristen; Freeman, Gary B; Guimarães, Cristiano R W; Liu, Shenping; Niosi, Mark; Skoura, Athanasia; Tess, David

    2018-04-12

    Studies have linked the serine-threonine kinase MAP4K4 to the regulation of a number of biological processes and/or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, inflammation, and angiogenesis. With a majority of the members of our lead series (e.g., 1) suffering from time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, we sought design avenues that would eliminate this risk. One such approach arose from the observation that carboxylic acid-based intermediates employed in our discovery efforts retained high MAP4K4 inhibitory potency and were devoid of the TDI risk. The medicinal chemistry effort that led to the discovery of this central nervous system-impaired inhibitor together with its preclinical safety profile is described.

  2. Salvage of Failed Protein Targets by Reductive Alkylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Kim, Youngchang; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Chhor, Gekleng; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Michalska, Karolina; Nocek, Boguslaw; An, Hao; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Bigelow, Lance; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Li, Hui; Mack, Jamey; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Tesar, Christine; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The growth of diffraction-quality single crystals is of primary importance in protein X-ray crystallography. Chemical modification of proteins can alter their surface properties and crystallization behavior. The Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG) has previously reported how reductive methylation of lysine residues in proteins can improve crystallization of unique proteins that initially failed to produce diffraction-quality crystals. Recently, this approach has been expanded to include ethylation and isopropylation in the MCSG protein crystallization pipeline. Applying standard methods, 180 unique proteins were alkylated and screened using standard crystallization procedures. Crystal structures of 12 new proteins were determined, including the first ethylated and the first isopropylated protein structures. In a few cases, the structures of native and methylated or ethylated states were obtained and the impact of reductive alkylation of lysine residues was assessed. Reductive methylation tends to be more efficient and produces the most alkylated protein structures. Structures of methylated proteins typically have higher resolution limits. A number of well-ordered alkylated lysine residues have been identified, which make both intermolecular and intramolecular contacts. The previous report is updated and complemented with the following new data; a description of a detailed alkylation protocol with results, structural features, and roles of alkylated lysine residues in protein crystals. These contribute to improved crystallization properties of some proteins. PMID:24590719

  3. The exception proves the rule? Dual targeting of nuclear-encoded proteins into endosymbiotic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudisch, Bianca; Langner, Uwe; Garz, Ingo; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells harbor two types of endosymbiotic organelle: mitochondria and chloroplasts. As a consequence of endosymbiotic gene transfer, the majority of their proteins are encoded in the nucleus and post-translationally 're'-imported into the respective target organelle. The corresponding transport signals are usually selective for a single organelle, but several proteins are transported into both the mitochondria and chloroplasts. To estimate the number of proteins with such dual targeting properties in Arabidopsis, we classified the proteins encoded by nuclear genes of endosymbiotic origin according to the respective targeting specificity of their N-terminal transport signals as predicted by the TargetP software package. Selected examples of the resulting protein classes were subsequently analyzed by transient transformation assays as well as by in organello protein transport experiments. It was found that most proteins with high prediction values for both organelles show dual targeting with both experimental approaches. Unexpectedly, however, dual targeting was even found among those proteins that are predicted to be localized solely in one of the two endosymbiotic organelles. In total, among the 16 candidate proteins analyzed, we identified 10 proteins with dual targeting properties. This unexpectedly high proportion suggests that such transport properties are much more abundant than anticipated. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Targeting 14-3-3 adaptor protein-protein interactions to stimulate central nervous system repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of developing treatments for central nervous system (CNS injuries is becoming more attainable with the recent identification of various drugs that can repair damaged axons. These discoveries have stemmed from screening efforts, large expression datasets and an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular biology underlying axon growth. It will be important to continue searching for new compounds that can induce axon repair. Here we describe how a family of adaptor proteins called 14-3-3s can be targeted using small molecule drugs to enhance axon outgrowth and regeneration. 14-3-3s bind to many functionally diverse client proteins to regulate their functions. We highlight the recent discovery of the axon-growth promoting activity of fusicoccin-A, a fungus-derived small molecule that stabilizes 14-3-3 interactions with their client proteins. Here we discuss how fusicoccin-A could serve as a starting point for the development of drugs to induce CNS repair.

  5. Sequence- and interactome-based prediction of viral protein hotspots targeting host proteins: a case study for HIV Nef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available Virus proteins alter protein pathways of the host toward the synthesis of viral particles by breaking and making edges via binding to host proteins. In this study, we developed a computational approach to predict viral sequence hotspots for binding to host proteins based on sequences of viral and host proteins and literature-curated virus-host protein interactome data. We use a motif discovery algorithm repeatedly on collections of sequences of viral proteins and immediate binding partners of their host targets and choose only those motifs that are conserved on viral sequences and highly statistically enriched among binding partners of virus protein targeted host proteins. Our results match experimental data on binding sites of Nef to host proteins such as MAPK1, VAV1, LCK, HCK, HLA-A, CD4, FYN, and GNB2L1 with high statistical significance but is a poor predictor of Nef binding sites on highly flexible, hoop-like regions. Predicted hotspots recapture CD8 cell epitopes of HIV Nef highlighting their importance in modulating virus-host interactions. Host proteins potentially targeted or outcompeted by Nef appear crowding the T cell receptor, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Scanning of HIV Nef motifs on multiple alignments of hepatitis C protein NS5A produces results consistent with literature, indicating the potential value of the hotspot discovery in advancing our understanding of virus-host crosstalk.

  6. Arbitrary protein−protein docking targets biologically relevant interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Juliette

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein recognition is of fundamental importance in the vast majority of biological processes. However, it has already been demonstrated that it is very hard to distinguish true complexes from false complexes in so-called cross-docking experiments, where binary protein complexes are separated and the isolated proteins are all docked against each other and scored. Does this result, at least in part, reflect a physical reality? False complexes could reflect possible nonspecific or weak associations. Results In this paper, we investigate the twilight zone of protein-protein interactions, building on an interesting outcome of cross-docking experiments: false complexes seem to favor residues from the true interaction site, suggesting that randomly chosen partners dock in a non-random fashion on protein surfaces. Here, we carry out arbitrary docking of a non-redundant data set of 198 proteins, with more than 300 randomly chosen "probe" proteins. We investigate the tendency of arbitrary partners to aggregate at localized regions of the protein surfaces, the shape and compositional bias of the generated interfaces, and the potential of this property to predict biologically relevant binding sites. We show that the non-random localization of arbitrary partners after protein-protein docking is a generic feature of protein structures. The interfaces generated in this way are not systematically planar or curved, but tend to be closer than average to the center of the proteins. These results can be used to predict biological interfaces with an AUC value up to 0.69 alone, and 0.72 when used in combination with evolutionary information. An appropriate choice of random partners and number of docking models make this method computationally practical. It is also noted that nonspecific interfaces can point to alternate interaction sites in the case of proteins with multiple interfaces. We illustrate the usefulness of arbitrary docking

  7. Arbitrary protein−protein docking targets biologically relevant interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Juliette; Lavery, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein recognition is of fundamental importance in the vast majority of biological processes. However, it has already been demonstrated that it is very hard to distinguish true complexes from false complexes in so-called cross-docking experiments, where binary protein complexes are separated and the isolated proteins are all docked against each other and scored. Does this result, at least in part, reflect a physical reality? False complexes could reflect possible nonspecific or weak associations. In this paper, we investigate the twilight zone of protein-protein interactions, building on an interesting outcome of cross-docking experiments: false complexes seem to favor residues from the true interaction site, suggesting that randomly chosen partners dock in a non-random fashion on protein surfaces. Here, we carry out arbitrary docking of a non-redundant data set of 198 proteins, with more than 300 randomly chosen "probe" proteins. We investigate the tendency of arbitrary partners to aggregate at localized regions of the protein surfaces, the shape and compositional bias of the generated interfaces, and the potential of this property to predict biologically relevant binding sites. We show that the non-random localization of arbitrary partners after protein-protein docking is a generic feature of protein structures. The interfaces generated in this way are not systematically planar or curved, but tend to be closer than average to the center of the proteins. These results can be used to predict biological interfaces with an AUC value up to 0.69 alone, and 0.72 when used in combination with evolutionary information. An appropriate choice of random partners and number of docking models make this method computationally practical. It is also noted that nonspecific interfaces can point to alternate interaction sites in the case of proteins with multiple interfaces. We illustrate the usefulness of arbitrary docking using PEBP (Phosphatidylethanolamine binding

  8. Genomes2Drugs: identifies target proteins and lead drugs from proteome data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins\\/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and\\/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i) homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii) targets of known drugs, but are (iii) not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under \\'change-of-application\\' patents.

  9. Genomes2Drugs: identifies target proteins and lead drugs from proteome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toomey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome sequencing and bioinformatics have provided the full hypothetical proteome of many pathogenic organisms. Advances in microarray and mass spectrometry have also yielded large output datasets of possible target proteins/genes. However, the challenge remains to identify new targets for drug discovery from this wealth of information. Further analysis includes bioinformatics and/or molecular biology tools to validate the findings. This is time consuming and expensive, and could fail to yield novel drugs if protein purification and crystallography is impossible. To pre-empt this, a researcher may want to rapidly filter the output datasets for proteins that show good homology to proteins that have already been structurally characterised or proteins that are already targets for known drugs. Critically, those researchers developing novel antibiotics need to select out the proteins that show close homology to any human proteins, as future inhibitors are likely to cross-react with the host protein, causing off-target toxicity effects later in clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To solve many of these issues, we have developed a free online resource called Genomes2Drugs which ranks sequences to identify proteins that are (i homologous to previously crystallized proteins or (ii targets of known drugs, but are (iii not homologous to human proteins. When tested using the Plasmodium falciparum malarial genome the program correctly enriched the ranked list of proteins with known drug target proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genomes2Drugs rapidly identifies proteins that are likely to succeed in drug discovery pipelines. This free online resource helps in the identification of potential drug targets. Importantly, the program further highlights proteins that are likely to be inhibited by FDA-approved drugs. These drugs can then be rapidly moved into Phase IV clinical studies under 'change-of-application' patents.

  10. Targeted amino-terminal acetylation of recombinant proteins in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Johnson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One major limitation in the expression of eukaryotic proteins in bacteria is an inability to post-translationally modify the expressed protein. Amino-terminal acetylation is one such modification that can be essential for protein function. By co-expressing the fission yeast NatB complex with the target protein in E.coli, we report a simple and widely applicable method for the expression and purification of functional N-terminally acetylated eukaryotic proteins.

  11. Targeted degradomics in protein terminomics and protease substrate discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savickas, Simonas; auf dem Keller, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    extensive degradomics target lists that now can be tested with help of selected and parallel reaction monitoring (S/PRM) in complex biological systems, where proteases act in physiological environments. In this minireview, we describe the general principles of targeted degradomics, outline the generic...

  12. The evolution of regulators of G protein signalling proteins as drug targets - 20 years in the making: IUPHAR Review 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, B

    2017-03-01

    Regulators of G protein signalling (RGS) proteins are celebrating the 20th anniversary of their discovery. The unveiling of this new family of negative regulators of G protein signalling in the mid-1990s solved a persistent conundrum in the G protein signalling field, in which the rate of deactivation of signalling cascades in vivo could not be replicated in exogenous systems. Since then, there has been tremendous advancement in the knowledge of RGS protein structure, function, regulation and their role as novel drug targets. RGS proteins play an important modulatory role through their GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity at active, GTP-bound Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. They also possess many non-canonical functions not related to G protein signalling. Here, an update on the status of RGS proteins as drug targets is provided, highlighting advances that have led to the inclusion of RGS proteins in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY database of drug targets. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Molecular Pathways : Targeting the Protein Kinase Wee1 in Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, Jill J.; Schellens, Jan H M

    2017-01-01

    Wee1 is a protein kinase that regulates the G2checkpoint and prevents entry into mitosis in response to DNA damage. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) are a family of 14 serine/threonine protein kinases that coordinate the progression through the cell cycle. The Cdc2/cyclin B complex controls the

  14. Signalling and chemosensitivity assays in melanoma: is mutated status a prerequisite for targeted therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Allegra, Maryline; Ségalen, Coralie; Deville, Anne; Thyss, Antoine; Giacchero, Damien; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Bertolotto, Corine; Ballotti, Robert; Bahadoran, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Selection for targeted therapies in melanoma is currently based on the search for mutations in selected genes. We aimed at evaluating the interest of signalling and chemosensitivity studies in addition to genotyping for assessing the best suitable treatment in an individual patient. We extracted genomic DNA and melanoma cells from tumor tissue of a skin metastasis of a 17-year-old woman with stage IV melanoma progressing despite three successive lines of treatment. Despite the absence of mutation in BRAF, NRAS cKIT, the MAPK pathway was activated and a significant response to sorafenib, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/RAF inhibitor, was found in signalling and chemosensitivity assays. A treatment combining sorafenib and dacarbazine produced a partial response for 9 months, with marked necrosis in some lesions. Chemosensitivity assays and signalling pathway studies could be of great value in addition to genotyping for assessing the most appropriate treatment in melanoma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Mitochondria Targeted Protein-Ruthenium Photosensitizer for Efficient Photodynamic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Stumper, Anne; Vegi, Naidu M; Fischer, Stephan; Reichardt, Christian; K?gler, Michael; Dietzek, Benjamin; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Buske, Christian; Rau, Sven; Weil, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Organelle-targeted photosensitization represents a promising approach in photodynamic therapy where the design of the active photosensitizer (PS) is very crucial. In this work, we developed a macromolecular PS with multiple copies of mitochondria-targeting groups and ruthenium complexes that displays highest phototoxicity toward several cancerous cell lines. In particular, enhanced anticancer activity was demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines, where significant impairment of proli...

  16. N-Terminal-Based Targeted, Inducible Protein Degradation in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Sekar

    Full Text Available Dynamically altering protein concentration is a central activity in synthetic biology. While many tools are available to modulate protein concentration by altering protein synthesis rate, methods for decreasing protein concentration by inactivation or degradation rate are just being realized. Altering protein synthesis rates can quickly increase the concentration of a protein but not decrease, as residual protein will remain for a while. Inducible, targeted protein degradation is an attractive option and some tools have been introduced for higher organisms and bacteria. Current bacterial tools rely on C-terminal fusions, so we have developed an N-terminal fusion (Ntag strategy to increase the possible proteins that can be targeted. We demonstrate Ntag dependent degradation of mCherry and beta-galactosidase and reconfigure the Ntag system to perform dynamic, exogenously inducible degradation of a targeted protein and complement protein depletion by traditional synthesis repression. Model driven analysis that focused on rates, rather than concentrations, was critical to understanding and engineering the system. We expect this tool and our model to enable inducible protein degradation use particularly in metabolic engineering, biological study of essential proteins, and protein circuits.

  17. A Universal Method for Fishing Target Proteins from Mixtures of Biomolecules using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.; Sun, Q; Kini, R; Sivaraman, J

    2008-01-01

    The most challenging tasks in biology include the identification of (1) the orphan receptor for a ligand, (2) the ligand for an orphan receptor protein, and (3) the target protein(s) for a given drug or a lead compound that are critical for the pharmacological or side effects. At present, several approaches are available, including cell- or animal-based assays, affinity labeling, solid-phase binding assays, surface plasmon resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Most of these techniques are not easy to apply when the target protein is unknown and the compound is not amenable to labeling, chemical modification, or immobilization. Here we demonstrate a new universal method for fishing orphan target proteins from a complex mixture of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) as a tracking tool. We took snake venom, a crude mixture of several hundred proteins/peptides, as a model to demonstrate our proposed ITC method in tracking the isolation and purification of two distinct target proteins, a major component and a minor component. Identities of fished out target proteins were confirmed by amino acid sequencing and inhibition assays. This method has the potential to make a significant advancement in the area of identifying orphan target proteins and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and characterization.

  18. Targeting Protein Aggregation for the Treatment of Degenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Yvonne S.; Monteiro, Cecilia; Fearns, Colleen; Encalada, Sandra E.; Wiseman, R. Luke; Powers, Evan T.; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of specific proteins is hypothesized to underlie several degenerative diseases, collectively called amyloid disorders. However, the mechanistic connection between the process of protein aggregation and tissue degeneration is not yet fully understood. Here, we review current and emerging strategies to ameliorate aggregation-associated degenerative disorders, with a focus on disease-modifying strategies that prevent the formation of and/or eliminate protein aggregates. Persuasive pharmacologic and genetic evidence now support protein aggregation as the cause of post-mitotic tissue dysfunction or loss. However, a more detailed understanding of the factors that trigger and sustain aggregate formation, as well as the structure-activity relationships underlying proteotoxicity are needed to develop future disease-modifying therapies. PMID:26338154

  19. Biomarkers for ragwort poisoning in horses: identification of protein targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beynon Robert J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of the poisonous weed ragwort (Senecio jacobea by horses leads to irreversible liver damage. The principal toxins of ragwort are the pyrrolizidine alkaloids that are rapidly metabolised to highly reactive and cytotoxic pyrroles, which can escape into the circulation and bind to proteins. In this study a non-invasive in vitro model system has been developed to investigate whether pyrrole toxins induce specific modifications of equine blood proteins that are detectable by proteomic methods. Results One dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed a significant alteration in the equine plasma protein profile following pyrrole exposure and the formation of a high molecular weight protein aggregate. Using mass spectrometry and confirmation by western blotting the major components of this aggregate were identified as fibrinogen, serum albumin and transferrin. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that pyrrolic metabolites can modify equine plasma proteins. The high molecular weight aggregate may result from extensive inter- and intra-molecular cross-linking of fibrinogen with the pyrrole. This model has the potential to form the basis of a novel proteomic strategy aimed at identifying surrogate protein biomarkers of ragwort exposure in horses and other livestock.

  20. A structural annotation resource for the selection of putative target proteins in the malaria parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert Fourie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structure plays a pivotal role in elucidating mechanisms of parasite functioning and drug resistance. Moreover, protein structure aids the determination of protein function, which can together with the structure be used to identify novel drug targets in the parasite. However, various structural features in Plasmodium falciparum proteins complicate the experimental determination of protein structures. Limited similarity to proteins in the Protein Data Bank and the shortage of solved protein structures in the malaria parasite necessitate genome-scale structural annotation of P. falciparum proteins. Additionally, the annotation of a range of structural features facilitates the identification of suitable targets for experimental and computational studies. Methods An integrated structural annotation system was developed and applied to P. falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium yoelii. The annotation included searches for sequence similarity, patterns and domains in addition to the following predictions: secondary structure, transmembrane helices, protein disorder, low complexity, coiled-coils and small molecule interactions. Subsequently, candidate proteins for further structural studies were identified based on the annotated structural features. Results The annotation results are accessible through a web interface, enabling users to select groups of proteins which fulfil multiple criteria pertaining to structural and functional features 1. Analysis of features in the P. falciparum proteome showed that protein-interacting proteins contained a higher percentage of predicted disordered residues than non-interacting proteins. Proteins interacting with 10 or more proteins have a disordered content concentrated in the range of 60–100%, while the disorder distribution for proteins having only one interacting partner, was more evenly spread. Conclusion A series of P. falciparum protein targets for experimental structure

  1. Characterization of a mitochondrially targeted single-stranded DNA-binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Andrew C; Song, Daqing; Alvarez, Luis A; Wall, Melisa K; Almond, David; McClellan, David A; Maxwell, Anthony; Nielsen, Brent L

    2005-04-01

    A gene encoding a predicted mitochondrially targeted single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) was identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence. This gene (At4g11060) codes for a protein of 201 amino acids, including a 28-residue putative mitochondrial targeting transit peptide. Protein sequence alignment shows high similarity between the mtSSB protein and single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB) from bacteria, including residues conserved for SSB function. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a close relationship between this protein and other mitochondrially targeted SSB proteins. The predicted targeting sequence was fused with the GFP coding region, and the organellar localization of the expressed fusion protein was determined. Specific targeting to mitochondria was observed in in-vitro import experiments and by transient expression of a GFP fusion construct in Arabidopsis leaves after microprojectile bombardment. The mature mtSSB coding region was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the protein was purified for biochemical characterization. The purified protein binds single-stranded, but not double-stranded, DNA. MtSSB stimulates the homologous strand-exchange activity of E. coli RecA. These results indicate that mtSSB is a functional homologue of the E. coli SSB, and that it may play a role in mitochondrial DNA recombination.

  2. Nonstructural Proteins of Alphavirus—Potential Targets for Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Abu Bakar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses are enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA viruses, typically transmitted by arthropods. They often cause arthralgia or encephalitic diseases in infected humans and there is currently no targeted antiviral treatment available. The re-emergence of alphaviruses in Asia, Europe, and the Americas over the last decade, including chikungunya and o’nyong’nyong viruses, have intensified the search for selective inhibitors. In this review, we highlight key molecular determinants within the alphavirus replication complex that have been identified as viral targets, focusing on their structure and functionality in viral dissemination. We also summarize recent structural data of these viral targets and discuss how these could serve as templates to facilitate structure-based drug design and development of small molecule inhibitors.

  3. Identification of putative drug targets for human sperm-egg interaction defect using protein network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetian, Soudabeh; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir

    2015-07-18

    Sperm-egg interaction defect is a significant cause of in-vitro fertilization failure for infertile cases. Numerous molecular interactions in the form of protein-protein interactions mediate the sperm-egg membrane interaction process. Recent studies have demonstrated that in addition to experimental techniques, computational methods, namely protein interaction network approach, can address protein-protein interactions between human sperm and egg. Up to now, no drugs have been detected to treat sperm-egg interaction disorder, and the initial step in drug discovery research is finding out essential proteins or drug targets for a biological process. The main purpose of this study is to identify putative drug targets for human sperm-egg interaction deficiency and consider if the detected essential proteins are targets for any known drugs using protein-protein interaction network and ingenuity pathway analysis. We have created human sperm-egg protein interaction networks with high confidence, including 106 nodes and 415 interactions. Through topological analysis of the network with calculation of some metrics, such as connectivity and betweenness centrality, we have identified 13 essential proteins as putative drug targets. The potential drug targets are from integrins, fibronectins, epidermal growth factor receptors, collagens and tetraspanins protein families. We evaluated these targets by ingenuity pathway analysis, and the known drugs for the targets have been detected, and the possible effective role of the drugs on sperm-egg interaction defect has been considered. These results showed that the drugs ocriplasmin (Jetrea©), gefitinib (Iressa©), erlotinib hydrochloride (Tarceva©), clingitide, cetuximab (Erbitux©) and panitumumab (Vectibix©) are possible candidates for efficacy testing for the treatment of sperm-egg interaction deficiency. Further experimental validation can be carried out to confirm these results. We have identified the first potential list of

  4. Structural Basis for Target Protein Regcognition by Thiredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an ubiquitous protein disulfide reductase that possesses two redox active cysteines in the conserved active site sequence motif, Trp-CysN-Gly/Pro-Pro-CysC situated in the so called Trx-fold. The lack of insight into the protein substrate recognition mechanism of Trx has to date...... on HvTrxh2 surface, associated through several van der Waals contacts and three backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds resembling beta-sheet formation. Moreover, a pattern of interactions essentially identical to that in HvTrxh2-S-S-BASI was observed in the structure of HvTrxh1 crystallized in the oxidized...... form. In the crystal lattice, HvTrxh1 formed a dimer, in which a loop segment from one molecule was situated along the hydrophobic groove at the active site of another molecule. The observed manner of protein recognition by Trx was similar in the central part to the glutathione recognition mechanisms...

  5. Alternative splicing affects the targeting sequence of peroxisome proteins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chuanjing; Gao, Yuefang; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Xiaomin; Gao, Fuli; Gao, Hongbo

    2017-07-01

    A systematic analysis of the Arabidopsis genome in combination with localization experiments indicates that alternative splicing affects the peroxisomal targeting sequence of at least 71 genes in Arabidopsis. Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic cellular organelles that play a key role in diverse metabolic functions. All peroxisome proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and target to peroxisomes mainly through two types of targeting signals: peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) and PTS2. Alternative splicing (AS) is a process occurring in all eukaryotes by which a single pre-mRNA can generate multiple mRNA variants, often encoding proteins with functional differences. However, the effects of AS on the PTS1 or PTS2 and the targeting of the protein were rarely studied, especially in plants. Here, we systematically analyzed the genome of Arabidopsis, and found that the C-terminal targeting sequence PTS1 of 66 genes and the N-terminal targeting sequence PTS2 of 5 genes are affected by AS. Experimental determination of the targeting of selected protein isoforms further demonstrated that AS at both the 5' and 3' region of a gene can affect the inclusion of PTS2 and PTS1, respectively. This work underscores the importance of AS on the global regulation of peroxisome protein targeting.

  6. DUSP1 is a novel target for enhancing pancreatic cancer cell sensitivity to gemcitabine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is a deadly cancer with a poor prognosis that is characterized by excessive mitogenic pathway activation and marked chemoresistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs. Dual specificity protein phosphatase 1 (DUSP1 is a key negative regulator of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs. Yet, DUSP1 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs in PDAC where it paradoxically enhances colony formation in soft agar and promotes in vivo tumorigenicity. However, it is not known whether DUSP1 overexpression contributes to PDAC chemoresistance. Using BxPC3 and COLO-357 human PCCs, we show that gemcitabine activates c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK, key kinases in two major stress-activated signaling pathways. Gemcitabine-induced JNK and p38 MAPK activation mediates increased apoptosis, but also transcriptionally upregulates DUSP1, as evidenced by increased DUSP1 mRNA levels and RNA polymerase II loading at DUSP1 gene body. Conversely, shRNA-mediated inhibition of DUSP1 enhances JNK and p38 MAPK activation and gemcitabine chemosensitivity. Using doxycycline-inducible knockdown of DUSP1 in established orthotopic pancreatic tumors, we found that combining gemcitabine with DUSP1 inhibition improves animal survival, attenuates angiogenesis, and enhances apoptotic cell death, as compared with gemcitabine alone. Taken together, these results suggest that gemcitabine-mediated upregulation of DUSP1 contributes to a negative feedback loop that attenuates its beneficial actions on stress pathways and apoptosis, raising the possibility that targeting DUSP1 in PDAC may have the advantage of enhancing gemcitabine chemosensitivity while suppressing angiogenesis.

  7. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP as a novel metabolic target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Sánchez-Garrido

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that pharmacological inhibition of FAP enhances levels of FGF21 in obese mice to provide robust metabolic benefits not observed in lean animals, thus validating this enzyme as a novel drug target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  8. Moonlighting adenosine deaminase: a target protein for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Antoni; Gracia, Eduard; Moreno, Estefania; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Interest in adenosine deaminase (ADA) in the context of medicine has mainly focused on its enzymatic activity. This is justified by the importance of the reaction catalyzed by ADA not only for the intracellular purine metabolism, but also for the extracellular purine metabolism as well, because of its capacity as a regulator of the concentration of extracellular adenosine that is able to activate adenosine receptors (ARs). In recent years, other important roles have been described for ADA. One of these, with special relevance in immunology, is the capacity of ADA to act as a costimulator, promoting T-cell proliferation and differentiation mainly by interacting with the differentiation cluster CD26. Another role is the ability of ADA to act as an allosteric modulator of ARs. These receptors have very general physiological implications, particularly in the neurological system where they play an important role. Thus, ADA, being a single chain protein, performs more than one function, consistent with the definition of a moonlighting protein. Although ADA has never been associated with moonlighting proteins, here we consider ADA as an example of this family of multifunctional proteins. In this review, we discuss the different roles of ADA and their pathological implications. We propose a mechanism by which some of their moonlighting functions can be coordinated. We also suggest that drugs modulating ADA properties may act as modulators of the moonlighting functions of ADA, giving them additional potential medical interest. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. From protein catalogues towards targeted proteomics approaches in cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Sultan, Abida; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their importance for human nutrition, the protein content of cereal grains has been a subject of intense study for over a century and cereal grains were not surprisingly one of the earliest subjects for 2D-gel-based proteome analysis. Over the last two decades, countless cereal grain prote...

  10. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as a novel metabolic target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Angel; Habegger, Kirk M; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a serine protease belonging to a S9B prolyl oligopeptidase subfamily. This enzyme has been implicated in cancer development and recently reported to regulate degradation of FGF21, a potent metabolic hormone. Using a known FAP inhibitor, talabostat...

  11. PDTD: a web-accessible protein database for drug target identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhenting

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Target identification is important for modern drug discovery. With the advances in the development of molecular docking, potential binding proteins may be discovered by docking a small molecule to a repository of proteins with three-dimensional (3D structures. To complete this task, a reverse docking program and a drug target database with 3D structures are necessary. To this end, we have developed a web server tool, TarFisDock (Target Fishing Docking http://www.dddc.ac.cn/tarfisdock, which has been used widely by others. Recently, we have constructed a protein target database, Potential Drug Target Database (PDTD, and have integrated PDTD with TarFisDock. This combination aims to assist target identification and validation. Description PDTD is a web-accessible protein database for in silico target identification. It currently contains >1100 protein entries with 3D structures presented in the Protein Data Bank. The data are extracted from the literatures and several online databases such as TTD, DrugBank and Thomson Pharma. The database covers diverse information of >830 known or potential drug targets, including protein and active sites structures in both PDB and mol2 formats, related diseases, biological functions as well as associated regulating (signaling pathways. Each target is categorized by both nosology and biochemical function. PDTD supports keyword search function, such as PDB ID, target name, and disease name. Data set generated by PDTD can be viewed with the plug-in of molecular visualization tools and also can be downloaded freely. Remarkably, PDTD is specially designed for target identification. In conjunction with TarFisDock, PDTD can be used to identify binding proteins for small molecules. The results can be downloaded in the form of mol2 file with the binding pose of the probe compound and a list of potential binding targets according to their ranking scores. Conclusion PDTD serves as a comprehensive and

  12. Selecting Targets for Tumor Imaging: An Overview of Cancer-Associated Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Boonstra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor targeting is a booming business: The global therapeutic monoclonal antibody market accounted for more than $78 billion in 2012 and is expanding exponentially. Tumors can be targeted with an extensive arsenal of monoclonal antibodies, ligand proteins, peptides, RNAs, and small molecules. In addition to therapeutic targeting, some of these compounds can also be applied for tumor visualization before or during surgery, after conjugation with radionuclides and/or near-infrared fluorescent dyes. The majority of these tumor-targeting compounds are directed against cell membrane-bound proteins. Various categories of targetable membrane-bound proteins, such as anchoring proteins, receptors, enzymes, and transporter proteins, exist. The functions and biological characteristics of these proteins determine their location and distribution on the cell membrane, making them more, or less, accessible, and therefore, it is important to understand these features. In this review, we evaluate the characteristics of cancer-associated membrane proteins and discuss their overall usability for cancer targeting, especially focusing on imaging applications.

  13. T3: Targeted Proteomics of DNA-Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagore, Linda I.; Jarrett, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A technique that allows the inclusion of a specific DNA to enrich and direct proteomic identification of transcription factors (TF) while providing a route for high throughput screening on a single platform would be valuable in investigations of gene expression and regulation. Polyvinylpyrrolidone binds DNA avidly while binding negligible amounts of protein. This observation is used in a proof-of-concept method to enrich for TF by combining nuclear extract with a specific DNA sequence and imm...

  14. The reactive metabolite target protein database (TPDB)--a web-accessible resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzlik, Robert P; Koen, Yakov M; Theertham, Bhargav; Dong, Yinghua; Fang, Jianwen

    2007-03-16

    The toxic effects of many simple organic compounds stem from their biotransformation to chemically reactive metabolites which bind covalently to cellular proteins. To understand the mechanisms of cytotoxic responses it may be important to know which proteins become adducted and whether some may be common targets of multiple toxins. The literature of this field is widely scattered but expanding rapidly, suggesting the need for a comprehensive, searchable database of reactive metabolite target proteins. The Reactive Metabolite Target Protein Database (TPDB) is a comprehensive, curated, searchable, documented compilation of publicly available information on the protein targets of reactive metabolites of 18 well-studied chemicals and drugs of known toxicity. TPDB software enables i) string searches for author names and proteins names/synonyms, ii) more complex searches by selecting chemical compound, animal species, target tissue and protein names/synonyms from pull-down menus, and iii) commonality searches over multiple chemicals. Tabulated search results provide information, references and links to other databases. The TPDB is a unique on-line compilation of information on the covalent modification of cellular proteins by reactive metabolites of chemicals and drugs. Its comprehensiveness and searchability should facilitate the elucidation of mechanisms of reactive metabolite toxicity. The database is freely available at http://tpdb.medchem.ku.edu/tpdb.html.

  15. The reactive metabolite target protein database (TPDB – a web-accessible resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yinghua

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The toxic effects of many simple organic compounds stem from their biotransformation to chemically reactive metabolites which bind covalently to cellular proteins. To understand the mechanisms of cytotoxic responses it may be important to know which proteins become adducted and whether some may be common targets of multiple toxins. The literature of this field is widely scattered but expanding rapidly, suggesting the need for a comprehensive, searchable database of reactive metabolite target proteins. Description The Reactive Metabolite Target Protein Database (TPDB is a comprehensive, curated, searchable, documented compilation of publicly available information on the protein targets of reactive metabolites of 18 well-studied chemicals and drugs of known toxicity. TPDB software enables i string searches for author names and proteins names/synonyms, ii more complex searches by selecting chemical compound, animal species, target tissue and protein names/synonyms from pull-down menus, and iii commonality searches over multiple chemicals. Tabulated search results provide information, references and links to other databases. Conclusion The TPDB is a unique on-line compilation of information on the covalent modification of cellular proteins by reactive metabolites of chemicals and drugs. Its comprehensiveness and searchability should facilitate the elucidation of mechanisms of reactive metabolite toxicity. The database is freely available at http://tpdb.medchem.ku.edu/tpdb.html

  16. Cysteinome: The first comprehensive database for proteins with targetable cysteine and their covalent inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sijin; Luo Howard, Huizhe; Wang, Haina; Zhao, Weijie; Hu, Qiwan; Yang, Yongliang

    2016-09-23

    The covalent modification of intrinsically nucleophilic cysteine in proteins is crucial for diverse biochemical events. Bioinformatics approaches may prove useful in the design and discovery of covalent molecules targeting the cysteine in proteins to tune their functions and activities. Herein, we describe the Cysteinome, the first online database that provides a rich resource for the display, search and analysis of structure, function and related annotation for proteins with targetable cysteine as well as their covalent modulators. To this end, Cysteinome compiles 462 proteins with targetable cysteine from 122 different species along with 1217 covalent modulators curated from existing literatures. Proteins are annotated with a detailed description of protein families, biological process and related diseases. In addition, covalent modulators are carefully annotated with chemical name, chemical structure, binding affinity, physicochemical properties, molecule type and related diseases etc. The Cysteinome database may serve as a useful platform for the identification of crucial proteins with targetable cysteine in certain cellular context. Furthermore, it may help biologists and chemists for the design and discovery of covalent chemical probes or inhibitors homing at functional cysteine of critical protein targets implicated in various physiological or disease process. The Cysteinome database is freely available to public at http://www.cysteinome.org/. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Multifunctional Transmembrane Protein Ligands for Cell-Specific Targeting of Plasma Membrane-Derived Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chi; Busch, David J; Vershel, Connor P; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2016-07-01

    Liposomes and nanoparticles that bind selectively to cell-surface receptors can target specific populations of cells. However, chemical conjugation of ligands to these particles is difficult to control, frequently limiting ligand uniformity and complexity. In contrast, the surfaces of living cells are decorated with highly uniform populations of sophisticated transmembrane proteins. Toward harnessing cellular capabilities, here it is demonstrated that plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) derived from donor cells can display engineered transmembrane protein ligands that precisely target cells on the basis of receptor expression. These multifunctional targeting proteins incorporate (i) a protein ligand, (ii) an intrinsically disordered protein spacer to make the ligand sterically accessible, and (iii) a fluorescent protein domain that enables quantification of the ligand density on the PMV surface. PMVs that display targeting proteins with affinity for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) bind at increasing concentrations to breast cancer cells that express increasing levels of EGFR. Further, as an example of the generality of this approach, PMVs expressing a single-domain antibody against green fluorescence protein (eGFP) bind to cells expressing eGFP-tagged receptors with a selectivity of ≈50:1. The results demonstrate the versatility of PMVs as cell targeting systems, suggesting diverse applications from drug delivery to tissue engineering. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Identification of poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as a target protein of immunosuppressive agent 15-deoxyspergualin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murahashi, Masataka; Simizu, Siro; Morioka, Masahiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Umezawa, Kazuo, E-mail: umezawa@aichi-med-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Target Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yazako-Karimata, Nagakute 480-1195 (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    15-Deoxyspergualin (DSG) is an immunosuppressive agent being clinically used. Unlike tacrolimus and cyclosporine A, it does not inhibit the calcineurin pathway, and its mechanism of action and target molecule have not been elucidated. Therefore, we previously prepared biotinylated derivative of DSG (BDSG) to fish up the target protein. In the present research, we identified poly(rC) binding protein 2 (PCBP2) as a DSG-binding protein using this probe. DSG was confirmed to bind to PCBP2 by pull-down assay. Intracellular localization of PCBP2 was changed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by DSG treatment. DSG inhibited the cell growth, and over-expression of PCBP2 reduced the anti-proliferative activity of DSG. PCBP2 is known to regulate various proteins including STAT1/2. Thus, we found PCBP2 as the first target protein of DSG that can explain the immunosuppressive activity. -- Highlights: •Fifteen-deoxyspergualin (DSG) is an immunosuppressive agent clinically used. •We have identified PCBP2, an RNA-binding protein, as a molecular target of DSG. •Alteration of PCBP2 activity may explain the immunosuppressive activity of DSG.

  19. Target Molecular Simulations of RecA Family Protein Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng-Tseng Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the RadA family mechanism is crucial to understanding the DNA SOS repair process. In a 2007 report, the archaeal RadA proteins function as rotary motors (linker region: I71-K88 such as shown in Figure 1. Molecular simulations approaches help to shed further light onto this phenomenon. We find 11 rotary residues (R72, T75-K81, M84, V86 and K87 and five zero rotary residues (I71, K74, E82, R83 and K88 in the simulations. Inclusion of our simulations may help to understand the RadA family mechanism.

  20. Large-scale prediction of drug–target interactions using protein sequences and drug topological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dongsheng; Liu Shao; Xu Qingsong; Lu Hongmei; Huang Jianhua; Hu Qiannan; Liang Yizeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Drug–target interactions are predicted using an extended SAR methodology. ► A drug–target interaction is regarded as an event triggered by many factors. ► Molecular fingerprint and CTD descriptors are used to represent drugs and proteins. ► Our approach shows compatibility between the new scheme and current SAR methodology. - Abstract: The identification of interactions between drugs and target proteins plays a key role in the process of genomic drug discovery. It is both consuming and costly to determine drug–target interactions by experiments alone. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new in silico prediction approaches capable of identifying these potential drug–target interactions in a timely manner. In this article, we aim at extending current structure–activity relationship (SAR) methodology to fulfill such requirements. In some sense, a drug–target interaction can be regarded as an event or property triggered by many influence factors from drugs and target proteins. Thus, each interaction pair can be represented theoretically by using these factors which are based on the structural and physicochemical properties simultaneously from drugs and proteins. To realize this, drug molecules are encoded with MACCS substructure fingerings representing existence of certain functional groups or fragments; and proteins are encoded with some biochemical and physicochemical properties. Four classes of drug–target interaction networks in humans involving enzymes, ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and nuclear receptors, are independently used for establishing predictive models with support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM models gave prediction accuracy of 90.31%, 88.91%, 84.68% and 83.74% for four datasets, respectively. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the ability of our proposed method to predict the drug–target interactions, and show a general compatibility between the new scheme and current SAR

  1. Global analysis of small molecule binding to related protein targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the integration of pharmacological data and homology information for a large scale analysis of small molecule binding to related targets. Differences in small molecule binding have been assessed for curated pairs of human to rat orthologs and also for recently diverged human paralogs. Our analysis shows that in general, small molecule binding is conserved for pairs of human to rat orthologs. Using statistical tests, we identified a small number of cases where small molecule binding is different between human and rat, some of which had previously been reported in the literature. Knowledge of species specific pharmacology can be advantageous for drug discovery, where rats are frequently used as a model system. For human paralogs, we demonstrate a global correlation between sequence identity and the binding of small molecules with equivalent affinity. Our findings provide an initial general model relating small molecule binding and sequence divergence, containing the foundations for a general model to anticipate and predict within-target-family selectivity.

  2. Micro-Environmental Signature of The Interactions between Druggable Target Protein, Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV, and Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Mallick, Bidyut; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Sharma, Garima; Jagga, Supriya; Doss, C George Priya; Nam, Ju-Suk; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Druggability of a target protein depends on the interacting micro-environment between the target protein and drugs. Therefore, a precise knowledge of the interacting micro-environment between the target protein and drugs is requisite for drug discovery process. To understand such micro-environment, we performed in silico interaction analysis between a human target protein, Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV (DPP-4), and three anti-diabetic drugs (saxagliptin, linagliptin and vildagliptin). ...

  3. Novel Technology for Protein-Protein Interaction-based Targeted Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Me Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a simple but highly efficient in-cell protein-protein interaction (PPI discovery system based on the translocation properties of protein kinase C- and its C1a domain in live cells. This system allows the visual detection of trimeric and dimeric protein interactions including cytosolic, nuclear, and/or membrane proteins with their cognate ligands. In addition, this system can be used to identify pharmacological small compounds that inhibit specific PPIs. These properties make this PPI system an attractive tool for screening drug candidates and mapping the protein interactome.

  4. DNA replication proteins as potential targets for antimicrobials in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Erika; Wittekoek, Bert; Kuijper, Ed J; Smits, Wiep Klaas

    2017-05-01

    With the impending crisis of antimicrobial resistance, there is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobials to combat difficult infections and MDR pathogenic microorganisms. DNA replication is essential for cell viability and is therefore an attractive target for antimicrobials. Although several antimicrobials targeting DNA replication proteins have been developed to date, gyrase/topoisomerase inhibitors are the only class widely used in the clinic. Given the numerous essential proteins in the bacterial replisome that may serve as a potential target for inhibitors and the relative paucity of suitable compounds, it is evident that antimicrobials targeting the replisome are underdeveloped so far. In this review, we report on the diversity of antimicrobial compounds targeting DNA replication and highlight some of the challenges in developing new drugs that target this process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  5. Canonical signal recognition particle components can be bypassed for posttranslational protein targeting in chloroplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzvetkova-Chevolleau, Tzvetelina; Hutin, Claire; Noël, Laurent D; Goforth, Robyn; Carde, Jean-Pierre; Caffarri, Stephano; Sinning, Irmgard; Groves, Matthew; Teulon, Jean-Marie; Hoffman, Neil E; Henry, Ralph; Havaux, Michel; Nussaume, Laurent

    The chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) and its receptor (cpFtsY) target proteins both cotranslationally and posttranslationally to the thylakoids. This dual function enables cpSRP to utilize its posttranslational activities for targeting a family of nucleus-encoded light-harvesting

  6. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-m...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated di...sorders. PubmedID 14643884 Title Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation

  7. Tuning protein expression using synonymous codon libraries targeted to the 5' mRNA coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Borch Jensen, Martin; Bentin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    intermediate expression levels of green fluorescent protein in Escherichia coli. At least in one case, no apparent effect on protein stability was observed, pointing to RNA level effects as the principal reason for the observed expression differences. Targeting a synonymous codon library to the 5' coding...

  8. Mature Epitope Density - A strategy for target selection based on immunoinformatics and exported prokaryotic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Anderson R; Pereira, Vanessa Bastos; Barbosa, Eudes

    2013-01-01

    . However, currently available tools do not account for the concentration of epitope products in the mature protein product and its relation to the reliability of target selection. RESULTS: We developed a computational strategy based on measuring the epitope's concentration in the mature protein, called...

  9. Method for Targeted Therapeutic Delivery of Proteins into Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Protein Expression Laboratory at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, MD is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop a platform technology for the targeted intra-cellular delivery of proteins using virus-like particles (VLPs).

  10. Unexpected fold in the circumsporozoite protein target of malaria vaccines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doud, Michael B.; Koksal, Adem C.; Mi, Li-Zhi; Song, Gaojie; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A. (Harvard-Med)

    2012-10-09

    Circumsporozoite (CS) protein is the major surface component of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites and is essential for host cell invasion. A vaccine containing tandem repeats, region III, and thrombospondin type-I repeat (TSR) of CS is efficacious in phase III trials but gives only a 35% reduction in severe malaria in the first year postimmunization. We solved crystal structures showing that region III and TSR fold into a single unit, an '{alpha}TSR' domain. The {alpha}TSR domain possesses a hydrophobic pocket and core, missing in TSR domains. CS binds heparin, but {alpha}TSR does not. Interestingly, polymorphic T-cell epitopes map to specialized {alpha}TSR regions. The N and C termini are unexpectedly close, providing clues for sporozoite sheath organization. Elucidation of a unique structure of a domain within CS enables rational design of next-generation subunit vaccines and functional and medicinal chemical investigation of the conserved hydrophobic pocket.

  11. Plastoglobules: a new address for targeting recombinant proteins in the chloroplast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Felix

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of transgenic plants for cost-effective production of pharmaceutical molecules is now becoming apparent. Plants have the advantage over established fermentation systems (bacterial, yeast or animal cell cultures to circumvent the risk of pathogen contamination, to be amenable to large scaling up and to necessitate only established farming procedures. Chloroplasts have proven a useful cellular compartment for protein accumulation owing to their large size and number, as well as the possibility for organellar transformation. They therefore represent the targeting destination of choice for recombinant proteins in leaf crops such as tobacco. Extraction and purification of recombinant proteins from leaf material contribute to a large extent to the production costs. Developing new strategies facilitating these processes is therefore necessary. Results Here, we evaluated plastoglobule lipoprotein particles as a new subchloroplastic destination for recombinant proteins. The yellow fluorescent protein as a trackable cargo was targeted to plastoglobules when fused to plastoglobulin 34 (PGL34 as the carrier. Similar to adipocyte differentiation related protein (ADRP in animal cells, most of the protein sequence of PGL34 was necessary for targeting to lipid bodies. The recombinant protein was efficiently enriched in plastoglobules isolated by simple flotation centrifugation. The viability of plants overproducing the recombinant protein was not affected, indicating that plastoglobule targeting did not significantly impair photosynthesis or sugar metabolism. Conclusion Our data identify plastoglobules as a new targeting destination for recombinant protein in leaf crops. The wide-spread presence of plastoglobules and plastoglobulins in crop species promises applications comparable to those of transgenic oilbody-oleosin technology in molecular farming.

  12. Targeted genome editing by lentiviral protein transduction of zinc-finger and TAL-effector nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2014-04-24

    Future therapeutic use of engineered site-directed nucleases, like zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), relies on safe and effective means of delivering nucleases to cells. In this study, we adapt lentiviral vectors as carriers of designer nuclease proteins, providing efficient targeted gene disruption in vector-treated cell lines and primary cells. By co-packaging pairs of ZFN proteins with donor RNA in 'all-in-one' lentiviral particles, we co-deliver ZFN proteins and the donor template for homology-directed repair leading to targeted DNA insertion and gene correction. Comparative studies of ZFN activity in a predetermined target locus and a known nearby off-target locus demonstrate reduced off-target activity after ZFN protein transduction relative to conventional delivery approaches. Additionally, TALEN proteins are added to the repertoire of custom-designed nucleases that can be delivered by protein transduction. Altogether, our findings generate a new platform for genome engineering based on efficient and potentially safer delivery of programmable nucleases.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01911.001. Copyright © 2014, Cai et al.

  13. Target identification in Fusobacterium nucleatum by subtractive genomics approach and enrichment analysis of host-pathogen protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Thotakura, Pragna Lakshmi; Tiwary, Basant Kumar; Krishna, Ramadas

    2016-05-12

    Fusobacterium nucleatum, a well studied bacterium in periodontal diseases, appendicitis, gingivitis, osteomyelitis and pregnancy complications has recently gained attention due to its association with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Treatment with berberine was shown to reverse F. nucleatum-induced CRC progression in mice by balancing the growth of opportunistic pathogens in tumor microenvironment. Intestinal microbiota imbalance and the infections caused by F. nucleatum might be regulated by therapeutic intervention. Hence, we aimed to predict drug target proteins in F. nucleatum, through subtractive genomics approach and host-pathogen protein-protein interactions (HP-PPIs). We also carried out enrichment analysis of host interacting partners to hypothesize the possible mechanisms involved in CRC progression due to F. nucleatum. In subtractive genomics approach, the essential, virulence and resistance related proteins were retrieved from RefSeq proteome of F. nucleatum by searching against Database of Essential Genes (DEG), Virulence Factor Database (VFDB) and Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation (ARG-ANNOT) tool respectively. A subsequent hierarchical screening to identify non-human homologous, metabolic pathway-independent/pathway-specific and druggable proteins resulted in eight pathway-independent and 27 pathway-specific druggable targets. Co-aggregation of F. nucleatum with host induces proinflammatory gene expression thereby potentiates tumorigenesis. Hence, proteins from IBDsite, a database for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) research and those involved in colorectal adenocarcinoma as interpreted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were retrieved to predict drug targets based on HP-PPIs with F. nucleatum proteome. Prediction of HP-PPIs exhibited 186 interactions contributed by 103 host and 76 bacterial proteins. Bacterial interacting partners were accounted as putative targets. And enrichment analysis of host interacting partners showed statistically

  14. Similar pathogen targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and homo sapiens protein networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Shakarian

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of pathogens on host protein networks for humans and Arabidopsis - noting striking similarities. Specifically, we preform [Formula: see text]-shell decomposition analysis on these networks - which groups the proteins into various "shells" based on network structure. We observe that shells with a higher average degree are more highly targeted (with a power-law relationship and that highly targeted nodes lie in shells closer to the inner-core of the network. Additionally, we also note that the inner core of the network is significantly under-targeted. We show that these core proteins may have a role in intra-cellular communication and hypothesize that they are less attacked to ensure survival of the host. This may explain why certain high-degree proteins are not significantly attacked.

  15. Insight into bacterial virulence mechanisms against host immune response via the Yersinia pestis-human protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiying; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Jian; Tan, Yafang; Myeni, Sebenzile K; Li, Dong; Shi, Qinghai; Yan, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yuan, Yanzhi; Yang, Xiaoming; Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin

    2011-11-01

    A Yersinia pestis-human protein interaction network is reported here to improve our understanding of its pathogenesis. Up to 204 interactions between 66 Y. pestis bait proteins and 109 human proteins were identified by yeast two-hybrid assay and then combined with 23 previously published interactions to construct a protein-protein interaction network. Topological analysis of the interaction network revealed that human proteins targeted by Y. pestis were significantly enriched in the proteins that are central in the human protein-protein interaction network. Analysis of this network showed that signaling pathways important for host immune responses were preferentially targeted by Y. pestis, including the pathways involved in focal adhesion, regulation of cytoskeleton, leukocyte transendoepithelial migration, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Cellular pathways targeted by Y. pestis are highly relevant to its pathogenesis. Interactions with host proteins involved in focal adhesion and cytoskeketon regulation pathways could account for resistance of Y. pestis to phagocytosis. Interference with TLR and MAPK signaling pathways by Y. pestis reflects common characteristics of pathogen-host interaction that bacterial pathogens have evolved to evade host innate immune response by interacting with proteins in those signaling pathways. Interestingly, a large portion of human proteins interacting with Y. pestis (16/109) also interacted with viral proteins (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]), suggesting that viral and bacterial pathogens attack common cellular functions to facilitate infections. In addition, we identified vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a novel interaction partner of YpkA and showed that YpkA could inhibit in vitro actin assembly mediated by VASP.

  16. Galactodendritic phthalocyanine targets carbohydrate-binding proteins enhancing photodynamic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M R Pereira

    Full Text Available Photosensitizers (PSs are of crucial importance in the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer. Due to their high reactive oxygen species production and strong absorption in the wavelength range between 650 and 850 nm, where tissue light penetration is rather high, phthalocyanines (Pcs have been studied as PSs of excellence. In this work, we report the evaluation of a phthalocyanine surrounded by a carbohydrate shell of sixteen galactose units distributed in a dendritic manner (PcGal16 as a new and efficient third generation PSs for PDT against two bladder cancer cell lines, HT-1376 and UM-UC-3. Here, we define the role of galacto-dendritic units in promoting the uptake of a Pc through interaction with GLUT1 and galectin-1. The photoactivation of PcGal16 induces cell death by generating oxidative stress. Although PDT with PcGal16 induces an increase on the activity of antioxidant enzymes immediately after PDT, bladder cancer cells are unable to recover from the PDT-induced damage effects for at least 72 h after treatment. PcGal16 co-localization with galectin-1 and GLUT1 and/or generation of oxidative stress after PcGal16 photoactivation induces changes in the levels of these proteins. Knockdown of galectin-1 and GLUT1, via small interfering RNA (siRNA, in bladder cancer cells decreases intracellular uptake and phototoxicity of PcGal16. The results reported herein show PcGal16 as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer, which is the fifth most common type of cancer with the highest rate of recurrence of any cancer.

  17. Interaction of C-terminal truncated human alphaA-crystallins with target proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbarasu Kumarasamy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant portion of alphaA-crystallin in human lenses exists as C-terminal residues cleaved at residues 172, 168, and 162. Chaperone activity, determined with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and betaL-crystallin as target proteins, was increased in alphaA(1-172 and decreased in alphaA(1-168 and alphaA(1-162. The purpose of this study was to show whether the absence of the C-terminal residues influences protein-protein interactions with target proteins.Our hypothesis is that the chaperone-target protein binding kinetics, otherwise termed subunit exchange rates, are expected to reflect the changes in chaperone activity. To study this, we have relied on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET utilizing amine specific and cysteine specific fluorescent probes. The subunit exchange rate (k for ADH and alphaA(1-172 was nearly the same as that of ADH and alphaA-wt, alphaA(1-168 had lower and alphaA(1-162 had the lowest k values. When betaL-crystallin was used as the target protein, alphaA(1-172 had slightly higher k value than alphaA-wt and alphaA(1-168 and alphaA(1-162 had lower k values. As expected from earlier studies, the chaperone activity of alphaA(1-172 was slightly better than that of alphaA-wt, the chaperone activity of alphaA(1-168 was similar to that of alphaA-wt and alphaA(1-162 had substantially decreased chaperone activity.Cleavage of eleven C-terminal residues including Arg-163 and the C-terminal flexible arm significantly affects the interaction with target proteins. The predominantly hydrophilic flexible arm appears to be needed to keep the chaperone-target protein complex soluble.

  18. Quantifying the Tendency of Therapeutic Target Proteins to Bind Promiscuous or Selective Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The ability of target proteins to bind structurally diverse compounds and compounds with different degrees of promiscuity (multi-target activity) was systematically assessed on the basis of currently available activity data and target annotations. Intuitive first- and second-order target promiscuity indices were introduced to quantify these binding characteristics and relate them to each other. For compounds and targets, opposite promiscuity trends were observed. Furthermore, the analysis detected many targets that interacted with compounds representing a similar degree of structural diversity but displayed strong tendencies to recognize either promiscuous or selective compounds. Moreover, target families were identified that preferentially interacted with promiscuous compounds. Taken together, these findings further extend our understanding of the molecular basis of polypharmacology. PMID:26000736

  19. Efficient cellular solid-state NMR of membrane proteins by targeted protein labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Lindsay A.; Daniëls, Mark; Cruijsen, Elwin A. W. van der; Folkers, Gert E.; Baldus, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) has made significant progress towards the study of membrane proteins in their native cellular membranes. However, reduced spectroscopic sensitivity and high background signal levels can complicate these experiments. Here, we describe a method for ssNMR to specifically label a single protein by repressing endogenous protein expression with rifampicin. Our results demonstrate that treatment of E. coli with rifampicin during induction of recombinant membrane protein expression reduces background signals for different expression levels and improves sensitivity in cellular membrane samples. Further, the method reduces the amount of time and resources needed to produce membrane protein samples, enabling new strategies for studying challenging membrane proteins by ssNMR

  20. Identification of novel human damage response proteins targeted through yeast orthology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Peter Svensson

    Full Text Available Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that many proteins influence cellular survival upon exposure to DNA damaging agents. We hypothesized that human orthologs of these S. cerevisiae proteins would also be required for cellular survival after treatment with DNA damaging agents. For this purpose, human homologs of S. cerevisiae proteins were identified and mapped onto the human protein-protein interaction network. The resulting human network was highly modular and a series of selection rules were implemented to identify 45 candidates for human toxicity-modulating proteins. The corresponding transcripts were targeted by RNA interference in human cells. The cell lines with depleted target expression were challenged with three DNA damaging agents: the alkylating agents MMS and 4-NQO, and the oxidizing agent t-BuOOH. A comparison of the survival revealed that the majority (74% of proteins conferred either sensitivity or resistance. The identified human toxicity-modulating proteins represent a variety of biological functions: autophagy, chromatin modifications, RNA and protein metabolism, and telomere maintenance. Further studies revealed that MMS-induced autophagy increase the survival of cells treated with DNA damaging agents. In summary, we show that damage recovery proteins in humans can be identified through homology to S. cerevisiae and that many of the same pathways are represented among the toxicity modulators.