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Sample records for targeting hiv-infected prisoners

  1. Outbreak of HIV infection in a Scottish prison.

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    Taylor, A.; Goldberg, D.; Emslie, J.; Wrench, J.; Gruer, L.; Cameron, S.; Black, J.; Davis, B.; McGregor, J.; Follett, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possible spread of HIV infection and its route of transmission among prison inmates. DESIGN--In response to an outbreak of acute clinical hepatitis B and two seroconversions to HIV infection, counselling and testing for HIV were offered to all inmates over a two week period in July 1993. Information was sought about drug injecting, sexual behaviour, and previous HIV testing. SETTING--HM Prison Glenochil in Scotland. SUBJECTS--Adult male prisoners. MAIN OUTCOME ME...

  2. Psychiatric Morbidity in HIV-infected Male Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Lee, Ming-Been; Morisky, Donald Edward; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Farabee, David; Lan, Yu-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose The seroincidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Taiwan has drastically increased since 2004, particularly among injection drug users and prisoners. The major purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected male prisoners. Methods In 2006, data were collected from all of HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 535) in seven prisons in Taiwan. This collection was performed using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire in group settings directed by our interviewers. Psychiatric morbidity was measured using the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale in 535 participants, which represented an 85% response rate. After excluding incomplete data, 479 participants were included in the analysis. Results Psychiatric morbidity was present in 46% of participants. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that correlates of the five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale defined cases included the following: being a recidivist, having poor self-rated health status, and having experienced psychiatric symptoms in one’s lifetime (e.g. significant physical pain or discomfort, depression for 2 weeks or longer, serious anxiety or tension, trouble understanding, concentrating, or remembering, and serious thoughts of suicide), with a Nagelkerke R2 equal to 0.365. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is prevalent among HIV-infected male prisoners. Tailored HIV/AIDS education related to mental health is therefore suggested for inclusion as part of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS training program among incarcerated populations. PMID:20434025

  3. HIV in Indian prisons: risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided.

  4. Correlates of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among prison inmates and officers in Ghana: A national multicenter study

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    Asare Isaac

    2008-03-01

    infections among officers were age between 25–46, fale gender, being unmarried, being employed in prison service for longer than median duration of employment of 10 years, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Conclusion The comparably higher prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in prison inmates and officers in Ghana suggests probable occupational related transmission. The implementation of infection control practices and risk reduction programs targeted at prison inmates and officers in Ghana is urgently required to address this substantial exposure risk.

  5. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention.

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    Jürgens, Ralf; Nowak, Manfred; Day, Marcus

    2011-05-19

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners.The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  6. HIV/AIDS policies, practices and conditions in South African prisons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of HIV infection in South African prisoners is unknown. However, given that 4.2 million citizens or 20% of the adult population are infected by HIV then the problem of infection within the prison system would seem to be a large and a significant management issue. Policies to treat HIV+ prisoners and prevent HIV ...

  7. Healthcare resources are inadequate to address the burden of illness among HIV-infected male prisoners in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Joseph; Culbert, Gabriel; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Koh, Clayton; Pillai, Veena; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick

    2016-12-19

    Purpose Criminalization of drug use in Malaysia has concentrated people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV into prisons where health services are minimal and HIV-related mortality is high. Few studies have comprehensively assessed the complex health needs of this population. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach From October 2012 through March 2013, 221 sequentially selected HIV-infected male prisoners underwent a comprehensive health assessment that included a structured history, physical examination, and clinically indicated diagnostic studies. Findings Participants were mostly PWID (83.7 percent) and diagnosed with HIV while incarcerated (66.9 percent). Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (90.4 percent), untreated syphilis (8.1 percent), active (13.1 percent), and latent (81.2 percent) tuberculosis infection was several fold higher than non-prisoner Malaysian adults, as was tobacco use (71.9 percent) and heavy drinking (30.8 percent). Most (89.5 percent) were aware of their HIV status before the current incarceration, yet few had been engaged previously in HIV care, including pre-incarceration CD4 monitoring (24.7 percent) or prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) (16.7 percent). Despite most (73.7 percent) meeting Malaysia's criteria for ART (CD4 Drug addiction and communicable disease comorbidity, which interact negatively and synergistically with HIV and pose serious public health threats, are highly prevalent in HIV-infected prisoners. Interventions to address the critical shortage of healthcare providers and large gaps in treatment for HIV and other co-morbid conditions are urgently needed to meet the health needs of HIV-infected Malaysian prisoners, most of whom will soon transition to the community.

  8. [Evaluation of the prevalence of HIV infection in prison inmates at the time of their imprisonment during the period 1991-1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, V; Caylá Buqueras, J A; González Morís, M L; Herrero Alonso, L E; Vicente Pérez, R

    1997-01-01

    Inmates of Spanish prisons include a high number of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) and other people whose practices entail the risk of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The aim of this work is to find out the evolution of the prevalence of HIV infection at the time of admission to prison and the factors associated with it in this population group. This may enable us to form an idea of the effectiveness of risk reduction strategies and help to improve them. All those people who were placed in a provincial penal institution in the northwest of Spain between 1991 and 1995. Socio-demographic, penal and HIV risk factor variables were gathered. The HIV infection test (ELISA and Western-blot) was carried out with the consent of the subjects. Of the 1,663 people studied, 19.4% were HIV-positive. The prevalence HIV infection was particularly marked statistically in: women (26.0%), the 25-34 age group (29.1%), whites (20.9%), single people (22.8%), those people with a tattoo (29.9%), those people with a background in self-inflicted injuries (42.2%), IVDUs (46.3%), those who admitted sharing syringes (61.5%) and those with a prison record of one or more years (37.3%). Logistical regression analysis showed the following as predictors of HIV infection: IVDUs, those who went to prison in 1992, women, the 25-34 and 35-44 age group, tattooed men, those with a background in self-inflicted injuries and those with a prison record, of more than one year. The gypsy ethnic group revealed a lower probability of HIV infection. The HIV infection time trend, stratified according to the prison record showed an almost significant drop (P = 0.064). The infection trend per IVDU did not show any modification (P = 0.16). A high prevalence of HIV infection was detected in a prison located in a region which has not been particularly affected by AIDS. IVDUs and some characteristics that may be related to this population group have an enormous influence on this phenomenon. The

  9. Alternatives to current HIV/AIDS policies and practices in South African prisons.

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    Goyer, K C; Gow, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Prisoners in South Africa face problems of overcrowding, violence and poor nutrition. Added to this burden in recent times is the increased threat from HIV. The HIV epidemic has been relatively late in coming to South Africa but infection rates are now 20% in the adult population. However, there is no data available on the level of HIV infection in the prison population. Overseas studies suggest that the characteristics of prisoners place them at much greater risk of HIV infection. Factors which contribute to increased levels of HIV infection include poor health care facilities, lack of condoms and lack of disinfectants. Current policies and practices on HIV in prison attempt to balance the constraints of limited resources with the need to preserve prisoner human rights. The outcomes include: mass testing not freely available, HIV education is limited, and early release of prisoners with advanced AIDS is not allowed. Constraints on the implementation of effective HIV prevention strategies include: bureaucratic inefficiency, lack of resources, and a reluctance by prison authorities to address the issue of HIV in prison. These problems can possibly be overcome by addressing the issue from both management and prisoner perspectives. On the management side, increased resources, increased training of prison officials, and increased political commitment to address the issue are required. Outside partnerships are probably required for an effective response. Prisoners require better nutrition, better living conditions, better health care, freely available condoms and disinfectants.

  10. Determining intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in inmates from Kajang Prison, Selangor, Malaysia for improved prison management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Lorainne; Mahmud, Rohela; Samin, Sajideh; Yap, Nan-Jiun; Ngui, Romano; Amir, Amirah; Ithoi, Init; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-10-29

    The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited. Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further

  11. Tuberculosis, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison, Iran

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    Behnam Farhoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to evaluate tuberculosis (TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in male patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. Among 85 HIV positive patients, five persons (5.9% had TB. Also, 56 new HIV-infected patients were checked for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody. There were three hepatitis B surface antigen (5.4% and 50 hepatitis C virus antibody (89.3% results. This study suggests that it is necessary to investigate TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B in HIV positive prisoners in Iran.

  12. Implementing a routine, voluntary HIV testing program in a Massachusetts county prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Rebecca V; Zheng, Hui; Internicola, Jeanne; Werner, Barbara G; Kazianis, Arthur; Golan, Yoav; Rubinstein, Eric P; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2006-11-01

    Although U.S. prison inmates have higher rates of HIV infection than the general population, most inmates are not routinely tested for HIV infection at prison entry. The study objective was to implement a routine, voluntary HIV testing program in a Massachusetts county prison. During admission, inmates were given group HIV pre-test counseling and were subsequently offered private HIV testing. This intervention was compared to a control period during which HIV testing was provided only upon inmate or physician request. Between November 2004 and April 2005, 1,004 inmates met inclusion criteria and were offered routine, voluntary HIV testing. Of these, 734 (73.1%) accepted, 2 (0.3%) were HIV-infected, and 457 (45.5%) had been tested for HIV in the previous year. The testing rate of 73.1% was significantly increased from the rate of 18.0% (318 of 1,723) during the control period (pprison setting. Careful attention should be paid to prevent redundancy of testing efforts in the prison population. Implementing a routine HIV testing program among prison inmates greatly increased testing rates compared to on-request testing.

  13. Skin infections and infestations in prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, Olumayowa A; Onayemi, Olaniyi

    2012-02-01

    Skin infections and infestations are common in a prison environment. The prison is in dynamic equilibrium with the larger society. Hence, it serves as a reservoir of infections which can spread to the larger society. The study sets out to find out how rampant these infections might be in the prison and the factors responsible. Inmates at a Nigerian prison in Ilesha, Osun State, were examined for skin infections. Personal hygiene and living conditions were critically examined. The overall prevalent rate of infectious dermatoses was 49.2% (150/305). There were 178 infections. Dermatophytes accounted for 64%, pityriasis versicolor 27%, bacterial infections 3.4%, and others 5.6%. Only frequency of soap use and accommodation arrangement significantly contributed to the overall prevalence. However, infectious dermatoses were significantly affected by prison status (PP = 0.04), frequency of bath (PP = 0.025), changing of clothing (PP = 0.05), accommodation arrangement (P = 0.0001), frequency of soap usage (P = 0.005), and toilet facility (P = 0.001). The HIV status of the inmates was unknown. Hence, effect of HIV infection cannot be ascertained. Skin infections and infestations are common in prison. A change in living conditions and personal hygiene will definitely help in reducing these infections. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. HIV prevention and education in state prison systems: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Thomas; Osunkoya, Emmanuel; Anguh, Ivonne; Adefuye, Adedeji; Balogun, Joseph

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence rate of HIV infection in jails and prisons is approximately 5 times the rate in the U.S. general population. The authors surveyed state prison officials to assess HIV testing and HIV prevention policies--specifically voluntary testing, group HIV prevention counseling, and peer education--in the 50 states and to determine whether those policies are associated with the characteristics of the state and its prison population.

  15. HIV/AIDS prisoners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the American University of Beirut, her MSc in Kinesiology from Sam Houston State ... In turn, individuals are usually rejected and ... HIV-infected patients being treated and around 3 000 others that ... knowledge, no questionnaire has been tailored specifically to .... Share activities with other prisoners Not allowed.

  16. Attitudes toward opioid substitution therapy and pre-incarceration HIV transmission behaviors among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia: implications for secondary prevention.

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    Bachireddy, Chethan; Bazazi, Alexander R; Kavasery, Ravi; Govindasamy, Sumathi; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2011-07-01

    Pre-incarceration HIV transmission behaviors and current attitudes toward opioid substitution therapy (OST) among HIV-infected male prisoners in Malaysia have important implications for secondary HIV prevention efforts. In June 2007, 102 HIV-infected male prisoners within 6 months of community-release were anonymously surveyed in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Nearly all subjects (95%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Overall, 66% of participants reported sharing needles, and 37% reported unprotected sex in the 30 days prior to incarceration. During this period, 77% reported injection drug use, with 71% injecting daily and 65% injecting more than one substance. Injection of buprenorphine (28%), benzodiazepines (28%) and methamphetamines (49%) was reported. Nearly all (97%) of those reporting unprotected sex did so with someone not known to be HIV-infected. While 51% believed that opioid substitution therapy (OST) would be helpful, only 33% believed they needed it to prevent relapse after prison release. Most participants (70%) expressed interest in learning more about OST. Those reporting the highest injection risks were more likely to believe OST would be helpful (pMalaysia is crucial to reduce community HIV transmission after release. Effectively reducing HIV risk associated with opioid injection will require OST expansion, including social marketing to improve its acceptability and careful monitoring. Access to sterile injection equipment, particularly for non-opioid injectors, and behavioral interventions that reduce sexual risk will also be required. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

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    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  18. Latent tuberculosis infection in a Malaysian prison: implications for a comprehensive integrated control program in prisons.

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    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-01-10

    Prisons continue to fuel tuberculosis (TB) epidemics particularly in settings where access to TB screening and prevention services is limited. Malaysia is a middle-income country with a relatively high incarceration rate of 138 per 100,000 population. Despite national TB incidence rate remaining unchanged over the past ten years, data about TB in prisons and its contribution to the overall national rates does not exist. This survey was conducted to address the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) in Malaysia's largest prison. From July to December 2010, all HIV-infected and a comparative group of HIV-uninfected prisoners housed separately in Kajang prison were asked to participate in the survey after explaining the study protocol. Subjects providing informed consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire followed by the placement of tuberculin skin test (TST) with 2 TU of PPD RT-23 to subjects not being treated for active TB. TST was read after 48-72 hours and indurations of ≥ 5 mm and ≥ 10 mm were considered positive among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects, respectively. Additionally, HIV-infected inmates underwent phlebotomy for CD4 lymphocyte count assessment. A logistic regression model was explored to determine factors associated with TST positivity. Overall, 286 subjects (138 HIV-infected and 148 HIV-uninfected) had complete data and TST results. The majority were men (95.1%), less than 40 years old (median age 36.0, SD 7.87), and Malaysians (93.3%). Most (82.5%) had been previously incarcerated and more than half (53.1%) reported sharing needles just prior to their incarceration. TST was positive in 88.8% (84.7% among HIV-infected and 92.5% among HIV-uninfected subjects) and was independently associated with being HIV-uninfected (AOR = 2.97, p = 0.01) and with frequent previous incarcerations (AOR = 1.22 for every one previous incarceration, p = 0.01) after adjusting for other potential confounding factors

  19. Retention on buprenorphine is associated with high levels of maximal viral suppression among HIV-infected opioid dependent released prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Springer

    Full Text Available HIV-infected prisoners lose viral suppression within the 12 weeks after release to the community. This prospective study evaluates the use of buprenorphine/naloxone (BPN/NLX as a method to reduce relapse to opioid use and sustain viral suppression among released HIV-infected prisoners meeting criteria for opioid dependence (OD.From 2005-2010, 94 subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for OD were recruited from a 24-week prospective trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART for released HIV-infected prisoners; 50 (53% selected BPN/NLX and were eligible to receive it for 6 months; the remaining 44 (47% selected no BPN/NLX therapy. Maximum viral suppression (MVS, defined as HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/mL, was compared for the BPN/NLX and non-BPN/NLX (N = 44 groups.The two groups were similar, except the BPN/NLX group was significantly more likely to be Hispanic (56.0% v 20.4%, from Hartford (74.4% v 47.7% and have higher mean global health quality of life indicator scores (54.18 v 51.40. MVS after 24 weeks of being released was statistically correlated with 24-week retention on BPN/NLX [AOR = 5.37 (1.15, 25.1], having MVS at the time of prison-release [AOR = 10.5 (3.21, 34.1] and negatively with being Black [AOR = 0.13 (0.03, 0.68]. Receiving DAART or methadone did not correlate with MVS.In recognition that OD is a chronic relapsing disease, strategies that initiate and retain HIV-infected prisoners with OD on BPN/NLX is an important strategy for improving HIV treatment outcomes as a community transition strategy.

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV infections among prisoners in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Wakjira Kebede

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infections among prisoners in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 156 prisoners from January to June 2016. Socio-demographic and other data were collected using structured questionnaire. Antibodies against HCV and HIV, and hepatitis B surface antigens were determined in serum using ELISA techniques with commercial kits. Logistic regression analysis was employed to assess possible risk factors for the infections. Results: From the totally 156 participants, 145 (93.0% were males and 11 (7.0% were females. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV was 5.8% (9, 2.6% (4, and 2.6% (4, respectively. None of the study subjects had co-infections. History of sexually transmitted diseases (AOR = 26.1, 95% CI: 1.17–58.3, P = 0.039 and tattooing (AOR = 9.3, 95% CI: 0.8–10.9, P = 0.05 was predictor of HIV seropositivity. Having multiple heterosexual partners was significantly associated with HBV infection (AOR = 0.056, 95% CI: 0.03–0.9, P = 0.044. None of the interviewed participants had practiced homosexuality. However, they heard that homosexuality was practiced in the prison. Conclusions: Intermediate prevalence of HBV and HCV was detected among prisoners in Jimma Town. However, HIV prevalence was higher than that of the national report. It is crucial to build a system for monitoring, surveillance and preventive public health strategies to minimize the risk factors and block transmission of these infections among prisoners.

  1. Psychiatric disorders, HIV infection and HIV/hepatitis co-infection in the correctional setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, J G; Paar, D P; Wu, H; Giordano, T P; Murray, O; Raimer, B G; Avery, E N; Diamond, P M; Pulvino, J S

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and depression have long been associated with risk behaviors for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The US prison population is reported to have elevated rates of HIV, hepatitis and most psychiatric disorders. This study examined the association of six major psychiatric disorders with HIV mono-infection, HIV/HCV co-infection and HIV/HBV co-infection in one of the nation's largest prison populations. The study population consisted of 370,511 Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates who were incarcerated for any duration between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2006. Information on medical conditions and sociodemographic factors was obtained from an institution-wide electronic medical information system. Offenders diagnosed with HIV mono-infection, HIV/HCV, HIV/HBV and all HIV combined exhibited elevated rates of major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, non-schizophrenic psychotic disorder and any psychiatric disorder. In comparison to offenders with HIV mono-infection, those with HIV/HCV co-infection had an elevated prevalence of any psychiatric disorder. This cross-sectional study's finding of positive associations between psychiatric disease and both HIV infection and hepatitis co-infection among Texas prison inmates holds both clinical and public health relevance. It will be important for future investigations to examine the extent to which psychiatric disorders serve as a barrier to medical care, communication with clinicians and adherence to prescribed medical regimens among both HIV-mono-infected and HIV/hepatitis-co-infected inmates.

  2. [Active tuberculosis in a cohort of HIV-infected inmates in a prison in Mexico City: clinical and epidemiological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-León, Christian; Badial-Hernández, Florentino; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Sierra-Madero, Juan G; Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González-Aguirre, Adrián; Guerrero-Almeida, María de Lourdes; del Valle, J Miriam Bobadilla; González-Rodríguez, Andrea; Sifuentes-Osornio, José

    2012-01-01

    To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of prison inmates with active tuberculosis in HIV-positive prison populations. We conducted a cohort study in HIV-infected subjects in a prison in Mexico City, with the aim of determining clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases with active TB. We detected 172 HIV infected inmates and TB in 28 of them (16.3%) - 21 (12.2) with pulmonary TB--with an incidence rate of 7.7/100 persons/year for active TB and 4.7/100 persons/year for pulmonary TB. No drug resistance was found. Two clusters (4 and 2 subjects) were observed after RFLP-typing of 18 isolates, with a transmission rate of 11% by molecular and clinical analysis. The prevalence of active TB was found to be a thousand times greater than in the general population. Evidence of transmission inside the prison was also found.

  3. Condom acceptability for prevention of HIV infection amongst male inmates in a convict prison in north western Nigeria: A Qualitative Research Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audu Onyemocho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general recognition of homosexuality being responsible for the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Nigerian prisons. However, the use of condoms which is an evidenced-based preventive measure is critical in the prison setting because of socio-cultural reasons. Due to the dynamic nature of the prison population, interventions targeting the prisons will have a significant effect on the general population. This study assessed condom acceptability for the prevention of HIV infection among male inmates in a convict prison in north-western, Nigeria in order to provide supplementary information that will corroborate some findings from quantitative methods. A qualitative study was conducted in Zaria prison between 18th December, 2012 and 8th January, 2013. Purposive sampling identified 48 inmates who had Focused Group Discussions (FGDs and In-depth Interviews (IDIs. Common trends and variations in the responses were identified and reflected as appropriate and presented as narratives with relevant quotations. Majority of the respondents agreed that homosexuality exists among the inmates, but all the inmates scowled at the distribution of condoms to inmates in prison. Majority were of the opinion that condom distribution will promote homosexuality which is prohibited by Nigerian laws and controlling HIV transmissions in Nigeria prisons can be effectively done through behavioral modifications that are geared towards total abstinence.

  4. Condom acceptability for prevention of HIV infection amongst male inmates in a convict prison in north western Nigeria: A Qualitative Research Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audu Onyemocho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a general recognition of homosexuality being responsible for the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Nigerian prisons. However, the use of condoms which is an evidenced-based preventive measure is critical in the prison setting because of socio-cultural reasons. Due to the dynamic nature of the prison population, interventions targeting the prisons will have a significant effect on the general population. This study assessed condom acceptability for the prevention of HIV infection among male inmates in a convict prison in north-western, Nigeria in order to provide supplementary information that will corroborate some findings from quantitative methods. A qualitative study was conducted in Zaria prison between 18th December, 2012 and 8th January, 2013. Purposive sampling identified 48 inmates who had Focused Group Discussions (FGDs and In‐depth Interviews (IDIs. Common trends and variations in the responses were identified and reflected as appropriate and presented as narratives with relevant quotations. Majority of the respondents agreed that homosexuality exists among the inmates, but all the inmates scowled at the distribution of condoms to inmates in prison. Majority were of the opinion that condom distribution will promote homosexuality which is prohibited by Nigerian laws and controlling HIV transmissions in Nigeria prisons can be effectively done through behavioral modifications that are geared towards total abstinence.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of HIV counseling and testing in US prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, B; Peterman, T A

    2001-06-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in correctional facilities is much higher than in the general population. However, HIV prevention resources are limited, making it important to evaluate different prevention programs in prison settings. Our study presents the cost-effectiveness of offering HIV counseling and testing (CT) to soon-to-be-released inmates in US prisons. A decision model was used to estimate the costs and benefits (averted HIV cases) of HIV testing and counseling compared to no CT from a societal perspective. Model parameters were HIV prevalence among otherwise untested inmates (1%); acceptance of CT (50%); risk for HIV transmission from infected individuals (7%); risk of HIV acquisition for uninfected individuals (0.3%); and reduction of risk after counseling for those infected (25%) and uninfected (20%). Marginal costs of testing and counseling per person were used (no fixed costs). If infected, the cost was $78.17; if uninfected, it was $24.63. A lifetime treatment cost of $186,900 was used to estimate the benefits of prevented HIV infections. Sensitivity and threshold analysis were done to test the robustness of these parameters. Our baseline model shows that, compared to no CT, offering CT to 10,000 inmates detects 50 new or previously undiagnosed infections and averts 4 future cases of HIV at a cost of $125,000 to prison systems. However, this will save society over $550,000. Increase in HIV prevalence, risk of transmission, or effectiveness of counseling increased societal savings. As prevalence increases, focusing on HIV-infected inmates prevents additional future infections; however, when HIV prevalence is less than 5%, testing and counseling of both infected and uninfected inmates are important for HIV prevention.

  6. SOCIOPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION IN FORMER PRISONERS WITH TUBERCULOSIS CONCURRENT WITH HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Erokhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of delivery of sociopsychological and legal care to former prisoners with tuberculosis concurrent with HIV infection. Examinations were made at the specialized unit of Tuberculosis Hospital Eleven. A total of 240 former prisoners with tuberculosis concurrent with HIV infection were examined. Active tuberculosis had developed in almost half (47.1% of them when they were in prison and in 12.5% within the first two years after their release. In the remaining 40.4%, the incidence of tuberculosis was unassociated with their being in prison. Sociopsychological care was rendered to all these patients; a social reference was made for each patient and a direction of social rehabilitation was defined for each patient. A set of psychodiagnostic and psychocorrectional procedures traditionally used by medical psychologists when working with this patient contingent was employed to determine the specificity of psychological and behavioral characteristics in these patients. Main sociopsychological characteristics were identified to define the tasks of and volume of work on patient resocialization. As a result, a model was proposed for the multiprofessional interaction of specialists at a specialized hospital: a phthisiatrician, an infectiologist, physicians of other specialties, medical psychologists, social work specialists, a legal adviser, and occupational therapy instructors. The main directions of sociopsychological care, which could increase the efficiency of treatment, by enhancing patient adherence to treatment, were defined. The leading factor that changed attitudes towards treatment was to improve quality of life in patients and their psychoemotional status through resocialization with complete or partial recovery of a patient’s socioeconomic status (documentation, pension provision, and solution of housing problems.

  7. Indonesian prisons and HIV: part of the problem, part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Diana, Aly; van Crevel, Reinout; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Pohan, Herdiman T; van der Ven, Andre; Djaya, Ilham

    2009-07-01

    Around the world, HIV-prevalence rates among prisoners are high compared to the general population. This is due to overrepresentation of injecting drug users (IDUs) in prison and possible HIV-transmission inside prison. Limited health services in penitentiary institutes, stigma, policy issues, and budgetary constraints may hamper delivery of appropriate services for HIV in prison. Prisons may, on the other hand, enable the access to a high risk population for HIV-prevention and -care. IDUs are namely hard to reach outside prisons, while in prison targeted interventions for IDUs can be used repeatedly and economically. Also, harm reduction and HIV-treatment can be supervised and monitored carefully. This paper reviews HIV-prevention and care in prison, and describes the experience in one particular prison in West Java, Indonesia. Based on the literature and local experience, one can conclude that effective and widespread HIV-testing and treatment can be established in prisons if there is commitment from prison authorities, endorsement of services by prison staff and inmates, and collaboration with health care providers from outside prison. Essential components of HIV-services in prison include appropriate health care services, a suitable environment for HIV-counseling and -testing and tailored services for injecting drug use. By partner counseling and linking HIV-services in prison with continued care afterwards, prisons may contribute significantly to HIV-control in the general population, especially in settings where HIV is often due to injecting drug use.

  8. Pilot study of risk behaviour, voluntary HIV counselling and HIV antibody testing from saliva among inmates of prisons in Slovakia.

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    Staneková, D; Ondrejka, D; Habeková, M; Wimmerová, S; Kucerková, S

    2001-05-01

    To implement a pilot study of risk behaviour and HIV infection using HIV antibody testing from saliva to improve the situation as regards HIV/AIDS infection in prison institutions in the Slovak Republic. The study comprised adult and juvenile males of grade one correction categories and prisoners from the prison for juveniles in Martin, as well as females prisoners in Nitra. Preventive activities were implemented in May 1998 in the form of discussions concerning topics related to HIV/AIDS infection. Saliva was collected for the presence of HIV antibodies and a questionnaire regarding sexual practice was completed. 32 persons [8 adult males (25%), 6 juvenile males (18.7%) and 18 females (56%)] were voluntarily tested for the presence of HIV antibodies in saliva. Nobody was HIV-positive. 75 persons (20 adult males, 30 juvenile males and 25 females) were involved in the study of risk behaviour. 40.8% participants had primary education, 28.2% secondary education, 2.8% were students of universities and 28.2% were apprenticies. 60% inmates (mostly females) were religious. Juvenile males reported the highest number of partners while females the smallest (p prison while 19%, 5.6% and 8.3% in the prison, respectively. Paid sexual services were offered by 9.1% females, 15.8% adult males and 25% juvenile males. Outside prison adult and juvenile males used non-sterile used syringes as well as tattooing more often than females (p prisoners.

  9. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.

  10. HIV counselling in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, L; McHugh, M; Nooney, K

    1989-01-01

    HIV presents particular problem in penal establishments: the nature of the population; conditions in prison; media attention and misinformation; the possibility of transmission within and beyond the prison population; the extra issues that apply to female prisoners. These are discussed in the context of prison policy regarding HIV and the broad strategic approach which is being adopted to manage the problem of HIV within penal institutions. Counselling has a key role in the overall strategy. Pre- and post-test counselling with prisoners is described and the particular problems presented by inmates are discussed and illustrated by reference to case histories. Developments in counselling provision for inmates are outlined.

  11. HIV risk inside U.S. prisons: a systematic review of risk reduction interventions conducted in U.S. prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; Chang, Yvonne; Lian, Zi

    2017-08-01

    HIV prevalence in correctional populations is approximately five times that of the general adult population. This systematic review examines the broad question of HIV prevention and interventions to reduce inmate HIV-related risk behaviors in U.S. federal and state prisons. We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases and Google Scholar to identify behavioral, biomedical, social, and policy studies related to HIV among U.S. prison populations from 1980-2014. Studies were excluded if they did not focus on HIV, prison inmates, if they were conducted outside of the U.S., if they involved juvenile offenders, or if they included post-release outcomes. Twenty-seven articles met the study criteria. Evidence suggests that research related to the HIV care continuum, risk behaviors, gender, prevention (e.g., peer education), and policy are key topics to enhance HIV prevention interventions in the criminal justice system. This review provides a prison-specific overview of HIV in U.S. correctional populations and highlight effective interventions, including inmate peer education. There is an urgent need to continue to implement HIV prevention interventions across all prisons and improve the quality of life among those at heightened risk of HIV infection.

  12. Predictors of mortality within prison and after release among persons living with HIV in Indonesia

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    Culbert GJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel J Culbert,1,2 Forrest W Crawford,3–5 Astia Murni,6 Agung Waluyo,2 Alexander R Bazazi,7,8 Junaiti Sahar,2 Frederick L Altice7–9 1Department of Health Systems Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Center for HIV/AIDS Nursing Research, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia; 3Department of Biostatistics, Yale School of Public Health, 4Operations, Yale School of Management, 5Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; 6Directorate General of Corrections, Indonesian Ministry of Law and Human Rights, Jakarta, Indonesia; 7Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, School of Public Health, 8Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, AIDS Program, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; 9Centre of Excellence for Research in AIDS (CERiA, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Objectives: HIV-related mortality is increasing in Indonesia, where prisons house many people living with HIV and addiction. We examined all-cause mortality in HIV-infected Indonesian prisoners within prison and up to 24 months postrelease. Materials and methods: Randomly selected HIV-infected male prisoners (n=102 from two prisons in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed surveys in prison and were followed up for 2 years (until study completion or until they died or were lost to follow-up. Death dates were determined from medical records and interviews with immediate family members. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression models were analyzed to identify mortality predictors. Results: During 103 person-years (PYs of follow-up, 15 deaths occurred, including ten in prison. The crude mortality rate within prison (125.2 deaths per 1,000 PYs was surpassed by the crude mortality rate (215.7 deaths per 1,000 PYs in released prisoners. HIV-associated opportunistic infections were the most common probable cause of death

  13. A behavioral and serological survey on HIV prevalence among prisoners in Benin

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    S. Hessou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cases of HIV are common in Benin, with infection rates varying according to socioeconomic and cultural factors, and by region. Certain segments of the population, such as prison inmates, sex worker clients and truck drivers are at high risk for HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study is to identify which behavioral and serological indicators contribute to the spread of HIV among prisoners. A total of 496 inmates from prisons located in all major cities in Benin were surveyed. Data was collected through interview sessions carried out using a questionnaire and through blood samples. The results show that most inmates are Beninese (83.5%, and the average age is 33 years (range: 14-80 years. No prisoner reported using a condom the last time they engaged in sexual intercourse. Blood exposure was found in 14.6% of inmates and HIV was detected in 1.4% of cases. Our analysis indicates that the length of detention and gender are factors that influence HIV status. However, age, education, nationality and HIV awareness had no significant effect on HIV prevalence among inmates. The results highlight the need to raise awareness in prisons about HIV. This can be achieved by strengthening communication strategies and by organizing HIV and sexually transmitted diseases information sessions for both prison officers and inmates.

  14. Collaborative research to prevent HIV among male prison inmates and their female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, O A; Zack, B; Faigeles, B

    1999-04-01

    Despite the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates, institutional and access barriers have impeded development and evaluation of such programs. Over the past 6 years, the authors have developed a unique collaborative relationship to develop and evaluate HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates. The collaboration includes an academic research institution (the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at the University of California, San Francisco), a community-based organization (Centerforce), and the staff and inmate peer educators inside a state prison. In this ongoing collaboration, the authors have developed and evaluated a series of HIV prevention interventions for prison inmates and for women who visit prison inmates. Results of these studies support the feasibility and effectiveness of HIV prevention programs for inmates and their partners both in prison and in the community. Access and institutional barriers to HIV intervention research in prisons can be overcome through the development of collaborative research partnerships.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in an Indonesian prison: prevalence, risk factors and implications of HIV screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Van Crevel, Reinout; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Indrati, Agnes K; Dwiyana, Reiva F; Nuralam, Nisaa; Pohan, Herdiman T; Jaya, Ilham; Meheus, Andre; Van Der Ven, Andre

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and behavioural correlates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among Indonesian prisoners and to examine the impact of voluntary counselling and testing for all incoming prisoners on access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). In a non-anonymous survey in an Indonesian prison for drug-related offences, all incoming prisoners and symptomatic resident prisoners were counselled and offered testing for HIV, hepatitis B and C. Screening was performed in 679 incoming prisoners, of whom 639 (94.1%) agreed to be tested, revealing a seroprevalence of 7.2% (95% CI 5.2-9.2) for HIV, 5.8% (95% CI 3.9-7.6) for HBsAg and 18.6% (95% CI 15.5-21.6) for HCV. Of 57 resident prisoners tested, 29.8% were HIV-positive. HIV infection was strongly associated with injecting drug use (IDU; P prisoners was responsible for diagnosing and treating HIV in 73.0%, respectively, and 68.0% of HIV-positive individuals. HIV and HCV are highly prevalent among incoming Indonesian prisoners and almost entirely explained by IDU. Our study is the first to show that voluntary HIV counselling and testing during the intake process in prison may greatly improve access to ART in a developing country. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Challenges to Providing a Support Group for HIV-Positive Prisoners in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Poul

    2008-01-01

    In prison populations around the world, the prevalence of HIV is often higher than that of the general population. The prison population is at high risk for HIV infection, particularly through the sharing of contaminated needles and high-risk sexual activity. Counselling is regarded as a key element in the prevention and treatment of HIV…

  17. Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Torriente, Anna; Tadion, Alexander; Hsu, Lee-Nah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prisons and other closed settings are high-risk environments for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. Prisoners often experience overcrowded living conditions and violence?including sexual assault?increasing their vulnerability to HIV and TB. However, high infection rates in prisons affect both prisoners and prison employees. Both groups, in interacting with their families and their communities, represent a potential risk of HIV transmission outside the prison setting. National HI...

  18. Rationale, study design and sample characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of directly administered antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected prisoners transitioning to the community - a potential conduit to improved HIV treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber-Tehrani, Ali Shabahang; Springer, Sandra A; Qiu, Jingjun; Herme, Maua; Wickersham, Jeffrey; Altice, Frederick L

    2012-03-01

    HIV-infected prisoners experience poor HIV treatment outcomes post-release. Directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) is a CDC-designated, evidence-based adherence intervention for drug users, yet untested among released prisoners. Sentenced HIV-infected prisoners on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and returning to New Haven or Hartford, Connecticut were recruited and randomized 2:1 to a prospective controlled trial (RCT) of 6 months of DAART versus self-administered therapy (SAT); all subjects received case management services. Subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence were offered immediate medication-assisted treatment. Trained outreach workers provided DAART once-daily, seven days per week, including behavioral skills training during the last intervention month. Both study groups were assessed for 6 months after the intervention period. Assessments occurred within 90 days pre-release (baseline), day of release, and then monthly for 12 months. Viral load (VL) and CD4 testing was conducted baseline and quarterly; genotypic resistance testing was conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was pre-defined as viral suppression (VLHIV treatment outcomes after release from prison, a period associated with adverse HIV and other medical consequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV and STD testing in prisons: perspectives of in-prison service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga; Seal, David W; Wolitski, Richard; Flanigan, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Christine; Nealey-Moore, Jill; Askew, John

    2003-12-01

    Because individuals at risk for HIV and STDs are concentrated in prisons and jails, incarceration is an opportunity to provide HIV and STD testing. We interviewed 72 service providers working in U.S. prisons in four states about their experiences with and perceptions regarding HIV and STD testing in prison. Providers' job duties represented administration, education, security, counseling, and medical care. Providers' knowledge of prison procedures and programs related to HIV and STD testing was narrowly limited to their specific job duties, resulting in many missed opportunities for prevention counseling and referral. Suggestions include increasing health care and counseling staff so posttest counseling can be provided for those with negative as well as positive test results, providing additional prevention programs for incarcerated persons, improving staff training about HIV and STD testing, and improving communication among in-prison providers as well as between corrections and public health staff.

  20. HIV and tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telisinghe, Lilanganee; Charalambous, Salome; Topp, Stephanie M; Herce, Michael E; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Barron, Peter; Schouten, Erik J; Jahn, Andreas; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D; Beyrer, Chris; Amon, Joseph J

    2016-09-17

    Given the dual epidemics of HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa and evidence suggesting a disproportionate burden of these diseases among detainees in the region, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of HIV and tuberculosis in prison populations, describe services available and challenges to service delivery, and identify priority areas for programmatically relevant research in sub-Saharan African prisons. To this end, we reviewed literature on HIV and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan African prisons published between 2011 and 2015, and identified data from only 24 of the 49 countries in the region. Where data were available, they were frequently of poor quality and rarely nationally representative. Prevalence of HIV infection ranged from 2·3% to 34·9%, and of tuberculosis from 0·4 to 16·3%; detainees nearly always had a higher prevalence of both diseases than did the non-incarcerated population in the same country. We identified barriers to prevention, treatment, and care services in published work and through five case studies of prison health policies and services in Zambia, South Africa, Malawi, Nigeria, and Benin. These barriers included severe financial and human-resource limitations and fragmented referral systems that prevent continuity of care when detainees cycle into and out of prison, or move between prisons. These challenges are set against the backdrop of weak health and criminal-justice systems, high rates of pre-trial detention, and overcrowding. A few examples of promising practices exist, including routine voluntary testing for HIV and screening for tuberculosis upon entry to South African and the largest Zambian prisons, reforms to pre-trial detention in South Africa, integration of mental health services into a health package in selected Malawian prisons, and task sharing to include detainees in care provision through peer-educator programmes in Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa. However, substantial additional investments are

  1. The HIV Prison Paradox: Agency and HIV-Positive Women's Experiences in Jail and Prison in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Courtenay; Scanlon, Michael L; Radhakrishnan, Bharathi; Pantalone, David W

    2017-08-01

    Incarcerated women face significant barriers to achieve continuous HIV care. We employed a descriptive, exploratory design using qualitative methods and the theoretical construct of agency to investigate participants' self-reported experiences accessing HIV services in jail, in prison, and post-release in two Alabama cities. During January 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 formerly incarcerated HIV-positive women. Two researchers completed independent coding, producing preliminary codes from transcripts using content analysis. Themes were developed iteratively, verified, and refined. They encompassed (a) special rules for HIV-positive women: isolation, segregation, insults, food rationing, and forced disclosure; (b) absence of counseling following initial HIV diagnosis; and (c) HIV treatment impediments: delays, interruption, and denial. Participants deployed agentic strategies of accommodation, resistance, and care-seeking to navigate the social world of prison and HIV services. Findings illuminate the "HIV prison paradox": the chief opportunities that remain unexploited to engage and re-engage justice-involved women in the HIV care continuum.

  2. Opening the Door to Zero New HIV Infections in Closed Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriente, Anna; Tadion, Alexander; Hsu, Lee-Nah

    2016-06-01

    Prisons and other closed settings are high-risk environments for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. Prisoners often experience overcrowded living conditions and violence-including sexual assault-increasing their vulnerability to HIV and TB. However, high infection rates in prisons affect both prisoners and prison employees. Both groups, in interacting with their families and their communities, represent a potential risk of HIV transmission outside the prison setting. National HIV and TB strategies should therefore include measures to prevent transmission and increase access to HIV-related services in prisons. Courts have progressively recognized the human rights of prisoners, including the right to health and access to HIV-related services. A number of national and regional court decisions have affirmed that prison authorities have a duty of care to prisoners and an obligation to ensure that prisoners have access to HIV prevention measures and treatment. Policies and programs on HIV, AIDS, and TB for prison workplaces that are aligned with the ILO's international labor standards can benefit both prisoners and prison employees. In particular, the ILO's HIV and AIDS Recommendation, 2010 (No. 200) affirms the principle of universal access to HIV services and provides guidance for the HIV/TB response in prison settings.

  3. Intersecting epidemics of HIV, HCV, and syphilis among soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan: Implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel, Lyuba; Polonsky, Maxim; Wegman, Martin; Shumskaya, Natalya; Kurmanalieva, Ainura; Asanov, Akylbek; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-11-01

    Central Asia is afflicted with increasing HIV incidence, low antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage and increasing AIDS mortality, driven primarily by people who inject drugs (PWID). Reliable data about HIV, other infectious diseases, and substance use disorders in prisoners in this region is lacking and could provide important insights into how to improve HIV prevention and treatment efforts in the region. A randomly sampled, nationwide biobehavioural health survey was conducted in 8 prisons in Kyrgyzstan among all soon-to-be-released prisoners; women were oversampled. Consented participants underwent computer-assisted, standardized behavioural health assessment surveys and testing for HIV, HCV, HBV, and syphilis. Prevalence and means were computed, and generalized linear modelling was conducted, with all analyses using weights to account for disproportionate sampling by strata. Among 381 prisoners who underwent consent procedures, 368 (96.6%) were enrolled in the study. Women were significantly older than men (40.6 vs. 36.5; p=0.004). Weighted prevalence (%), with confidence interval (CI), for each infection was high: HCV (49.7%; CI: 44.8-54.6%), syphilis (19.2%; CI: 15.1-23.5%), HIV (10.3%; CI: 6.9-13.8%), and HBV (6.2%; CI: 3.6-8.9%). Among the 31 people with HIV, 46.5% were aware of being HIV-infected. Men, compared to women, were significantly more likely to have injected drugs (38.3% vs.16.0%; p=0.001). Pre-incarceration and within-prison drug injection, primarily of opioids, was 35.4% and 30.8%, respectively. Independent correlates of HIV infection included lifetime drug injection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=38.75; p=0.001), mean number of years injecting (AOR=0.93; p=0.018), mean number of days experiencing drug problems (AOR=1.09; p=0.025), increasing duration of imprisonment (AOR=1.08; p=0.02 for each year) and having syphilis (AOR=3.51; p=0.003), while being female (AOR=3.06; p=0.004) and being a recidivist offender (AOR=2.67; p=0.008) were independently

  4. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  5. Emergency department use by released prisoners with HIV: an observational longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie P Meyer

    Full Text Available Many people living with HIV access healthcare systems through the emergency department (ED, and increased ED use may be indicative of disenfranchisement with primary HIV care, under-managed comorbid disease, or coincide with use of other healthcare resources. The goal of this study was to investigate ED use by HIV-infected prisoners transitioning to communities.We evaluated ED use by 151 HIV-infected released prisoners who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of directly administered versus self-administered antiretroviral therapy in Connecticut. Primary outcomes were quantity and type of ED visits and correlates of ED use were evaluated with multivariate models by Poisson regression.In the 12 months post-release, there were 227 unique ED contacts made by 85/151 (56% subjects. ED visits were primarily for acute febrile syndromes (32.6% or pain (20.3%, followed by substance use issues (19.4%, trauma (18%, mental illness (11%, and social access issues (4.4%. Compared to those not utilizing the ED, users were more likely to be white, older, and unmarried, with less trust in their physician and poorer perceived physical health but greater social support. In multivariate models, ED use was correlated with moderate to severe depression (IRR = 1.80, being temporarily housed (IRR = 0.54, and alcohol addiction severity (IRR = 0.21 but not any surrogates of HIV severity.EDs are frequent sources of care after prison-release with visits often reflective of social and psychiatric instability. Future interventions should attempt to fill resource gaps, engage released prisoners in continuous HIV care, and address these substantial needs.

  6. HIV in Indian prisons: Risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background & Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Methods: Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered...

  7. Individuals motivated to participate in adherence, care and treatment (imPACT): development of a multi-component intervention to help HIV-infected recently incarcerated individuals link and adhere to HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golin, Carol E; Knight, Kevin; Carda-Auten, Jessica; Gould, Michele; Groves, Jennifer; L White, Becky; Bradley-Bull, Steve; Amola, Kemi; Fray, Niasha; Rosen, David L; Mugavaro, Michael J; Pence, Brian W; Flynn, Patrick M; Wohl, David

    2016-09-06

    Policy-makers promote a seek, test, treat and retain (STTR) strategy to expand HIV testing, support linkage and engagement in care, and enhance the continuous use of antiretroviral therapy for those HIV-infected. This HIV prevention strategy is particularly appropriate in correctional settings where HIV screening and treatment are routinely available yet many HIV-infected individuals have difficulty sustaining sufficient linkage and engagement in care, disease management, and viral suppression after prison release. Our research team developed Project imPACT (individuals motivated to Participate in Adherence, Care and Treatment), a multi-component approach for HIV-Infected recently incarcerated individuals that specifically targets their care linkage, retention, and medication adherence by addressing multiple barriers to care engagement after release. The ultimate goals of this intervention are to improve the health of HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison and reduce HIV transmission to their communities by maintaining viral suppression. This paper describes the intervention and technology development processes, based on best practices for intervention development and process evaluation. These processes included: 1) identifying the target population; 2) clarifying the theoretical basis for intervention design; 3) describing features of its foundational interventions; 4) conducting formative qualitative research; 5) integrating and adapting foundational interventions to create and refine intervention content based on target audience feedback. These stages along with the final intervention product are described in detail. The intervention is currently being evaluation and a two arm randomized, controlled trial in two US state prison systems. Based on a literature review, qualitative research, integration of proven interventions and behavioral theory, the final imPACT intervention focused on the transition period two to three months before and three

  8. High Rates of Police Detention Among Recently Released HIV-infected Prisoners in Ukraine: Implications for Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M.; Bachireddy, Chethan; Soule, Michael; Kiryazova, Tetiana; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ukraine’s HIV epidemic, primarily affecting people who inject drugs (PWID), is expanding and transitioning despite free opioid substitution therapy (OST) and antiretroviral therapy (ART), two effective ways to reduce HIV transmission. Police detention not resulting in imprisonment, defined as police harassment, of PWID is common, but its prevalence and impact on health is not known. Method HIV-infected individuals (N=97) released from prison within one year were recruited and surveyed in two HIV-endemic Ukrainian cities about post-release police detention experiences. Data on the frequency of police detention, related adverse events, and impact on OST and ART continuity were collected, and correlates of detention were examined using logistic regression. Results Detention responses were available for 94 (96.9%) participants, of which 55 (58.5%) reported police detentions (mean=9.4 per person-year). For those detained while prescribed OST (N=28) and ART (N=27), medication interruption was common (67.9% and 70.4%, respectively); 23 of 27 participants prescribed OST (85.2%) were detained en route to/from OST treatment. Significant independent correlates of detention without charges included post-release ART prescription (AOR 4.98, p=0.021), current high-risk injection practices (AOR 5.03, p=0.011), male gender (AOR 10.88, p=0.010), and lower lifetime months of imprisonment (AOR 0.99, p=0.031). Conclusions HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison in Ukraine experience frequent police detentions, resulting in withdrawal symptoms, confiscation of syringes, and interruptions of essential medications, including ART and OST. Structural changes are urgently needed to reduce police detentions in order to control HIV transmission and improve both individual and public health. PMID:23769160

  9. HIV-related knowledge and attitudes among Indonesian prison officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Suherman, Harry; Pinxten, W J Lucas; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hospers, Harm J

    2013-01-01

    Prison officers have a vital role in running a secure and healthy living environment for the inmates. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude towards inmates living with HIV among the officers in an Indonesian narcotics prison. A total of 93 officers from a narcotics prison in Bandung, Indonesia voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study by completing a self-reported questionnaire. A Prior focus group discussion was also held among selected participants. Statistical data analyses indicate that all domains of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, i.e. knowledge of HIV-transmission, general HIV/AIDS knowledge and knowledge of HIV-prevention, have substantial positive correlations with the prison officers' attitude towards inmates living with HIV. These results show that the more knowledgeable the officers are, the less likely they are to respond in an unfavourable manner to inmates living with HIV and vice versa. Despite the limited participants involved in this study, the knowledge gaps that are identified in this study should be the starting point for the development of educational interventions for prison officers. Sufficient educational programs and the latest materials need to be made available within the prison. Commitment from prison authorities as well as a proper policy are also needed. This study helped prison authorities to identify areas for knowledge development of the officers. Hopefully the positive attitude towards inmates living with HIV will be developed.

  10. Revision and Implementation of "Clinical Guideline for Tuberculosis and HIV in Prisons", Great Tehran Prison, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhoudi, Behnam; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Tabarsi, Payam; Mohraz, Minoo; Golrokhy, Raheleh; Farnia, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Alasvand, Ramin; Ebrahimi, Bahman; Esfehani, Jafar; Tashakoriyan, Mehrzad

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of the revised "Clinical Guideline for HIV and TB" in the Great Tehran Prison during October 2013 to June 2014. The guideline includes all aspects of HIV/TB diagnosis based on active case finding (ACF), treatment and care services. Before the implementation, a focus group discussion was conducted, and attended by experts on prison health. The objective was to identify defects and limitations of the guideline. After the discussion, the guideline was revised. The Great Tehran Prison contains three separate units; all prisoners are taken first to "reception and identification unit (quarantine)" and then send to two housing units according to their legal status. An HIV ACF strategy was employed in the quarantine, and two units through a voluntary provider-initiated HIV testing. Three staff of the triangular clinic trained the prisoners about common routes of HIV transmission and the symptoms of TB in the units. In the quarantine, all prisoners were examined for all HIV-risk factors, HIV testing and symptoms of TB. In unit one, healthcare staff continued the ACF process, while in unit two, the peers of prisoners were assigned as the healthcare communicators to proceed with the strategy. At this caring process, when the test result was positive, then the process of care, treatment and follow ups was initiated. Moreover, the use of directly observed therapy (DOT) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) and TB was applied to the sick prisoners. There was also a follow-up caring for released prisoner to refer them to care and treatment services outside the prison. The guideline was implemented in the prison successfully. Regarding feasibility of the guideline, the investigators of this study suggest that the guideline should be implemented in other prisons across the country. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. HIV treatment in US prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Rich, Josiah D

    2010-09-03

    Arguably one of the most marginalized populations in our society, prisoners bear a disproportionate burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV. In addition, groups known to be at an inordinately higher risk of HIV, including minorities, the addicted, the mentally ill and the impoverished are overrepresented among incarcerated populations. This concentration of HIV among groups that have been historically difficult to reach, with limited intersections with healthcare, provides an opportunity for testing, diagnosis, treatment, linkage to care and prevention. Providing HIV care within correctional facilities poses unique challenges. Barriers to confidentiality, access to medication and prior records, and lack of comprehensive discharge planning can serve as obstacles to providing optimal care. This article discusses the public health implications and importance of providing HIV care to prisoners, and also discusses the practicalities of working within an environment that poses particular barriers to care.

  12. AIDS in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsbury, R

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence of HIV inside prisons in Senegal, Africa. There is a general presumption that HIV rates are higher in prisons than in the surrounding population. Organizations have conducted an inquiry on the statistics of HIV infection among prisoners and results revealed that there are existing projects done outside Western Europe and the US. It was observed that prison conditions in Africa do not meet the international norms nor the standards of human rights organizations in their treatment of detainees. One problem that had risen during the Dakar conference was the inaccessibility of condoms among detainees. Furthermore, despite the customs and morale of Zimbabwe regarding same sex activities, there are still reported cases of sodomy without the use of condom. The question presented in this article focuses on the so-called rights of prisoners in practicing safe sex through use of condoms and provision of medical treatment among those infected.

  13. Factors associated with syphilis seropositive and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among inmates at Lubuk Pakam prison, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, E.; Ginting, Y.; Saragih, R. H.

    2018-03-01

    Syphilis has been known to increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. Epidemiologic studies showed that HIV transmission is 3-5 times higher in people with syphilis.Hence, in this current study, the factors associated with syphilis-seropositive and HIV infection were evaluated.This study used cross-sectional study. This study included inmates at Lubuk Pakam prison in November 2016. After interviewing participants’ demographics and risk behaviors, blood samples were obtained to be tested for HIV and syphilis, using the Rapid Test tool of HIV 3 methods and One STEP Syphilis Anti TP-Test. A total number of 1,114 inmates were included in this study, consisted of 1,081 male (97%) and 33female (3%). Ten inmates were HIV-positive (0.9%), whereas 70 inmates were syphilis-seropositive (6.3%).Based on multivariate-analyses, high-risk sexual behaviors associated with the increased risk of syphilis-seropositive of up to 8.31 times (p=0.002). HIV status also portrayed higher risk of syphilis-seropositive compared to non-HIV participants (3.98 fold, p=0.019). In HIV incidence, found that high-risk sexual behaviors also significantly increased the risk of HIV (7.69 fold, p=0.003). Syphilis-seropositive was also highly associated with HIV risk (5.09 fold, p=0.019).Syphilis and HIV showed a close association with several shared contributing factors.

  14. Prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy in incarcerated women and the incidence of congenital syphilis in births in prison in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Ayres, Barbara; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the period 2011-2014. The Birth in Brazil study included 23,894 free women cared for in 266 hospitals. The Maternal and Infant Health in Prisons study included 495 incarcerated pregnant women or mothers living with their children, according to a census conducted in 33 female prisons. The same case definitions and data collection methods were used in both studies. The chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of incarcerated and free women with a significance of 0.05. For incarcerated women, the estimated prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy was 8.7% (95%CI: 5.7-13.1) and for HIV infection 3.3% (95%CI: 1.7-6.6); the estimated mother to child transmission of syphilis was 66.7% (95%CI: 44.7-83.2) and the incidence of congenital syphilis was 58.1 per 1,000 living newborns (95%CI: 40.4-82.8). Incarcerated women had a greater prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, lower quality of antenatal care and higher levels of social vulnerability. Syphilis infection showed to be an indicator of social vulnerability in free women, but not in incarcerated women. Health initiatives in prison are necessary to reduce healthcare inequalities and should include adequate antenatal and birth care.

  15. Prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy in incarcerated women and the incidence of congenital syphilis in births in prison in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the period 2011-2014. The Birth in Brazil study included 23,894 free women cared for in 266 hospitals. The Maternal and Infant Health in Prisons study included 495 incarcerated pregnant women or mothers living with their children, according to a census conducted in 33 female prisons. The same case definitions and data collection methods were used in both studies. The chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of incarcerated and free women with a significance of 0.05. For incarcerated women, the estimated prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy was 8.7% (95%CI: 5.7-13.1 and for HIV infection 3.3% (95%CI: 1.7-6.6; the estimated mother to child transmission of syphilis was 66.7% (95%CI: 44.7-83.2 and the incidence of congenital syphilis was 58.1 per 1,000 living newborns (95%CI: 40.4-82.8. Incarcerated women had a greater prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, lower quality of antenatal care and higher levels of social vulnerability. Syphilis infection showed to be an indicator of social vulnerability in free women, but not in incarcerated women. Health initiatives in prison are necessary to reduce healthcare inequalities and should include adequate antenatal and birth care.

  16. Preventing HIV infection without targeting the virus: how reducing HIV target cells at the genital tract is a new approach to HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Julie; Mwangi, Lucy; Fowke, Keith R

    2017-09-12

    For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Here, we review the link between immune activation and susceptibility to HIV infection. We also describe a new concept in prevention where, instead of targeting the virus, we modulate the host immune system to resist HIV infection. Mimicking the immune quiescence phenotype might become a new strategy in the toolbox of biomedical methods to prevent HIV infection. Clinical trial registration on clinicaltrial.gov: #NCT02079077.

  17. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in North Gondar Zone Prison, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Beyene; Amare, Bemnet; Asfaw, Fanaye; Tesfaye, Wogahta; Tiruneh, Moges; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Mulu, Andargachew; Kassu, Afework

    2012-12-15

    People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone. An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through fluorescence microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for those having significant lymphadenopathy. Pre and post HIV test counseling was provided after written consent. Binary logistic and multivariable analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. A total of 250 prisoners were included in the survey. Among these, 26 (10.4%) prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 1482.3 per 100,000 populations of smear positive TB among the TB suspects. All the inmates who participated in the study volunteered for HIV testing and a total of 19(7.6%) inmates were found to be reactive for the HIV antibody test amongst of which 9(47.4%) had TB co-infection. The prevalence of HIV infection in the TB infected inmates was found to be 34.6% (9/26). From the 26 TB cases identified 12 (46.2%) were having under nutrition (BMI Prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. There was a high prevalence of HIV among the TB suspects. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission. The determinants for poor nutrition in the prison need also further investigation.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV-1/2 in drug abuser inmates in central Javan prisons, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Dirgahayu, Paramasari; Sari, Yulia; Hudiyono, Hudiyono; Kageyama, Seiji

    2013-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the current molecular prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), and human T lymphotropic virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) circulating among drug abuser inmates incarcerated in prisons located in Central Java, Indonesia. Socio-epidemiological data and blood specimens were collected from 375 drug abuser inmates in four prisons. The blood samples were analyzed with serological and molecular testing for HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV, and HTLV-1/2. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV, HDV, and HTLV-1/2 in drug abuser inmates was 4.8% (18/375), 3.2% (12/375), 34.1% (128/375), 0% (0/375), and 3.7% (14/375), respectively. No co-infections of HIV and HBV were found. Co-infections of HIV/HCV, HIV/HTLV-1/2, HBV/HCV, HBV/HTLV-1/2, and HCV/HTLV-1/2 were prevalent at rates of 4% (15/375), 1.3% (5/375), 1.1% (4/375), 0.3% (1/375), and 2.1% (8/375), respectively. The HIV/HCV co-infection rate was significantly higher in injection drug users (IDUs) compared to non-IDUs. Triple co-infection of HIV/HCV/HTLV-1/2 was found only in three IDUs (0.8%). HIV CRF01_AE was found to be circulating in the inmates. HBV genotype B3 predominated, followed by C1. Subtypes adw and adr were found. HCV genotype 1a predominated among HCV-infected inmates, followed by 1c, 3k, 3a, 4a, and 1b. All HTLV-1 isolates shared 100% homology with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan, while all of the HTLV-2 isolates were subtype 2a. Drug abuser inmates in prisons may offer a unique community to bridge prevention and control of human blood-borne virus infection to the general community.

  19. Homophobia, stigma and HIV in Jamaican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2011-02-01

    Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica and is an important issue to address in other low- and middle-income post-colonialist societies.

  20. Evaluation of Routine HIV Opt-Out Screening and Continuum of Care Services Following Entry into Eight Prison Reception Centers--California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Kimberley D; Eckert, Valorie; Behrends, Czarina N; Wheeler, Charlotte; MacGowan, Robin J; Mohle-Boetani, Janet C

    2016-02-26

    Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission. Before 2010, HIV testing was available to inmates in the California state prison system upon request. In 2010, the California Correctional Health Care Services (CCHCS) integrated HIV opt-out screening into the health assessment for inmates entering California state prisons. Under this system, a medical care provider informs the inmate that an HIV test is routinely done, along with screening for sexually transmitted, communicable, and vaccine-preventable diseases, unless the inmate specifically declines the test. During 2012-2013, CCHCS, the California Department of Public Health, and CDC evaluated HIV screening, rates of new diagnoses, linkage to and retention in care, ART response, and post-release linkage to care among California prison inmates. All prison inmates are processed through one of eight specialized reception center facilities, where they undergo a comprehensive evaluation of their medical needs, mental health, and custody requirements for placement in one of 35 state prisons. Among 17,436 inmates who entered a reception center during April-September 2012, 77% were screened for HIV infection; 135 (1%) tested positive, including 10 (0.1%) with newly diagnosed infections. Among the 135 HIV-positive patient-inmates, 134 (99%) were linked to care within 90 days of diagnosis, including 122 (91%) who initiated ART. Among 83 who initiated ART and remained incarcerated through July 2013, 81 (98%) continued ART; 71 (88%) achieved viral suppression (care within 30 days of release were virally suppressed at that time. Only one of nine persons with a viral load test conducted between 91 days and 1 year post-release had viral suppression. Although high rates of viral suppression were achieved in prison, continuity of care in the community remains a challenge. An infrastructure for post

  1. The association of psychiatric disorders and HIV infection in the correctional setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Ducate, Suzanne; Pulvino, John; Bradshaw, Patrick; Murray, Owen; Olvera, Rene

    2003-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and depression, have been associated with both HIV-associated risk behaviors and HIV infection. While the US prison population is reported to exhibit elevated rates of HIV/AIDS and most psychiatric disorders, scarce information currently exists on the association of these conditions in the prison setting. The present study examined the association of six major psychiatric disorders with HIV infection in one of the nation's largest prison populations. The study population consisted of 336,668 Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates who were incarcerated for any duration between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2001. Information on medical conditions and sociodemographic factors was obtained from an institution-wide medical information system. Inmates diagnosed with HIV infection exhibited elevated rates of major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and non-schizophrenic psychotic disorder. These rates persisted in stratified analyses and in a multivariate analysis that statistically adjusted for gender, race, and age category. The present cross-sectional study's finding of a positive association between HIV infection and psychiatric diagnoses among inmates holds both clinical and public health relevance. It will be important for future investigations to prospectively assess the underlying mechanisms of these associations in the correctional setting.

  2. Tuberculosis and HIV control in sub-Saharan African prisons: "thinking outside the prison cell".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stewart E; Topp, Stephanie M; Turnbull, Eleanor R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Maggard, Katie R; Roberts, Sarah T; Krüüner, Annika; Morse, Jill C; Kapata, Nathan; Chisela, Chileshe; Henostroza, German

    2012-05-15

    Tuberculosis is one of the fastest-growing epidemics in prison populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), constituting a threat to both inmates and the wider community. Various factors have contributed to the breakdown of tuberculosis control in prison facilities in SSA, including slow and insensitive diagnostics, failing prison infrastructure, inadequate funding, and weak prevention and treatment interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this article, we describe the challenges inherent in current approaches to tuberculosis control in prisons and consider the alternatives. We argue that although improved implementation of conventional tuberculosis control activities is necessary, considerable investment in a broader range of public health interventions, including infrastructure and staffing upgrades, cutting-edge tuberculosis diagnostics, and combination prevention for HIV, will be equally critical. This combination response to tuberculosis in prisons will be essential for tackling existing and nascent prison tuberculosis epidemics and will require high-level political support and financing.

  3. Retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality by HIV status in a Georgia, USA, prisoner cohort during the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotorzynska, Maria; Spaulding, Anne C; Messina, Lauren C; Coker, Daniella; Ward, Kevin; Easley, Kirk; Baillargeon, Jacques; Mink, Pamela J; Simard, Edgar P

    2016-04-11

    Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) have emerged as significant contributors to cancer mortality and morbidity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). Because NADCs are also associated with many social and behavioural risk factors that underlie HIV, determining the extent to which each of these factors contributes to NADC risk is difficult. We examined cancer incidence and mortality among persons with a history of incarceration, because distributions of other cancer risk factors are likely similar between prisoners living with HIV and non-infected prisoners. Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Cohort of 22,422 persons incarcerated in Georgia, USA, prisons on 30 June 1991, and still alive in 1998. Cancer incidence and mortality were assessed between 1998 and 2009, using cancer and death registry data matched to prison administrative records. Age, race and sex-adjusted standardised mortality and incidence ratios, relative to the general population, were calculated for AIDS-defining cancers, viral-associated NADCs and non-infection-associated NADCs, stratified by HIV status. There were no significant differences in cancer mortality relative to the general population in the cohort, regardless of HIV status. In contrast, cancer incidence was elevated among the PLWH. Furthermore, incidence of viral-associated NADCs was significantly higher among PLWH versus those without HIV infection (standardised incidence ratio=6.1, 95% CI 3.0 to 11.7, pcancer incidence was elevated relative to the general population, likely related to increased prevalence of oncogenic viral co-infections. Cancer prevention and screening programmes within prisons may help to reduce the cancer burden in this high-risk population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Smart nanoparticles as targeting platforms for HIV infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rishi Rajat; More, Prachi; Banerjee, Rinti

    2015-04-01

    While Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are reducing in incidence with the advent of Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART), there remain a number of challenges including the existence of reservoirs, drug resistance and anatomical barriers to antiretroviral therapy. To overcome these, smart nanoparticles with stimuli responsive release are proposed for delivery of anti-retroviral agents. The paper highlights the strategic similarities between the design of smart antiretroviral nanocarriers and those optimized for cancer chemotherapy. This includes the development of nanoparticles capable of passive and active targeting as well as those that are responsive to various internal and external triggers. For antiretroviral therapy, the relevant triggers for stimuli responsive release of drugs include semen, enzymes, endosomal escape, temperature and magnetic field. Deriving from the experience of cancer chemotherapy, additional potential triggers are light and ultrasound which remain hitherto unexplored in HIV therapy. In addition, the roles of nanomicrobicides (nanogels) and virus mimetic nanoparticles are discussed from the point of view of prevention of HIV transmission. The challenges associated with translation of smart nanoparticles for HIV infections to realize the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV infections are discussed.

  5. The association of neoplasms and HIV infection in the correctional setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Pollock, Brad H; Leach, Charles T; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2004-05-01

    HIV-associated immunosuppression has been linked to an increased risk of a number of cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical cancer. Because prison inmates constitute one of the highest HIV/AIDS prevalent populations in the US, understanding the link between HIV infection and cancer in the correctional setting holds particular public health relevance. The study population consisted of 336,668 Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates who were incarcerated, for any duration, between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2001. Inmates diagnosed with HIV infection exhibited elevated rates of KS, NHL, anal cancer, and Hodgkin's disease, after adjusting for age and race. The elevated rates of cancer among HIV-infected individuals, particularly prison inmates, may be mediated, in part, by high-risk behaviours. HIV-associated risk behaviours, including unsafe sexual practices, injection drug use, and prostitution may be associated with cancer-related risk behaviours, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor diet. It will be important for future investigators to examine the association between HIV infection and cancer risk with sufficiently large study cohorts and appropriate longitudinal designs.

  6. The diagnostic performance of a single GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in an intensified tuberculosis case finding survey among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed Al-Darraji

    Full Text Available Delays in tuberculosis (TB diagnosis, particularly in prisons, is associated with detrimental outcomes. The new GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert offers accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB, but its performance in improving case detection in high-transmission congregate settings has yet to be evaluated. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a single Xpert assay in an intensified case finding survey among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia.HIV-infected prisoners at a single site provided two early-morning sputum specimens to be examined using fluorescence smear microscopy, BACTEC MGIT 960 liquid culture and a single Xpert. The sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of Xpert were calculated relative to gold-standard results using MGIT 960 liquid culture. Relevant clinical and demographic data were used to examine correlates of active TB disease.The majority of enrolled subjects with complete data (N=125 were men (90.4%, age <40 years (61.6% and had injected drugs (75.2%. Median CD4 lymphocyte count was 337 cells/µL (IQR 149-492; only 19 (15.2% were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Of 15 culture-positive TB cases, single Xpert assay accurately detected only eight previously undiagnosed TB cases, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 53.3% (95% CI 30.12-75.2%, 100% (95% CI 96.6-100%, 100% (95% CI 67.56-100% and 94.0% (95% CI 88.2-97.1%, respectively. Only 1 of 15 (6.7% active TB cases was smear-positive. The prevalence (12% of undiagnosed active pulmonary TB (15 of 125 prisoners was high and associated with longer duration of drug use (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.26, for each year of drug use.Single Xpert assay improved TB case detection and outperformed AFB smear microscopy, but yielded low screening sensitivity. Further examination of the impact of HIV infection on the diagnostic performance of the new assay alongside other screening methods in correctional

  7. US: developments in the treatment of HIV-positive prisoners in two states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Katie

    2005-08-01

    Legal actions have been launched in Alabama and Mississippi to address living conditions and medical care of HIV-positive prisoners in state prisons. These were the only two states to allow complete segregation of HIV-positive prisoners in state prisons into the 1990s. The two cases highlight the ways in which the courts have been involved in supervising prison conditions in the United States.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in an Indonesian prison: prevalence, risk factors and implications of HIV screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelwan, E.J.; Crevel, R. van; Alisjahbana, B.; Indrati, A.K.; Dwiyana, R.F.; Nuralam, N.; Pohan, H.T.; Jaya, I.; Meheus, A.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and behavioural correlates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among Indonesian prisoners and to examine the impact of voluntary counselling and testing for all incoming prisoners on access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: In a non-anonymous survey in an

  9. High variability of TB, HIV, hepatitis C treatment and opioid substitution therapy among prisoners in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jana; Schmidt, Daniel; Kollan, Christian; Lehmann, Marc; Bremer, Viviane; Zimmermann, Ruth

    2017-10-25

    In Germany, medical care of prisoners is completely separated from extramural health care. The extent and quality of medical care among prisoners in Germany are therefore largely unknown. We performed a secondary data analysis of pharmacy sales data for tuberculosis (TB), HIV, hepatitis C (HCV) and opioid substitution treatment (OST) delivered to prisons in 11 federal states (FS) in Germany between 01/2012 and 03/2013. The aims of this study were to assess (i) the treatment availability for the selected diseases and OST in German prisons, (ii) the proportion of prisoners treated per FS and overall for TB, HIV, HCV and OST during the study period. Substances unique to or typically used for the treatment of each disease were defined as marker substances with defined daily doses (DDD). For each marker substance we assessed the cumulative number of DDD, the average daily number of DDD (DDD d ) and average treatment prevalence per day in percent (adTP). Accordingly, the DDD d represents one person treated per day and the adTP means the proportion of prisoners treated per day. We compared the adTP of the diseases with previously measured prevalences. We obtained data from pharmacies supplying prisons in 11 of 16 German FS. Of the included prisons, 41% were supplied with medicines for TB, 71% for HIV and 58% for HCV and OST. Twice as many delivered marker substances for TB were indicated for the continuation phase and chemoprevention than the intensive phase. The HIV adTP ranged from 0.06% to 0.94%, HCV adTP ranged from 0.03% to 0.59% and OST adTP ranged from 0% to 7.90%. The overall adTP for the respective treatment was 0.39% for HIV, 0.12% for HCV and 2.18% for OST. According to our findings treatment rates for TB were consistent with the expected TB prevalence, at least in Berlin. HIV treatment seems to be offered to an adequate proportion of estimated infected prisoners. In contrast, the HCV treatment prevalence was low. High variation among FS in provision of all

  10. Should condoms be available in prisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Worldwide, it is increasingly recognized that sex occurs in prisons and this condition promotes HIV transmission among men. It is noted that in prisons, men usually engage in consensual or forced anal sex for lust, comfort, privileges or domination. This sexual behavior is one of the riskiest sexual practices in transmitting HIV infection because of the frequent tearing of sensitive anal membranes. In view of such a serious problem, that will also impact widely on the community when prisoners are released, a multi-pronged strategy is needed. Several initiatives addressing the issue are being reviewed or implemented in various countries. In Zimbabwe, among the listed options under consideration in the draft National Policy on HIV/AIDS, the most debated policy issue is the dissemination of condoms in prison. Much public dissent has been noted, in which the fear is that this would be seen as condoning homosexuality. However, it is emphasized that the issue in prisons is not one of homosexuality, but of recognizing that many heterosexual men in prison will take the only sexual outlet available to them (in addition to masturbation). In doing so, they are at great risk of HIV infection, hence encouraging mutual or self masturbation and actively promoting condom use must be part of the response to the epidemic issue.

  11. The naked truth about HIV and risk taking in Swedish prisons: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid J A Lindbom

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores former prison inmates' perceptions and attitudes towards HIV risk inside Swedish prisons.In 2014, eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with former male prisoners to gain a deeper understanding of situations perceived to be associated with risk of HIV transmission. The material gathered from the interviews was analyzed by manifest and latent qualitative content analysis.The findings revealed that risky behavioral practices, such as sharing needles, unprotected sexual activity, and lack of openness about HIV status represented potential health threats with regard to the risk of HIV transmission.Evidence from the study indicates that educational interventions regarding HIV and the transmission routes are required for HIV prevention in Swedish prisons.

  12. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  13. Prisoners' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its prevention in Kerman, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaee, F H

    2002-11-01

    Knowledge of prisoners regarding HIV/AIDS in Kerman was evaluated. Analysis indicated that the sample (n = 350) of prisoners had relatively high knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its modes of transmission. However, they had a lower level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention. The overall knowledge of men about AIDS was significantly lower than women. Persons aged 46 years and older and illiterate inmates had the least knowledge about modes of transmission. In addition, the knowledge of illiterate prisoners about HIV/AIDS prevention was significantly lower than others. Evaluation of attitudes and practices of prisoners and implementation of educational programmes regarding HIV/AIDS are suggested.

  14. Hepatitis C viral infection among prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Velimir; Radović, Jelena; Djordjević, Jovana; Vujić, Stevan

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important sociomedical problem worldwide because the chronification of the disease is frequent and the occurance of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma can be expected. The aim of this study was to determine the way of infection, pathohistological changes of the liver, virus genotype presence and sustained virological response after pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in prison inmates. The study included 52 patients with chronic HCV infection classified in two groups managed during 2008-2010. The first group consisted of prisoners (n = 22) and the second one of "non-prisoners" (n = 30). The patients from both groups underwent diagnostic preparation (biochemical analyses, liver biopsy, hepatitis virus detection and genotypisation using polymerase chain reaction issue). The treatment lasted for 24 weeks for virus genotypes 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotypes 1 and 4. All the patients were males, approximately the same age (35 +/- 4.1 and 31 +/- 7.6 years). Virus genotype 1 was significantly more frequent in the prisoners (p < 0.05), that demanded longer treatment (48 weeks). At the same time, statistically significant higher number of patients, "non-prisoners", achieved a sustained virological response (p < 0.01). Intravenous drug abuse and tattoos, separately or together, are the most frequent way of infection in prisoners. The dominant presence of virus genotype 1 resulted in lower number of patients with sustained virological response, probably regardless prison environment and regime.

  15. [Peripheral arterial disease and cardiovascular risk factors among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a comparison between hospital out-patients and patients in a prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri Pont, Marta; Borrallo Almansa, Rosa Maria; Almada Rivas, Guido; Carbó Díez, Miriam; Solé Arnau, Rosa; García Restoy, Enric

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients is more frequent than in the general population. Peripheral arterial disease measured by ankle-brachial index (ABI) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) is not well known in all groups of HIV-infected patients. Transversal study of HIV-infected patients >45 years, seen as outpatients in hospital (HO) in 2008 and patients institutionalized in a prison in 2009. Cardiovascular risk factors, information on the HIV infection and healthy lifestyles were evaluated. ABI was measured at rest and was considered pathological when a value ≤ 0.9 or ≥ 1.3 was obtained. We included 71 patients (mean age of 50.6 ± 6.9 years, 86% male), 32 HO and 39 in prison. The most prevalent CVRF was smoking (80.2%) followed by an altered lipid profile (63.3%). The evolution time of HIV infection was 13.1 ± 7.1 years. 74.6% of patients didn't follow a heart-healthy diet and 25% were sedentary. The ABI was low in 7 cases (9.8%) and ≥ 1.3 in one. Patients in prison were younger, the rate of smokers and of individuals with low HDL were higher, the time of evolution of the HIV infections was longer and they were less adherent to a heart-healthy diet than in HO, reaching in all cases statistical significance (Pde Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing HIV infection in people who inject drugs is impossible without targeting recently-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylyeva, Tetyana I; Friedman, Samuel R; Lourenco, Jose; Gupta, Sunetra; Hatzakis, Angelos; Pybus, Oliver G; Katzourakis, Aris; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Karamitros, Timokratis; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2016-11-28

    Although our understanding of viral transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) has improved, we still know little about when and how many times each injector transmits HIV throughout the duration of infection. We describe HIV dynamics in PWID to evaluate which preventive strategies can be efficient. Due to the notably scarce interventions, HIV-1 spread explosively in Russia and Ukraine in 1990s. By studying this epidemic between 1995 and 2005, we characterized naturally occurring transmission dynamics of HIV among PWID. We combined publicly available HIV pol and env sequences with prevalence estimates from Russia and Ukraine under an evolutionary epidemiology framework to characterize HIV transmissibility between PWID. We then constructed compartmental models to simulate HIV spread among PWID. In the absence of interventions, each injector transmits on average to 10 others. Half of the transmissions take place within 1 month after primary infection, suggesting that the epidemic will expand even after blocking all the post-first month transmissions. Primary prevention can realistically target the first month of infection, and we show that it is very efficient to control the spread of HIV-1 in PWID. Treating acutely infected on top of primary prevention is notably effective. As a large proportion of transmissions among PWID occur within 1 month after infection, reducing and delaying transmissions through scale-up of harm reduction programmes should always form the backbone of HIV control strategies in PWID. Growing PWID populations in the developing world, where primary prevention is scarce, constitutes a public health time bomb.

  17. All Aboard the Desistance Line: First Stop, Producing Prosocial Prison Attachments within an HIV Prison-Based Peer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collica-Cox, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the importance of social bonds in facilitating an investment in prosocial behavior amongst female prisoners working as HIV peer educators. Female prisoners can lack strong prosocial attachments to both individuals and institutions prior to incarceration. Absent this bond, little prevents the female prisoner from recidivating.…

  18. HBV, HCV, and HIV infection prevalence among prison staff in the light of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gańczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of the study: to assess the occupational risk for blood-borne infections (BBIs among prison staff (number/ circumstances of blood exposures and preventive methods used, and to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Material and Methods: The survey, which included serological testing with the use of 3-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA was completed on active staff at a correctional facility in Goleniów, Poland, between June–July 2015. Results: Response rate was 38%, 87 participants (aged 22–64 years, median: 34 years agreed to participate. There were 88.5% males, correctional officers comprised 87.4% of the participants. Having had ≥ 1 blood exposure during professional career was reported by 28.7% respondents, 8% – sustained it in the preceding year. For correctional officers the last blood exposure was caused by a hollow-bore needle/razor blade during cell or manual searches. This was not reported by 83.3%. Participation rate in an infection control training was 85.1%. Hepatitis B virus vaccination uptake was 83.9%. Compliance with glove use was 75.9%, with protective eyewear – 28.7%. Regular use of both was reported by 9.2% of participants. The lack of their availability was the most common reason (79.7% for non-compliance. Anti-HBc (hepatitis B core antigen total/anti-HCV/anti-HIV prevalence was 2.3%, 1.1%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: Prison staff are at risk for occupational exposures to blood. Reporting of such incidents is poor, as well as compliance with personal protective equipment use, which place them at risk for acquiring BBIs. Anti-HCV prevalence is similar to that observed in the general population, anti-HBc total prevalence is lower, possibly due to high vaccination uptake, however, poor response rate limits precise prevalence estimates. Med Pr 2017;68(4:507–516

  19. Modelling the Impact of Condom Distribution on the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in an Adult Male Prison System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nick; McBryde, Emma; Kirwan, Amy; Stoové, Mark

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of 1) a condom distribution program and 2) a condom distribution program combined with opt-out sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening on the transmission and prevalence of STIs in a prison system. Using data from an implementation evaluation of a state-wide prison condom program and parameter estimates from available literature, a deterministic model was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea across 14 Victorian prisons. The model included individual prison populations (by longer (>2 years) or shorter sentence lengths) and monthly prisoner transfers. For each STI, simulations were compared: without any intervention; with a condom distribution program; and with a combined condom and opt-out STI screening at prison reception intervention program. Condoms reduced the annual incidence of syphilis by 99% (N = 66 averted cases); gonorrhoea by 98% (N = 113 cases); hepatitis B by 71% (N = 5 cases); chlamydia by 27% (N = 196 cases); and HIV by 50% (N = 2 cases every 10 years). Condom availability changed the in-prison epidemiology of gonorrhoea and syphilis from self-sustaining to levels unlikely to result in infection outbreaks; however, condoms did not reduce chlamydia prevalence below a self-sustaining level due to its high infectiousness, high prevalence and low detection rate. When combined with a screening intervention program, condoms reduced chlamydia prevalence further, but not below a self-sustaining level. The low prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B in Australian prisons meant the effects of condoms were predicted to be small. Condoms are predicted to effectively reduce the incidence of STIs in prison and are predicted to control syphilis and gonorrhoea transmission, however even combined with a screening on arrival program may be insufficient to reduce chlamydia prevalence below self-sustaining levels. To control chlamydia transmission

  20. [Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in a prison population in the years 1989 to 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Agudo, F; Alonso Moreno, F J; Urbina Torija, J

    1998-02-14

    This study was carried out to know the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a penitentiary center, the risk factors and the prevention measures to reduce this infection. 1,173 men from a penitentiary center between 1989-1995 were included. Demographic data, risk factors and penitentiary variables were studied. Antibodies against HIV were found and confirmed using Western blot; tuberculin skin reaction (PPD) and CD4 lymphocyte cant were studied. The mean age was 31.8 (SD 8.8 years). They were 61.5% Spanish people and 48.1% were in prison for second time. The 49.7% used illegal drugs. Overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 24.3%. The differences of percentages for HIV-1 infection in intravenous drug users (IVDU) were 67.7% and in non IVDU were 3.8% with a significant statistical difference (chi 2 = 557.5; p tatoos. The global prevalence of tuberculosis infection (PPD positive) was a 43.8%, and was associated to the second time inmates in this penitentiary center (chi 2 = 22.1; p or = 500 x 10(6)/l. We found a high prevalence of HIV-1 and tuberculosis infection and drug use in this penitentiary center. HIV-1 was transmitted and related by sharing syringes between IVDU independent of the stay in prison. The diagnosis of HIV-1 infection was made soon. The treatments of drug users in penitentiary centers and programs for lowering the risk are very important.

  1. Incidence of hepatitis C infection among prisoners by routine laboratory values during a 20-year period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Marco

    Full Text Available To estimate the incidence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV and the predictive factors through repeated routine laboratory analyses.An observational cohort study was carried out in Quatre Camins Prison, Barcelona. The study included subjects with an initial negative HCV result and routine laboratory analyses containing HCV serology from 1992 to 2011. The incidence of infection was calculated for the study population and for sub-groups by 100 person-years of follow-up (100 py. The predictive factors were determined through Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated.A total of 2,377 prisoners were included with a median follow-up time of 1,540.9 days per patient. Among the total population, 117 HCV seroconversions were detected (incidence of 1.17/100 py. The incidence was higher between 1992 and 1995 (2.57/100 py, among cases with HIV co-infection (8.34/100 py and among intravenous drug users (IDU without methadone treatment (MT during follow-up (6.66/100 py. The incidence rate of HCV seroconversion among cases with a history of IDU and current MT was 1.35/100 py, which is close to that of the total study population. The following variables had a positive predictive value for HCV infection: IDU (p<0.001; HR = 7,30; CI: 4.83-11.04, Spanish ethnicity (p = 0.009; HR = 2,03; CI: 1.93-3.44 and HIV infection (p = 0.015; HR = 1.97; CI: 1.14-3.39.The incidence of HCV infection among prisoners was higher during the first part of the study and among IDU during the entire study period. Preventative programs should be directed toward this sub-group of the prison population.

  2. Prevalence and Incidence of HCV Infection among Prisoners in Central Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira Puga

    Full Text Available The aim of this multicenter, cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors among incarcerated populations from twelve Brazilian prisons. The total of 3,368 individuals from twelve prisons was randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. Participants were interviewed, and provided blood samples which were tested for antibodies to Hepatitis C (HCV ab. One year after the first investigation, a cohort study was conducted with 1,656 inmates who participated the cross sectional study. Positive samples were tested for the presence of HCV RNA. Out of 3,368 inmates, 520 (15.4% were females, and 2,848 (84.6% were males. The overall prevalence of HCV was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.9 to 2.9, with 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.8 in females, and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1 to 3.3 in males (p<0.01. HCV RNA was detected in 51/80 (63.7% samples. Among men prisoners, multivariate analysis of associated factors showed independent associations between HCV exposure and increasing age, inject drug use, length of incarceration, smoking hashish, sharing needle and syringe and HIV positivity. During the cohort study, 7/1,656 new cases of HCV infection were detected, and the incidence rate was 0.4/100 person-year. Once high frequency rates of specific HCV risk behaviors and new HCV infections have been identified inside prisons, effective interventions strategies such as screening, clinical evaluation and treatment to reduce the spread of HCV infection are essential.

  3. TNF and TNF Receptor Superfamily Members in HIV infection: New Cellular Targets for Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF and TNF receptors (TNFR superfamily members are engaged in diverse cellular phenomena such as cellular proliferation, morphogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, and immune regulation. Their role in regulating viral infections has been well documented. Viruses have evolved with numerous strategies to interfere with TNF-mediated signaling indicating the importance of TNF and TNFR superfamily in viral pathogenesis. Recent research reports suggest that TNF and TNFRs play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV. TNFR signaling modulates HIV replication and HIV proteins interfere with TNF/TNFR pathways. Since immune activation and inflammation are the hallmark of HIV infection, the use of TNF inhibitors can have significant impact on HIV disease progression. In this review, we will describe how HIV infection is modulated by signaling mediated through members of TNF and TNFR superfamily and in turn how these latter could be targeted by HIV proteins. Finally, we will discuss the emerging therapeutics options based on modulation of TNF activity that could ultimately lead to the cure of HIV-infected patients.

  4. "Inside These Fences Is Our Own Little World": Prison-Based HIV Testing and HIV-Related Stigma Among Incarcerated Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E; Rosen, David L; Farel, Claire E; White, Becky L; Filene, Eliza J; Wohl, David A

    2016-04-01

    Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post- release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons ("HIV miasma"), and the View of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs.

  5. Effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M M; Ryan, J G; Briscoe, V S; Shadle, K M

    1996-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a critical problem among the incarcerated population, with rates as high as 17% being reported for prison systems in New York. The literature suggests that stressful living conditions and inherent defects in the immune system associated with HIV infection make prison populations more susceptible to a disproportionate decrease in their CD4 counts. To determine the effects of incarceration on HIV-infected individuals, the charts of 800 inmates were reviewed. Baseline (draw 1), 2- to 5-month (draw 2), and 6- to 12-month (draw 3) CD4 cell counts were obtained. Mean cell counts were calculated, and paired t-tests were used to identify differences. The group receiving antiretrovirals throughout showed no difference in mean CD4 cell count between draws 1 and 2 or between draws 1 and 3. The group not receiving HIV medications did not show a significant difference in CD4 cell counts between draws 1 and 2, but did show a significant difference between draws 1 and 3. For this group, the rate of decline in CD4 cells was greater than among an outpatient setting. The subsample of subjects initiating therapy prior to the second blood draw showed a significant increase in mean CD4 cell counts at draw 1 versus draw 2, but did not show a significant change when comparing draw 1 to draw 3. When examining subjects based on their antiviral status, the mean CD4 cell count at each of the draws was statistically associated with subjects' antiviral status. We conclude that incarceration causes a more rapid decrease in CD4 cells compared with an outpatient population, causing clinical significance on the normal course of HIV disease.

  6. Modelling the Impact of Condom Distribution on the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in an Adult Male Prison System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Scott

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of 1 a condom distribution program and 2 a condom distribution program combined with opt-out sexually transmitted infection (STI screening on the transmission and prevalence of STIs in a prison system.Using data from an implementation evaluation of a state-wide prison condom program and parameter estimates from available literature, a deterministic model was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea across 14 Victorian prisons. The model included individual prison populations (by longer (>2 years or shorter sentence lengths and monthly prisoner transfers. For each STI, simulations were compared: without any intervention; with a condom distribution program; and with a combined condom and opt-out STI screening at prison reception intervention program.Condoms reduced the annual incidence of syphilis by 99% (N = 66 averted cases; gonorrhoea by 98% (N = 113 cases; hepatitis B by 71% (N = 5 cases; chlamydia by 27% (N = 196 cases; and HIV by 50% (N = 2 cases every 10 years. Condom availability changed the in-prison epidemiology of gonorrhoea and syphilis from self-sustaining to levels unlikely to result in infection outbreaks; however, condoms did not reduce chlamydia prevalence below a self-sustaining level due to its high infectiousness, high prevalence and low detection rate. When combined with a screening intervention program, condoms reduced chlamydia prevalence further, but not below a self-sustaining level. The low prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B in Australian prisons meant the effects of condoms were predicted to be small.Condoms are predicted to effectively reduce the incidence of STIs in prison and are predicted to control syphilis and gonorrhoea transmission, however even combined with a screening on arrival program may be insufficient to reduce chlamydia prevalence below self-sustaining levels. To control chlamydia transmission

  7. HIV/AIDS, STIs and condom use beliefs among male prison inmates in two South African provinces: Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T; Conerly, R; Braithwaite, R L; Sifunda, S; Ogbuawa, N; Bhengu, S; Reddy, P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of a random sample of prison inmates from two provinces in South Africa with respect to correct knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and sexual transmitted infection (STI) risk and beliefs about condom use. This cross-sectional descriptive study of 357 prison inmates formed part of a larger longitudinal investigation designed to implement a health education intervention for prison inmates in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Mpumalanga (MP) provinces of South Africa. Mean differences for groups were compared across sites using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Inmates from KZN were less likely to agree that 'It is important to use condoms every time you have sex' F (1355) = 25.8, pCondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV' F (1355) = 11.7, pCondoms also prevent pregnancy' F (1355) = 5.1, pcondom use behaviour suggested that future prevention efforts focus on the importance of using condoms to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs.

  8. “Inside These Fences is Our Own Little World”: Prison-Based HIV Testing and HIV-Related Stigma Among Incarcerated Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Rosen, David L.; Farel, Claire E.; White, Becky L.; Filene, Eliza J.; Wohl, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post-release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons (“HIV miasma”), and the view of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs. PMID:27459162

  9. The face of AIDS: Effects of physical attractiveness and target gender on inferred mode of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, L; Wambaugh, M; Riney, T; Kunzelman, C

    1996-04-01

    We examined the effects of physical attractiveness on the assumed mode of HIV acquisition. 176 students read a description of an HIV-positive target whose photograph was placed above the description. A 2 (target gender) by 2 (attractive or unattractive target) factorial design was used. Unattractive targets were perceived as more likely to have acquired HIV through homosexual relationships. Further, men were perceived as more likely than women to have acquired HIV homosexually. Attractiveness did not bias health-care allocations regarding the infected target.

  10. Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro Daibert de; Almeida, Isabela Neves de; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Ceccato, Maria das Graças; Maciel, Mônica Maria Delgado; Carvalho, Wânia da Silva; Miranda, Silvana Spindola de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study. The prevalence of LTBI was 25.2%. In the multivariate analysis, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within prisons (adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) and use of inhaled drugs (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.13). Respiratory symptoms were identified in 131 (11.7%) of the participants. Serological testing for HIV was performed in 940 (83.9%) of the participants, and the result was positive in 5 (0.5%). Two cases of active tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Within the prisons under study, the prevalence of LTBI was high. In addition, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients and with the use of inhaled drugs. Our findings demonstrate that it is necessary to improve the conditions in prisons, as well as to introduce strategies, such as chest X-ray screening, in order to detect tuberculosis cases and, consequently, reduce M. tuberculosis infection within the prison system. Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados à infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ILTB) em pessoas privadas de liberdade no Estado de Minas Gerais. Estudo de coorte transversal realizado em duas penitenciárias em Minas Gerais. Foi realizada a prova tuberculínica nos indivíduos que aceitaram participar do estudo. Foram selecionados 1.120 indivíduos para a pesquisa. A prevalência da ILTB foi de 25,2%. Na análise multivariada, a ILTB esteve associada com relato de contato com caso de tuberculose ativa dentro da penitenciária (OR ajustada = 1,51; IC95%: 1

  11. HIV antibodies for treatment of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, David M; Koup, Richard A; Ferrari, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The bar is high to improve on current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), now highly effective, safe, and simple. However, antibodies that bind the HIV envelope are able to uniquely target the virus as it seeks to enter new target cells, or as it is expressed from previously infected cells. Furthermore, the use of antibodies against HIV as a therapeutic may offer advantages. Antibodies can have long half-lives, and are being considered as partners for long-acting antiretrovirals for use in therapy or prevention of HIV infection. Early studies in animal models and in clinical trials suggest that such antibodies can have antiviral activity but, as with small-molecule antiretrovirals, the issues of viral escape and resistance will have to be addressed. Most promising, however, are the unique properties of anti-HIV antibodies: the potential ability to opsonize viral particles, to direct antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against actively infected cells, and ultimately the ability to direct the clearance of HIV-infected cells by effector cells of the immune system. These distinctive activities suggest that HIV antibodies and their derivatives may play an important role in the next frontier of HIV therapeutics, the effort to develop treatments that could lead to an HIV cure. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Social characteristics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, preventive practices and risk factors elicitation among prisoners in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odujinrin, M T; Adebajo, S B

    2001-01-01

    .3% claimed to have used condom before although only 38.7% used it for their last sexual exposure while 28.2% claimed they used it for all casual sexual intercourse. Many (42.8%) said they knew that homosexuality was the most prevalent sexual practice in the prison while 28.6% claimed there was no sexual practice and 13.1% feigned ignorance of any sexual practices in the prisons. Many (53.2%) claimed to have multiple sexual partners although 94.8% denied any sexual practice whilst still in prison. This study demonstrated that (i) almost all THE prisoners studied had heard of AIDS although only a few had seen or known a case of AIDS; (ii) despite the fact that many of them knew the correct modes of transmission, many indulged in high risk behaviours for AIDS transmission; (iii) there is a considerable proportion of receptive naïve inmates who stand the risk of being infected due to their high level of ignorance about HIV/AIDS. Well designed information, education and communication (IEC) programmes on AIDS with such formidable support structures as the provision of harm-reduction devices and risk-reduction counselling are urgently recommended for the Nigerian prisoners to effectively combat the imminent HIV/AIDS epidemic among the prison inmates.

  13. Assessing the relationship between child sexual abuse and marginal living conditions on HIV/AIDS-related risk behavior among women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E

    2000-05-01

    There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.

  14. Antigen-presenting cells represent targets for R5 HIV-1 infection in the first trimester pregnancy uterine mucosa.

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    Romain Marlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission is relatively rare despite the permissivity of placental cells to cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. The placenta interacts directly with maternal uterine cells (decidual cells but the physiological role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission and whether decidua could be a source of infected cells is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To answer to this question, decidual mononuclear cells were exposed to HIV-1 in vitro. Decidual cells were shown to be more susceptible to infection by an R5 HIV-1, as compared to an X4 HIV-1. Infected cells were identified by flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that CD14(+ cells were the main targets of HIV-1 infection in the decidua. These infected CD14(+ cells expressed DC-SIGN, CD11b, CD11c, the Fc gamma receptor CD16, CD32 and CD64, classical MHC class-I and class-II and maturation and activation molecules CD83, CD80 and CD86. The permissivity of decidual tissue was also evaluated by histoculture. Decidual tissue was not infected by X4 HIV-1 but was permissive to R5 HIV-1. Different profiles of infection were observed depending on tissue localization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of HIV-1 target cells in the decidua in vitro and the low rate of in utero mother-to-child transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy suggest that a natural control occurs in vivo limiting cell-to-cell infection of the placenta and consequently infection of the fetus.

  15. Correlation between HIV and HCV in Brazilian prisoners: evidence for parenteral transmission inside prison Correlação entre HIV e HCV em prisioneiros brasileiros: evidência de transmissão parenteral no encarceramento

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    MN Burattini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It is an accepted fact that confinement conditions increase the risk of some infections related to sexual and/or injecting drugs practices. Mathematical techniques were applied to estimate time-dependent incidence densities of HIV infection among inmates. METHODS: A total of 631 prisoners from a Brazilian prison with 4,900 inmates at that time were interviewed and their blood drawn. Risky behavior for HIV infection was analyzed, and serological tests for HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis were performed, intended as surrogates for parenteral and sexual HIV transmission, respectively. Mathematical techniques were used to estimate the incidence density ratio, as related to the time of imprisonment. RESULTS: Prevalence were: HIV -- 16%; HCV -- 34%; and syphilis -- 18%. The main risk behaviors related to HIV infection were HCV prevalence (OR=10.49 and the acknowledged use of injecting drugs (OR=3.36. Incidence density ratio derivation showed that the risk of acquiring HIV infection increases with the time of imprisonment, peaking around three years after incarceration. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between HIV and HCV seroprevalence and the results of the mathematical analysis suggest that HIV transmission in this population is predominantly due to parenteral exposure by injecting drug, and that it increases with time of imprisonment.OBJETIVO: É um fato correntemente aceito que as condições de confinamento aumentam o risco de algumas infecções relacionadas às práticas sexuais e/ou ao uso de drogas injetáveis. Realizou-se estudo para estimar a densidade de incidência da infecção pelo HIV na população prisional com aplicação de técnicas matemáticas. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados em São Paulo, SP, 631 prisioneiros da maior prisão da América do Sul, que abrigava aproximadamente 4.900 presos na ocasião do estudo. Foi colhido sangue da população entrevistada, analisado o risco para a infecção pelo HIV e realizados testes

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

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    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prisoners in Mexico City Comparing Prevalence of Transmissible Infections and Chronic Diseases with That in the General Population.

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    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected

  18. Respiratory symptoms and active tuberculosis in a prison in Southern Brazil: associated epidemiologic variables

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    Jeane Zanini Rocha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: This study is justified by the high TB prevalence in prisons, which constitutes a public health problem and aims to estimate the prevalence of active tuberculosis (TB and determine the variables associated with respiratory symptoms in a prison in Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive study of 262 inmates divided into respiratory symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Samples were evaluated by microscopy following the cultivation of the sputum from symptomatic individuals. Associated epidemiological variables were also evaluated. Results: Among the 262 inmates included, 178 (68% were considered symptomatic, and of these, 25 (14% were diagnosed with active TB. The contribution of culturing in the detection of TB cases was 48%. The prevalence of active TB was 9,542/100.000. Low educational level, use of drugs and alcohol, prison recidivism, and previous TB and HIV-positive status were associated with the presence of respiratory symptoms. Being male, single, black, a prison recidivist, an alcoholic and HIV-seropositive was associated with the development of TB. The rate of TB/HIV co infection was 60%. The outcome was death in 12% of patients. Drug therapy interruption was reported by 96% of patients. Conclusions: The studied population showed a high prevalence of TB and TB/HIV co-infection. In addition, the rates of drug therapy interruption and mortality were alarmingly elevated. KEYWORDS: Epidemiology. Tuberculosis. Coinfections. HIV infection. Prisons.

  19. THE EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAM ON THE AIDS PREVENTIVE BEHAVIORS OF PRISONERS AGED UNDER 25 YEARS OLD (GHEZALHESAR PRISON-TEHRAN

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    K TARBIAT MODARES

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today's, prisons are one of the cetain centers of HIV in allover the world. This matter must be seriously noticed that the most of the prisoners after a short time of jail return to the society. In fact, prisoners are notonly susceptible to exposure infection of HIV, but also they are a reservoir for beginning and development of the HIV in the society. The rate of HIV infection among the prisoners is higher of general population. This study is a quasi-experimental one. It has been aimed to evaluate The Effect of health education program on the AIDS preventive behaviors of prisoners aged under 25 years old (Ghezalhesar Prison-Tehran. Methods: A questionnaire was developed in four sections: demographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practice and it were used after taking reliability and validity. The level of KAP toward AIDS was practice and it was used after taking reliability and validity. The level of KAP toward AIDS was evaluated first by using a questionnaire (pretest. The educational needs were recognized, and then the educational plan was designed. Educational methods in this study were lecturing group discussion, fact to face, answer question, poster, leaflet, pamphlet and video film. Results: After 2 month performing educational program, KAP determined (posttest and then compared with pretest information. Collected data analyzed by parametric and non-paramedic statistic tests. The results of the study show that 22% of prisoners in prison had Druge Injection, 8% of them had sexual intercourse, 38% of them had A Razor shared and 60% of them had tattooed. Also 82% of prisoners were in using syring for drugs and 48% were witness for sexual intercourse of other prisoners. Analysis of the data, before and after the educational program showed that is significant difference between knowledge, attitude and practice. The results of the study indicated that health education program has effected on increase of KAP. Discussion: The

  20. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE: implications for public health and drug policy

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    Blanche Jerôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons and psychiatric (26 French prisons units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST, HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence to 10 (maximum adherence and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66% of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5] but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions.

  1. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

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    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  2. HIV and infectious disease care in jails and prisons: breaking down the walls with the help of academic medicine.

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    Flanigan, Timothy P; Zaller, Nickolas; Taylor, Lynn; Beckwith, Curt; Kuester, Landon; Rich, Josiah; Carpenter, Charles C J

    2009-01-01

    Health care within correctional facilities has traditionally been marginalized from excellence in academic medicine. The armamentarium of a medical school, which includes excellence in research, teaching and clinical care, can be successfully applied to the correctional setting both in the United States and internationally. At any one time, there are over 2 million people incarcerated in the US who are disproportionately poor and from communities of color. Rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in prisons are 5 and 17-28-times higher than in the general population, respectively. The correctional setting provides an excellent opportunity to screen for and treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, HCV, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and tuberculosis (TB) and to develop effective prevention programs.

  3. Infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana y conductas de riesgo asociadas en un Centro Penitenciario de Montevideo, Uruguay HIV infection and associated risk behaviours in a prison in Montevideo, Uruguay

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    M. Macri Troya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El objetivo del trabajo consiste en conocer la prevalencia de la infección por VIH y las conductas de riesgo asociadas en reclusos alojados en el Complejo Penitenciario de Montevideo en el año 2005. Material y Método: Se analiza de prevalencia de la infección VIH y las distintas prácticas de riesgo en una muestra de 291 individuos abordada mediante un estudio serológico y entrevista personal a partir de un cuestionario estructurado. Resultados: Se halló una prevalencia de 6.5% para la infección VIH en prisión. Las variables que demostraron ser factores de riesgo para la infección VIH en la prisión fueron: poseer antecedentes de haber estado en prisión (p=0,009; OR= 9,51; IC95%: 1,31-144,0, el haber tenido una pareja sexual VIH (+ en el pasado (p=0,000025; OR=7,87; IC95%: 2,58-23,9, el tener actualmente una pareja VIH (+ (p=0,0013; OR=14,24; IC95%:2,84-70,65, haberse inyectado drogas I/V (p=0,0001; OR=22,6; IC95%: 6,87-78,9, el haberse inyectado drogas I/V en la prisión (p=0,03; OR=4,93; IC95%: 1,10-22,81 y la práctica de compartir el material de inyección (p=0,004; OR=12,5; IC95%: 1,72-114,7.Introduction: The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk behaviours amongst inmates at the Montevideo Prison in 2005. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of HIV infection and different risk practices were analysed in a sample of 191 individuals by means of a serological study and personal interview based on a structured questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 6.5% was found for HIV infection in prison. The variables that proved to be risk factors were: previous prison sentences (p=0.009; OR= 9.51; IC95%: 1.31-144,0, having had an HIV (+ sexual partner in the past (p=0.000025; OR=7.87; IC95%: 2.58-23.9, current relationship with an HIV (+ partner (p=0.0013; OR=14.24; IC95%: 2.84-70.65, intravenous drug use (p=0.0001; OR=22.6; IC95%: 6.87-78.9, intravenous drug use in prison (p=0

  4. The high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a large Zambian prison: a public health alert.

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    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required.

  5. Seroepidemiological survey of transmissible infectious diseases in a portuguese prison establishment.

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    Marques, Nuno Miguel da Silva; Margalho, Renata; Melo, Maria João; Cunha, José Gabriel Saraiva da; Meliço-Silvestre, António Abel

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 151 (71.6%) of 211 male inmates of a regional Portuguese prison in order to establish the seroprevalence for viral hepatitis (HAV, HBV, HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis and herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and to analyze some psychosocial and criminal characteristics. Mean age was 34 years. Anti-HAV was positive in 69.5% (n = 105) and in 34.4% (n = 52) for anti-HCV. One (0.7%) person had HBsAg and 29 (19.2%) had laboratory markers of past HBV infection. Non-immune inmates for HBV were 40.4% (n = 61). Syphilis was diagnosed in 6.0% (n = 9). The rate of HIV infection was 6.6% (n = 10; all HIV-1). The seropositivity of HSV-2 was 19.9% (n = 30) and of HSV-1 was 82.1% (n = 124). Alcohol dependence was reported by 26.5% (n = 40). Excluding tobacco and prescription medication, 73.5% (n = 111) reported drug use in prison. The most commonly used drugs were: cannabis (100%; n = 111) followed by heroin (56.7%; n = 63). Anti-HCV rate was noteworthy. The HIV infection rate (6.6%) in this regional prison is at least 13 to 22 times greater than in general population. As the inmate return to the community increases the risk of disease exposure for the general population, early detection and counseling is urgently needed for prisoners.

  6. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis Delta Virus in HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients in Shiraz, Iran, 2012

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    Mohammad Motamedifar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown that liver disease caused by hepatitis viruses can be more aggressive and severe in HIV infected subjects. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HDV infection among HIV/HBV co-infected clients in Shiraz, southwest Iran. In this study, 178 patients co-infected with HBV and HIV individuals were enrolled. The diagnosis of HIV infection was documented based on serological assays. The demographic and complementary data were collected by a questionnaire. HBsAg and HDV Ab were detected by commercial quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were also measured. The mean age of the participants was 37.4±7.4 years (range 22-63. 175 (98.4 % patients were male and 3 (1.6 % were female. Among 178 patients co-infected with HIV/HBV, 35 cases (19.7%, 95% CI: 14%-25% were anti-HDV‏ positive and 143 (80.3% were negative for anti-HDV. HDV exposure in HIV/HBV co-infected patients was associated with blood transfusion (P=0.002, OR: 14.3 and prison history (P=0.01, OR: 2.31 but not with age, marital status, unsafe sex contact, and injection drug abuse. Our data showed a relatively high prevalence of HDV infection in HIV infected population in Shiraz, Iran. The high frequency of HDV Ab in patients with blood transfusion and prison history reveals that HDV transmission occurs more frequently in the parental route than sexual contacts; therefore, blood screening for HDV diagnosis in the high-risk group is recommended.

  7. HIV/AIDS among inmates of and releasees from US correctional facilities, 2006: declining share of epidemic but persistent public health opportunity.

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    Anne C Spaulding

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Because certain groups at high risk for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome come together in correctional facilities, seroprevalence was high early in the epidemic. The share of the HIV/AIDS epidemic borne by inmates of and persons released from jails and prisons in the United States (US in 1997 was estimated in a previous paper. While the number of inmates and releasees has risen, their HIV seroprevalence rates have fallen. We sought to determine if the share of HIV/AIDS borne by inmates and releasees in the US decreased between 1997 and 2006. We created a new model of population flow in and out of correctional facilities to estimate the number of persons released in 1997 and 2006. In 1997, approximately one in five of all HIV-infected Americans was among the 7.3 million who left a correctional facility that year. Nine years later, only one in seven (14% of infected Americans was among the 9.1 million leaving, a 29.3% decline in the share. For black and Hispanic males, two demographic groups with heightened incarceration rates, recently released inmates comprise roughly one in five of those groups' total HIV-infected persons, a figure similar to the proportion borne by the correctional population as a whole in 1997. Decreasing HIV seroprevalence among those admitted to jails and prisons, prolonged survival and aging of the US population with HIV/AIDS beyond the crime-prone years, and success with discharge planning programs targeting HIV-infected prisoners could explain the declining concentration of the epidemic among correctional populations. Meanwhile, the number of persons with HIV/AIDS leaving correctional facilities remains virtually identical. Jails and prisons continue to be potent targets for public health interventions. The fluid nature of incarcerated populations ensures that effective interventions will be felt not only in correctional facilities but also in communities to which releasees return.

  8. HIV/AIDS among inmates of and releasees from US correctional facilities, 2006: declining share of epidemic but persistent public health opportunity.

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    Spaulding, Anne C; Seals, Ryan M; Page, Matthew J; Brzozowski, Amanda K; Rhodes, William; Hammett, Theodore M

    2009-11-11

    Because certain groups at high risk for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) come together in correctional facilities, seroprevalence was high early in the epidemic. The share of the HIV/AIDS epidemic borne by inmates of and persons released from jails and prisons in the United States (US) in 1997 was estimated in a previous paper. While the number of inmates and releasees has risen, their HIV seroprevalence rates have fallen. We sought to determine if the share of HIV/AIDS borne by inmates and releasees in the US decreased between 1997 and 2006. We created a new model of population flow in and out of correctional facilities to estimate the number of persons released in 1997 and 2006. In 1997, approximately one in five of all HIV-infected Americans was among the 7.3 million who left a correctional facility that year. Nine years later, only one in seven (14%) of infected Americans was among the 9.1 million leaving, a 29.3% decline in the share. For black and Hispanic males, two demographic groups with heightened incarceration rates, recently released inmates comprise roughly one in five of those groups' total HIV-infected persons, a figure similar to the proportion borne by the correctional population as a whole in 1997. Decreasing HIV seroprevalence among those admitted to jails and prisons, prolonged survival and aging of the US population with HIV/AIDS beyond the crime-prone years, and success with discharge planning programs targeting HIV-infected prisoners could explain the declining concentration of the epidemic among correctional populations. Meanwhile, the number of persons with HIV/AIDS leaving correctional facilities remains virtually identical. Jails and prisons continue to be potent targets for public health interventions. The fluid nature of incarcerated populations ensures that effective interventions will be felt not only in correctional facilities but also in communities to which releasees return.

  9. Socio-demographic determinants of coinfections by HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in central Italian prisoners

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    De Vito Elisabetta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coinfections HIV/HCV/HBV are an important health issue in penitentiary communities. The aim of the study was to examine HIV, HBV and HCV coinfections determinants amongst prisoners in the jails of Southern Lazio (Central Italy, in the period 1995–2000. Methods Diagnosis of seropositivities for HIV, HBV and HCV was made using ELISA method. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to verify the influence of socio-demographic factors on the HIV/HBV/HCV coinfections. Results HIV/HCV, HBV/HCV and HIV/HBV coinfections were detected in 42 (4%, 203 (17.9% and 31 (2.9% inmates, respectively. These coinfections are significantly associated with the status of drug addiction (OR = 16.02; p = 0.012; OR = 4.15; p Conclusion The prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV seropositivity in jails suggests that information and education programs for inmates could be useful to reduce the spread of such infections.

  10. Get Connected: an HIV prevention case management program for men and women leaving California prisons.

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    Myers, Janet; Zack, Barry; Kramer, Katie; Gardner, Mick; Rucobo, Gonzalo; Costa-Taylor, Stacy

    2005-10-01

    Individuals leaving prison face challenges to establishing healthy lives in the community, including opportunities to engage in behavior that puts them at risk for HIV transmission. HIV prevention case management (PCM) can facilitate linkages to services, which in turn can help remove barriers to healthy behavior. As part of a federally funded demonstration project, the community-based organization Centerforce provided 5 months of PCM to individuals leaving 3 state prisons in California. Program effects were measured by assessing changes in risk behavior, access to services, reincarnation, and program completion. Although response rates preclude definitive conclusions, HIV risk behavior did decrease. Regardless of race, age, or gender, those receiving comprehensive health services were significantly more likely to complete the program. PCM appears to facilitate healthy behavior for individuals leaving prison.

  11. Profile of hepatitis B and C virus infection in prisoners in Lubuk Pakam correctional facilities

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    Rey, I.; Saragih, R. H.; Effendi-YS, R.; Sembiring, J.; Siregar, G. A.; Zain, L. H.

    2018-03-01

    Prisoners in correctional facilities are predisposed to chronic viral infections because of their high-risk behaviors or unsafe lifestyle. The economic and public health burden of chronic hepatitis B and C and its sequelae need to be addressed, such as by finding the risk factors and therefore reducing the spread of HCV and HBV infection in prisons. This study aimed to see the profile of Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection in prisoners in Lubuk Pakam Correctional Facilities. This cross-sectional study was in Lubuk Pakam Correctional Facilities in 2016. From 1114 prisoners in Lubuk Pakam correctional facility, we randomly examined 120 prisoners for HBV and HCV serology markers. From 120 prisoners, six prisoners were HBV positive, 21 prisoners were HCV positive and one prisoner positive for both HCV and HBV infection. The most common risk factors for prisoners getting HBV infection are tattoos and free sex (36.4% and 36.4%, respectively). The most common risk factors for HCV infection in prisoners are tattoos and free sex (40% and 35%, respectively).

  12. Confronting the HIV, Tuberculosis, Addiction, and Incarceration Syndemic in Southeast Asia: Lessons Learned from Malaysia

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    Culbert, Gabriel J.; Pillai, Veena; Bick, Joseph; Al-Darraji, Haider A.; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Wegman, Martin P.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Ferro, Enrico; Copenhaver, Michael; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a‘perfect storm’of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based drug treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80% of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, enlarging the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0% and 75.7% respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these interventions in Malaysian prisons. PMID:27216260

  13. The High Burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a Large Zambian Prison: A Public Health Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M.; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R.; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B.; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Methods Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. Results A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Conclusion Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required. PMID

  14. HIV-1 gp41 Fusion Intermediate: A Target for HIV Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungen Pan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5, followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.

  15. Manifestations of HIV stigma and their impact on retention in care for people transitioning from prisons to communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kemnitz, Rebecca; Kuehl, Theresa C.; Hochstatter, Karli R.; Barker, Emily; Corey, Anna; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Repplinger, Michael D.; Ehlenbach, William J.; Seal, David W.; Sosman, James M.; Westergaard, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    Background While most people living with HIV who are incarcerated in United States receive appropriate HIV care while they are in prison, interruptions in antiretroviral therapy and virologic failure are extremely common after they are released. The purpose of this study was to describe whether and how HIV stigma influences continuity of care for people living with HIV while they transition from prison to community settings. Methods We conducted semi-structured, telephone-based interviews wit...

  16. Injecting drug use, sexual risk, HIV knowledge and harm reduction uptake in a large prison in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, Anak Agung Sagung; Hartawan, Anak Agung Gede; Craine, Noel; Sari, Ayu Kartika; Septarini, Ni Wayan; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe HIV-related risk behavior and knowledge of HIV among inmates of Kerobokan prison Bali, Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey of inmates of using a structured questionnaire and sample framework to reflect narcotic use among inmates and the prison gender mix. Among 230 inmates recruited to the study self-reported prevalence of injecting drug use was 7.4 percent (95 percent CI 4.0-10.8 percent). Respondents who participated in a prison based methadone treatment program were all still injecting drugs, these made up 13/17 of the IDU. In total, 47 percent (95 percent CIs 45-55 percent) of respondents who reported injecting also reported sharing needles within the last week. Sexual intercourse while in prison was reported by 3.0 percent (95 percent CI 0.82-5.26 percent) of study respondents. One-third of non-injectors were unaware of the preventative role of condom use. This study suggests that despite harm reduction initiatives within Kerobokan prison HIV risk behavior continues and there is a considerable lack of awareness of the importance of condom use in preventing HIV. The authors relied on self-reported risk behavior that may be subject to reporting bias. The sampling strategy may not reflect the true ratio inmates using or not using narcotics. The current harm reduction approach, including methadone substitution treatment should be optimized within the Indonesian prison setting. This is the first study reporting HIV-related risk behavior from an Indonesian prison with an established methadone substitution program.

  17. HIV/AIDS prisoners: a case study on quality of life in Roumieh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prisons often lack the basic health services required by HIV/AIDS patients. As with many other chronic illnesses, the treatment of HIV is expensive in terms of medication, hygiene, testing and staff training. Strategies to combat the disease have been thoroughly developed, particularly in Europe (WHO/UNAIDS, 2006).

  18. Confronting the HIV, Tuberculosis, Addiction, and Incarceration Syndemic in Southeast Asia: Lessons Learned from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Gabriel J; Pillai, Veena; Bick, Joseph; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wegman, Martin P; Bazazi, Alexander R; Ferro, Enrico; Copenhaver, Michael; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-09-01

    Throughout Southeast Asia, repressive drug laws have resulted in high rates of imprisonment in people who inject drugs (PWID) and people living with HIV (PLH), greatly magnifying the harm associated with HIV, tuberculosis, and addiction. We review findings from Malaysia's largest prison to describe the negative synergistic effects of HIV, tuberculosis, addiction, and incarceration that contribute to a 'perfect storm' of events challenging public and personal health and offer insights into innovative strategies to control these converging epidemics. The majority of PLH who are imprisoned in Malaysia are opioid dependent PWID. Although promoted by official policy, evidence-based addiction treatment is largely unavailable, contributing to rapid relapse and/or overdose after release. Similarly, HIV treatment in prisons and compulsory drug treatment centers is sometimes inadequate or absent. The prevalence of active tuberculosis is high, particularly in PLH, and over 80 % of prisoners and prison personnel are latently infected. Mandatory HIV testing and subsequent segregation of HIV-infected prisoners increases the likelihood of tuberculosis acquisition and progression to active disease, amplifying the reservoir of infection for other prisoners. We discuss strategies to control these intersecting epidemics including screening linked to standardized treatment protocols for all three conditions, and effective transitional programs for released prisoners. For example, recently introduced evidence-based interventions in prisons like antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV, isoniazid preventive therapy to treat latent tuberculosis infection, and methadone maintenance to treat opioid dependence, have markedly improved clinical care and reduced morbidity and mortality. Since introduction of these interventions in September 2012, all-cause and HIV-related mortality have decreased by 50.0 % and 75.7 %, respectively. We discuss the further deployment of these

  19. Sexual behavior and knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus/aids and sexually transmitted infections among women inmates of Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageeh, Wafa M K

    2014-05-24

    To reduce the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it is necessary to target high-risk populations such as prison inmates. This study aims to explore the range of knowledge on HIV and STIs, sexual behaviors, and adoption of preventive measures among women inmates. This was a survey conducted between July 1, 2012 and July 29, 2012 among women inmates at Briman Prison, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The author gave an educational lecture on STIs in a conference room at the prison. Educational material was distributed to the attendees after the lecture, and the survey was conducted one week later. All the participants were asked to complete an anonymous 40-item self-administered questionnaire in the presence of a professional health assistant and a translator, for non-Arabic speakers. Data collected included the personal data of the respondent, her alleged criminal background, penal status, accumulative time in prison, history of smoking, alcohol or drug addiction, knowledge about the seven most common STIs, symptoms, modes of transmission, prevention, sexual activity, addiction, and means of protection. Descriptive analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. We interviewed 204 women aged 16-60 years (mean, 33.3 years). Most of the respondents (n = 170; 83 · 0%) were not aware of STIs; 117 respondents (57 · 4%) did not undergo screening for STIs before marriage or intercourse, while only 59 (28 · 9%) did. Over half of the respondents (n = 107; 52.5%) thought they knew how to protect themselves from STIs. Nevertheless, 87 (42.6%) were uncertain about the role of condoms in protection from STIs and (n = 41; 20.1%) thought condoms provide 100% protection against STIs, while 72 respondents (35.3%) thought condoms did not confer 100% protection against STIs. Only 10 respondents (4.9%) used condoms to protect themselves from STIs. Saudi women (P = 0.033) and those with a higher level of education (P sexual behaviors

  20. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB. Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Survey of HIV Testing and Prevalence in Twelve Brazilian Correctional Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Viebrantz Enne Sgarbi

    Full Text Available Prior studies have reported higher HIV prevalence among prisoners than the general population in Brazil, but data have been derived from single prisons. The aim of this study was to evaluate HIV testing practices, prevalence and linkage to care among inmates in a network of 12 prisons.We administered a questionnaire to a population-based sample of inmates from 12 prisons in Central-West Brazil and collected sera for HIV and syphilis testing from January to December 2013. We evaluated factors associated with HIV testing and infection using multivariable logistic regression models. Six months after HIV testing, we assessed whether each HIV-infected prisoner was engaged in clinical care and whether they had started antiretroviral therapy.We recruited 3,362 inmates, of whom 2,843 (85% were men from 8 prisons, and 519 (15% were women from 4 prisons. Forty-five percent of participants reported never having been tested for HIV previously. In multivariable analysis, the variables associated with previous HIV testing were lack of a stable partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.18-1.60, completed more than four years of schooling (AOR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.20-1.64, history of previous incarceration (AOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.43-1.98, history of mental illness (AOR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.31-1.78 and previous surgery (AOR 1.31; 95% CI: 1.12-1.52. Fifty-four (1.6% of all participants tested positive for HIV; this included 44 (1.54% men and 10 (1.92% women. Among male inmates, HIV infection was associated with homosexuality (AOR 6.20, 95% CI: 1.73-22.22, self-report of mental illness (AOR 2.18, 95% CI: 1.13-4.18, history of sexually transmitted infections (AOR 3.28, 95% CI: 1.64-6.56, and syphilis sero-positivity (AOR 2.54, 95% CI: 1.20-5.39. Among HIV-infected individuals, 34 (63% were unaware of their HIV status; only 23 of these 34 (68% newly diagnosed participants could be reached at six month follow-up, and 21 of 23 (91% were engaged in HIV care.HIV testing

  2. HIV, STD, and hepatitis risk to primary female partners of men being released from prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Olga A; Faigeles, Bonnie; Comfort, Megan; Seal, David; Nealey-Moore, Jill; Belcher, Lisa; Morrow, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Incarcerated men in the US are at increased risk for HIV, STDs and hepatitis, and many men leaving prison have unprotected sex with a primary female partner immediately following release from prison. This paper addresses risk to the primary female partners of men being released from prison (N = 106) by examining the prevalence of men's concurrent unprotected sex with other partners or needle sharing prior to and following release from prison (concurrent risk). Rates of concurrent risk were 46% prior to incarceration, 18% one month post release, and 24% three months post release. Multivariate analysis showed concurrent risk was significantly associated with having a female partner who had one or more HIV/STD risk factors and having a history of injection drug use. Findings demonstrate need for prevention programs for incarcerated men and their female partners.

  3. A survey of bloodborne viruses and associated risk behaviours in Greek prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliori, M; Sypsa, V; Psichogiou, M; Touloumi, G; Skoutelis, A; Tassopoulos, N; Hatzakis, A; Stefanis, C

    1998-02-01

    To determine HIV and hepatitis infection prevalence and correlates with risk behaviour. Cross-sectional study: voluntary, anonymous HIV, hepatitis (HCV, HBV and HDV) surveillance and questionnaire on risk factors. Korydallos Prison, Athens and Ag. Stefanos Prison, Patra, Greece. Of 544 drug users imprisoned for drug related offences, all completed the questionnaire and 533 blood samples were collected. HIV (by anti-HIV-1), HCV (by anti-HCV), HBV (by anti-HBc, HBsAg) and HDV (by anti-HDV) prevalence. Data on demography, legal status, drug use, sharing of injecting equipment. Of the 544 drug users, 375 (68.9%) had injected drugs (IDUs) at some time, 35% of whom had injected whilst in that prison. Of the 533 blood samples tested, one was positive for anti-HIV-1 (0.19%), 310 for anti-HCV (58.2%), 306/531 (57.6%) for anti-HBc, 34/527 (6.5%) for HBsAg and 12/527 (2.3%) for anti-HDV. Prevalence rates for IDUs only were 0.27% for HIV-1, 80.6% for hepatitis C, 62.7% for hepatitis B and 3.3% for hepatitis D. Ninety-two per cent of IDUs injecting in prison shared needles, indicating that IDUs inject less but share more during incarceration. Multiple logistic regression revealed needle-sharing as the most important risk factor for HCV infection in IDUs. Prior knowledge of a positive hepatitis result did not appear to inhibit IDUs from practising risky behaviours in prison. The epidemic of hepatitis B and C among imprisoned IDUs identified by this study constitutes a major public health problem. Prevention programmes, such as counselling, HBV vaccination, community-based methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange schemes, are necessary in order to prevent a further spread.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP Regarding HIV/AIDS Transmission and Prevention Among Inmates in Bushehr Prison, 2009 – 2010

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    Bagherzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background HIV has been recognized as an important problem in prisons because of the common practice of needle sharing and unsafe sex. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP apropos HIV/AIDS in prisons is needed to devise educational programs. Objectives This research was performed to assess KAP regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention among Bushehr Prison inmates. Patients and Methods This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 among 800 inmates in Bushehr Prison. Convenience sampling was utilized, and the inclusion criteria comprised Iranian nationality, ability to speak or read and write in Farsi, and a prison stay for at least 2 months before entering the study. The data collection tool was a self-designed questionnaire, consisting of close-ended questions in 4 sections: demographic information, 36 questions on knowledge (total score ranging from 0 to 36, 20 questions on attitude (total score ranging from 0 to 40, and 7 questions on practice. Content validity was confirmed by using subject matter experts. Reliability was confirmed via a pilot study and Cronbach’s α method. The α coefficients were between 0.75 and 0.95 for the different sections. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results The mean score of HIV/AIDS knowledge in the male and female inmates was 23.84 ± 4.70 and 21.35 ± 6.28, respectively (P < 0.001. The mean score of HIV/AIDS attitude among the men and women was 26.6 ± 5.4 and 24.48 ± 7.6, correspondingly (P < 0.001. Additionally, 63.3% of the male and 57.3% of the female inmates had read about HIV/AIDS (P = 0.20, 4% of the men and 11.3% of the women had tattooing in prison, and 28.5% of the men and 32.5% of the women had participated in HIV/AIDS prevention classes (P = 0.29. Conclusions Comprehensive programs on HIV/AIDS education and counseling are needed to improve KAP apropos HIV risk factors and reduce risk behavior among prison

  5. The Oncolytic Virus MG1 Targets and Eliminates Cells Latently Infected With HIV-1: Implications for an HIV Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Nischal; Sandstrom, Teslin S; Burke Schinkel, Stephanie C; Côté, Sandra C; Angel, Jonathan B

    2018-02-14

    Cells latently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbor intracellular signaling defects, including impairment of the antiviral type I interferon response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate cells latently infected with HIV-1, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in cell lines latently infected with HIV-1. Following this, a reduction in HIV-1 DNA and inducible HIV-1 replication was observed following MG1 infection of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells generated using an in vitro model of latency. Last, MG1 infection resulted in a reduction in HIV-1 DNA and inducible HIV-1 replication in memory CD4+ T cells isolated from effectively treated, HIV-1-infected individuals. Our results therefore highlight a novel approach to eliminate the latent HIV-1 reservoir. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Number of infection events per cell during HIV-1 cell-free infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Remion, Azaria; Tauzin, Alexandra; Ejima, Keisuke; Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwasa, Yoh; Iwami, Shingo; Mammano, Fabrizio

    2017-07-26

    HIV-1 accumulates changes in its genome through both recombination and mutation during the course of infection. For recombination to occur, a single cell must be infected by two HIV strains. These coinfection events were experimentally demonstrated to occur more frequently than would be expected for independent infection events and do not follow a random distribution. Previous mathematical modeling approaches demonstrated that differences in target cell susceptibility can explain the non-randomness, both in the context of direct cell-to-cell transmission, and in the context of free virus transmission (Q. Dang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:632-7, 2004: K. M. Law et al., Cell reports 15:2711-83, 2016). Here, we build on these notions and provide a more detailed and extensive quantitative framework. We developed a novel mathematical model explicitly considering the heterogeneity of target cells and analysed datasets of cell-free HIV-1 single and double infection experiments in cell culture. Particularly, in contrast to the previous studies, we took into account the different susceptibility of the target cells as a continuous distribution. Interestingly, we showed that the number of infection events per cell during cell-free HIV-1 infection follows a negative-binomial distribution, and our model reproduces these datasets.

  7. HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services.

  8. Nosocomial infections in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One HIV-infected child died of varicella pneumonia. Other common nosocomial infections encountered in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children respectively were upper respiratory tract infections (pharyngitis, tonsillitis or rhinitis) affecting 21 and four, otitis media in five and one, oral candidiasis in seven and zero, urinary ...

  9. Prisons as a source of tuberculosis in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Platt, Lucy; Vyshemirskaya, Inna; Rhodes, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze poor management of tuberculosis (TB) prevention and treatment and explore parameters and causes of this problem drawing on qualitative interviews with former prisoners and medical specialists in Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia. The authors undertook a qualitative study, to explore access to HIV and TB treatment for people who inject drugs in Kaliningrad. The authors interviewed (outside of prisons) 15 patients and eight health specialists using a semi-structured guide. The authors analyzed the accounts thematically and health consequences of imprisonment emerged as a major theme. Prisons are overcrowded and lack basic hygiene and infection control. Demand for medical services outstrip supply, HIV and TB prevention lacking, HIV and TB treatment is patchy, with no second-line drugs available for resistant forms. The prison conditions are generally degrading and unhealthy and many respondents perceived surviving prisons as a miracle. Cooperation with medical services in the community is poor. The authors used qualitative research methods, which do not rely on a representative sample. However, many of the structural barriers preventing effective TB treatment and prevention highlighted in this paper have been noted elsewhere, suggesting that findings are likely to reflect conditions elsewhere in Russia. The authors tried to include all possible points of view, as of the medical staff and the patients. However, due to resistance of the officials the authors were unable to conduct interviews with employees of the FCS. Since all the interviews are recalling past experience, the situation may have changed. This does not undermine importance of the findings, as they shed light on particular treatment experiences, and development of prison health system. The paper contributes to the literature on prisons as a contributor to TB epidemic, including drug resistant forms. An urgent penitentiary reform in Russia should focus on HIV and TB

  10. Trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells fosters both HIV-1 trans-infection in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes and reactivation of the HIV-1 reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzini, Chiara; Arenaccio, Claudia; Olivetta, Eleonora; Anticoli, Simona; Manfredi, Francesco; Ferrantelli, Flavia; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Schietroma, Ivan; Andreotti, Mauro; Federico, Maurizio

    2017-09-01

    Intact HIV-1 and exosomes can be internalized by dendritic cells (DCs) through a common pathway leading to their transmission to CD4 + T lymphocytes by means of mechanisms defined as trans-infection and trans-dissemination, respectively. We previously reported that exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells activate both uninfected quiescent CD4 + T lymphocytes, which become permissive to HIV-1, and latently infected cells, with release of HIV-1 particles. However, nothing is known about the effects of trans-dissemination of exosomes produced by HIV-1-infected cells on uninfected or latently HIV-1-infected CD4 + T lymphocytes. Here, we report that trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells induces cell activation in resting CD4 + T lymphocytes, which appears stronger with mature than immature DCs. Using purified preparations of both HIV-1 and exosomes, we observed that mDC-mediated trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells to resting CD4 + T lymphocytes induces efficient trans-infection and HIV-1 expression in target cells. Most relevant, when both mDCs and CD4 + T lymphocytes were isolated from combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients, trans-dissemination of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells led to HIV-1 reactivation from the viral reservoir. In sum, our data suggest a role of exosome trans-dissemination in both HIV-1 spread in the infected host and reactivation of the HIV-1 reservoir.

  11. Transitions to Care in the Community for Prison Releasees with HIV: a Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Challenges in Two States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M; Donahue, Sara; LeRoy, Lisa; Montague, Brian T; Rosen, David L; Solomon, Liza; Costa, Michael; Wohl, David; Rich, Josiah D

    2015-08-01

    One in seven people living with HIV in the USA passes through a prison or jail each year, and almost all will return to the community. Discharge planning and transitional programs are critical but challenging elements in ensuring continuity of care, maintaining treatment outcomes achieved in prison, and preventing further viral transmission. This paper describes facilitators and challenges of in-prison care, transitional interventions, and access to and continuity of care in the community in Rhode Island and North Carolina based on qualitative data gathered as part of the mixed-methods Link Into Care Study of prisoners and releasees with HIV. We conducted 65 interviews with correctional and community-based providers and administrators and analyzed the transcripts using NVivo 10 to identify major themes. Facilitators of effective transitional systems in both states included the following: health providers affiliated with academic institutions or other entities independent of the corrections department; organizational philosophy emphasizing a patient-centered, personal, and holistic approach; strong leadership with effective "champions"; a team approach with coordination, collaboration and integration throughout the system, mutual respect and learning between corrections and health providers, staff dedicated to transitional services, and effective communication and information sharing among providers; comprehensive transitional activities and services including HIV, mental health and substance use services in prisons, timely and comprehensive discharge planning with specific linkages/appointments, supplies of medications on release, access to benefits and entitlements, case management and proactive follow-up on missed appointments; and releasees' commitment to transitional plans. These elements were generally present in both study states but their absence, which also sometimes occurred, represent ongoing challenges to success. The qualitative findings on the

  12. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor suppression of HIV infectivity and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Tami; Lynch, Kevin; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R; Tustin, Nancy B; Ping Lai, Jian; Metzger, David S; Blume, Joshua; Douglas, Steven D; Evans, Dwight L

    2010-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram would down-regulate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity and that the greatest effects would be seen in people with depression. Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathobiology of depression, and pharmacologic therapies for depression target this system. The 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous and immune systems. Depression has been associated with suppression of natural killer cells and CD8(+) lymphocytes, key regulators of HIV infection. Ex vivo models for acute and chronic HIV infection were used to study the effects of citalopram on HIV viral infection and replication in 48 depressed and nondepressed women. For both the acute and chronic infection models, HIV reverse transcriptase activity was measured in the citalopram treatment condition and the control condition. The SSRI significantly down-regulated the reverse transcriptase response in both the acute and chronic infection models. Specifically, citalopram significantly decreased the acute HIV infectivity of macrophages. Citalopram also significantly decreased HIV viral replication in the latently infected T-cell line and in the latently infected macrophage cell line. There was no difference in down-regulation by depression status. These studies suggest that an SSRI enhances natural killer/CD8 noncytolytic HIV suppression in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and decreases HIV viral infectivity of macrophages, ex vivo, suggesting the need for in vivo studies to determine a potential role for agents targeting serotonin in the host defense against HIV.

  13. Targeted femtosecond laser driven drug delivery within HIV-1 infected cells: In-vitro studies [conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphanga, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available of SPIE 10062, Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXVIIISan Francisco, California, USA, 26 January - 03 February 2017 Targeted femtosecond laser driven drug delivery within HIV-1 infected cells: In-vitro studies Charles Maphanga 1, 2...

  14. MicroRNAs upregulated during HIV infection target peroxisome biogenesis factors: Implications for virus biology, disease mechanisms and neuropathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikun Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND represent a spectrum neurological syndrome that affects up to 25% of patients with HIV/AIDS. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of HAND symptoms including chronic neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Among the factors linked to development of HAND is altered expression of host cell microRNAs (miRNAs in brain. Here, we examined brain miRNA profiles among HIV/AIDS patients with and without HAND. Our analyses revealed differential expression of 17 miRNAs in brain tissue from HAND patients. A subset of the upregulated miRNAs (miR-500a-5p, miR-34c-3p, miR-93-3p and miR-381-3p, are predicted to target peroxisome biogenesis factors (PEX2, PEX7, PEX11B and PEX13. Expression of these miRNAs in transfected cells significantly decreased levels of peroxisomal proteins and concomitantly decreased peroxisome numbers or affected their morphology. The levels of miR-500a-5p, miR-34c-3p, miR-93-3p and miR-381-3p were not only elevated in the brains of HAND patients, but were also upregulated during HIV infection of primary macrophages. Moreover, concomitant loss of peroxisomal proteins was observed in HIV-infected macrophages as well as in brain tissue from HIV-infected patients. HIV-induced loss of peroxisomes was abrogated by blocking the functions of the upregulated miRNAs. Overall, these findings point to previously unrecognized miRNA expression patterns in the brains of HIV patients. Targeting peroxisomes by up-regulating miRNAs that repress peroxisome biogenesis factors may represent a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 subverts innate immune responses and/or causes neurocognitive dysfunction.

  15. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlay, Hannah; Kaul, Daniel; Rao, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is a healthcare-associated infection resulting in significant morbidity. Although immunosuppression is associated with Clostridium difficile infection acquisition and adverse outcomes, the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients has been little studied in the era of antiretroviral therapy. This study identifies the risk factors for acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients. A retrospective, propensity score-matched case-control study design was employed, with patients selected from our institution's outpatient HIV clinic. Clostridium difficile infection cases were defined as having positive stool testing plus an appropriate clinical presentation. The propensity score was generated via multiple logistic regression from year of HIV diagnosis, age at first contact, duration of follow-up, gender, and initial CD4 count. The 46 cases included were matched to a total of 180 controls. Prior antibiotic treatment was a significant predictor of Clostridium difficile infection (odds ratio: 13, 95% confidence interval: 3.49-48.8, p  Clostridium difficile infection in the multivariable model (odds ratio: 15.17, confidence interval: 1.31-175.9, p  = .021). As in the general population, frequent hospitalizations and exposure to antimicrobials are independent predictors of Clostridium difficile infection acquisition in patients with HIV. Additionally, low CD4 count and proton pump inhibitor use are new potentially modifiable variables that can be targeted for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in future interventional studies.

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and social context of active pulmonary tuberculosis among prison inmates in Tajikistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB is highly prevalent in prisons of the former Soviet Union. OBJECTIVE: To understand the behavioral, demographic and biological factors placing inmates in Tajikistan at risk for active TB. DESIGN: We administered a behavioral and demographic survey to 1317 inmates in two prison facilities in Sughd province, Tajikistan along with radiographic screening for pulmonary TB. Suspected cases were confirmed bacteriologically. Inmates undergoing TB treatment were also surveyed. In-depth interviews were conducted with former prisoners to elicit relevant social and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 59 cases of active pulmonary TB (prevalence 4.5%. Factors independently associated with increased prevalence of active TB were: HIV-infection by self-report (PR 7.88; 95%CI 3.40-18.28, history of previous TB (PR 10.21; 95%CI 6.27-16.63 and infrequent supplemental nutrition beyond scheduled meals (PR 3.00; 95%CI 1.67-5.62. Access to supplemental nutrition was associated with frequency of visits from friends and family and ability to rely on other inmates for help. CONCLUSION: In prison facilities of Tajikistan, HIV-infection, injection drug use and low access to supplemental nutrition were associated with prevalent cases of active pulmonary TB. Policies that reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users and improve the nutritional status of socially isolated inmates may alleviate the TB burden in Tajikistan's prisons.

  17. Perceived risk of HIV infection among deported male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, José Luis; Robertson, Angela M; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2014-01-01

    Deported injection drug users (IDUs) in Mexico may be vulnerable to HIV infection following expulsion from the USA. We examined factors associated with HIV risk perception among a sample of deportees in Tijuana. From January to April 2010, 313 male IDUs who reported ever being deported from the USA completed a questionnaire. Overall, 35% (N=110) of deportees perceived HIV risk. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, factors independently associated with HIV risk perception included ever having a steady female partner in Tijuana post-deportation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-5.07) and years spent in a US prison (AOR: 1.29 per year; 95% CI: 1.13-1.48). Conversely, years of drug injection use (AOR: 0.95 per year; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), ever witnessing family members use drugs prior to first migration trip (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.65), years of residence in the USA (AOR: 0.91 per year; 95% CI: 0.84-0.98) and being a Tijuana native (AOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.16-0.99) were negatively associated with HIV risk perception. US-Mexico border cities that receive deported migrants should target HIV prevention interventions to specific subgroups, including drug-using male deportees. Interventions should consider migrant's time in the USA, the role of their social networks, and reducing missed opportunities for HIV testing/education.

  18. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia H Swartz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 38 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent anti-retroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  19. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Jocelyn; Cohen, Cheryl; Pretorius, Marthi; Groome, Michelle; von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Walaza, Sibongile; Haffejee, Sumayya; Chhagan, Meera; Naby, Fathima; Cohen, Adam L; Tempia, Stefano; Kahn, Kathleen; Dawood, Halima; Venter, Marietjie; Madhi, Shabir A

    2013-12-15

    There are limited data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children in settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. Children aged infection among HIV-infected and uninfected children were examined. The relative risk of hospitalization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children was calculated in 1 site with population denominators. Of 4489 participants, 4293 (96%) were tested for RSV, of whom 1157 (27%) tested positive. With adjustment for age, HIV-infected children had a 3-5-fold increased risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI (2010 relative risk, 5.6; [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5-6.4]; 2011 relative risk, 3.1 [95% CI, 2.6-3.6]). On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected children with RSV-associated ALRTI had higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio. 31.1; 95% CI, 5.4-179.8) and hospitalization for >5 days (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.6) than HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children have a higher risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI and a poorer outcome than HIV-uninfected children. These children should be targeted for interventions aimed at preventing severe RSV disease.

  20. Nosocomial infections in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction between tuberculosis and HIV-infected infection is well known and is responsible for the increase in the incidence of tuberculosis ... This retrospective case-control study evaluated the occurrence of nosocomial infections in (HIV)-infected children and age- and time of ... complicated disease, or whose social.

  1. Counting down: HIV prison-based peer education programs and their connection to reduced disciplinary infractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collica-Cox, Kimberly

    2014-08-01

    Involvement in prosocial prison activities can ameliorate rule-breaking conduct and assist in the reinforcement of conventional behavior. Extant research shows a connection between participation in traditional educational/vocational programs and reduced prison infractions. However, studies that examine a correlation between less traditional prison programs and better institutional conduct are lacking. This study analyzed rates of disciplinary infractions among 49 female prisoners that worked in two HIV prison-based peer programs (AIDS, Counseling, and Education [ACE] and CARE [Counseling, AIDS, Resource, and Education]) as peer educators during their incarceration. These women were unlikely to jeopardize their position by engaging in unlawful or deviant behaviors. Results showed that working in programs like ACE/CARE prevented periods of maladjustment and subsequent disciplinary infractions during incarceration. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Combination of anti-retroviral drugs and radioimmunotherapy specifically kills infected cells from HIV infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Tsukrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating virally infected cells is an essential component of any HIV eradication strategy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT, a clinically established method for killing cells using radiolabeled antibodies, was recently applied to target HIV-1 gp41 antigen expressed on the surface of infect-ed cells. Since gp41 expression by infected cells is likely down-regulated in patients on an-tiretroviral therapy (ART, we evaluated the ability of RIT to kill ART-treated infected cells us-ing both in vitro models and lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected subjects. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were infected with HIV and cultured in the presence of two clinically relevant ART combinations. Scatchard analysis of the 2556 human monoclonal anti-body to HIV gp41 binding to the infected and ART-treated cells demonstrated sufficient residual expression of gp41 on the cell surface to warrant subsequent RIT. This is the first time the quantification of gp41 post-ART is being reported. Cells were then treated with Bismuth-213-labeled 2556 antibody. conjugated to the human monoclonal antibody 2556, which binds to HIV gp41. Cell survival was quantified by Trypan blue and residual viremia by p24 ELISA. Cell surface gp41 expression was assessed by Scatchard analysis. The experiments were repeated using PBMCs isolated from blood specimens obtained from 15 HIV-infected individuals: ten on ART and five ART-naive. We found that 213Bi-2556 killed ART-treated infected PBMCs and reduced viral production to undetectable levels. ART and RIT co-treatment was more effective at reducing viral load in vitro than either therapy alone, indicating that gp41 expression under ART was sufficient to allow 213Bi-2556 to deliver cytocidal doses of radiation to infected cells. This study provides proof of concept that 213Bi-2556 may represent an innovative and effective targeting method for killing HIV-infected cells treated with ART, and supports continued development of 213Bi

  3. Alemtuzumab-induced elimination of HIV-1-infected immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Krause, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no drug known that is able to eradicate either HIV or HIV-infected host cells. The effectiveness of all available treatments is based on the prevention of viral replication. We investigated whether the monoclonal, CD52 receptor-targeting antibody, alemtuzumab, which is currently approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, is able to eliminate HIV-infected immune cells. In blood samples from healthy donors and from HIV-1-infected subjects who were either treatment-naïve or resistant to HAART, we studied whether the CD52 expression on T cells and their subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8), B cells (CD19), dendritic cells (CD123) and monocytes (CD11c) is retained in HIV-1 infection and whether alemtuzumab is able to eradicate infected cells, using four-colour flow cytometry. We found that CD52 expression on immune cells is retained in HIV-1 infection regardless of CD4 cell count, viral load and treatment status, and is amenable to alemtuzumab-induced depletion. For the first time it could be shown in vitro that HIV-1-infected immune cells can be eliminated by using the monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab.

  4. Broadly neutralizing antibodies for treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yehuda Z; Caskey, Marina

    2018-04-24

    Several anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) with exceptional breadth and potency that target different HIV-1 envelope epitopes have been identified. bNAbs are an attractive new strategy for HIV-1 prevention and therapy, and potentially, for long-term remission or cure. Here, we discuss findings from early clinical studies that have evaluated these novel bNAbs. Phase 1 studies of bNAbs targeting two distinct HIV-1 envelope epitopes have demonstrated their favorable safety and pharmacokinetic profile. Single bNAb infusions led to significant, but transient, decline in viremia with selection of escape variants. A single bNAb also delayed viral rebound in ART-treated participants who discontinued ART. Importantly, in-vivo efficacy was related to antibody potency and to the level of preexisting resistance. Studies in animal models showed that bNAbs can clear HIV-infected cells and modulate host immune responses. These findings suggest that bNAbs may target the latent HIV reservoir in humans and could contribute to long-term remission of HIV-1 infection. bNAbs may offer advantages over traditional ART for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. In addition, bNAbs may target the latent viral reservoir. bNAb combinations and bNAbs engineered for prolonged half-life and increased potency are currently undergoing clinical evaluation.

  5. Target cell availability and the successful suppression of HIV by hydroxyurea and didanosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Boucher, C.A.B.; Perelson, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Surprisingly, immunosuppressive treatment can enhance the efficacy of conventional HIV-1 antiretroviral treatment, and can be beneficial for HIV-1- infected patients. This argues for a role of target cell availability in limiting the HIV-1 infection, and is in agreement with mathematical models

  6. Depression in perinatally HIV-infected pregnant women compared to non-perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrand, Ruth C; Sperling, Rhoda; Roccobono, Kinga; Osborne, Lauren M; Jao, Jennifer

    2018-05-18

    "Depression (as noted in chart by a physician)" was compared between HIV infected pregnant women and controls. Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV), non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV), and HIV-uninfected (HIV-U) pregnant women were all compared using a logistic regression model. Overall, HIV-infected women had higher rates of depression than HIV-U, with PHIV women demonstrating a clinically and statistically significant increased risk compared to HIV-U women [adjusted OR: 15.9, 95% CI = 1.8-143.8]. Future studies in larger populations are warranted to confirm these findings and further elucidate mental health outcomes of PHIV and NPHIV pregnant women.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for HIV/AIDS among Male Inmates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was only one (0.4%) of the prisoners that practiced homosexuality in prison. The age 26-45 years were mostly affected constituting 56%. Seroprevalence among the prisoners (7%) was higher than the National median prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in year 2006 survey. This suggests the possibility of ...

  8. HIV infection in the South African construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter; Lake, Antony

    2018-06-01

    South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world, and compared with other sectors of the national economy, the construction industry is disproportionately adversely affected. Using data collected nationally from more than 57,000 construction workers, HIV infection among South African construction workers was estimated, together with an assessment of the association between worker HIV serostatus and worker characteristics of gender, age, nature of employment, occupation, and HIV testing history. The HIV infection of construction workers was estimated to be lower than that found in a smaller 2008 sample. All worker characteristics are significantly associated with HIV serostatus. In terms of most at-risk categories: females are more at risk of HIV infection than males; workers in the 30-49 year old age group are more at risk than other age groups; workers employed on a less permanent basis are more at risk; as are workers not having recently tested for HIV. Among occupations in the construction industry, general workers, artisans, and operator/drivers are those most at risk. Besides yielding more up-to-date estimated infection statistics, this research also identifies vulnerable sub-groups as valuable pointers for more targeted workplace interventions by construction firms.

  9. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Severity and Sexually Transmitted Infection and HIV Risk in African American Incarcerated Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Hobbs, Marcia M; Wohl, David A; Adimora, Adaora A; Khan, Maria R

    2016-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV rates are disproportionately high among men involved in the criminal justice system. Mental health disorders, including personality disorders, are also elevated among inmates. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be an important risk factor for STI/HIV, yet remains relatively understudied, particularly among inmates. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study of African American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in heterosexual relationships at prison entry (n=189), to assess their STI/HIV risk in the 6 months before incarceration and BPD symptoms focused on emotional lability and relationship dysfunction. We created a continuous BPD symptom severity score and a dichotomous BPD indicator split at the top quartile of the score (BPD-TQ) to examine associations between BPD and STI/HIV outcomes using logistic regression. We also examined associations between individual symptoms and outcomes. After adjustment for sociodemographics and antisocial personality disorder, BPD-TQ was associated with sexual risk behaviors including multiple partnerships (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.36) and sex with nonmonogamous partners (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.51). Prevalence of previous STI (47.5% vs. 29.6%) and prevalent chlamydial infection (6.9% vs. 3.1%) seemed higher in those in BPD-TQ, although the associations were not statistically significant. Associations were similar to those with the continuous score. Borderline personality disorder symptoms most associated with STI/HIV risk were abandonment worry, mood swings, and shifts in opinions. Borderline personality disorder is strongly associated with STI/HIV risk in this sample. Researchers should further evaluate the relationship between STI/HIV and BPD, in addition to mood disorders.

  10. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  11. The involvement of plasmacytoid cells in HIV infection and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Alessandra; Giannessi, Flavia; Percario, Zulema A; Affabris, Elisabetta

    2018-04-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique dendritic cell subset that are specialized in type I interferon (IFN) production. pDCs are key players in the antiviral immune response and serve as bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Although pDCs do not represent the main reservoir of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), they are a crucial subset in HIV infection as they influence viral transmission, target cell infection and antigen presentation. pDCs act as inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells, thus contributing to HIV disease progression. This review provides a state of art analysis of the interactions between HIV and pDCs and their potential roles in HIV transmission, chronic immune activation and immunosuppression. A thorough understanding of the roles of pDCs in HIV infection will help to improve therapeutic strategies to fight HIV infection, and will further increase our knowledge on this important immune cell subset. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Juan; Pineda, Juan A; Real, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most frequent chronic hepatic conditions worldwide. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease goes from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are metabolic, mainly obesity and the accompanying consequences. Treatment and prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should target those metabolic abnormalities. The frequency of and the factors associated with hepatic steatosis in HIV infection seem to be similar to those reported in the general population, though direct comparisons are lacking. Hepatic steatosis in HIV infection may also be secondary to antiretroviral drugs or HCV-related factors in HCV-coinfected subjects. However, more recent data suggest that hepatic steatosis in HIV infection represents true non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As such, management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infection should follow the same principles as in the general population.

  13. [Impact of HIV/HBV infection and HIV/HBV co-infection on outcomes of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Cheng, W T; Zhou, Y B; Jiang, Q W

    2017-06-10

    Both HIV and HBV infection have become major health problems, of global concern, due to the high prevalence in the past few decades. Data from cumulated epidemiological surveys have shown the links between maternal HIV or HBV infection and adverse outcomes on pregnancy. Maternal HIV or HBV infection may also increase the mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of the two diseases. However, association between HIV-HBV co-infection and adverse pregnancy is still inconclusive. Does maternal HIV-HBV co-infection have an impact on mother-to-child transmission on either HIV or HBV? Study on effective precautionary measures to promote both maternal and child's health is deemed necessary.

  14. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Mamo

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods.Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 % samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7% was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.52-4.5. In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06. All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Hassen

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 %) samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7%) was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52-4.5). In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06). All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the most

  17. Harm reduction and viral hepatitis C in European prisons: a cross-sectional survey of 25 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Rob; Stumo, Samya R; Halford, Rachel; Werling, Klára; Reic, Tatjana; Stöver, Heino; Robaeys, Geert; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2018-05-11

    Current estimates suggest that 15% of all prisoners worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and this number is even higher in regions with high rates of injecting drug use. Although harm reduction services such as opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programs (NSPs) are effective in preventing the further spread of HCV and HIV, the extent to which these are available in prisons varies significantly across countries. The Hep-CORE study surveyed liver patient groups from 25 European countries in 2016 and mid-2017 on national policies related to harm reduction, testing/screening, and treatment for HCV in prison settings. Results from the cross-sectional survey were compared to the data from available reports and the peer-reviewed literature to determine the overall degree to which European countries implement evidence-based HCV recommendations in prison settings. Patient groups in nine countries (36%) identified prisoners as a high-risk population target for HCV testing/screening. Twenty-one countries (84%) provide HCV treatment in prisons. However, the extent of coverage of these treatment programs varies widely. Two countries (8%) have NSPs officially available in prisons in all parts of the country. Eleven countries (44%) provide OST in prisons in all parts of the country without additional requirements. Despite the existence of evidence-based recommendations, infectious disease prevention measures such as harm reduction programs are inadequate in European prison settings. Harm reduction, HCV testing/screening, and treatment should be scaled up in prison settings in order to progress towards eliminating HCV as a public health threat.

  18. Reducing HIV infection in people who inject drugs is impossible without targeting recently-infected subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vasylyeva, Tetyana I.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Lourenco, Jose; Gupta, Sunetra; Hatzakis, Angelos; Pybus, Oliver G.; Katzourakis, Aris; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Karamitros, Timokratis; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Magiorkinis, Gkikas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although our understanding of viral transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) has improved, we still know little about when and how many times each injector transmits HIV throughout the duration of infection. We describe HIV dynamics in PWID to evaluate which preventive strategies can be efficient. Design Due to the notably scarce interventions, HIV-1 spread explosively in Russia and Ukraine in 1990s. By studying this epidemic between 1995 and 2005, we characterized...

  19. Reducing HIV infection in people who inject drugs is impossible without targeting recently-infected subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vasylyeva, TI; Friedman, SR; Lourenco, J; Gupta, S; Hatzakis, A; Pybus, OG; Katzourakis, A; Smyrnov, P; Karamitros, T; Paraskevis, D; Magiorkinis, G

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although our understanding on viral transmission among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) has improved, we still know little about when and how many times each injector transmits HIV throughout the duration of infection. We describe HIV dynamics in PWID to evaluate which preventive strategies can be efficient. Design: Due to the notably scarce interventions HIV-1 spread explosively in Russia and Ukraine in 1990s. By studying this epidemic between 1995 and 2005 we characterised natu...

  20. Acceleration of Age-Associated Methylation Patterns in HIV-1-Infected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Mary; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Hultin, Patricia M.; Hultin, Lance E.; Quach, Austin; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Jamieson, Beth D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young (20-35) and older (36-56) adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, pmodules; module 3 (ME3) was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70) and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31). Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015). In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage= 0.007088, p=2.08 x 10-9; βHIV= 0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage= 0.008762, p=1.27x 10-5; βHIV= 0.128649, p= 0.0001). Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10-6, odds ratio=1.91). These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that are similar to age-associated patterns and suggest that general aging and HIV-1 related aging work through some common cellular

  1. Paediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, G

    1996-09-28

    By the year 2000 there will be six million pregnant women and five to ten million children infected with HIV-1. Intervention strategies have been planned and in some instances already started. A timely and cost-effective strategy needs to take into account that most HIV-1 infected individuals reside in developing countries. Further studies are needed on immunological and virological factors affecting HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, on differential disease progression in affected children, and on transient infection.

  2. High tuberculosis prevalence in a South African prison: the need for routine tuberculosis screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilanganee Telisinghe

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a major health concern in prisons, particularly where HIV prevalence is high. Our objective was to determine the undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis ("undiagnosed tuberculosis" prevalence in a representative sample of prisoners in a South African prison. In addition we investigated risk factors for undiagnosed tuberculosis, to explore if screening strategies could be targeted to high risk groups, and, the performance of screening tools for tuberculosis.In this cross-sectional survey, male prisoners were screened for tuberculosis using symptoms, chest radiograph (CXR and two spot sputum specimens for microscopy and culture. Anonymised HIV antibody testing was performed on urine specimens. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of symptoms and investigations were calculated, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated on sputum culture as the gold standard. From September 2009 to October 2010, 1046 male prisoners were offered enrolment to the study. A total of 981 (93.8% consented (median age was 32 years; interquartile range [IQR] 27-37 years and were screened for tuberculosis. Among 968 not taking tuberculosis treatment and with sputum culture results, 34 (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-4.9% were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HIV prevalence was 25.3% (242/957; 95% CI 22.6-28.2%. Positive HIV status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.0; 95% CI 1.0-4.2 and being an ex-smoker (aOR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.9 were independently associated with undiagnosed tuberculosis. Compared to the gold standard of positive sputum culture, cough of any duration had a sensitivity of 35.3% and specificity of 79.6%. CXR was the most sensitive single screening modality (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 92.2%. Adding CXR to cough of any duration gave a tool with sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 73.8%.Undiagnosed tuberculosis and HIV prevalence was high in this prison, justifying routine screening for tuberculosis at entry

  3. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkowski, Mark S

    2007-10-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a spherical enveloped RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, classified within the Hepacivirus genus. Since its discovery in 1989, HCV has been recognized as a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis that progresses in some patients to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, approximately 4 million people have been infected with HCV, and 10,000 HCVrelated deaths occur each year. Due to shared routes of transmission, HCV and HIV co-infection are common, affecting approximately one third of all HIV-infected persons in the United States. In addition, HIV co-infection is associated with higher HCV RNA viral load and a more rapid progression of HCV-related liver disease, leading to an increased risk of cirrhosis. HCV infection may also impact the course and management of HIV disease, particularly by increasing the risk of antiretroviral drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, chronic HCV infection acts as an opportunistic disease in HIV-infected persons because the incidence of infection is increased and the natural history of HCV infection is accelerated in co-infected persons. Strategies to prevent primary HCV infection and to modify the progression of HCV-related liver disease are urgently needed among HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.

  5. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelissen Marion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the

  6. Probiotics to Target the Intestinal and Vaginal Microbiota in HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preferentially targets, infects and kills CD4+ lymphocytes, which are essential for initiating an immune response against invading micro-organisms. Ultimately the immune response becomes severely compromised and opportunistic infections and

  7. Selective elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by Env-directed, HIV-1-based virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti, Silvia; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pugliese, Katherina; Federico, Maurizio

    2006-01-01

    We recently showed that both replicating and resting cells cultivated with ganciclovir (GCV) were killed when challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped HIV-1-based virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the Nef7 (i.e., an HIV-1 Nef mutant incorporating in virions at high levels)/herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) fusion product. On this basis, a novel anti-HIV therapeutic approach based on Nef7/TK VLPs expressing X4 or R5 HIV cell receptor complexes has been attempted. We here report that (CD4-CXCR4) and (CD4-CCR5) Nef7-based VLPs efficiently enter cells infected by X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. Importantly, the delivery of the VLP-associated Nef7/TK led to cell death upon GCV treatment. Of interest, VLPs were effective also against non-replicating, HIV-1-infected primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. HIV-targeted VLPs represent a promising candidate for the treatment of persistently HIV-1-infected cells that are part of virus reservoirs resistant to HAART therapies

  8. HIV and injecting drug use in Indonesia: epidemiology and national response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriandi, Irvan; Aditama, Tjandra Yoga; Mustikawati, Dyah; Oktavia, Martiani; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Riono, Pandu

    2009-07-01

    Indonesia is facing one of the most rapidly growing HIV-epidemics in Asia. Risk behaviour associated with injecting drug use, such as sharing contaminated needles, is the main risk factor for HIV infection. Among the general population the prevalence of HIV-infection is still low (0.2%), but up to 50% or more of the estimated 145.000 - 170.000 injecting drug users are already HIV-positive. Overrepresentation of injecting drug users and continued risk behavior inside Indonesian prisons contribute to spread of HIV. Through sexual contacts, HIV is transmitted from current or previous injecting drug users to their non-injecting sexual partners; 10-20% of this group may already be infected. The national response targeted to limit spread of HIV through injecting drug use has included needle and syringe program (NSP), methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), and outreach program as priority programs. However coverage and utilization of the harm reduction services is still limited, but effective integration with HIV testing and treatment is expanding. By 2008, there were 110 service points for NSP and 24 operational MMT clinics. Nevertheless, utilization of these services has been less satisfactory and their effectiveness has been questioned. Besides effective prevention, HIV- testing and earlier treatment of HIV-seropositve individuals, including those with a history of injecting drug use, will help control the growing HIV-epidemic in Indonesia.

  9. Acceleration of age-associated methylation patterns in HIV-1-infected adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M Rickabaugh

    Full Text Available Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of young (20-35 and older (36-56 adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, p<1 x 10(-200 and 0.47, p<1 x 10(-200. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA identified 17 co-methylation modules; module 3 (ME3 was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70 and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31. Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015. In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage=0.007088, p=2.08 x 10(-9; βHIV=0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage=0.008762, p=1.27 x 10(-5; βHIV=0.128649, p=0.0001. Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10(-6, odds ratio=1.91. These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that

  10. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schadé Annemiek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for

  11. Risky behavior and correlates of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus infection among people who inject drugs in three cities in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiseñor-Escudero, Horacio; Wirtz, Andrea L; Berry, Mark; Mfochive-Njindan, Iliassou; Paikan, Feda; Yousufi, Hussain A; Yadav, Rajpal S; Burnham, Gilbert; Vu, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Injecting drug use is the primary mode of HIV transmission and acquisition in Afghanistan. People who inject drugs (PWID) in the country have been characterized by high risk injecting behavior and a high burden of HCV infection. We aimed to estimate the burden of HIV, HCV, and other infectious diseases and to identify the correlates of HIV and HCV infection among PWID living in three major Afghan cities in 2009. Epidemiologic data was collected among PWID for the integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) survey between May and August, 2009 in three Afghan cities. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and biologic specimens to screen for HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 using rapid testing kits. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to identify correlates of infection. Among 548 participants, pooled HIV prevalence was 7.1% (Mazar-i-Sharif: 1.0%, Kabul: 3.1%, Herat: 18.4%) and HCV prevalence was 40.3%. Almost all participants with HIV infection were co-infected with HCV (94.9%). Pooled prevalence estimates for other diseases included 7.1% for HBV, 5.5% for syphilis; and 9.3% for HSV-2. Living in Herat, ever in prison and time injecting were independently associated with HIV infection. Living in Kabul, Herat and time injecting were independently associated with HCV infection. There is a high and heterogeneous burden of HIV and HCV among PWID in Afghan cities. Provision of comprehensive harm reduction services to PWID in Afghanistan is warranted to reduce exposures associated with HIV and HCV infection, especially in the city of Herat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nosocomial infections in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-five nosocomial infections (23%) among the HIV-infected children, but only ... candidiasis in seven and zero, urinary tract infection in four and one and .... tant or multidrug-resistant TB received ... bacterial infections, 96 hours in the case.

  13. Combined evaluation of sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected pregnant women and infant HIV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiahong; Yeganeh, Nava; Camarca, Margaret; Morgado, Mariza G.; Watts, D. Heather; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy Maria; Bryson, Yvonne J.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Moye, Jack; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Bristow, Claire C.; Dickover, Ruth; Mirochnick, Mark; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) may lead to adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. The role of combined maternal STIs in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was evaluated in mother-infant pairs from NICHD HPTN 040. Methodology Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women during labor were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CT, NG, and CMV. Infant HIV infection was determined by serial HIV DNA PCR testing. Maternal syphilis was tested by VDRL and confirmatory treponemal antibodies. Results A total of 899 mother-infant pairs were evaluated. Over 30% had at least one of the following infections (TP, CT, NG, and/or CMV) detected at the time of delivery. High rates of TP (8.7%), CT (17.8%), NG (4%), and CMV (6.3%) were observed. HIV MTCT was 9.1% (n = 82 infants). HIV MTCT was 12.5%, 10.3%, 11.1%, and 26.3% among infants born to women with CT, TP, NG or CMV respectively. Forty-two percent of HIV-infected infants were born to women with at least one of these 4 infections. Women with these infections were nearly twice as likely to have an HIV-infected infant (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.0), particularly those with 2 STIs (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.5–7.7). Individually, maternal CMV (aOR 4.4 1.5–13.0) and infant congenital CMV (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.2–7.8) but not other STIs (TP, CT, or NG) were associated with an increased risk of HIV MTCT. Conclusion HIV-infected pregnant women identified during labor are at high risk for STIs. Co-infection with STIs including CMV nearly doubles HIV MTCT risk. CMV infection appears to confer the largest risk of HIV MTCT. Trial registration NCT00099359. PMID:29304083

  14. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  15. High HIV Prevalence, Suboptimal HIV Testing, and Low Knowledge of HIV-Positive Serostatus Among Injection Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussova, Olga V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Barbour, Russell; Heimer, Robert; Kozlov, Andrei P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and testing patterns among injection drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia. HIV prevalence among 387 IDUs in the sample was 50%. Correlates of HIV-positive serostatus included unemployment, recent unsafe injections, and history/current sexually transmitted infection. Seventy-six percent had been HIV tested, but only 22% of those who did not report HIV-positive serostatus had been tested in the past 12 months and received their test result. Correlates of this measure included recent doctor visit and having been in prison or jail among men. Among the 193 HIV-infected participants, 36% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus. HIV prevalence is high and continuing to increase in this population. Adequate coverage of HIV testing has not been achieved, resulting in poor knowledge of positive serostatus. Efforts are needed to better understand motivating and deterring factors for HIV testing in this setting. PMID:18843531

  16. First UK case report of kidney transplantation from an HIV-infected deceased donor to two HIV-infected recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Eileen; Karydis, Nikolaos; Drage, Martin; Hilton, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Kidney transplantation is now considered the treatment of choice for many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Graft survival rates using HIV-negative donors and carefully selected HIV-positive ESRD patients are similar to those observed in HIV-uninfected kidney transplant recipients. To address the relative shortfall in donated organs it has been proposed that organs from HIV-infected deceased donors might be allocated to HIV-infected patients on the transplant waiting list. Preliminary experience in South Africa reports promising short-term outcomes in a small number of HIV-infected recipients of kidney transplants from HIV-infected donors. We sought to replicate this experience in the UK by accepting kidney offers from HIV infected deceased donors for patients with HIV-infection on the kidney transplant waiting list. Here we report the UK's first cases of kidney transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients.

  17. Electron tomography of HIV-1 infection in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinsky, Mark S; Kieffer, Collin; Olson, Gregory; Deruaz, Maud; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Tager, Andrew M; Kwon, Douglas S; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET) to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1-infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural understanding of

  18. Electron tomography of HIV-1 infection in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Ladinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1-infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural

  19. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mete Sucu; Cihan Cetin; Mehmet Ozsurmeli; Ghanim Khatib; Ceren Cetin; Cuneyt Evruke

    2016-01-01

    The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinician...

  20. Zinc finger nuclease: a new approach for excising HIV-1 proviral DNA from infected human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiying; Wang, Pengfei; Ding, Donglin; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Gongmin; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zeng, Hanxian; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2014-09-01

    A major reason that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cannot be completely cured is the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) provirus integrated into the human genome. Though existing therapies can inhibit replication of HIV-1, they cannot eradicate it. A molecular therapy gains popularity due to its specifically targeting to HIV-1 infected cells and effectively removing the HIV-1, regardless of viral genes being active or dormant. Now, we propose a new method which can excellently delete the HIV provirus from the infected human T cell genome. First, we designed zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) that target a sequence within the long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 region that is highly conserved in whole clade. Then, we screened out one pair of ZFN and named it as ZFN-U3. We discovered that ZFN-U3 can exactly target and eliminate the full-length HIV-1 proviral DNA after the infected human cell lines treated with it, and the frequency of its excision was about 30 % without cytotoxicity. These results prove that ZFN-U3 can efficiently excise integrated HIV-1 from the human genome in infected cells. This method to delete full length HIV-1 in human genome can therefore provide a novel approach to cure HIV-infected individuals in the future.

  1. HIV seroprevalence among male prison inmates in the six countries of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean states in the Caribbean (OECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, E V; Trotman, C

    2009-03-01

    To determine HIV prevalence among male prison inmates in the six OECS countries in the Caribbean. Six unlinked, anonymous point prevalence surveys of a total of 1288 male inmates were conducted during a one-year period, August 2004 - August 2005. An oral fluid sample was collected and an interviewer-administered questionnaire and consent form was completed for each survey participant. The overall HIV prevalence was 2.8% (range 2.0-4.1%). Only 39% of all inmates had previously been tested, compared to 67% of the HIV-positive inmates. Of all inmates who previously tested, 61% had their last test less than two years ago, 45% had done so while in prison and 39% had done so in a hospital. Most of those who had not previously been tested had no particular reason for not doing so (57%); 24% of them felt it was not necessary or they were not at risk. HIV prevalence among male prison inmates was three times higher than the estimated OECS population prevalence in 2003, slightly higher than the prevalence among incarcerated males in the United States of America and Canada, and lower than that in other Caribbean countries in earlier years. Health information on prison populations is important as this is a vulnerable group, with frequent movement in and out of the general population. Preventative services, voluntary counselling and testing, and appropriate care and treatment should be available to all inmates as this is an opportunity for many who may not otherwise access these services.

  2. Intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison with emphasis on soil-transmitted helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Bahiru; Zemene, Endalew; Mohammed, Abdurehman E

    2015-12-14

    Intestinal helminths infect more than two billion people worldwide. They are common in developing countries where sanitary facilities are inadequate. There is scarcity of documented data on the magnitude of intestinal helminths among inmates in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison, south-western Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving 234 inmates in Bedele prison was conducted in April 2012. Socio-demographic data was collected from each study participant using semi-structured questionnaire. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using modified McMaster technique. At least one species of intestinal helminth was identified in 111 (47.4 %) of the inmates. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite isolated, followed by the hookworms. Most of the cases of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were light infections. Untrimmed hand fingernails was significantly associated with A. lumbricoides infection (AOR 0.383, 95 % CI 0.200-0.731). Intestinal helminths are common among the inmates in Bedele prison. Health information should be given to the inmates on proper personal hygiene practices with emphasis on trimming of hand fingernails. Monitoring helminth infections in the inmate population is required.

  3. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...

  4. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW. Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4% than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002. The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%, HPV 18 (9.9%, and HPV 58 (5% in MSM, and HPV 58(11% and HPV 16 (8.9% in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001. Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001. In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  5. The Fat of the Matter: Obesity and Visceral Adiposity in Treated HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jordan E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize knowledge of the prevalence, relevant physiology, and consequences of obesity and visceral adiposity in HIV-infected adults, including highlighting gaps in current knowledge and future research directions. Similar to the general population, obesity prevalence is increasing among HIV-infected persons, and obesity and visceral adiposity are associated with numerous metabolic and inflammatory sequelae. However, HIV- and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-specific factors may contribute to fat gain and fat quality in treated HIV infection, particularly to the development of visceral adiposity, and sex differences may exist. Obesity and visceral adiposity commonly occur in HIV-infected persons and have significant implications for morbidity and mortality. Future research should aim to better elucidate the HIV- and ART-specific contributors to obesity and visceral adiposity in treated HIV infection, with the goal of developing targeted therapies for the prevention and treatment of obesity and visceral adiposity in the modern ART era.

  6. [Evaluation of needle exchange program at Pereiro de Aguiar prison (Ourense, Spain): ten years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Castro, V; Crespo-Leiro, M R; García-Marcos, L S; Pérez-Rivas, M; Alonso-Conde, A; García-Fernández, I; Lorenzo-Guisado, A; Sánchez-Fernández, J L; Seara-Selas, M; Sanjosé-Vallejo, R

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of NEPs in prison to reduce the prevalence of infections associated with intravenous drug use and to know more about acceptance of the program by inmates and staff. cross-sectional observational study at baseline, 6 and 12 months and 10 years of program development. Interviews were conducted with program users, as well as random sample surveys of officials at the various cuts, and a random sample of inmates from the centre after10 years. Activity indicators of the program were recorded continuously, and the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV at baseline and after 10 years was evaluated. For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used with the Yates correction when necessary. In ten years we have supplied a total of 15,962 syringes to 429 users, (average 20.2 users/month), and 11,327 (70.9%) were returned. The prevalence of HIV infection decreased from 21% in 1999 to 8.5% in 2009, HCV prevalence from 40% to 26.1% (p living conditions in prison. After ten years of development of the NEP, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of HIV and HCV in the prison population at the centre, and the program is accepted as beneficial by most of the inmates and staff participating in the survey.

  7. Targeting of conserved gag-epitopes in early HIV infection is associated with lower plasma viral load and slower CD4+ T cell depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Carina L.; Milush, Jeffrey M.; Buggert, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the character of the immunodominant HIV-Gag peptide (variable or conserved) targeted by CD8+ T cells in early HIV infection would influence the quality and quantity of T cell responses, and whether this would affect the rate of disease progression. Treatment-naive ...

  8. Interleukin-27 is differentially associated with HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in therapy-naive HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai He

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27, a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

  9. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific Zinc Finger Nucleases: Usability for targeted HIV gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayengera Misaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively. However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. Methods and Results First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol and (b two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN. Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN. Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of

  10. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific zinc finger nucleases: usability for targeted HIV gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayengera, Misaki

    2011-07-22

    Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases) AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively). However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX) at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i) to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN) with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii) to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV) that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a) 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif) arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol) and (b) two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN). Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN). Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs) that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively) is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of the safety and efficacy of either of these

  11. Hepatitis C virus infection in South Australian prisoners: seroprevalence, seroconversion, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emma Ruth; Bi, Peng; Ryan, Philip

    2009-03-01

    To determine entry antibody seroprevalence and seroconversion to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and associated risk factors in newly incarcerated prisoners. Males and females entering South Australian prisons completed risk factor surveys and were offered HCV-antibody testing. Participants completed additional surveys and, if HCV-negative at last test, underwent further antibody tests at 3-monthly intervals for up to 15 months. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate techniques. HCV seroprevalence among 662 prison entrants was estimated at 42%. Previous injecting history was highly prevalent at entry (64%) and both community and prison injecting independently predicted entry HCV status. Tattooing was not an important risk factor. While community exposure could not be ruled out, three seroconversions were noted in 148 initially HCV-seronegative individuals occurring in a median 121 days--4.6 per 100 person-years. Prison injecting was infrequently reported, but HCV-seropositive participants were significantly more likely to commence IDU in prison than seronegative participants (p=0.035). Entry HCV seroprevalence in South Australian prisoners is extremely high and may have contributed to a 'ceiling effect', minimizing the observable seroconversion rate. Greater frequency of injecting among those already infected with HCV represents a significant threat to other prisoners and prison staff.

  12. Anemia and growth failure among HIV-infected children in India: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shet Anita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia and poor nutrition have been previously described as independent risk factors for death among HIV-infected children. We sought to describe nutritional status, anemia burden and HIV disease correlates among infected children in India. Methods We analyzed retrospective data from 248 HIV-infected children aged 1–12 years attending three outpatient clinics in South India (2004–2006. Standard WHO definitions were used for anemia, HIV staging and growth parameters. Statistical analysis included chi square, t tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The overall prevalence of anemia (defined as hemoglobin Conclusion The high prevalence and strong interrelationship of anemia and poor nutrition among HIV-infected children in India, particularly those living in rural areas underscores the need for incorporating targeted nutritional interventions during national scale up of care, support and treatment among HIV-infected children.

  13. Lack of Evidence for Molecular Mimicry in HIV-Infected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Burbelo

    Full Text Available Previous studies in HIV patients have reported autoantibodies to several human proteins, including erythropoietin (EPO, interferon-α (IFN-α, interleukin-2 (IL-2, and HLA-DR, as potential mediators of anemia or immunosuppression. The etiology of these autoantibodies has been attributed to molecular mimicry between HIV epitopes and self-proteins. Here, the Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS was used to investigate the presence of such autoantibodies in HIV-infected adults. High levels of antibodies to HIV proteins such as capsid (p24, matrix (p17, envelope (gp41, and reverse transcriptase (RT were detected using LIPS in both untreated and anti-retroviral-treated HIV-infected individuals but not in uninfected controls. LIPS readily detected anti-EPO autoantibodies in serum samples from subjects with presumptive pure red cell aplasia but not in any of the samples from HIV-infected or uninfected individuals. Similarly, subjects with HIV lacked autoantibodies to IFN-α, IL-2, HLA-DR and the immunoglobulin lambda light chain; all purported targets of molecular mimicry. While molecular mimicry between pathogen proteins and self-proteins is a commonly proposed mechanism for autoantibody production, the findings presented here indicate such a process is not common in HIV disease.

  14. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  15. Stochastic modeling for dynamics of HIV-1 infection using cellular automata: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precharattana, Monamorn

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the description of immune response by discrete models has emerged to play an important role to study the problems in the area of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, leading to AIDS. As infection of target immune cells by HIV-1 mainly takes place in the lymphoid tissue, cellular automata (CA) models thus represent a significant step in understanding when the infected population is dispersed. Motivated by these, the studies of the dynamics of HIV-1 infection using CA in memory have been presented to recognize how CA have been developed for HIV-1 dynamics, which issues have been studied already and which issues still are objectives in future studies.

  16. Defective proviruses rapidly accumulate during acute HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Katherine M.; Murray, Alexandra J.; Pollack, Ross A.; Soliman, Mary G.; Laskey, Sarah B.; Capoferri, Adam A.; Lai, Jun; Strain, Matthew C.; Lada, Steven M.; Hoh, Rebecca; Ho, Ya-Chi; Richman, Douglas D.; Deeks, Steven G.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication to clinically undetectable levels, HIV-1 persists in CD4+ T cells in a latent form not targeted by the immune system or ART1–5. This latent reservoir is a major barrier to cure. Many individuals initiate ART during chronic infection, and in this setting, most proviruses are defective6. However, the dynamics of the accumulation and persistence of defective proviruses during acute HIV-1 infection are largely unknown. Here we show that defective proviruses accumulate rapidly within the first few weeks of infection to make up over 93% of all proviruses, regardless of how early ART is initiated. Using an unbiased method to amplify near full-length proviral genomes from HIV-1 infected adults treated at different stages of infection, we demonstrate that early ART initiation limits the size of the reservoir but does not profoundly impact the proviral landscape. This analysis allows us to revise our understanding of the composition of proviral populations and estimate the true reservoir size in individuals treated early vs. late in infection. Additionally, we demonstrate that common assays for measuring the reservoir do not correlate with reservoir size. These findings reveal hurdles that must be overcome to successfully analyze future HIV-1 cure strategies. PMID:27500724

  17. Adherence to feeding guidelines among HIV-infected and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For infants older than six months, complementary feeding was more common among HIV-uninfected (100%) than HIV-infected mothers (41.7%; P<0.001). Among infants of all ages, none of the HIV-uninfected and 45% of HIV-infected mothers were replacement feeding (p<0.001). More than a half (59.8%) of the mothers ...

  18. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Sucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535

  19. Lung cancer in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is two to four times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Because pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies because this population is frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV Controllers Exhibit Enhanced Frequencies of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Tetramer+ Gag-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Chronic Clade C HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Faatima; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Porichis, Filippos; Mewalal, Nikoshia; Pretorius, Karyn; Ismail, Nasreen; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Carrington, Mary; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ndhlovu, Zaza M

    2017-04-01

    Immune control of viral infections is heavily dependent on helper CD4 + T cell function. However, the understanding of the contribution of HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses to immune protection against HIV-1, particularly in clade C infection, remains incomplete. Recently, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers have emerged as a powerful tool for interrogating antigen-specific CD4 + T cells without relying on effector functions. Here, we defined the MHC class II alleles for immunodominant Gag CD4 + T cell epitopes in clade C virus infection, constructed MHC class II tetramers, and then used these to define the magnitude, function, and relation to the viral load of HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses in a cohort of untreated HIV clade C-infected persons. We observed significantly higher frequencies of MHC class II tetramer-positive CD4 + T cells in HIV controllers than progressors ( P = 0.0001), and these expanded Gag-specific CD4 + T cells in HIV controllers showed higher levels of expression of the cytolytic proteins granzymes A and B. Importantly, targeting of the immunodominant Gag41 peptide in the context of HLA class II DRB1*1101 was associated with HIV control ( r = -0.5, P = 0.02). These data identify an association between HIV-specific CD4 + T cell targeting of immunodominant Gag epitopes and immune control, particularly the contribution of a single class II MHC-peptide complex to the immune response against HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, these results highlight the advantage of the use of class II tetramers in evaluating HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses in natural infections. IMPORTANCE Increasing evidence suggests that virus-specific CD4 + T cells contribute to the immune-mediated control of clade B HIV-1 infection, yet there remains a relative paucity of data regarding the role of HIV-specific CD4 + T cells in shaping adaptive immune responses in individuals infected with clade C, which is responsible for the majority of HIV

  1. [HIV infection in the Stavropol' region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonenko, N G; Isaev, V P; Pelikh, N L

    2001-01-01

    The data on the dynamics of HIV infection in the Stavropol Territory beginning with 1987 are given. The situation became aggravated after 1996, and its sharp deterioration occurred in 2000 when 138 cases of HIV infection were detected and the area of this infection increased. In most cases patients became infected beyond the borders of the territory. About a half of the new cases of HIV infection registered in 2000 were detected in Ingushetia and Chechnya. The leading factor in the spread of HIV infection was the use of drugs by injection. The main trends of the prophylactic work are presented.

  2. mTOR as a multifunctional therapeutic target in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Fagone, Paolo; Meroni, PierLuigi

    2011-01-01

    Patients undergoing long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment are probably at a higher risk of various HIV-related complications. Hyperactivation of The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been found to contribute to dysregulated apoptosis and autophagy which determine CD4(+)-T......-cell loss, impaired function of innate immunity and development of neurocognitive disorders. Dysregulated mTOR activation has also been shown to play a key part in the development of nephropathy and in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated malignancies. These studies strongly support a multifunctional key role...... for mTOR in the pathogenesis of HIV-related disorders and suggest that specific mTOR inhibitors could represent a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of these pathologies....

  3. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1 IIIB infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent

  4. HIV infection and hepatitis C virus genotype 1a are associated with phylogenetic clustering among people with recently acquired hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sofia R; Jacka, Brendan; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Matthews, Gail V; Lamoury, Francois M J; Hellard, Margaret E; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Teutsch, Suzy; White, Bethany; Maher, Lisa; Dore, Gregory J; Lloyd, Andrew R; Grebely, Jason; Applegate, Tanya L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with phylogenetic clustering among people with recently acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Participants with available sample at time of HCV detection were selected from three studies; the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C, the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study - Prison and Community. HCV RNA was extracted and Core to E2 region of HCV sequenced. Clusters were identified from maximum likelihood trees with 1000 bootstrap replicates using 90% bootstrap and 5% genetic distance threshold. Among 225 participants with available Core-E2 sequence (ATAHC, n=113; HITS-p, n=90; and HITS-c, n=22), HCV genotype prevalence was: G1a: 38% (n=86), G1b: 5% (n=12), G2a: 1% (n=2), G2b: 5% (n=11), G3a: 48% (n=109), G6a: 1% (n=2) and G6l 1% (n=3). Of participants included in phylogenetic trees, 22% of participants were in a pair/cluster (G1a-35%, 30/85, mean maximum genetic distance=0.031; G3a-11%, 12/106, mean maximum genetic distance=0.021; other genotypes-21%, 6/28, mean maximum genetic distance=0.023). Among HCV/HIV co-infected participants, 50% (18/36) were in a pair/cluster, compared to 16% (30/183) with HCV mono-infection (P=infection [vs. HCV mono-infection; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.24; 95%CI 1.91, 9.39], and HCV G1a infection (vs. other HCV genotypes; AOR 3.33, 95%CI 0.14, 0.61).HCV treatment and prevention strategies, including enhanced antiviral therapy, should be optimised. The impact of targeting of HCV treatment as prevention to populations with higher phylogenetic clustering, such as those with HIV co-infection, could be explored through mathematical modelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sporotrichosis: an emerging neglected opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; da Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez

    2014-08-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, affecting a large at-risk population, which includes HIV-infected individuals. We assessed patients co-infected by Sporothrix spp. and HIV over time in the context of an unabated sporotrichosis epidemic. A retrospective cohort retrieved information from a National reference institute for infectious diseases regarding 48 patients with sporotrichosis-HIV co-infection (group 1) as well as 3,570 patients with sporotrichosis (group 2), from 1987 through March 2013. Most patients from group 1 were male (68.8%), whereas women were predominant in group 2 (69.1%; psporotrichosis over time, whereas hospitalization was very unlikely in group 2, among whom approximately 1% were hospitalized over time. Dissemination of sporotrichosis was the main cause of hospitalization in both groups, although it was more common among hospitalized patients from group 1 (19/21 [90.5%] vs. 16/37 [43.2%]; psporotrichosis (3/48 vs. 5/3,570). The diagnosis of sporotrichosis elicited HIV testing and subsequent diagnosis in 19/48 patients, whereas 23/48 patients were simultaneously diagnosed with the two infections. HIV infection aggravates sporotrichosis, with a higher incidence of severe disseminated cases and a higher number of hospitalizations and deaths. Underserved populations, among whom sporotrichosis has been propagated, have been affected by different transmissible (e.g., HIV) and non-transmissible diseases. These populations should be targeted by community development programs and entitled to integrated management and care of their superimposed burdens.

  6. HIV-1 envelope sequence-based diversity measures for identifying recent infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Kafando

    Full Text Available Identifying recent HIV-1 infections is crucial for monitoring HIV-1 incidence and optimizing public health prevention efforts. To identify recent HIV-1 infections, we evaluated and compared the performance of 4 sequence-based diversity measures including percent diversity, percent complexity, Shannon entropy and number of haplotypes targeting 13 genetic segments within the env gene of HIV-1. A total of 597 diagnostic samples obtained in 2013 and 2015 from recently and chronically HIV-1 infected individuals were selected. From the selected samples, 249 (134 from recent versus 115 from chronic infections env coding regions, including V1-C5 of gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain of HIV-1, were successfully amplified and sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The ability of the four sequence-based diversity measures to correctly identify recent HIV infections was evaluated using the frequency distribution curves, median and interquartile range and area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC. Comparing the median and interquartile range and evaluating the frequency distribution curves associated with the 4 sequence-based diversity measures, we observed that the percent diversity, number of haplotypes and Shannon entropy demonstrated significant potential to discriminate recent from chronic infections (p<0.0001. Using the AUC of ROC analysis, only the Shannon entropy measure within three HIV-1 env segments could accurately identify recent infections at a satisfactory level. The env segments were gp120 C2_1 (AUC = 0.806, gp120 C2_3 (AUC = 0.805 and gp120 V3 (AUC = 0.812. Our results clearly indicate that the Shannon entropy measure represents a useful tool for predicting HIV-1 infection recency.

  7. Targeted HIV-1 Latency Reversal Using CRISPR/Cas9-Derived Transcriptional Activator Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K Bialek

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 technology is currently considered the most advanced tool for targeted genome engineering. Its sequence-dependent specificity has been explored for locus-directed transcriptional modulation. Such modulation, in particular transcriptional activation, has been proposed as key approach to overcome silencing of dormant HIV provirus in latently infected cellular reservoirs. Currently available agents for provirus activation, so-called latency reversing agents (LRAs, act indirectly through cellular pathways to induce viral transcription. However, their clinical performance remains suboptimal, possibly because reservoirs have diverse cellular identities and/or proviral DNA is intractable to the induced pathways. We have explored two CRISPR/Cas9-derived activator systems as targeted approaches to induce dormant HIV-1 proviral DNA. These systems recruit multiple transcriptional activation domains to the HIV 5' long terminal repeat (LTR, for which we have identified an optimal target region within the LTR U3 sequence. Using this target region, we demonstrate transcriptional activation of proviral genomes via the synergistic activation mediator complex in various in culture model systems for HIV latency. Observed levels of induction are comparable or indeed higher than treatment with established LRAs. Importantly, activation is complete, leading to production of infective viral particles. Our data demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-derived technologies can be applied to counteract HIV latency and may therefore represent promising novel approaches in the quest for HIV elimination.

  8. Cancer screening in patients infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Keith; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; Crothers, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy

    2011-09-01

    Non-AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening.

  9. Prevalence and associated risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection in a Spanish prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Goicoechea-Saiz, M E; Sternberg, F; Portilla-Sogorb, J

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTI) in a Spanish prison, analyze the main sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with this condition and estimate the percentage of individuals with LTI who have received chemoprophylactic treatment. Cross-sectional study including inmates hosted in the Madrid VI Prison on 16/07/2016. Exclusion criteria: history of tuberculosis; non-updated tuberculin test according to the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program in Prisons protocol. Information of the variables was collected from SANIT and SIP programs, and by checking the clinical records of inmates. Description of the participant population and comparison between the frequency of distribution of the independent variables in LTI present and absent groups were performed, the last calculating the p value with Ji2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bivariate and multivariate analysis have been carried out with a logistic regression model. 936 individuals have been included. The prevalence of LTI in prison is 54.6%. This condition has been linked to the sociodemographic variables age, sex and nationality of origin, being age the one that has shown the strongest association. Among the other factors analyzed, only HCV infection behaves as a predictor of LTI. 30.3% of the individuals with LTI have completed or are receiving chemoprophylactic treatment in the moment of the study. LTI prevalence is high in the Spanish current prison population. The results of the study emphasize the relevance of the LTI screening in the prison setting, specially among high risk groups, and point out the need of a greater effort in the indication and completion of the chemoprophylactic treatment.

  10. Prevalence and associated risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection in a Spanish prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME López de Goicoechea-Saiz

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To determine the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTI in a Spanish prison, analyze the main sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with this condition and estimate the percentage of individuals with LTI who have received chemoprophylactic treatment. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study including inmates hosted in the Madrid VI Prison on 16/07/2016. Exclusion criteria: history of tuberculosis; non-updated tuberculin test according to the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Program in Prisons protocol. Information of the variables was collected from SANIT and SIP programs, and by checking the clinical records of inmates. Description of the participant population and comparison between the frequency of distribution of the independent variables in LTI present and absent groups were performed, the last calculating the p value with Ji2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bivariate and multivariate analysis have been carried out with a logistic regression model. Results: 936 individuals have been included. The prevalence of LTI in prison is 54.6%. This condition has been linked to the sociodemographic variables age, sex and nationality of origin, being age the one that has shown the strongest association. Among the other factors analyzed, only HCV infection behaves as a predictor of LTI. 30.3% of the individuals with LTI have completed or are receiving chemoprophylactic treatment in the moment of the study. Discussion: LTI prevalence is high in the Spanish current prison population. The results of the study emphasize the relevance of the LTI screening in the prison setting, specially among high risk groups, and point out the need of a greater effort in the indication and completion of the chemoprophylactic treatment.

  11. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  12. Full Viral Suppression, Low-Level Viremia, and Quantifiable Plasma HIV-RNA at the End of Pregnancy in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Pirillo, Maria F; Tamburrini, Enrica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pinnetti, Carmela; Degli Antoni, Anna; Galluzzo, Clementina M; Stentarelli, Chiara; Amici, Roberta; Floridia, Marco

    2015-07-01

    There is limited information on full viral suppression and low-level HIV-RNA viremia in HIV-infected women at the end of pregnancy. We investigated HIV-RNA levels close to delivery in women on antiretroviral treatment in order to define rates of complete suppression, low-level viremia, and quantifiable HIV-RNA, exploring as potential determinants some clinical and viroimmunological variables. Plasma samples from a national study in Italy, collected between 2003 and 2012, were used. According to plasma HIV-RNA levels, three groups were defined: full suppression (target not detected), low-level viremia (target detected but HIV-RNA (≥37 copies/ml). Multivariable logistic regression was used to define determinants of full viral suppression and of quantifiable HIV-RNA. Among 107 women evaluated at a median gestational age of 35 weeks, 90 (84.1%) had HIV-RNA HIV-RNA was 109 copies/ml (IQR 46-251), with only one case showing resistance (mutation M184V; rate: 9.1%). In multivariable analyses, women with higher baseline HIV-RNA levels and with hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection were significantly more likely to have quantifiable HIV-RNA in late pregnancy. Full viral suppression was significantly more likely with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens and significantly less likely with higher HIV-RNA in early pregnancy. No cases of HIV transmission occurred. In conclusion, HIV-infected pregnant women showed a high rate of viral suppression and a low resistance rate before delivery. In most cases no target HIV-RNA was detected in plasma, suggesting a low risk of subsequent virological rebound and development of resistance. Women with high levels of HIV-RNA in early pregnancy and those who have concomitant HCV infection should be considered at higher risk of having quantifiable HIV-RNA at the end of pregnancy.

  13. Rational design of micro-RNA-like bifunctional siRNAs targeting HIV and the HIV coreceptor CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Ali; Saetrom, Pål; Zhang, Jane; Alluin, Jessica; Li, Haitang; Snøve, Ola; Aagaard, Lars; Rossi, John J

    2010-04-01

    Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are distinguished by their modes of action. SiRNAs serve as guides for sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNAs and the targets can be in coding or noncoding regions of the target transcripts. MiRNAs inhibit translation via partially complementary base-pairing to 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and are generally ineffective when targeting coding regions of a transcript. In this study, we deliberately designed siRNAs that simultaneously direct cleavage and translational suppression of HIV RNAs, or cleavage of the mRNA encoding the HIV coreceptor CCR5 and suppression of translation of HIV. These bifunctional siRNAs trigger inhibition of HIV infection and replication in cell culture. The design principles have wide applications throughout the genome, as about 90% of genes harbor sites that make the design of bifunctional siRNAs possible.

  14. ¿Qué opinan los médicos penitenciarios sobre el control de la infección por el VIH en las prisiones españolas?: Resultados del Estudio del Grupo de Trabajo en Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (GEISESP What do prison doctors think about HIV infection control in Spanish prisons?: Results of the study of the Spanish Society of Prison Health Working Group on Infectious Diseases (GEISESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saiz De la Hoya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio realizado por el Grupo de Enfermedades Infecciosas de la Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (GEISESP sobre la opinión de los facultativos penitenciarios en cuanto a la conveniencia o no de realizar el control de la infección por el VIH en el medio carcelario y sobre las dificultades, esfuerzos, necesidades y responsabilidades que esta actividad puede suponer. Este estudio se efectuó en el año 2007 utilizando una encuesta diseñada ad hoc remitida a todos los facultativos de 73 centros penitenciarios españoles. Se recibieron 116 cuestionarios válidos, estimándose que los datos obtenidos podían aplicarse al total de la población con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un margen de error del 8%. La mitad de los médicos refirieron prescribir tratamientos antirretrovirales, aunque sólo el 10% decían prescribir combinaciones de rescate. Es de destacar también que sólo la mitad de los médicos se consideran formados adecuadamente para atender pacientes infectados por el VIH, aunque la mayoría afirma haber hecho formación específica de postgrado en esta materia. En general, los médicos consideran que la calidad de la asistencia recibida por los infectados por el VIH en prisión es buena.We present the results of the study carried out by The Spanish Society of Penitentiary Health Working Group on Infectious Diseases (GEISESP on the opinion of prison doctors concerning the suitability of undertaking or not undertaking controls of HIV infection in prisons and about the difficulties, efforts, needs and responsibilities that this activity may involve. This study was carried out in 2007 using an ad hoc survey designed and sent to doctors at 73 prisons in Spain. 116 valid questionnaires were received. It was considered that the data received could be applied to the whole population with a level of trust of 95% and an 8% margin of error. Half the doctors referred to prescribing antiretroviral

  15. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, A.; Grootheest, G.; Smit, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can

  16. National HIV Testing Day at CDC-funded HIV counseling, testing, and referral sites--United States, 1994-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-23

    CDC-funded human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling, testing, and referral sites are an integral part of national HIV prevention efforts (1). Voluntary counseling, testing, and referral opportunities are offered to persons at risk for HIV infection at approximately 11,000 sites, including dedicated HIV counseling and testing sites, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, drug-treatment centers, hospitals, and prisons. Services also are offered to women in family planning and prenatal/obstetric clinics to increase HIV prevention efforts among women and decrease the risk for perinatal HIV transmission. To increase use of HIV counseling, testing, and referral services by those at risk for HIV infection, in 1995, the National Association of People with AIDS designated June 27 each year as National HIV Testing Day. This report compares use of CDC-funded counseling, testing, and referral services the week before and the week of June 27 from 1994 through 1998 and documents the importance of a national public health campaign designed to increase knowledge of HIV serostatus.

  17. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  18. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathekge, Mike; Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de; Maes, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  19. T-cell responses targeting HIV Nef uniquely correlate with infected cell frequencies after long-term antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison S Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART, these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression. Using a primary cell model of latency, we observed that a Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell clone exhibited low-level recognition of infected cells prior to reactivation and robust recognition shortly thereafter. A Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell clone failed to recognized infected cells under these conditions, corresponding with a lack of detectable Gag expression. We measured HIV-specific T-cell responses in 96 individuals who had been suppressed on ART for a median of 7 years, and observed a significant, direct correlation between cell-associated HIV DNA levels and magnitudes of IFN-γ-producing Nef/Tat/Rev-specific T-cell responses. This correlation was confirmed in an independent cohort (n = 18. Correlations were not detected between measures of HIV persistence and T-cell responses to other HIV antigens. The correlation with Nef/Tat/Rev-specific T-cells was attributable to Nef-specific responses, the breadth of which also correlated with HIV DNA levels. These results suggest that ongoing Nef expression in ART-treated individuals drives preferential maintenance and/or expansion of T-cells reactive to this protein, implying sensing of infected cells by the immune system. The direct correlation, however, suggests that recognition does not result in efficient elimination of infected cells. These results raise the possibility that

  20. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  1. Tuberculosis activa en una cohorte de reclusos infectados por VIH en una cárcel de la Ciudad de México: características clínicas y epidemiológicas Active tuberculosis in a cohort of HIV-infected inmates in a prison in Mexico City: clinical and epidemiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hernández-León

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los casos con tuberculosis (TB activa en población de cárceles con VIH, que se ve especialmente afectada por ambas epidemias. La infección por VIH incrementa significativamente la probabilidad del desarrollo de TB. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en sujetos infectados por VIH e internados en un reclusorio de la Ciudad de México. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 172 pacientes con VIH, 28 con TB activa (16.3% - 21 (12.2% con afección pulmonar - con una tasa de incidencia de 7.7 por 100 sujetos/año para TB activa y de 4.7 por 100 sujetos/ año para TB pulmonar. No se encontró drogorresistencia. Dieciocho aislados fueron tipificados por RFLP, con una tasa de transmisión calculada de 11%. CONCLUSIÓN: Se encontró una prevalencia de TB en esta población mil veces superior a la observada en la población general y datos sugerentes de transmisión al interior de la cárcel.OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of prison inmates with active tuberculosis in HIV-positive prison populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in HIV-infected subjects in a prison in Mexico City, with the aim of determining clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases with active TB. RESULTS: We detected 172 HIV infected inmates and TB in 28 of them (16.3% - 21 (12.2 with pulmonary TB - with an incidence rate of 7.7/100 persons/year for active TB and 4.7/100 persons/year for pulmonary TB. No drug resistance was found. Two clusters (4 and 2 subjects were observed after RFLP-typing of 18 isolates, with a transmission rate of 11% by molecular and clinical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of active TB was found to be a thousand times greater than in the general population. Evidence of transmission inside the prison was also found

  2. Regulatory T Cells As Potential Targets for HIV Cure Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Adam J.; Sivanandham, Ranjit; Pandrea, Ivona; Chougnet, Claire A.; Apetrei, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) are a key component of the immune system, which maintain a delicate balance between overactive responses and immunosuppression. As such, Treg deficiencies are linked to autoimmune disorders and alter the immune control of pathogens. In HIV infection, Tregs play major roles, both beneficial and detrimental. They regulate the immune system such that inflammation and spread of virus through activated T cells is suppressed. However, suppression of immune activation also limits viral clearance and promotes reservoir formation. Tregs can be directly targeted by HIV, thereby harboring a fraction of the viral reservoir. The vital role of Tregs in the pathogenesis and control of HIV makes them a subject of interest for manipulation in the search of an HIV cure. Here, we discuss the origin and generation, homeostasis, and functions of Tregs, particularly their roles and effects in HIV infection. We also present various Treg manipulation strategies, including Treg depletion techniques and interventions that alter Treg function, which may be used in different cure strategies, to simultaneously boost HIV-specific immune responses and induce reactivation of the latent virus.

  3. HIV, Vascular and Aging Injuries in the Brain of Clinically Stable HIV-Infected Adults: A 1H MRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A.; Moffat, Kirsten; Moore, Danielle M.; Lane, Tammy A.; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J.; Rae, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature aging have been hypothesized as new risk factors for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in adults with virally-suppressed HIV infection. Moreover, their significance and relation to more classical HAND biomarkers remain unclear. Methods 92 HIV− infected (HIV+) adults stable on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 30 age-comparable HIV-negative (HIV−) subjects underwent 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of the frontal white matter (targeting HIV, normal aging or CVD-related neurochemical injury), caudate nucleus (targeting HIV neurochemical injury), and posterior cingulate cortex (targeting normal/pathological aging, CVD-related neurochemical changes). All also underwent standard neuropsychological (NP) testing. CVD risk scores were calculated. HIV disease biomarkers were collected and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuroinflammation biomarkers were obtained in 38 HIV+ individuals. Results Relative to HIV− individuals, HIV+ individuals presented mild MRS alterations: in the frontal white matter: lower N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA) (pHIV*age interaction was associated with lower frontal white matter NAA. CVD risk factors were associated with lower posterior cingulate cortex and caudate NAA in both groups. Past acute CVD events in the HIV+ group were associated with increased mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex. HIV duration was associated with lower caudate NAA; greater CNS cART penetration was associated with lower mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and the degree of immune recovery on cART was associated with higher NAA in the frontal white matter. CSF neopterin was associated with higher mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and frontal white matter. Conclusions In chronically HIV+ adults with long-term viral suppression, current CVD risk, past CVD and age are independent factors for neuronal injury and inflammation. This suggests a tripartite model of HIV, CVD and age likely driven by

  4. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  5. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J.; Belshan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  6. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and not in tumor derived cell lines. The procedure involves culture of PBMCs from an infected patient with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC from seronegative donors, which provide susceptible target cells for HIV replication. HIV can be isolated from the bulk population of PBMCs or after cloning of the cells to obtain viral biological clones. Viral production is determined with p24 antigen (Ag) detection assays or with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity assay. Once isolated, HIV-1 can be propagated by infecting PHA-stimulated PBMCs from healthy donors. Aliquots from culture with a high production of virus are stored for later use.

  7. DRUG PROVISION OF HIV INFECTED CRIMINALS IN INSTITUTIONS OF CRIMINAL-EXECUTIVE SYSTEM OF KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kalinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV leads not only to loss of health in persons held in penitentiary institutions, but also to an increase in material costs for drug coverage of the infected, causing the deficit in the budget of the Russian Federation.The aim of the study is the investigation of the problems in drug supply of HIV-infected people and to search for their solutions.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on the basis of statistic data, medical statements and accounting to reports of the penitentiary medical organization using methods of analysis, documentary observation, grouping and comparison of data.Results and discussion. It has been established that in institutions of the penal system the number of HIV-infected criminals continues to grow rapidly. It has been determined that currently in the criminal-executive system (CES of Kuban’ only 5 classes of antiretroviral drugs out of the 10 classes represented on the Russian pharmacy market are used. Hereby the greatest number of drugs used in prison medical organization for conducting antiretroviral therapy (ARVT, are classified as “Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors” and “Protease Inhibitors”, and other classes of art drugs are represented by only one international nonproprietary name (raltegravir, enfuvirtide, etravirine. Drug treatment of socially significant infectious diseases is supplied centrally and completely satisfies regional needs. The structure of suppliers has been identified and determined. In 2016 the main suppliers were Joint-stock companies (JSC “National Immunobiological Company” and “R-PHARM”. An acute shortage of drugs for opportunistic infections due to insufficient funding has also been determined. The necessity for urgent replacement of material-technical base in prison pharmacies for compliance with the rules of storage of medicines which can ensure their safety was identified. The imperfection of

  8. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).......To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  9. Role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors in HIV-1-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendel, Irene; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Sampey, Gavin C; Van Duyne, Rachel; Calvert, Valerie; Petricoin, Emanuel; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-06-01

    Many cellular cofactors have been documented to be critical for various stages of viral replication. Using high-throughput proteomic assays, we have previously identified Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) as a host protein that was uniquely upregulated in the plasma membrane of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected T cells. Here, we have further characterized the BTK expression in HIV-1 infection and show that this cellular factor is specifically expressed in infected myeloid cells. Significant upregulation of the phosphorylated form of BTK was observed in infected cells. Using size exclusion chromatography, we found BTK to be virtually absent in the uninfected U937 cells; however, new BTK protein complexes were identified and distributed in both high molecular weight (∼600 kDa) and a small molecular weight complex (∼60-120 kDa) in the infected U1 cells. BTK levels were highest in cells either chronically expressing virus or induced/infected myeloid cells and that BTK translocated to the membrane following induction of the infected cells. BTK knockdown in HIV-1-infected cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in selective death of infected, but not uninfected, cells. Using BTK-specific antibody and small-molecule inhibitors including LFM-A13 and a FDA-approved compound, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), we have found that HIV-1-infected cells are sensitive to apoptotic cell death and result in a decrease in virus production. Overall, our data suggests that HIV-1-infected cells are sensitive to treatments targeting BTK expressed in infected cells.

  10. Depressive scores in newly diagnosed HIV-infected and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prevalence rates of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal are high, with a significant amount of those infected being women of reproductive age. A diagnosis of HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk for the development of depression. Antenatal depression is a serious health concern, having the ...

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  12. Six Highly Conserved Targets of RNAi Revealed in HIV-1-Infected Patients from Russia Are Also Present in Many HIV-1 Strains Worldwide

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    Olga V. Kretova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RNAi has been suggested for use in gene therapy of HIV/AIDS, but the main problem is that HIV-1 is highly variable and could escape attack from the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs due to even single nucleotide substitutions in the potential targets. To exhaustively check the variability in selected RNA targets of HIV-1, we used ultra-deep sequencing of six regions of HIV-1 from the plasma of two independent cohorts of patients from Russia. Six RNAi targets were found that are invariable in 82%–97% of viruses in both cohorts and are located inside the domains specifying reverse transcriptase (RT, integrase, vpu, gp120, and p17. The analysis of mutation frequencies and their characteristics inside the targets suggests a likely role for APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, A3G in G-to-A mutations and a predominant effect of RT biases in the detected variability of the virus. The lowest frequency of mutations was detected in the central part of all six targets. We also discovered that the identical RNAi targets are present in many HIV-1 strains from many countries and from all continents. The data are important for both the understanding of the patterns of HIV-1 mutability and properties of RT and for the development of gene therapy approaches using RNAi for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Keywords: HIV-1, RNAi targets, gene therapy, ultra-deep sequencing, conserved HIV-1 sequences

  13. Antibody Responses with Fc-Mediated Functions after Vaccination of HIV-Infected Subjects with Trivalent Influenza Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anne B; Lay, William N; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    to immunize this at-risk group. IMPORTANCE: Infection with HIV is associated with increasing disease severity following influenza infections, and annual influenza vaccinations are recommended for this target group. However, HIV-infected individuals respond relatively poorly to vaccination compared to healthy......This study seeks to assess the ability of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) to induce nonneutralizing antibodies (Abs) with Fc-mediated functions in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects. Functional influenza-specific Ab responses were studied in 30 HIV-negative and 27 HIV......-positive subjects immunized against seasonal influenza. All 57 subjects received the 2015 TIV. Fc-mediated antihemagglutinin (anti-HA) Ab activity was measured in plasma before and 4 weeks after vaccination using Fc-receptor-binding assays, NK cell activation assays, and phagocytosis assays. At baseline, the HIV...

  14. Hepatitis B virus and HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Malamba, Samuel S; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Remera, Eric; Riedel, David J; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-09-11

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects people worldwide but the local burden especially in pregnant women and their new born babies is unknown. In Rwanda HIV-infected individuals who are also infected with HBV are supposed to be initiated on ART immediately. HBV is easily transmitted from mother to child during delivery. We sought to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic (ANC) in Rwanda and to determine factors associated with HBV and HIV co-infection. This study used a cross-sectional survey, targeting pregnant women in sentinel sites. Pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HIV infection. A series of tests were done to ensure high sensitivity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of HBV-HIV co-infection among those collected during ANC sentinel surveillance, these included: age, marital status, education level, occupation, residence, pregnancy and syphilis infection. The prevalence of HBsAg among 13,121 pregnant women was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.4-4.0%) and was similar among different socio-demographic characteristics that were assessed. The proportion of HIV-infection among HBsAg-positive pregnant women was 4.1% [95% CI: 2.5-6.3%]. The prevalence of HBV-HIV co-infection was higher among women aged 15-24 years compared to those women aged 25-49 years [aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.8-27.0)]. Women residing in urban areas seemed having HBV-HIV co-infection compared with women residing in rural areas [aOR = 4.3 (95% CI: 1.2-16.4)]. Women with more than two pregnancies were potentially having the co-infection compared to those with two or less (aOR = 6.9 (95% CI: 1.7-27.8). Women with RPR-positive test were seemed associated with HBV-HIV co-infection (aOR = 24.9 (95% CI: 5.0-122.9). Chronic HBV infection is a public health problem among pregnant women in Rwanda. Understanding that HBV-HIV co-infection may be more prominent in younger women from urban

  15. Sialoadhesin expressed on IFN-induced monocytes binds HIV-1 and enhances infectivity.

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    Hans Rempel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14(+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1, a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases.We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14(+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection.Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14(+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells.

  16. Quantitative comparison of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 cell-to-cell infection with new replication dependent vectors.

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    Dmitriy Mazurov

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an efficient method to quantify cell-to-cell infection with single-cycle, replication dependent reporter vectors. This system was used to examine the mechanisms of infection with HTLV-1 and HIV-1 vectors in lymphocyte cell lines. Effector cells transfected with reporter vector, packaging vector, and Env expression plasmid produced virus-like particles that transduced reporter gene activity into cocultured target cells with zero background. Reporter gene expression was detected exclusively in target cells and required an Env-expression plasmid and a viral packaging vector, which provided essential structural and enzymatic proteins for virus replication. Cell-cell fusion did not contribute to infection, as reporter protein was rarely detected in syncytia. Coculture of transfected Jurkat T cells and target Raji/CD4 B cells enhanced HIV-1 infection two fold and HTLV-1 infection ten thousand fold in comparison with cell-free infection of Raji/CD4 cells. Agents that interfere with actin and tubulin polymerization strongly inhibited HTLV-1 and modestly decreased HIV-1 cell-to-cell infection, an indication that cytoskeletal remodeling was more important for HTLV-1 transmission. Time course studies showed that HTLV-1 transmission occurred very rapidly after cell mixing, whereas slower kinetics of HIV-1 coculture infection implies a different mechanism of infectious transmission. HTLV-1 Tax was demonstrated to play an important role in altering cell-cell interactions that enhance virus infection and replication. Interestingly, superantigen-induced synapses between Jurkat cells and Raji/CD4 cells did not enhance infection for either HTLV-1 or HIV-1. In general, the dependence on cell-to-cell infection was determined by the virus, the effector and target cell types, and by the nature of the cell-cell interaction.

  17. HIV testing and burden of HIV infection in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengayi, Mazvita; Babb, Chantal; Egger, Matthias; Urban, Margaret I

    2015-03-18

    HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. We did a cross-sectional analysis to identify predictors of prior HIV testing and to quantify the burden of HIV in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Johannesburg Cancer Case-control Study (JCCCS) recruits newly-diagnosed black cancer patients attending public referral hospitals for oncology and radiation therapy in Johannesburg . All adult cancer patients enrolled into the JCCCS from November 2004 to December 2009 and interviewed on previous HIV testing were included in the analysis. Patients were independently tested for HIV-1 using a single ELISA test . The prevalence of prior HIV testing, of HIV infection and of undiagnosed HIV infection was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with prior HIV testing. A total of 5436 cancer patients were tested for HIV of whom 1833[33.7% (95% CI=32.5-35.0)] were HIV-positive. Three-quarters of patients (4092 patients) had ever been tested for HIV. The total prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was 11.5% (10.7-12.4) with 34% (32.0-36.3) of the 1833 patients who tested HIV-positive unaware of their infection. Men >49 years [OR 0.49(0.39-0.63)] and those residing in rural areas [OR 0.61(0.39-0.97)] were less likely to have been previously tested for HIV. Men with at least a secondary education [OR 1.79(1.11-2.90)] and those interviewed in recent years [OR 4.13(2.62 - 6.52)] were likely to have prior testing. Women >49 years [OR 0.33(0.27-0.41)] were less likely to have been previously tested for HIV. In women, having children associated with previous HIV testing. In a study of newly diagnosed black cancer patients in Johannesburg, over a third of HIV-positive patients were unaware of their HIV status. In South Africa black cancer patients should be targeted for opt-out HIV testing.

  18. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    prevalent among males (12.6% than females (4.4%; P Conclusions HIV positive individuals are more susceptible to co-infections with Cryptosporidium spp. than HIV negative people, particularly younger males with poor personal hygiene habits, indicating a need for targeted hygiene promotion, IPI surveillance and treatment.

  19. IL-21 augments NK effector functions in chronically HIV-infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbo, Natasa; de Armas, Lesley; Liu, Huanliang; Kolber, Michael A.; Lichtenheld, Mathias; Pahwa, Savita

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study addresses the interleukin (IL)-21 effects on resting peripheral blood NK cells in chronically HIV-infected individuals. Design The effects of IL-21 on perforin expression, proliferation, degranulation, IFN-γ production, cytotoxicity and induction of STAT phosphorylation in NK cells were determined in vitro. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected and healthy individuals were incubated in vitro for 6h, 24h or 5 days with IL-21 or IL-15. Percentages of perforin, IFN-γ, CD107a, NKG2D and STAT3-5 positive cells were determined within NK cell populations. K562 cells were used as target cells in NK cytotoxicity assay. Results Frequency of CD56dim cells in chronically HIV-infected individuals was diminished. Perforin expression in CD56dim and CD56bright was comparable in healthy and HIV-infected individuals. IL-15 up-regulated perforin expression primarily in CD56bright NK cells while IL-21 up-regulated perforin in both NK subsets. IL-21 and IL- 15 up-regulated CD107a and IFN-γ as well as NK cytotoxicity. IL-15 predominantly activated STAT5, while IL-21 activated STAT5 and STAT3. IL-15, but not IL-21 increased NK cell proliferation in uninfected and HIV-infected individuals. Conclusion IL-21 augments NK effector functions in chronically HIV-infected individuals and due to its perforin enhancing properties it has potential for immunotherapy or as a vaccine adjuvant. PMID:18670213

  20. Opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in West Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witaningrum, A. M.; Khairunisa, S. Q.; Yunifiar, M. Q.; Bramanthi, R.; Rachman, B. E.; Nasronudin

    2018-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) had a major impact on health problemin Indonesia. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic is currently infected with HIV viruses developing rapidly in Indonesia.Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on opportunistic infection of HIV-1 are limited. The study using medical records as a research sample was conducted among HIV patients from January 2013 - December 2014 in Sele be Solu hospital among 49 patients. Opportunistic infections commonly occur in HIV-infected patients. The aim of the study was to know theprevalence of opportunistic infection among HIV positive patients in West Papua. Forty-nine HIV-1 patients were collected in Sele be Solu Hospital, West Papua.Opportunistic infection was identified such as tuberculosis, tuberculosis Pulmo, tuberculosis and candidiasis, candidiasis and diarrhea. The clinical sign appeared in HIV infected patients such as itchy, cough and loss weight. The prevalence of opportunistic infection indicated the necessity of monitoring the opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in Indonesia.

  1. The "moral career" of perinatally HIV-infected children: revisiting Goffman's concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Darmont, Mariana; Dickstein, Paulo; Monteiro, Simone

    2015-01-01

    HIV-infected children usually live in vulnerable situations, experiencing discrimination and stigma commonly felt by other people living with HIV/AIDS. The present study aims to analyse primary socialisation of HIV-infected children and adolescents recruited from a public health service in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) as a social process that shapes a new generation of stigmatised and vulnerable persons. Research was informed by an interactionist perspective, focusing on key aspects of HIV-infected children and adolescents life histories under the conceptual frame of Erving Goffman's theories regarding "moral careers". Goffman defines the making of a moral career as the process through which a person learns that she/he possesses a particular attribute, which may lead her/him to be discredited by members of the surrounding society. We have identified aspects of life histories of HIV-vertically infected children and adolescents for each aspect of "moral career" as described by Goffman, relating them to as family structure, the experience of living HIV within the family, and the position and family role of a given subject. The patterns of "moral career" proposed by Goffman in 1963 were useful in identifying components of HIV-related stigma among children and adolescents. These include gender and social disadvantages, difficulty in coping with a child with a potentially severe disease, orphanhood, abandonment, adoption and disclosure of one's HIV serostatus. Primary socialisation of HIV-infected children and adolescents is a key piece of the complex HIV/AIDS-labelling process that could be targeted by interventions aiming to decrease stigma and marginalisation. Health care workers and stakeholders should be committed to ensuring education and guaranteeing the legal rights of this specific population, including the continuous provision of quality health care, full access to school and support to full disclosure of HIV diagnosis.

  2. Neuro-HIV: Nervous System Manifestations of HIV Infection- A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuro-HIV: Nervous System Manifestations of HIV Infection- A Review. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... The early detection of neurological disease due to HIV infection is of paramount importance to the clinician as there are implications not just for management but also for prognosis.

  3. Burden of infectious diseases, substance use disorders, and mental illness among Ukrainian prisoners transitioning to the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyuba Azbel

    Full Text Available The epidemics of incarceration, substance use disorders (SUDs, and infectious diseases are inextricably intertwined, especially in the Former Soviet Union (FSU. Few objective data documenting this relationship regionally are available. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, representative country-wide prison health survey in Ukraine, where one of the world's most volatile HIV epidemics persists, in order to address HIV prevention and treatment needs.A nation-wide, multi-site randomly sampled biobehavioral health survey was conducted in four Ukrainian regions in 13 prisons among individuals being released within six months. After consent, participants underwent standardized health assessment surveys and serological testing for HIV, viral hepatitis, and syphilis.Of the 402 participants (mean age = 31.9 years, 20.1% were female. Prevalence of HIV, HCV, HBV, and syphilis was 19.4% (95% CI = 15.5%-23.3%, 60.2% (95% CI = 55.1%-65.4%, 5.2% (95% CI = 3.3%-7.2%, and 10% (95% CI = 7.4%-13.2%, respectively, with regional differences observed; HIV prevalence in the south was 28.6%. Among the 78 HIV-infected inmates, 50.7% were unaware of their HIV status and 44 (56.4% had CD4<350 cells/mL, of which only five (11% antiretroviral-eligible inmates were receiving it. Nearly half of the participants (48.7% reported pre-incarcertion drug injection, primarily of opioids, yet multiple substance use (31.6% and alcohol use disorders (56.6% were common and 40.3% met screening criteria for depression.This is the only such representative health study of prisoners in the FSU. This study has important implications for regional prevention and treatment because, unlike elsewhere, there is no recent evidence for reduction in HIV incidence and mortality in the region. The prevalence of infectious diseases and SUDs is high among this sample of prisoners transitioning to the community. It is critical to address pre- and post-release prevention and treatment needs with the

  4. Gene expression patterns associated with neurological disease in human HIV infection.

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    Pietro Paolo Sanna

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb. We analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of patients from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC, which consists of samples from 3 different brain regions, including white matter, basal ganglia and frontal cortex of HIV-infected and control patients. While HIVE is characterized by widespread, uncontrolled inflammation and tissue damage, substantial gene expression evidence of induction of interferon (IFN, cytokines and tissue injury is apparent in all brain regions studied, even in the absence of NCI. Various degrees of white matter changes were present in all HIV-infected subjects and were the primary manifestation in patients with NCI in the absence of HIVE. In particular, NCI in patients without HIVE in the NNTC sample is associated with white matter expression of chemokines, cytokines and β-defensins, without significant activation of IFN. Altogether, the results identified distinct pathways differentially regulated over the course of neurological disease in HIV infection and provide a new perspective on the dynamics of pathogenic processes in the course of HIV neurological disease in humans. These results also demonstrate the power of the systems biology analyses and indicate that the establishment of larger human gene expression profile datasets will have the potential to provide novel mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of neurological disease in HIV

  5. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  6. Incident HSV-2 Infections Are Common Among HIV-1-discordant Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiru, Anthony N.; Guthrie, Brandon L.; Bosire, Rose; Merkel, Michele; Liu, Amy Y.; Choi, Robert Y.; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Gatuguta, Ann; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Kiarie, James N.; Farquhar, Carey

    2013-01-01

    Background. The synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well known, but lack of knowledge about the epidemiology of HSV-2 acquisition in HIV-1-discordant couples hampers development of HSV-2 prevention interventions that could reduce HIV-1 transmission. Methods. HIV-1-discordant couples were enrolled in Nairobi, Kenya, and followed for up to 2 years. HSV-2 status was determined using HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA. Correlates of prevalence and incidence were assessed. Results. Of 469 HIV-1-discordant couples, at baseline, 353 (75.3%) were affected by HSV-2, of which 189 (53.5%) were concordantly HSV-2 seropositive and 164 (46.5%) were HSV-2-discordant. Prevalence was lowest among HIV-1-uninfected men (39.9%) compared to HIV-1-infected women (64.8%), HIV-1-infected men (66.7%), and HIV-1-uninfected women (68.5%). During follow-up, HSV-2 seroincidence was 14.9 per 100 person-years. Incidence was 1.6-fold higher among females compared to males (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–2.48) and 2.5-fold higher in HIV-1-infected compared to uninfected women (95% CI, 1.12–5.74). At least 30% of incident HSV-2 infections originated from an outside partner. Conclusions. The high HSV-2 prevalence and incidence in HIV-1-discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa suggest HSV-2 treatment and prevention could be an effective targeted strategy to reduce HSV-2 and HIV-1 transmission in this high-risk population. PMID:23840044

  7. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown.We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models.Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era.HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  8. Hepatic steatosis progresses faster in HIV mono-infected than HIV/HCV co-infected patients and is associated with liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembroke, Thomas; Deschenes, Marc; Lebouché, Bertrand; Benmassaoud, Amine; Sewitch, Maida; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Halme, Alex; Vuille-Lessard, Elise; Pexos, Costa; Klein, Marina B; Sebastiani, Giada

    2017-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) seems common in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the relative effect of HIV, as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) in those co-infected, and the influence of HS on liver fibrosis progression are unclear. The LIVEr disease in HIV (LIVEHIV) is a Canadian prospective cohort study using transient elastography and associated controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) to screen for HS and liver fibrosis, in unselected HIV-infected adults. HS progression was defined as development of any grade HS (CAP ⩾248dB/m), or transition to severe HS (CAP >292dB/m), for those with any grade HS at baseline. Fibrosis progression was defined as development of significant liver fibrosis (liver stiffness measurement [LSM] >7.1kPa), or transition to cirrhosis (LSM >12.5kPa) for those with significant liver fibrosis at baseline. Cox regression analysis was used to assess predictors of HS and fibrosis progression. A prospective cohort study was conducted, which included 726 HIV-infected patients (22.7% HCV co-infected). Prevalence of any grade HS did not differ between HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients (36.1% vs. 38.6%, respectively). 313 patients were followed for a median of 15.4 (interquartile range 8.5-23.0) months. The rate of HS progression was 37.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.2-49.0) and 21.9 (95% CI 15.6-30.7) per 100 person-years in HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection, respectively. HCV co-infection was an independent negative predictor of HS progression (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.89). HS predicted liver fibrosis progression in HIV mono-infection (aHR 4.18, 95% CI 1.21-14.5), but not in HIV/HCV co-infection. HS progresses faster and is associated with liver fibrosis progression in HIV mono-infection but not in HIV/HCV co-infection. Lay summary: Fatty liver is the most frequent liver disease in Western countries. People living with HIV seem at high risk of fatty liver due to

  9. BONE MARROW ABONRMALITIES IN HIV INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Antiram Dhurve

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Present work was carried out to study the bone marrow abnormalities in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods 160 patients of HIV +ve were included in the study. A complete blood count, relevant biochemical investigations, CD4 counts were done, besides a thorough history and clinical examination. HIV positive patients were classified as those having AID...

  10. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Q M; Nguyen, H L; Do, T N; Nguyen, V N; Nguyen, B H; Nguyen, T V A; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B J

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are leading causes of disease and death in Vietnam, but TB/HIV disease trends and the profile of co-infected patients are poorly described. We examined national TB and HIV notification data to provide a geographic overview and describe relevant disease trends within Vietnam. We also compared the demographic and clinical profiles of TB patients with and without HIV infection. During the past 10 years (2005-2014) cumulative HIV case numbers and deaths increased to 298,151 and 71,332 respectively, but access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved and new infections and deaths declined. From 2011-2014 routine HIV testing of TB patients increased from 58.9% to 72.5% and of all TB patients diagnosed with HIV in 2014, 2,803 (72.4%) received ART. The number of multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB cases enrolled for treatment increased almost 3-fold (578 to 1,532) from 2011-2014. The rate of HIV co-infection in MDR and non-MDR TB cases (51/1,532; 3.3% vs 3,774/100,555; 3.8%; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.7-1.2) was similar in 2014. The care of TB/HIV co-infected patients have shown sustained improvement in Vietnam. Rising numbers of MDR-TB cases is a concern, but this is not "driven" by HIV co-infection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Differentiating Immune Cell Targets in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue for HIV Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahzada; Telwatte, Sushama; Trapecar, Martin; Yukl, Steven; Sanjabi, Shomyseh

    2017-11-01

    The single greatest challenge to an HIV cure is the persistence of latently infected cells containing inducible, replication-competent proviral genomes, which constitute only a small fraction of total or infected cells in the body. Although resting CD4 + T cells in the blood are a well-known source of viral rebound, more than 90% of the body's lymphocytes reside elsewhere. Many are in gut tissue, where HIV DNA levels per million CD4 + T cells are considerably higher than in the blood. Despite the significant contribution of gut tissue to viral replication and persistence, little is known about the cell types that support persistence of HIV in the gut; importantly, T cells in the gut have phenotypic, functional, and survival properties that are distinct from T cells in other tissues. The mechanisms by which latency is established and maintained will likely depend on the location and cytokine milieu surrounding the latently infected cells in each compartment. Therefore, successful HIV cure strategies require identification and characterization of the exact cell types that support viral persistence, particularly in the gut. In this review, we describe the seeding of the latent HIV reservoir in the gut mucosa; highlight the evidence for compartmentalization and depletion of T cells; summarize the immunologic consequences of HIV infection within the gut milieu; propose how the damaged gut environment may promote the latent HIV reservoir; and explore several immune cell targets in the gut and their place on the path toward HIV cure.

  12. Psychogenic "HIV infection"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential

  13. Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

  14. The metabolic profiles of HIV-infected and non-infected women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infected and HIV-uninfected women. Conclusions: The results indicate a possible impact of HIV infection on serum protein and serum albumin, which may adversely affect biochemical nutritional status and the course of HIV progression.

  15. Correlates of HIV infection among people visiting public HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of HIV infection among people visiting public HIV counseling and testing clinics in Mpumalanga, ... Background: HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) reduces high-risk sexual behaviour. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Role of Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors in HIV-1 infected cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendel, Irene; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Sampey, Gavin C; Van Duyne, Rachel; Calvert, Valerie; Petricoin, Emanuel; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-01-01

    Many cellular cofactors have been documented to be critical for various stages of viral replication. Using high throughput proteomic assays, we have previously identified Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) as a host protein that was uniquely up-regulated in the plasma membrane of HIV-1 infected T-cells. Here, we have further characterized the BTK expression in HIV-1 infection and show that this cellular factor is specifically expressed in infected myeloid cells. Significant up-regulation of the phosphorylated form of BTK was observed in infected cells. Using size exclusion chromatography, we found BTK to be virtually absent in the uninfected U937 cells, however new BTK protein complexes were identified and distributed in both high molecular weight (~600 kDa) and a small molecular weight complex (~60–120 kDa) in the infected U1 cells. BTK levels were highest in cells either chronically expressing virus or induced/infected myeloid cells and that BTK translocated to the membrane following induction of the infected cells. BTK knockdown in HIV-1 infected cells using siRNA resulted in selective death of infected, but not uninfected, cells. Using BTK specific antibody and small molecule inhibitors including LFM-A13 and a FDA approved compound, Ibrutinib (PCI – 32765), we have found that HIV-1 infected cells are sensitive to apoptotic cell death and result in a decrease in virus production. Overall, our data suggests that HIV-1 infected cells are sensitive to treatments targeting BTK expressed in infected cells. PMID:25672887

  17. Epidemiological impact of achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV care in India: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddali, Manoj V; Gupta, Amita; Shah, Maunank

    2016-07-07

    Recent UNAIDS '90-90-90' targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030, 90% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide should know their diagnosis, 90% of diagnosed PLWH should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 90% of PLWH on ART should be virally suppressed by 2020. We sought to quantify the epidemiological impact of achieving these targets in India. We constructed a dynamic-transmission model of the Indian HIV epidemic to project HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths that would occur in India over 15 years. We considered several scenarios: continuation of current care engagement (with early ART initiation), achieving 90-90-90 targets on time and delaying achievement by 5 or 10 years. In the base case, assuming continuation of current care engagement, we project 794 000 (95% uncertainty range (UR) 571 000-1 104 000) HIV infections and 689 000 (95% UR 468 000-976 000) AIDS-related deaths in India over 15 years. In this scenario, nearly half of PLWH diagnosed would fail to achieve viral suppression by 2030. With achievement of 90-90-90 targets, India could avert 392 000 (95% UR 248 000-559 000) transmissions (48% reduction) and 414 000 (95% UR 260 000-598 000) AIDS-related deaths (59% reduction) compared to the base-case scenario. Furthermore, fewer than 20 000 (95% UR 12 000-30 000) HIV infections would occur in 2030. Delaying achievement of targets resulted in a similar reduction in HIV incidence by 2030 but at the cost of excess overall infections and mortality. India can halve the epidemiological burden of HIV over 15 years with achievement of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Reaching the targets on time will require comprehensive healthcare strengthening, especially in early diagnosis and treatment, expanded access to second-line and third-line ART and long-term retention in care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Epidemiological Criminology: Contextualization of HIV/AIDS Health Care for Female Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Zaitzow, Barbara H; Farrell, C Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide, women are increasingly being incarcerated. One unintended consequence is the increase in unhealthy female offenders. Among the more serious health concerns are HIV and AIDS. Challenges associated with caring for women with HIV/AIDS impacts not only disease management and infection control within correctional facilities but also the prisoners' home communities where they will need health care, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, housing assistance, and employment opportunities. No bridging theory has been presented that links prison and community health concerns with criminal justice policy. This article not only presents recommendations for effective HIV/AIDS policy but also suggests epidemiological criminology as a means of explicit merging of health with justice issues and consequently provides a bridging framework. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. CRISPR/Cas9 Inhibits Multiple Steps of HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lijuan; Hu, Siqi; Mei, Shan; Sun, Hong; Xu, Fengwen; Li, Jian; Zhu, Weijun; Liu, Xiaoman; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Di; Cen, Shan; Liang, Chen; Guo, Fei

    2018-05-09

    CRISPR/Cas9 is an adaptive immune system where bacteria and archaea have evolved to resist the invading viruses and plasmid DNA by creating site-specific double-strand breaks in DNA. This study tested this gene editing system in inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by targeting the viral long terminal repeat and the gene coding sequences. Strong inhibition of HIV-1 infection by Cas9/gRNA was observed, which resulted not only from insertions and deletions (indels) that were introduced into viral DNA due to Cas9 cleavage, but also from the marked decrease in the levels of the late viral DNA products and the integrated viral DNA. This latter defect might have reflected the degradation of viral DNA that has not been immediately repaired after Cas9 cleavage. It was further observed that Cas9, when solely located in the cytoplasm, inhibits HIV-1 as strongly as the nuclear Cas9, except that the cytoplasmic Cas9 does not act on the integrated HIV-1 DNA and thus cannot be used to excise the latent provirus. Together, the results suggest that Cas9/gRNA is able to target and edit HIV-1 DNA both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The inhibitory effect of Cas9 on HIV-1 is attributed to both the indels in viral DNA and the reduction in the levels of viral DNA.

  20. Prisoners' views about the drugs problem in prisons, and the new Prison Service drug strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Cassidy, J

    1999-09-01

    Three hundred and seventy-five out of 575 prisoners (222/299 drug users and 153/267 non-users) who responded to a self-completion health care questionnaire at two prisons in 1997 commented on drugs in prisons. One hundred and forty-eight out of 176 responses expressed negative opinions about mandatory drugs testing (MDT), and 107 said that MDT promoted switching to or increased use of heroin/hard drugs'. Sixty-two prisoners suggested that more help/counselling was needed for drug users, 52 segregation of drug users/drug-free wings, and 50 more security on visits/in corridors after medication. The new Prison Service drug strategy has revised random MDT. It targets those who supply drugs, and supports those who want to stop using drugs, and accords with prisoners' views about the heroin problem in prisons.

  1. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy Joe-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mint family (Lamiaceae produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia spp., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., basil (Ocimum spp. and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.

  2. Six Highly Conserved Targets of RNAi Revealed in HIV-1-Infected Patients from Russia Are Also Present in Many HIV-1 Strains Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretova, Olga V; Fedoseeva, Daria M; Gorbacheva, Maria A; Gashnikova, Natalya M; Gashnikova, Maria P; Melnikova, Nataliya V; Chechetkin, Vladimir R; Kravatsky, Yuri V; Tchurikov, Nickolai A

    2017-09-15

    RNAi has been suggested for use in gene therapy of HIV/AIDS, but the main problem is that HIV-1 is highly variable and could escape attack from the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) due to even single nucleotide substitutions in the potential targets. To exhaustively check the variability in selected RNA targets of HIV-1, we used ultra-deep sequencing of six regions of HIV-1 from the plasma of two independent cohorts of patients from Russia. Six RNAi targets were found that are invariable in 82%-97% of viruses in both cohorts and are located inside the domains specifying reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase, vpu, gp120, and p17. The analysis of mutation frequencies and their characteristics inside the targets suggests a likely role for APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, A3G) in G-to-A mutations and a predominant effect of RT biases in the detected variability of the virus. The lowest frequency of mutations was detected in the central part of all six targets. We also discovered that the identical RNAi targets are present in many HIV-1 strains from many countries and from all continents. The data are important for both the understanding of the patterns of HIV-1 mutability and properties of RT and for the development of gene therapy approaches using RNAi for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers.

  4. [Hospital pharmaceutical practice in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcouët, L

    2010-09-01

    Since 1994, hospital pharmaceutical teams have been in charge of pharmaceutical tasks in "unités de consultation et de soins ambulatoires" (UCSA), which are hospital consulting care units in French prisons. In 2008, pharmaceutical team in Parisian prisons received 6500 prescriptions and prepared 85,000 nominative bags containing drugs. Prisoners were 1.3% to receive treatments against HIV, 8.2% cardiovascular drugs, 7.2% opioid substitution treatments, and 52.9% psychoactive drugs, including 39.3% hypnotics, 40.5% anxiolytics, 11.3% antidepressants and 12.2% neuroleptics. In prison, the dichotomy between somatic and mental care is marked, attitudes of prisoners about their medicines are complex (important claims, embezzlement, etc.) and it is difficult for law defendants to maintain treatment confidentiality and to prepare prison outing in terms of health. To attenuate the heterogeneity of drug distribution systems in French prisons, we propose pharmaceutical analysis of prescriptions and nominative dispensation, computerization in UCSA in coordination with hospitals, a better contribution of prison medical and pharmaceutical staff in hospital "drug committees" and the redaction of pharmaceutical guidelines. Acting in concert with multidisciplinary medical staff in UCSA, pharmaceutical teams have to develop epidemiological studies to improve knowledge in prisoner's health and also prevention and health care in prison. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Syphilis and HIV/Syphilis Co-infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Isabel; Johnson, Ayesha; Reina-Ortiz, Miguel; Rosas, Carlos; Sharma, Vinita; Teran, Santiago; Naik, Eknath; Salihu, Hamisu M; Teran, Enrique; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    There is a reemergence of syphilis in the Latin American and Caribbean region. There is also very little information about HIV/Syphilis co-infection and its determinants. The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexually transmitted infections (STIs), in particular syphilis infection and HIV/Syphilis co-infection, as well as to estimate the prevalence of syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a city with one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Ecuador. In this study, questionnaires were administered to 291 adult MSM. Questions included knowledge about STIs and their sexual practices. Blood samples were taken from participants to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection. In this population, the prevalence of HIV/syphilis co-infection was 4.8%, while the prevalence of syphilis as mono-infection was 6.5%. Participants who had syphilis mono-infection and HIV/syphilis co-infection were older. Men who had multiple partners and those who were forced to have sex had increased odds of syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection. A high prevalence of syphilis and self-reported STI was observed, which warrants targeted behavioral interventions. Co-infections are a cause for concern when treating a secondary infection in a person who is immunocompromised. These data suggest that specific knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among MSM are associated with increased odds of STIs (including HIV/syphilis co-infections) in this region of Ecuador.

  6. HPV seroconversion following anal and penile HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Sofie H.; Landén, Olivia; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; de Melker, Hester E.; Xiridou, Maria; van Eeden, Arne; Heijman, Titia; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) seroconversion following anal and penile HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011), and followed up semiannually. Antibodies against 7 high-risk

  7. Yellow fever vaccine for patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barte, Hilary; Horvath, Tara H; Rutherford, George W

    2014-01-23

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease prevalent in tropical Africa and Latin America. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 200,000 cases of YF and 30,000 deaths worldwide annually. Treatment for YF is supportive, but a live attenuated virus vaccine is effective for preventing infection. WHO recommends immunisation for all individuals > 9 months living in countries or areas at risk. However, the United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advises that YF vaccine is contraindicated in individuals with HIV. Given the large populations of HIV-infected individuals living in tropical areas where YF is endemic, YF vaccine may be an important intervention for preventing YF in immunocompromised populations. To assess the risk and benefits of YF immunisation for people infected with HIV. We used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of individuals with HIV infection who received YF vaccine (17DD or 17D-204). Two authors screened abstracts of references identified by electronic or bibliographic searches according to inclusion and exclusion criteria as detailed in the protocol. We identified 199 references and examined 19 in detail for study eligibility. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. Three cohort studies were included in the review. They examined 484 patients with HIV infection who received YF immunisation. Patients with HIV infection developed significantly lower concentrations of neutralising antibodies in the first year post immunisation compared to uninfected patients, though decay patterns were similar for recipients regardless of HIV infection. No study patient with HIV infection suffered serious adverse events as a result of YF vaccination. YF vaccination can produce protective levels of neutralising antibodies in

  8. Influence of common mucosal co-factors on HIV infection in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K; Kaushic, Charu

    2014-06-01

    Women constitute almost half of HIV-infected population globally, and the female genital tract (FGT) accounts for approximately 40% of all new HIV infections worldwide. The FGT is composed of upper and lower parts, distinct in their morphological and functional characteristics. Co-factors in the genital microenvironment, such as presence of hormones, semen, and other sexually transmitted infections, can facilitate or deter HIV infection and play a critical role in determining susceptibility to HIV. In this review, we examine some of these co-factors and their potential influence. Presence of physical and chemical barriers such as epithelial tight junctions, mucus, and anti-microbial peptides can actively block and inhibit viral replication, presenting a significant deterrent to HIV. Upon exposure, HIV and other pathogens first encounter the genital epithelium: cells that express a wide repertoire of pattern recognition receptors that can recognize and directly initiate innate immune responses. These and other interactions in the genital tract can lead to direct and indirect inflammation and enhance the number of local target cells, immune activation, and microbial translocation, all of which promote HIV infection and replication. Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV transmission in the female genital tract would be invaluable for improving the design of prophylactic strategies against HIV. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cervical Dysplasia and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Females in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Adler

    2014-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we compared the HPV DNA and Pap smear results between 35 HIV-infected and 50 HIV-uninfected adolescents in order to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes and cervical cytological abnormalities. Comparisons were made using Pearson χ2 and independent-samples t-tests analyses, and associations between demographic and behavioral characteristics and HPV infections were examined. Results. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any HPV (88.6% versus 48.0%; P<0.001 and with at least one HR-HPV (60.0% versus 24.0%; P=0.001, and to have multiple concurrent HPV infections (68.6% versus 22.0%; P<0.001. HPV 16 and 18 were relatively underrepresented among HR-HPV infections. Abnormal Pap test results were more common among HIV-infected participants (28.8% versus 12.0%; P=0.054. A history of smoking was associated with HR-HPV infection. Conclusions. HIV-infected adolescents have an increased risk of infection with HR-HPV and of Pap test abnormalities. The majority of HR-HPV infections among our participants would not be prevented by the currently available vaccinations against HPV.

  10. Increased Rates of Respiratory and Diarrheal Illnesses in HIV-Negative Persons Living With HIV-Infected Individuals in a Densely Populated Urban Slum in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua M; Cosmas, Leonard; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Williamson, John M; Olack, Beatrice; Okoth, George; Njuguna, Henry; Feikin, Daniel R; Burke, Heather; Montgomery, Joel M; Breiman, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative contacts of HIV-infected persons at increased risk of exposure to infectious pathogens. We calculated incidence and longitudinal prevalence (number of days per year) of influenzalike illness (ILI), diarrhea, and nonspecific febrile illness during 2008 from a population-based surveillance program in the urban slum of Kibera (Kenya) that included 1830 HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals and 13 677 individuals living in exclusively HIV-negative households. For individuals ≥5 years old, incidence was significantly increased for ILI (risk ratio [RR], 1.47; P 5 years old. Targeted interventions are needed, including ensuring that HIV-infected persons are receiving appropriate care and treatment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

  12. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE): implications for public health and drug policy

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Laurent; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Blanche, Jerôme; Maguet, Olivier; Calderon, Christine; Cohen, Julien; Carrieri, Patrizia M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons) and psychiatri...

  13. Impact of Multi-Targeted Antiretroviral Treatment on Gut T Cell Depletion and HIV Reservoir Seeding during Acute HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Schuetz, Alexandra; Vandergeeten, Claire; Sereti, Irini; de Souza, Mark; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Dewar, Robin; Marovich, Mary; van Griensven, Frits; Sekaly, Rafick; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Chomchey, Nitiya; Paris, Robert; Peel, Sheila; Valcour, Victor; Maldarelli, Frank; Chomont, Nicolas; Michael, Nelson; Phanuphak, Praphan; Kim, Jerome H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited knowledge exists on early HIV events that may inform preventive and therapeutic strategies. This study aims to characterize the earliest immunologic and virologic HIV events following infection and investigates the usage of a novel therapeutic strategy. Methods and Findings We prospectively screened 24,430 subjects in Bangkok and identified 40 AHI individuals. Thirty Thais were enrolled (8 Fiebig I, 5 Fiebig II, 15 Fiebig III, 2 Fiebig IV) of whom 15 completed 24 weeks of megaHAART (tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz/raltegravir/maraviroc). Sigmoid biopsies were completed in 24/30 at baseline and 13/15 at week 24. At baseline, the median age was 29 years and 83% were MSM. Most were symptomatic (87%), and were infected with R5-tropic (77%) CRF01_AE (70%). Median CD4 was 406 cells/mm3. HIV RNA was 5.5 log10 copies/ml. Median total blood HIV DNA was higher in Fiebig III (550 copy/106 PBMC) vs. Fiebig I (8 copy/106 PBMC) (p = 0.01) while the median %CD4+CCR5+ gut T cells was lower in Fiebig III (19%) vs. Fiebig I (59%) (p = 0.0008). After 24 weeks of megaHAART, HIV RNA levels of HIV DNA at week 0 predicted reservoir size at week 24 (pHIV DNA declined significantly and was undetectable in 3 of 15 in blood and 3 of 7 in gut. Frequency of CD4+CCR5+ gut T cells increased from 41% at baseline to 64% at week 24 (p>0.050); subjects with less than 40% at baseline had a significant increase in CD4+CCR5+ T cells from baseline to week 24 (14% vs. 71%, p = 0.02). Conclusions Gut T cell depletion and HIV reservoir seeding increases with progression of AHI. MegaHAART was associated with immune restoration and reduced reservoir size. Our findings could inform research on strategies to achieve HIV drug-free remission. PMID:22479485

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Surgical practice in a maximum security prison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prison Clinic, Mangaung Maximum Security Prison, Bloemfontein. F Kleinhans, BA (Cur) .... HIV positivity rate and the use of the rectum to store foreign objects. ... fruit in sunlight. Other positive health-promoting factors may also play a role,.

  15. Risk factors for helminth, malaria, and HIV infection in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick William Woodburn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for both mother and baby. Assessment of risk factors for infections informs planning of interventions and analysis of the impact of infections on health outcomes.To describe risk factors for helminths, malaria and HIV in pregnant Ugandan women before intervention in a trial of de-worming in pregnancy.The trial recruited 2,507 pregnant women between April 2003 and November 2005. Participants were interviewed and blood and stool samples obtained; location of residence at enrolment was mapped. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and other risk factors were modelled using logistic regression.There was a high prevalence of helminth, malaria and HIV infection, as previously reported. All helminths and malaria parasitemia were more common in younger women, and education was protective against every infection. Place of birth and/or tribe affected all helminths in a pattern consistent with the geographical distribution of helminth infections in Uganda. Four different geohelminths (hookworm, Trichuris, Ascaris and Trichostrongylus showed a downwards trend in prevalence during the enrolment period. There was a negative association between hookworm and HIV, and between hookworm and low CD4 count among HIV-positive women. Locally, high prevalence of schistosomiasis and HIV occurred in lakeshore communities.Interventions for helminths, malaria and HIV need to target young women both in and out of school. Antenatal interventions for malaria and HIV infection must continue to be promoted. Women originating from a high risk area for a helminth infection remain at high risk after migration to a lower-risk area, and vice versa, but overall, geohelminths seem to be becoming less common in this population. High risk populations, such as fishing communities, require directed effort against schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

  16. Synthetic AAV/CRISPR vectors for blocking HIV-1 expression in persistently infected astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Christine; Börner, Kathleen; Kienle, Eike; Orschmann, Tanja; Rusha, Ejona; Schneider, Martha; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Drukker, Micha; Desbordes, Sabrina; Grimm, Dirk; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    Astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, perform key functions and are involved in several neurodegenerative diseases. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can persist in astrocytes, contributing to the HIV burden and neurological dysfunctions in infected individuals. While a comprehensive approach to HIV cure must include the targeting of HIV-1 in astrocytes, dedicated tools for this purpose are still lacking. Here we report a novel Adeno-associated virus-based vector (AAV9P1) with a synthetic surface peptide for transduction of astrocytes. Analysis of AAV9P1 transduction efficiencies with single brain cell populations, including primary human brain cells, as well as human brain organoids demonstrated that AAV9P1 targeted terminally differentiated human astrocytes much more efficiently than neurons. We then investigated whether AAV9P1 can be used to deliver HIV-inhibitory genes to astrocytes. To this end we generated AAV9P1 vectors containing genes for HIV-1 proviral editing by CRISPR/Cas9. Latently HIV-1 infected astrocytes transduced with these vectors showed significantly diminished reactivation of proviruses, compared with untransduced cultures. Sequence analysis identified mutations/deletions in key HIV-1 transcriptional control regions. We conclude that AAV9P1 is a promising tool for gene delivery to astrocytes and may facilitate inactivation/destruction of persisting HIV-1 proviruses in astrocyte reservoirs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [HIVAb, HCVAb and HBsAg seroprevalence among inmates of the prison of Bologna and the effect of counselling on the compliance of proposed tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Giuliani, Ruggero; Fulgaro, Ciro; Paolillo, Pasquale; Baldi, Elena; Chiodo, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the HIVAb, HCVAb and HBsAg seroprevalence among Italian and foreign inmates of the prison of Bologna, to evaluate if the extensive counselling of "new" inmates has significantly enhanced adherence to laboratory tests. The serological status was determined by a blood withdraw following the informed consent. Before asking their consent, patients were informed by cultural mediators who had been instructed about the aims of the study/exam during introductory meetings. The initial step managed by mediators was followed by further individual counselling interventions, carried out by hospital infective disease unit, prison and prison drug abuse service physicians. The laboratory tests were performed in an external structure. Prison of Bologna. The study was conducted on 433 subjects among a whole population of 900 inmates in the local prison: 390 subjects were males (90.1%) and 43 were females (9.9%). The median age of the whole population was 34.86 years (+/- 9.9). The studied population counted 147 (33.9%) intravenous drug users (IDU) and 286 not addicts (66.1%). As regards nationality, 212 subjects were Italian (48.9%) and 221 (51.1%) foreigners. Among the total 433 inmates considered, 78 (18%) were known as previous IDU with conviction history or condemned to long term sentences, while 59 (13.6%) were inmates recently convicted active IDU assisted by the internal drug abusers service. The third group was composed by 296 inmates imprisoned during the summer (103 Italians and 193 foreigners) self declared not IDU. A. 12.5% of inmates were HIV positive, 8.1% HBV positive and 31.1% HCV positive. 25 subjects were found positive both to HIV and HCV; 1 both to HIV and HBV and 5 to HIV, HBV and HCV. HIV positivity is more common among Italian vs. foreigners inmates, among IDU vs. not IDU. HCV positivity is more common among Italian vs. foreigners inmates, and among IDU vs. not IDU. The distribution of HBV seropositivity among the

  18. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pasetto

    Full Text Available HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic, H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic, and the dual tropic (X4R5 HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  19. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  20. Humanized mouse models to study pathophysiology and treatment of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse-Ranson, Guillemette; Mouquet, Hugo; Di Santo, James P

    2018-03-01

    Immunodeficient mice that lack all lymphocyte subsets and have phagocytic cells that are tolerant of human cells can be stably xenografted with human hematopoietic stem cell as well as other human tissues (fetal liver and thymus) creating 'human immune system' (HIS) mice. HIS mice develop all major human lymphocyte classes (B, T, natural killer, and innate lymphoid cell) and their specialized subsets as well as a variety of myeloid cells (dendritic cell, monocytes, and macrophages) thereby providing a small animal model in which to interrogate human immune responses to infection. HIS mouse models have been successfully used to study several aspects of HIV-1 biology, including viral life cycle (entry, restriction, replication, and spread) as well as virus-induced immunopathology (CD4 T-cell depletion, immune activation, and mucosal inflammation). Recent work has shown that HIV reservoirs can be established in HIV-infected HIS mice after treatment with combinations of antiretroviral drugs thereby providing a model to test new approaches to eliminate latently infected cells. HIS mice provide cost-effective preclinical platform to assess combination immunotherapies that can target HIV reservoirs. Therapeutic strategies validated in HIS mice should be considered in designing the roadmap toward HIV 'cure'.

  1. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of Salmonella: comparison of isolates from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolday, D; Erge, W

    1998-07-01

    A retrospective analysis of all cases of Salmonella infections occurring between 1991 and 1995 was undertaken in order to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of the isolates from both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected Ethiopian patients. During the 5-year study period, we identified 147 cases of Salmonella infections. Only in 49 cases was the HIV serostatus known; 22 (44.9%) of the infections were in HIV seronegative patients while 27 (55.9%) were in HIV seropositive patients. The strains were isolated from blood (71.4%), urine (18.4%) and stool (8.2%). Salmonella infection was found to be more frequent (55.15% versus 44.9%) among HIV positive than HIV-negative patients. Moreover, Salmonella isolates recovered from HIV-seropositive patients were significantly resistant to many of the antibiotics tested when compared to the isolates from HIV-seronegative patients. The only chloramphenicol resistant Salmonella typhi occurred in a patient who was seropositive for HIV. According to these results, Ethiopian patients infected with HIV may be at risk of acquiring infections, especially non-typhoidal salmonellas, that are multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains than HIV-uninfected subjects. The emergence of MDR Salmonella infection among HIV-positive patients requires reassessment of chemotherapeutic approaches in this patient population, and warrants continued laboratory surveillance.

  2. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Transcriptional Heterogeneity in Latent and Reactivated HIV-Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golumbeanu, Monica; Cristinelli, Sara; Rato, Sylvie; Munoz, Miguel; Cavassini, Matthias; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Ciuffi, Angela

    2018-04-24

    Despite effective treatment, HIV can persist in latent reservoirs, which represent a major obstacle toward HIV eradication. Targeting and reactivating latent cells is challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of HIV-infected cells. Here, we used a primary model of HIV latency and single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize transcriptional heterogeneity during HIV latency and reactivation. Our analysis identified transcriptional programs leading to successful reactivation of HIV expression. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chimeric peptide-mediated siRNA transduction to inhibit HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali; Mehla, Rajeev; Chauhan, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    Persistent human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection provokes immune activation and depletes CD4 +  lymphocytes, leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Uninterrupted administration of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients suppresses viral replication to below the detectable level and partially restores the immune system. However, cART-unresponsive residual HIV-1 infection and elusive transcriptionally silent but reactivatable viral reservoirs maintain a permanent viral DNA blue print. The virus rebounds within a few weeks after interruption of suppressive therapy. Adjunct gene therapy to control viral replication by ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing strategy that could suppress residual HIV-1 burden and overcome viral resistance. Small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) are efficient transcriptional inhibitors, but need delivery systems to reach inside target cells. We investigated the potential of chimeric peptide (FP-PTD) to deliver specific siRNAs to HIV-1-susceptible and permissive cells. Chimeric FP-PTD peptide was designed with an RNA binding domain (PTD) to bind siRNA and a cell fusion peptide domain (FP) to enter cells. FP-PTD-siRNA complex entered and inhibited HIV-1 replication in susceptible cells, and could be a candidate for in vivo testing.

  4. Sports behaviour among HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals in a Berlin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L; Hechler, D; Jessen, A B; Neumann, K; Jessen, H; Beneke, R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity has been recommended based on beneficial effects described in HIV-infected patients. However, such guidelines do not take into account actual sport behaviours and general attitudes towards physical activity. To evaluate actual sport activity and attitudes towards sport in HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals we conducted an anonymous questionnaire investigating the prevalence, as well as possible changes, in sports engagement and the overall attitude to physical activity. A total of 283 patients of a general care facility specialized in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in Berlin, Germany, participated; 124 were HIV infected and 159 were non-infected, mostly men who have sex with men (MSM) (88%), with a median age of 35 years. The HIV-infected participants had a median CD4+ count of 554 cells/µL and 48.8% of them were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of survey. The proportion of patients actually performing physical activity was significantly lower (P = 0.028) within the HIV-infected group (61.3%) than within the non-infected group (74.2%). This difference remained significant after accounting for possible confounders such as age, gender, injecting drug use and sexual preferences. Previously reported sport activity prevalence was similar in both groups on leaving school. From our data we could not identify an association between the time of HIV diagnosis and changes in sports activity. In conclusion, fewer HIV-infected individuals report physical activity than non-infected individuals. Sociodemographic studies to evaluate potential differences in sports behaviour are required in order to inform exercise guidelines for HIV-infected patients.

  5. HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    result of a lymphoproliferative disorder. In the context of HIV co-infection, lympho- cytosis has been described during early sero- conversion associated with CMV, as well as in HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection where CD4+ lymphocytosis can be caused by both a reactive or clonal expansion. Consequently, patients with untreated ...

  6. Identification of cell surface targets for HIV-1 therapeutics using genetic screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Stephen J.; Khan, Imran H.; Chan, Ursula A.; Scearce, Robin L.; Melara, Claudia L.; Paul, Amber M.; Sharma, Vikram; Bih, Fong-Yih; Holzmayer, Tanya A.; Luciw, Paul A.; Abo, Arie

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs designed to interfere with obligatory utilization of certain host cell factors by virus are less likely to encounter development of resistant strains than drugs directed against viral components. Several cellular genes required for productive infection by HIV were identified by the use of genetic suppressor element (GSE) technology as potential targets for anti-HIV drug development. Fragmented cDNA libraries from various pools of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were expressed in vitro in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-susceptible cell lines and subjected to genetic screens to identify GSEs that interfered with viral replication. After three rounds of selection, more than 15 000 GSEs were sequenced, and the cognate genes were identified. The GSEs that inhibited the virus were derived from a diverse set of genes including cell surface receptors, cytokines, signaling proteins, transcription factors, as well as genes with unknown function. Approximately 2.5% of the identified genes were previously shown to play a role in the HIV-1 life cycle; this finding supports the biological relevance of the assay. GSEs were derived from the following 12 cell surface proteins: CXCR4, CCR4, CCR7, CD11C, CD44, CD47, CD68, CD69, CD74, CSF3R, GABBR1, and TNFR2. Requirement of some of these genes for viral infection was also investigated by using RNA interference (RNAi) technology; accordingly, 10 genes were implicated in early events of the viral life cycle, before viral DNA synthesis. Thus, these cell surface proteins represent novel targets for the development of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection and AIDS

  7. The HIV care cascade in Switzerland: reaching the UNAIDS/WHO targets for patients diagnosed with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Philipp; Schmidt, Axel J; Cavassini, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Calmy, Alexandra; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Ledergerber, Bruno; Vernazza, Pietro

    2015-11-28

    To describe the HIV care cascade for Switzerland in the year 2012. Six levels were defined: (i) HIV-infected, (ii) HIV-diagnosed, (iii) linked to care, (iv) retained in care, (v) on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and (vi) with suppressed viral load. We used data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) complemented by a nationwide survey among SHCS physicians to estimate the number of HIV-patients not registered in the cohort. We also used Swiss ART sales data to estimate the number of patients treated outside the SHCS network. Based on the number of patients retained in care, we inferred the estimates for levels (i) to (iii) from previously published data. We estimate that (i) 15 200 HIV-infected individuals lived in Switzerland in 2012 (margins of uncertainty, 13 400-19 300). Of those, (ii) 12 300 (81%) were diagnosed, (iii) 12 200 (80%) linked, and (iv) 11 900 (79%) retained in care. Broadly based on SHCS network data, (v) 10 800 (71%) patients were receiving ART, and (vi) 10 400 (68%) had suppressed (Switzerland is substantially lower than previously reported, halving previous national HIV prevalence estimates to 0.2%. In Switzerland in 2012, 91% of patients in care were receiving ART, and 96% of patients on ART had suppressed viral load, meeting recent UNAIDS/WHO targets.

  8. Screening Yield of HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination and Pooled HIV RNA Testing for Acute HIV Infection in a High-Prevalence Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Philip J; Westheimer, Emily; Cohen, Stephanie; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Moss, Nicholas; Tsoi, Benjamin; Hall, Laura; Fann, Charles; Daskalakis, Demetre C; Beagle, Steve; Patel, Pragna; Radix, Asa; Foust, Evelyn; Kohn, Robert P; Marmorino, Jenni; Pandori, Mark; Fu, Jie; Samandari, Taraz; Gay, Cynthia L

    2016-02-16

    Although acute HIV infection contributes disproportionately to onward HIV transmission, HIV testing has not routinely included screening for acute HIV infection. To evaluate the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assay to detect acute HIV infection compared with pooled HIV RNA testing. Multisite, prospective, within-individual comparison study conducted between September 2011 and October 2013 in 7 sexually transmitted infection clinics and 5 community-based programs in New York, California, and North Carolina. Participants were 12 years or older and seeking HIV testing, without known HIV infection. All participants with a negative rapid HIV test result were screened for acute HIV infection with an HIV Ag/Ab combination assay (index test) and pooled human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA testing. HIV RNA testing was the reference standard, with positive reference standard result defined as detectable HIV-1 RNA on an individual RNA test. Number and proportion with acute HIV infections detected. Among 86,836 participants with complete test results (median age, 29 years; 75.0% men; 51.8% men who have sex with men), established HIV infection was diagnosed in 1158 participants (1.33%) and acute HIV infection was diagnosed in 168 participants (0.19%). Acute HIV infection was detected in 134 participants with HIV Ag/Ab combination testing (0.15% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.18%]; sensitivity, 79.8% [95% CI, 72.9%-85.6%]; specificity, 99.9% [95% CI, 99.9%-99.9%]; positive predictive value, 59.0% [95% CI, 52.3%-65.5%]) and in 164 participants with pooled HIV RNA testing (0.19% [95% CI, 0.16%-0.22%]; sensitivity, 97.6% [95% CI, 94.0%-99.4%]; specificity, 100% [95% CI, 100%-100%]; positive predictive value, 96.5% [95% CI, 92.5%-98.7%]; sensitivity comparison, P testing detected 82% of acute HIV infections detectable by pooled HIV RNA testing. Compared with rapid HIV testing alone, HIV Ag/Ab combination testing increased the relative HIV diagnostic yield (both

  9. Modifiable factors associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis in a Kenyan prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amwayi, A S; Kikuvi, G M; Muchiri, E M

    2010-02-01

    To establish modifiable factors associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among prisoners. Retrospective matched case-control study. Nakuru GK prison in Kenya. A total of 144 subjects (48 cases and 96 controls) were recruited into the study. Cases were adult prisoners who had at least two initial sputum specimens being Acid Fast Bacilli-positive (AFB+) on direct smear microscopy and hence recruited to PTB WHO DOTS Programme. Controls were adults with no chronic cough and not on PTB treatment six months prior to the study. Independent factors significantly associated with active PTB disease were: self reported HIV+ status (OR=11; 95% CI = 2.42-47.77), evidence of BCG vaccination (OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05-0.60), contact with PTB case (OR = 7.0; 95% CI = 1.17-38.23), unemployment (OR = 9.0; 95% CI = 1.84-43.97) and sharing linen (OR = 4.32; 95%CI = 1.08-17.29). Modifiable factors associated with active PTB in Nakuru G.K prison are: HIV status, BCG vaccination, PTB case contact, poverty and poor personal hygiene. We recommend HIV counselling and testing of all PTB patients, screening for TB upon prison entry and TB contact investigation and improving personal hygiene of prisoners.

  10. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  11. Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise J. Jamieson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

  12. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  13. Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dhawan, Benu; Chaudhry, Rama; Vajpayee, Madhu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings. PMID:22310829

  14. [Influencing factors on the death of infants born to HIV infected mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-wen; Xing, Zai-ling; Wang, Lin-hong; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Ding-yong; Huang, Yue-hua; Zhang, Yan

    2009-11-01

    To understand the influencing factors on the death of infants born to HIV infected mothers in areas with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in China. Based on the follow-up cohort study targeting at HIV/AIDS infected pregnant women and their babies initiated in 2004, a survey on the death status and influencing factors on the infants born to HIV/AIDS infected mothers enrolled in this cohort from Jan.2004 to Nov.2007 was carried out during Aug.to Nov.2008 in seven counties of four provinces in China. A total of 498 pairs of HIV-infected mothers and their infants were enrolled and their related information was collected. Single factor and multiple factors Cox model methods were adopted for data analysis. The total observed person-years of 498 infants was 406.22, among which, 45 infants died, and the mortality density was 110.78 per 1000 child-year. A single factor Cox model showed, the pregnancy in pre-period of HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS period (RR = 1.971, 95%CI: 1.143 - 3.396), living status of the pregnancy (RR = 3.062, 95%CI: 1.097 - 8.550), multipara women (RR = 0.517, 95%CI: 0.278 - 0.961), natural childbirth (RR = 0.561, 95%CI: 0.345 - 0.910), premature labor (RR = 5.302, 95%CI: 2.944 - 9.547), low birth weight (RR = 4.920, 95%CI: 2.691 - 8.994), mother-child pairs taking antiretroviral drugs (RR = 0.227, 95%CI: 0.121 - 0.428) and infants infected HIV (RR = 5.870, 95%CI: 3.232 - 10.660) could affect the infants death. The death of HIV-exposed infants was influenced by various factors. The death risk of infants born to HIV infected mothers who were in the danger of pre-period of HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS period was greater than the infants delivered by HIV infected mothers who were in preclinical period of HIV/AIDS (RR = 6.99, 95%CI: 1.92 - 25.64). The death risks were greater in the group that the women whose CD4(+)TLC count number lower than 200 cells/microl (RR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.01 - 4.15). The infants whose mothers had no ARV treatment had higher possibility to die than

  15. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same age ( 1 ). The general term for these cancers is "HIV-associated cancers." Three of these cancers are known as " acquired ... also have an increased cumulative risk of developing HIV-associated cancers. What can people infected with HIV do to ...

  16. T-lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected adolescents - Retention of naive T lymphocytes in HIV-infected adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, SD; Rudy, B; Muenz, L; Starr, SE; Campbell, DE; Wilson, C; Holland, C; Crowley-Nowick, P; Vermund, SH

    Background: The capacity of the immune system of adolescents to generate and repopulate naive and memory cell populations under conditions of normal homeostasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown. Objective: To assess lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk

  17. HIV INFECTION, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katleen de Gaetano Donati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last 15 years, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has determined a dramatic reduction of both morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected subjects, transforming this infection in a chronic and manageable disease. Patients surviving with HIV in the developed world, in larger number men,  are becoming aged. As it would be expected for a population of comparable age, many HIV-infected individuals report a family history of cardiovascular disease, a small proportion have already experienced a cardiovascular event and an increasing proportion has diabetes mellitus. Smoking rate is very high while an increasing proportion of HIV-infected individuals have dyslipidaemia. Studies suggest that these traditional risk factors could play an important  role in the development of cardiovascular disease in these patients as they do in the general population. Thus, whilst the predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk remains relatively low at present, it will likely increase in relation to the progressive aging of  this patient population. Thus, the long-term follow-up of HIV infected patients has to include co-morbidity management such as cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. Two intriguing aspects related to the cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection are the matter of current investigation: 1 while these subjects share many cardiovascular risk factors with the general population, HIV infection itself increases cardiovascular risk; 2 some HAART regimens too influence atherosclerotic profile, partly due to lipid changes. Although the mechanisms involved in the development of cardiovascular complications in HIV-infected patients remain to be fully elucidated, treatment guidelines recommending interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in these individuals are already available; however, their application is still limited.

  18. Cognitive function in early HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Aanchal; Hou, Jue; Liu, Lei; Gao, Yi; Kettering, Casey; Ragin, Ann B

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations. At the initial timepoint, the HIV group demonstrated significantly weaker performance on measures of verbal memory, visual memory, psychomotor speed, motor speed, and executive function. A similar pattern was found when cognitive function was examined at follow-up and across both timepoints. The HIV subjects had generally weaker performance on psychomotor speed, executive function, motor speed, visual memory, and verbal memory. The rate of decline in cognitive function across the 2-year follow-up period did not differ between groups. Correlations between clinical status markers and cognitive function at both timepoints showed weaker performance associated with increased disease burden. Neurocognitive difficulty in chronic HIV infection may have very early onset and reflect consequences of initial brain viral invasion and neuroinflammation during the intense, uncontrolled viremia of acute HIV infection. Further characterization of the changes occurring in initial stages of infection and the risk and protective factors for cognitive function could inform new strategies for neuroprotection.

  19. Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lama, E. de; Narvaez, J. A.; Roca, Y.; Pellicer, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present two cases of avascular osteonecrosis, one involving the knees and the other the hips, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who met the criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We review the literature concerning this rare complication of HIV infection, focussing especially on the clinical and radiological features and its possible etiopathogenesis. (Author) 30 refs

  20. HIV-infected persons with bipolar disorder are less aware of memory deficits than HIV-infected persons without bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, K; Tobin, A; Posada, C; Gouaux, B; Grant, I; Moore, DJ

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory deficits are common in HIV infection and bipolar disorder, but patient insight into such deficits remains unclear. Thirty-four HIV-infected individuals without bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD-) and 47 HIV+ individuals with comorbid bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD+) were administered the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised to examine objective learning/memory functioning. Subjective memory complaints were assessed via the memory s ubscale of ...

  1. Infection-related and -unrelated malignancies, HIV and the aging population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, L; Borges, Áh; Ledergerber, B; Domingo, P; Castagna, A; Rockstroh, J; Knysz, B; Tomazic, J; Karpov, I; Kirk, O; Lundgren, J; Mocroft, A

    2016-09-01

    HIV-positive people have increased risk of infection-related malignancies (IRMs) and infection-unrelated malignancies (IURMs). The aim of the study was to determine the impact of aging on future IRM and IURM incidence. People enrolled in EuroSIDA and followed from the latest of the first visit or 1 January 2001 until the last visit or death were included in the study. Poisson regression was used to investigate the impact of aging on the incidence of IRMs and IURMs, adjusting for demographic, clinical and laboratory confounders. Linear exponential smoothing models forecasted future incidence. A total of 15 648 people contributed 95 033 person-years of follow-up, of whom 610 developed 643 malignancies [IRMs: 388 (60%); IURMs: 255 (40%)]. After adjustment, a higher IRM incidence was associated with a lower CD4 count [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) CD4 count IRMs. The incidences of both IURMs and IRMs increased with older age. It was projected that the incidence of IRMs would decrease by 29% over a 5-year period from 3.1 (95% CI 1.5-5.9) per 1000 person-years in 2011, whereas the IURM incidence would increase by 44% from 4.1 (95% CI 2.2-7.2) per 1000 person-years over the same period. Demographic and HIV-related risk factors for IURMs (aging and smoking) and IRMs (immunodeficiency and ongoing viral replication) differ markedly and the contribution from IURMs relative to IRMs will continue to increase as a result of aging of the HIV-infected population, high smoking and lung cancer prevalence and a low prevalence of untreated HIV infection. These findings suggest the need for targeted preventive measures and evaluation of the cost-benefit of screening for IURMs in HIV-infected populations. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  3. Mobilization of HIV Spread by Diaphanous 2 Dependent Filopodia in Infected Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anupriya; Iemma, Tina L.; Shih, Ivy; Newsome, Timothy P.; McAllery, Samantha; Cunningham, Anthony L.; Turville, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Paramount to the success of persistent viral infection is the ability of viruses to navigate hostile environments en route to future targets. In response to such obstacles, many viruses have developed the ability of establishing actin rich-membrane bridges to aid in future infections. Herein through dynamic imaging of HIV infected dendritic cells, we have observed how viral high-jacking of the actin/membrane network facilitates one of the most efficient forms of HIV spread. Within infected DC, viral egress is coupled to viral filopodia formation, with more than 90% of filopodia bearing immature HIV on their tips at extensions of 10 to 20 µm. Live imaging showed HIV filopodia routinely pivoting at their base, and projecting HIV virions at µm.sec−1 along repetitive arc trajectories. HIV filopodial dynamics lead to up to 800 DC to CD4 T cell contacts per hour, with selection of T cells culminating in multiple filopodia tethering and converging to envelope the CD4 T-cell membrane with budding HIV particles. Long viral filopodial formation was dependent on the formin diaphanous 2 (Diaph2), and not a dominant Arp2/3 filopodial pathway often associated with pathogenic actin polymerization. Manipulation of HIV Nef reduced HIV transfer 25-fold by reducing viral filopodia frequency, supporting the potency of DC HIV transfer was dependent on viral filopodia abundance. Thus our observations show HIV corrupts DC to CD4 T cell interactions by physically embedding at the leading edge contacts of long DC filopodial networks. PMID:22685410

  4. Mobilization of HIV spread by diaphanous 2 dependent filopodia in infected dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available Paramount to the success of persistent viral infection is the ability of viruses to navigate hostile environments en route to future targets. In response to such obstacles, many viruses have developed the ability of establishing actin rich-membrane bridges to aid in future infections. Herein through dynamic imaging of HIV infected dendritic cells, we have observed how viral high-jacking of the actin/membrane network facilitates one of the most efficient forms of HIV spread. Within infected DC, viral egress is coupled to viral filopodia formation, with more than 90% of filopodia bearing immature HIV on their tips at extensions of 10 to 20 µm. Live imaging showed HIV filopodia routinely pivoting at their base, and projecting HIV virions at µm.sec⁻¹ along repetitive arc trajectories. HIV filopodial dynamics lead to up to 800 DC to CD4 T cell contacts per hour, with selection of T cells culminating in multiple filopodia tethering and converging to envelope the CD4 T-cell membrane with budding HIV particles. Long viral filopodial formation was dependent on the formin diaphanous 2 (Diaph2, and not a dominant Arp2/3 filopodial pathway often associated with pathogenic actin polymerization. Manipulation of HIV Nef reduced HIV transfer 25-fold by reducing viral filopodia frequency, supporting the potency of DC HIV transfer was dependent on viral filopodia abundance. Thus our observations show HIV corrupts DC to CD4 T cell interactions by physically embedding at the leading edge contacts of long DC filopodial networks.

  5. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course...... of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted...... the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...

  6. Integrase-independent HIV-1 infection is augmented under conditions of DNA damage and produces a viral reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebina, Hirotaka; Kanemura, Yuka; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Urata, Kozue; Misawa, Naoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 possesses a viral protein, integrase (IN), which is necessary for its efficient integration in target cells. However, it has been reported that an IN-defective HIV strain is still capable of integration. Here, we assessed the ability of wild type (WT) HIV-1 to establish infection in the presence of IN inhibitors. We observed a low, yet clear infection of inhibitor-incubated cells infected with WT HIV which was identical to cells infected with IN-deficient HIV, D64A. Furthermore, the IN-independent integration could be enhanced by the pretreatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents suggesting that integration is mediated by a DNA repair system. Moreover, significantly faster viral replication kinetics with augmented viral DNA integration was observed after infection in irradiated cells treated with IN inhibitor compared to nonirradiated cells. Altogether, our results suggest that HIV DNA has integration potential in the presence of an IN inhibitor and may serve as a virus reservoir.

  7. Integrase-independent HIV-1 infection is augmented under conditions of DNA damage and produces a viral reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebina, Hirotaka, E-mail: hebina@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kanemura, Yuka; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Urata, Kozue; Misawa, Naoko; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2012-05-25

    HIV-1 possesses a viral protein, integrase (IN), which is necessary for its efficient integration in target cells. However, it has been reported that an IN-defective HIV strain is still capable of integration. Here, we assessed the ability of wild type (WT) HIV-1 to establish infection in the presence of IN inhibitors. We observed a low, yet clear infection of inhibitor-incubated cells infected with WT HIV which was identical to cells infected with IN-deficient HIV, D64A. Furthermore, the IN-independent integration could be enhanced by the pretreatment of cells with DNA-damaging agents suggesting that integration is mediated by a DNA repair system. Moreover, significantly faster viral replication kinetics with augmented viral DNA integration was observed after infection in irradiated cells treated with IN inhibitor compared to nonirradiated cells. Altogether, our results suggest that HIV DNA has integration potential in the presence of an IN inhibitor and may serve as a virus reservoir.

  8. Comparative brain pathology of HIV-seronegative and HIV-infected drug addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrigeorgi-Butera, M; Hagel, C; Laas, R; Puschel, K; Stavrou, D

    1996-01-01

    Early stages of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were studied in HIV-seropositive drug addicts. Since heroin users are immunocompromized even in the absence of HIV infection, the aim of the present study was to compare the morphological alterations present in HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive drug addicts. A total of 60 cases (32 HIV-seronegative subjects, 21 HIV-seropositive patients without signs of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 7 HIV-seropositive patients with signs of AIDS) were investigated macroscopically, histologically, and immunohistochemically HIV-seronegative patients presented more frequently with acute drug intoxication, died at a significantly younger age than HIV-seropositive patients, and were found to suffer more frequently from alcohol-related changes. These results indicated that HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive patients differed possibly in their drug consumption and also in their general conditions of life. In accordance with previous reports activated microglia and a diffuse astrogliosis in the white matter were detected at a significantly higher frequency and found to be more severe in HIV-seropositive subjects than in HIV-seronegative addicts. A lymphocytic meningitis was present in 6 of 21 HIV-seropositive patients but in none of the HIV-seronegative patients. Perivascular infiltrates consisting of lymphocytes and macrophages were detected at similar frequencies in HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive patients but were significantly more severe in patients suffering from lymphocytic meningitis or purulent encephalitis. Opportunistic infections were only demonstrated in 2 AIDS cases. In 10 of the HIV-seronegative patients and in 3 of the HIV-seropositive patients CD68-and Ham56-positive multinucleated cells were detected scattered in the subarachnoidal space exclusively over the frontal cortex.

  9. Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Anna Karen; Lund, Tamara T.; Birch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy...

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Ariella; Kwena, Zachary; Lahiff, Maureen; Agot, Kawango; Minnis, Alexandra; Prata, Ndola; Lin, Jessica; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Auerswald, Colette L

    2015-01-01

    Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya. We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13-21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV. The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%), helping market vendors (55%), begging (17%), and working as porters (46%) or domestic workers (4%). Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3-7.0) participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR) = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2-67.5) and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-19.0), were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6-29.4) and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1-13.4) were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection. Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV infection that offer opportunities for targeted prevention

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Goldblatt

    Full Text Available Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya.We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13-21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV.The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%, helping market vendors (55%, begging (17%, and working as porters (46% or domestic workers (4%. Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3-7.0 participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2-67.5 and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-19.0, were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6-29.4 and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1-13.4 were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection.Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV infection that offer opportunities for targeted

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Ariella; Kwena, Zachary; Lahiff, Maureen; Agot, Kawango; Minnis, Alexandra; Prata, Ndola; Lin, Jessica; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya. Methods We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13–21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV. Results The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%), helping market vendors (55%), begging (17%), and working as porters (46%) or domestic workers (4%). Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3–7.0) participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR) = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2–67.5) and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1–19.0), were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6–29.4) and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1–13.4) were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV

  13. Delineating CD4 dependency of HIV-1: Adaptation to infect low level CD4 expressing target cells widens cellular tropism but severely impacts on envelope functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beauparlant

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the continuously declining number of the virus' predominant target cells, activated CD4+ T cells. With diminishing CD4+ T cell levels, the capacity to utilize alternate cell types and receptors, including cells that express low CD4 receptor levels such as macrophages, thus becomes crucial. To explore evolutionary paths that allow HIV-1 to acquire a wider host cell range by infecting cells with lower CD4 levels, we dissected the evolution of the envelope-CD4 interaction under in vitro culture conditions that mimicked the decline of CD4high target cells, using a prototypic subtype B, R5-tropic strain. Adaptation to CD4low targets proved to severely alter envelope functions including trimer opening as indicated by a higher affinity to CD4 and loss in shielding against neutralizing antibodies. We observed a strikingly decreased infectivity on CD4high target cells, but sustained infectivity on CD4low targets, including macrophages. Intriguingly, the adaptation to CD4low targets altered the kinetic of the entry process, leading to rapid CD4 engagement and an extended transition time between CD4 and CCR5 binding during entry. This phenotype was also observed for certain central nervous system (CNS derived macrophage-tropic viruses, highlighting that the functional perturbation we defined upon in vitro adaptation to CD4low targets occurs in vivo. Collectively, our findings suggest that CD4low adapted envelopes may exhibit severe deficiencies in entry fitness and shielding early in their evolution. Considering this, adaptation to CD4low targets may preferentially occur in a sheltered and immune-privileged environment such as the CNS to allow fitness restoring compensatory mutations to occur.

  14. Classification, diagnostic criteria, and treatment recommendations for orofacial manifestations in HIV-infected pediatric patients. Collaborative Workgroup on Oral Manifestations of Pediatric HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Flaitz, C; Catapano, P; Murray, P; Milnes, A R; Dorenbaum, A

    1999-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosis of HIV-related oral lesions in adults are well established, but corresponding criteria in the pediatric population are not as well defined. The Collaborative Workgroup on the Oral Manifestations of Pediatric HIV infection reached a consensus, based upon available data, as to the presumptive and definitive criteria to diagnose the oral manifestations of HIV infection in children. Presumptive criteria refer to the clinical features of the lesions, including signs and symptoms, whereas definitive criteria require specific laboratory tests. In general, it is recommended that definitive criteria be established whenever possible. Orofacial manifestations have been divided into three groups: 1) those commonly associated with pediatric HIV infection; 2) those less commonly associated with pediatric HIV infection; and 3) those strongly associated with HIV infection but rare in children. Orofacial lesions commonly associated with pediatric HIV infection include candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, linear gingival erythema, parotid enlargement, and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. In contrast, orofacial lesions strongly associated with HIV infection but rare in children include Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and oral hairy leukoplakia. Treatment recommendations, specific for this age group, have been included for some of the more common HIV-related orofacial manifestations.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF HIV/AIDS INFECTION IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Dewati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years since identified for the first time, the disease ofHIV/AIDS spread and cause greater damage than the previous prediction. According to the Director General ofP2M and Environmental Sanitation Department ofHealth by the end of1999, there were 1066 people in Indonesia who are infected with HIV even though this must be realized that the rate is still far lower than the actual numbers, because there are many cases ofHIV infection reported in addition to energy awareness health ofthe possibility ofHIV infection has not been evenly distributed. Management of HIV infection/AIDS in pregnancy is done in time of antepartum, intrapartum and post partum, for mother and the baby, in general and specific. The important matters include the use ofART, nutrition and psychological support. Prevention and management ofopportunistic infections to PWHA are not different with that ofnon pregnant woman. However, it is not routinely advised because ofdrug toxicity.

  16. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Olugbenga-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9+7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents’ knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.

  17. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons. PMID:25763387

  18. Analysis of HIV Diversity in HIV-Infected Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (HPTN 061.

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    Iris Chen

    Full Text Available HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study.A high resolution melting (HRM diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm, and for 21 men who seroconverted during the study. HIV diversification was analyzed in a paired analysis for 62 HIV-infected men using plasma samples from the enrollment and 12-month (end of study visits.Men with acute or recent infection at enrollment and seroconverters had lower median HRM scores (lower HIV diversity than men with non-recent infection in all six regions analyzed. In univariate analyses, younger age, higher CD4 cell count, and HIV drug resistance were associated with lower median HRM scores in multiple regions; ARV drug detection was marginally associated with lower diversity in the pol region. In multivariate analysis, acute or recent infection (all six regions and HIV drug resistance (both gag regions were associated with lower median HRM scores. Diversification in the pol region over 12 months was greater for men with acute or recent infection, higher CD4 cell count, and lower HIV viral load at study enrollment.HIV diversity was significantly associated with duration of HIV infection, and lower gag diversity was observed in men who had HIV drug resistance. HIV pol diversification was more pronounced in men with acute or recent infection, higher CD4 cell count, and lower HIV viral load.

  19. Risk factors for prevalent hepatitis C virus-infection among inmates in a state prison system in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012.Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011-2012. We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection.We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6-5.9. Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%. Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5-23.4, sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7-81.7 and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1-3.9, but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection.The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration. High-risk behaviors during

  20. Placental pathology in HIV infection at term: a comparison with HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalk, Emma; Schubert, Pawel; Bettinger, Julie A; Cotton, Mark F; Esser, Monika; Slogrove, Amy; Wright, Colleen A

    2017-05-01

    To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n = 120) and HIV-negative (n = 103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. Data were analysed using logistic regression. HIV-infected women were older (median [IQR] 27.4 years [24-31] vs. 25.8 [23-30]), more likely to be multiparous (81.7% vs. 71.8%) and had lower CD4 counts (median [IQR] 323.5 cells/ml [235-442] vs. 467 [370-656]). There were no differences in gestational age at first antenatal visit or at delivery. The proportion of specimens with placental lesions was similar in both groups (39.2% vs. 44.7%). Half of all samples were below the tenth percentile expected-weight-for-gestation regardless of HIV status. This was unaffected by adjustment for confounding variables. Maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) was more frequent in HIV infection (24.2% vs. 12.6%; P = 0.028), an association which strengthened after adjustment (aOR 2.90 [95% confidence interval 1.11-7.57]). Otherwise the frequency of individual diagnoses did not differ between the groups on multivariate analysis. In this cohort of term, uncomplicated pregnant women, few differences were observed between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups apart from MVM. This lesion may underlie the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, which have been observed at higher rates in some HIV-infected women on ART. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Antiviral Activity of HIV gp120 Targeting Bispecific T Cell Engager (BiTE®) Antibody Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozy, Johannes; Schlaepfer, Erika; Mueller, Christina K S; Rochat, Mary-Aude; Rampini, Silvana K; Myburgh, Renier; Raum, Tobias; Kufer, Peter; Baeuerle, Patrick A; Muenz, Markus; Speck, Roberto F

    2018-05-02

    Today's gold standard in HIV therapy is the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). It requires strict adherence by patients and life-long medication, which can lower the viral load below detection limits and prevent HIV-associated immunodeficiency, but cannot cure patients. The bispecific T cell engaging (BiTE®) antibody technology has demonstrated long-term relapse-free outcomes in patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia. We here generated BiTE® antibody constructs that target the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 (HIV gp120) using either the scFv B12 or VRC01, the first two extracellular domains (1+2) of human CD4 alone or joined to the single chain variable fragment (scFv) of the antibody 17b fused to an anti-human CD3ϵ scFv. These engineered human BiTE® antibody constructs showed engagement of T cells for redirected lysis of HIV gp120-transfected CHO cells. Furthermore, they substantially inhibited HIV-1 replication in PBMCs as well as in macrophages co-cultured with autologous CD8+ T-cells, the most potent being the human CD4(1+2) BiTE® antibody construct and the CD4(1+2)L17b BiTE® antibody construct. The CD4(1+2) h BiTE® antibody construct promoted HIV infection of human CD4-/CD8+ T cells. In contrast, the neutralizing B12 and the VRC01 BiTE® antibody constructs as well as the CD4(1+2)L17b BiTE® antibody construct did not. Thus, BiTE® antibody constructs targeting HIV gp120 are very promising for constraining HIV and warrant further development as novel antiviral therapy with curative potential. Importance HIV is a chronic infection well controlled with the current cART. However, we lack cure of HIV, and the HIV pandemic goes on. Here we showed in vitro and ex vivo t hat a bispecific T-cell engaging (BiTE®) antibody construct targeting HIV gp120 resulted in substantially reduced HIV replication. In addition, these BiTE® antibody constructs display efficient killing of gp120 expressing cells and inhibited replication in ex vivo

  2. Interferon α subtypes in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Kathrin; Dickow, Julia; Dittmer, Ulf

    2018-02-13

    Type I interferons (IFN), which are immediately induced after most virus infections, are central for direct antiviral immunity and link innate and adaptive immune responses. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to evade the IFN response by preventing IFN induction or blocking IFN signaling pathways. Thus, therapeutic application of exogenous type I IFN or agonists inducing type I IFN responses are a considerable option for future immunotherapies against chronic viral infections. An important part of the type I IFN family are 12 IFNα subtypes, which all bind the same receptor, but significantly differ in their biological activities. Up to date only one IFNα subtype (IFNα2) is being used in clinical treatment against chronic virus infections, however its therapeutic success rate is rather limited, especially during Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Recent studies addressed the important question if other IFNα subtypes would be more potent against retroviral infections in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Indeed, very potent IFNα subtypes were defined and their antiviral and immunomodulatory properties were characterized. In this review we summarize the recent findings on the role of individual IFNα subtypes during HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus infection. This includes their induction during HIV/SIV infection, their antiretroviral activity and the regulation of immune response against HIV by different IFNα subtypes. The findings might facilitate novel strategies for HIV cure or functional cure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fracture risk by HIV infection status in perinatally HIV-exposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siberry, George K; Li, Hong; Jacobson, Denise

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of fractures in HIV-infected children and comparable HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children in a multicenter, prospective cohort study (PACTG 219/219C) in the United States. The main outcome was first fracture during the risk period. Nine fractures occurred in 7 of 1326 HIV-infected and 2 of 649 HEU children, corresponding to incidence rates of 1.2 per 1000 person-years and 1.1 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The incidence rate ratio was 1.1 (95% CI 0.2, 5.5). There was no evidence of a substantially increased risk of fracture in HIV-infected compared to HEU children.

  4. Global oral inequalities in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, S J

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection globally reveal striking variances with regard to continent, country, region and gender. Of the global total of 33 million people infected with HIV, approximately 65% are in sub-Saharan African countries and 15% in South and South-East Asia with the remaining 20% spread over the rest of the world. As a percentage of the population, the Caribbean at 1.1% is second only to sub-Saharan Africa (5.5%). The majority of the world's HIV is in women. Deaths from HIV are twenty-fold greater in Africa than in Europe or the USA. Individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa show huge variances in the HIV+ prevalence with most West African countries having a rate of less than 2% whilst southern African countries including Swaziland and Botswana have rates of around 25%. Environment, education and social habits all contribute to the HIV infection rates. Similar variations between countries are seen in SE Asia with Cambodia and Papua New Guinea having rates three times greater than Pakistan. One of the most striking examples of inequality is in life years added to HIV populations as a result of antiretroviral therapy. UN AIDS figures over 1996-2008 suggest an average of 2.88 added years in the USA and Europe, but only 0.1 in sub-Saharan Africa, a thirty-fold difference largely due to accessibility to ART. ART leads to a reduction in oral lesions but it is estimated that some 10 million HIV+ subjects do not have access to oral care. Thus, inequalities exist both for HIV infection and for the associated oral lesions, mainly related to ART access. HIV infection and oral mucosal lesions both appear to be related to general social determinants of health. Oral HCW must be part of mainstream healthcare teams to address these inequalities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cerebro-meningeal infections in HIV-infected patients: a study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cerebro-meningeal pathology is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the aetiology is often difficult to ascertain with certainty. Objective: To describe the major suspected and identified causes of meningeal or encephalitic syndromes in HIV infection in Libreville, Gabon. Methods: A ...

  6. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Possible biochemical impact of malaria infection in subjects with HIV co-infection in Anambra state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyenekwe, C C; Ukibe, N; Meludu, S C; Ifeanyi, M; Ezeani, M; Onochie, A; Ofiaeli, N; Aboh, N; Ilika, A

    2008-06-01

    The present study was designed to determine possible contributory impact of malaria infection on some biochemical markers in subjects with HIV co-infection in order to know if they are adverse or protective. Participants were recruited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria and grouped into: (i) Malaria and HIV co-infection group (n = 45); and (ii) HIV infected group without concurrent malaria infection (n = 57). Standard laboratory methods were used for the HIV and Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density, CD4+ T-cell count, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, serum iron and albumin concentrations. The results showed that serum iron and albumin were significantly reduced and raised respectively in 'Malaria-HIV co-infection group' compared with 'HIV infection group' (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05). A positive association was observed between age and serum iron concentration in malaria and HIV co-infected group (r = 0.580; p < 0.05) while negative associations were observed between PCV and serum iron (r = - 0.388; p < 0.05) and between CD4+ T-cells and serum iron concentration (r = -0.362; p < 0.05) in malaria and HIV co-infected group. The CD4+ T-cell count, WBC count, PCV were not significantly different between the Malaria-HIV co-infection group and HIV infection group. In the present study serum iron and albumin concentrations were the most sensitive indicators that showed the contributory impact of malaria infection on biochemical index in HIV co-infected subjects. The findings suggest that at the defined stage of HIV infection in the present study, malaria co-infection may moderate the impact of HIV infection on iron metabolism and hepatic synthesis of albumin.

  8. Prevalence of HIV Infection and Risk Factors Among Female Sex Workers in a Southeast Province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tri; Stewart, Donald Edwin; Lee, Chiao Tzu Patricia; Dang, Thi Nhu Hang

    2017-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at heightened risk of HIV infection. This research aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and relevant risk factors and related behavior among FSWs in Ba Ria - Vung Tau, a southeast province of Vietnam. 420 FSWs were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and biological samples tested for HIV. 2.6 % were found to be HIV positive. HIV infection was significantly higher in FSWs who had low income (≤AUD 200 per month), have had anal sex, have had sex with injecting drug users, and had a low level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Improved employment opportunities and income are important to reduce the pressure for young women to engage in sex work for income purposes, but in public health terms, existing HIV treatment, prevention and intervention programs needs better targeting and improvements to reduce the risk of HIV infection.

  9. High prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a Brazilian prison: identification of risk factors for infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Guimarães

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes infectious hepatitis worldwide. It is transmitted mainly by blood products and sharing of intravenous paraphernalia during illicit drug use. High prevalence rates have been described among specific groups considered to be at higher risk for HCV infection, including prison inmates. The objectives of this study were: to determine the HCV seroprevalence among inmates of Casa de Detenção de São Paulo; to identify risk factors for HCV infection; and to compare the seroprevalence of HCV to other blood borne or sexually transmitted diseases. From December, 1993, to January, 1994, a total of 779 inmates were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, and past experience with illicit drugs. Blood samples were obtained from 756 inmates for serological tests. 310 (41% blood samples were positive for anti-HCV, 425 (56.2% were negative, and 21 (2.8% showed indeterminate results. In this population, we found a seroprevalence of 13.7% for HIV, 3.3% for syphilis (VDRL, and 68.1% for hepatitis B virus previous infection. Four variables were each identified as associated with a positive anti-HCV serologic test: a positive VDRL (OR = 2.63 IC 95% 1.08 to 6.36; a time of current imprisonment longer than 130 months (OR = 2.44 IC 95% 1.04 to 5.71; previous incarceration at Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.73 IC 95% 1.19 to 2.52 and; illicit drug use before admission to the Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.64 IC 95% 1.15 to 2.33. The seroprevalence of HCV antibodies among the study population was high (41%, indeed, one of the highest clusters of HCV infection recorded until now. Four variables were each shown to be associated with HCV infection. The simultaneous presence of these 4 variables is associated with an 82% probability of being anti-HCV positive. Although risk factor analysis indicates most HCV infections occur prior to inprisonment, initiation of control measures to prevent

  10. Transmission of tuberculosis in the prison of Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolofo-Razanamparany, V; Ménard, D; Ratsitorahina, M; Aurégan, G; Gicquel, B; Chanteau, S

    2000-11-01

    The prevalence of tuberculosis in the Antananarivo prison is 16 times higher than that in the general population of Madagascar. We compared the clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains within and outside the prison and studied the transmission of strains in the prison. M. tuberculosis strains isolated in 1994 to 1995 from 146 prisoners and from 260 nonprisoner patients from Antananarivo were typed using the genetic markers IS6110 and direct repeat. We compared the strains isolated from prisoners and nonprisoners and found that the clustering rate was higher within (58.9%) than outside the prison (40%) suggesting that the transmission rate was higher in prison. Of the 146 incarcerated patients, 82 were grouped into 22 clusters. We checked for possible tuberculosis transmission between prisoners with identical strains by epidemiological investigation of the various prison clusters. We found that 9.5% of the incarcerated patients could have been sources of infection and that only 15.1% could have been infected in the prison. One hundred and twenty-seven prison patients were new cases. Epidemiological data suggested that 37% of them resulted from a reactivation of an old infection, due to poor living conditions or recent transmission from an index case outside the prison.

  11. Burden and Determinants of Smoking among Prisoners with Respiratory Tract Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nine Major Prison Setups in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Semaw Ferede; Adane, Kelemework

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and a wide range of associated risk factors are disproportionately clustered among prisoners compared to the general population. Smoking is one of the risk factors for the increased burden of unfavorable health outcomes particularly among prisoners. However, little is known about the level and determinants of smoking among the incarcerated population in Ethiopia. We collected data from 738 prisoners in nine major prison setups in Tigray region by nurses and clinical officers. Data were entered in to Epi Data 3.1 and exported to stata 13.0 for cleaning and further analysis. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify determinants of smoking at p value of less than 5%. The prevalence of smoking was 21 per cent (95%CI = 18.2%, 24.1). Urban residence (AOR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.20, 3.84), previous history of incarceration (AOR = 1.91; 95%CI = 1.08, 3.40) and alcohol use before incarcerated (AOR = 4.20; 95%CI = 2.57, 6.87) were significantly associated with risk of smoking. In contrast, risk of smoking was significantly lower for farmers (AOR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.08, 0.49), prisoners with family support (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.87) and for those who were jailed in Shire prison site (AOR = 0.43; 95%CI = 0.20, 0.95). Our work clearly indicates that the observed smoking prevalence calls for the need of comprehensive and interdisciplinary interventions targeting prisoners.

  12. Burden and Determinants of Smoking among Prisoners with Respiratory Tract Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study of Nine Major Prison Setups in Northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semaw Ferede Abera

    Full Text Available Morbidity, mortality and a wide range of associated risk factors are disproportionately clustered among prisoners compared to the general population. Smoking is one of the risk factors for the increased burden of unfavorable health outcomes particularly among prisoners. However, little is known about the level and determinants of smoking among the incarcerated population in Ethiopia.We collected data from 738 prisoners in nine major prison setups in Tigray region by nurses and clinical officers. Data were entered in to Epi Data 3.1 and exported to stata 13.0 for cleaning and further analysis. Multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify determinants of smoking at p value of less than 5%.The prevalence of smoking was 21 per cent (95%CI = 18.2%, 24.1. Urban residence (AOR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.20, 3.84, previous history of incarceration (AOR = 1.91; 95%CI = 1.08, 3.40 and alcohol use before incarcerated (AOR = 4.20; 95%CI = 2.57, 6.87 were significantly associated with risk of smoking. In contrast, risk of smoking was significantly lower for farmers (AOR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.08, 0.49, prisoners with family support (AOR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.87 and for those who were jailed in Shire prison site (AOR = 0.43; 95%CI = 0.20, 0.95.Our work clearly indicates that the observed smoking prevalence calls for the need of comprehensive and interdisciplinary interventions targeting prisoners.

  13. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001 ...

  14. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ble exposure to HIV infection and associated risk fac- tors, information regarding demographic data, blood transfusion history, travelling from/to HIV endemic countries, history of imprisonment in the past 5 years, symptoms and signs of AIDS, lifestyle (number of sexu- al partners, heterosexual, homosexual, etc.) was collect-.

  15. Anaemia among HIV infected children attending care and treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Anaemia is common among HIV infected patients; causes of anaemia in these patients are multifactorial. Anemia is noted as one of important predictors of outcome in HIV infected patients. Tis study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia among HIV infected children attending HIV clinic at ...

  16. HIV avidity index performance using a modified fourth-generation immunoassay to detect recent HIV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suligoi, Barbara; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Rodella, Anna; Terlenghi, Luigina; Caruso, Arnaldo; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Zanchetta, Nadia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Galli, Claudio

    2017-10-26

    Detecting recent HIV infections is important to evaluate incidence and monitor epidemic trends. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and accuracy of the avidity index (AI) for discriminating for recent HIV infections. We collected serum samples from HIV-1 positive individuals: A) with known date of infection (midpoint in time between last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive test); B) infected for >1 year. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one diluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the other with 1 M guanidine. Both aliquots were assayed by the Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo 4th generation assay (Abbott). We compared AI found in recent (RI=HIV subtype had no impact on AI misclassifications. All individuals in group A reached the AI threshold of 0.80 within 24 months after seroconversion. The AI is an accurate serological marker for discriminating recent from established HIV infections and meets WHO requirements for HIV incidence assays.

  17. [HIV infection and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A

    2016-01-01

    Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Dilemmas of Childhood HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudigier, Anne F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Increase in number of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and consequential developmental disabilities of these children are discussed. Families caring for HIV-infected children express four recurrent themes: psychological stress, grief and mourning, guilt and self-blame, and isolation and fear of discrimination. Flexible…

  20. Redefining Aging in HIV Infection Using Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoff, David M; Goodkin, Karl; Jeste, Dilip; Marquine, Maria

    2017-10-01

    This article critically reviews the utility of "phenotypes" as behavioral descriptors in aging/HIV research that inform biological underpinnings and treatment development. We adopt a phenotypic redefinition of aging conceptualized within a broader context of HIV infection and of aging. Phenotypes are defined as dimensions of behavior, closely related to fundamental mechanisms, and, thus, may be more informative than chronological age. Primary emphasis in this review is given to comorbid aging and cognitive aging, though other phenotypes (i.e., disability, frailty, accelerated aging, successful aging) are also discussed in relation to comorbid aging and cognitive aging. The main findings that emerged from this review are as follows: (1) the phenotypes, comorbid aging and cognitive aging, are distinct from each other, yet overlapping; (2) associative relationships are the rule in HIV for comorbid and cognitive aging phenotypes; and (3) HIV behavioral interventions for both comorbid aging and cognitive aging have been limited. Three paths for research progress are identified for phenotype-defined aging/HIV research (i.e., clinical and behavioral specification, biological mechanisms, intervention targets), and some important research questions are suggested within each of these research paths.

  1. Symptomatic HIV infection in infancy - clinical and laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in infancy - clinical and laboratory markers of infection. M P Meyer, Z Latief, C Haworlh, 5 Salie,. A van Dyk. Objective. To investigate the usefulness of immunological tests in the diagnosis of HIV infection in young symptomatic children « 15 months of age). Design. Tests were evaluated in HIV-infected (HIV antibody- and ...

  2. Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone mineral density abnormalities in HIV infected patients and HIV ... Comprehensive Care Clinic (CCC) and a HIV negative control group seen at the ... Older patients had lower levels of BMD (i.e. more negative BMD. p-value = 0.032).

  3. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.

  4. Gastrointestinal immune responses in HIV infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRR Castello-Branco

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.

  5. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  6. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharaksa, Anjalee; Asrani, Anil C; Gebhard, Kristin H; Fasching, Claudine E; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Janoff, Edward N; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

    2008-07-17

    Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells) were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Deltaenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+) by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  7. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacaman Rodrigo A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. Results To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Δenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+ by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Conclusion Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  8. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  9. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRicco, Josephine G.; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C.; Roan, Nadia R.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248–286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86–107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection. PMID:27226574

  10. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRicco, Josephine G; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C; Roan, Nadia R; Makhatadze, George I

    2016-07-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248-286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86-107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, W.U.Z.; Malik, I.A.; Hassan, Z.U.; Hannan, A.; Ahmad, M.

    1993-01-01

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  12. Risk factors for HIV infection in injection drug users and evidence for onward transmission of HIV to their sexual partners in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Samiran; Kumar, M Suresh; Lokabiraman, S; Jayashree, K; Satagopan, M C; Solomon, Suniti; Rao, Usha Anand; Rangaiyan, Gurumurthy; Flessenkaemper, Sabine; Grosskurth, Heiner; Gupte, Mohan D

    2005-05-01

    Determining HIV prevalence in injection drug users (IDUs) and their regular sex partners in Chennai, India. A total of 226 IDUs and their regular sex partners were enrolled during April-July 2003. After informed consent was obtained, a semistructured questionnaire was administered and serum was tested for HIV antibody. The HIV seroprevalence was 30% (68/226) in IDUs and 5% in their regular sex partners (11/226). While in 25% of couples only the male partner was HIV positive, 5% of the couples were concordant for HIV infection and 70% were HIV negative. Fifty-seven percent of the HIV-positive IDUs and 45% of the HIV-infected women thought that they had "no chance" or "very little chance" of getting HIV, reflecting low HIV risk perception. More than 20% IDUs reported borrowing or lending of injection equipment. In univariate analyses "sex" and "condom use" with sex workers had no bearing but "more than twice a day injecting frequency," "history of incarceration," "tattoos," "recruitment from northern part of the city," and ever-injecting drugs in drug-selling places had significant association with HIV infection in IDUs. In an adjusted model, the odds of HIV infection were 2 times higher among IDUs who had ever injected drugs in drug-selling places and 6 times higher in those who were recruited from the northern part of central Chennai. Reducing sharing of injection equipment and unsafe tattooing through targeted and environmental interventions, increasing HIV risk perception, and promoting safer sex practices among IDUs and their sex partners are urgent program needs.

  13. Inefficient HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells by macrophages from HIV-1 nonprogressors is associated with altered membrane cholesterol and DC-SIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Diana C; Rinaldo, Charles R; Rappocciolo, Giovanna

    2018-04-11

    Professional antigen presenting cells (APC: myeloid dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MΦ); B lymphocytes) mediate highly efficient HIV-1 infection of CD4 + T cells, termed trans infection, that could contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have previously shown that lower cholesterol content in DC and B lymphocytes is associated with a lack of HIV-1 trans infection in HIV-1 infected nonprogressors (NP). Here we assessed whether HIV-1 trans infection mediated by another major APC, MΦ, is deficient in NP due to altered cholesterol metabolism. When comparing healthy HIV-1 seronegatives (SN), rapid progressors (PR), and NP, we found that monocyte-derived MΦ from NP did not mediate HIV-1 trans infection of autologous CD4 + T cells, in contrast to efficient trans infection mediated by SN and PR MΦ. MΦ trans infection efficiency was directly associated with the number of DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)-expressing MΦ. Significantly fewer NP MΦ expressed DC-SIGN. Unesterified (free) cholesterol in MΦ cell membranes and lipid rafting was significantly lower in NP than PR, as well as virus internalization in early endosomes. Furthermore, simvastatin (SIMV), decreased the subpopulation of DC-SIGN + MΦ, as well as MΦ cis and trans infection. Notably, SIMV decreased cell membrane cholesterol and led to lipid raft dissociation, effectively mimicking the incompetent APC trans infection environment characteristic of NP. Our data support that DC-SIGN and membrane cholesterol are central to MΦ trans infection, and a lack of these limits HIV-1 disease progression. Targeting the ability of MΦ to drive HIV-1 dissemination in trans could enhance HIV-1 therapeutic strategies. IMPORTANCE Despite the success of combination anti-retroviral therapy, neither a vaccine nor a cure for HIV infection has been developed, demonstrating a need for novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. Here we show that efficiency of macrophage (M

  14. Comorbidity and ageing in HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, K.W.

    2017-01-01

    In the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the HIV-infected population is ageing. Studies have suggested that HIV-infected individuals, even if appropriately treated with cART, may be at increased risk for several age-related conditions. In this thesis a variety of age-related

  15. HBV or HCV Coinfection in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women in France: Prevalence and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Valérie; Tubiana, Roland; Matheron, Sophie; Sellier, Pierre; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Chenadec, Jérôme Le; Marel, Emmanuelle; Khoshnood, Babak; Warszawski, Josiane

    2018-04-15

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequent in HIV-infected persons but their impact on pregnant HIV-infected women is understudied. We explored whether these coinfections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and lower response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Pregnancies in HIV-1-infected women included in the ANRS French Perinatal Cohort between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed if HBV and HCV infection statuses were available. Among 4236 women, the prevalence of HBV (HBs Ag+) and HCV (RNA+) were 6.2% (95% confidence interval: 5.4 to 6.8) and 1.7% (1.3 to 2.1), respectively. HCV coinfection was strongly associated with a history of drug use; HBV coinfection was 6 times more frequent in women born in Sub-Saharan Africa than in European France. Baseline HIV viral load, CD4 count, and HIV care during pregnancy were similar in coinfected and monoinfected HIV mothers, except that 90% of HBV/HIV women were receiving tenofovir and/or lamivudine or emtricitabine. HCV coinfection was significantly associated with cholestasis [adjusted odds ratio: 4.1 (1.5-10.8), P = 0.005], preterm delivery [3.0 (1.6-5.7), P HIV-infected women, chronic HBV infection, mostly treated using targeted ART, had no major impact on the course of pregnancy. By contrast, chronic HCV infection was associated with a higher risk of obstetrical complications and a poorer immune-virological response to ART. It is yet unknown whether cure of HCV infection before conception can limit these adverse outcomes.

  16. HIV/AIDS, Drug Abuse Treatment, and the Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses in-prison prevalence and transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Focuses on epidemiology in prison settings, the role of ethnicity and gender in transmission, screening for HIV, segregating the HIV-positive inmate, condom distribution, medical treatment for HIV-positive inmates, HIV education and prevention, and tuberculosis…

  17. HIV/STI interventions targeting women who experience forced sex: A systematic review of global literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Ingram, LaDrea; Stafford, Crystal; Li, Xiaoming

    2018-04-12

    Women are disproportionately affected by HIV in many regions of the world and they represent the fastest growing demographic in the HIV epidemic. In addition, sexual violence against women is a global public health issue which increases women's vulnerability of HIV/STI acquisition. However, the relationship between sexual violence and HIV/STI risk are complex and contribute to the growing epidemic of women infected with HIV/STIs. Our purpose for this review is to examine existing HIV/STI interventions that target women who experience forced sex. Interventions designed to address women's unique needs in HIV/STI prevention are critical in reducing women's vulnerability to HIV/STIs.

  18. Cellular Antiviral Factors that Target Particle Infectivity of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffinet, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the identification and characterization of antiviral genes with the ability to interfere with virus replication has established cell-intrinsic innate immunity as a third line of antiviral defense in addition to adaptive and classical innate immunity. Understanding how cellular factors have evolved to inhibit HIV-1 reveals particularly vulnerable points of the viral replication cycle. Many, but not all, antiviral proteins share type I interferon-upregulated expression and sensitivity to viral counteraction or evasion measures. Whereas well-established restriction factors interfere with early post-entry steps and release of HIV-1, recent research has revealed a diverse set of proteins that reduce the infectious quality of released particles using individual, to date poorly understood modes of action. These include induction of paucity of mature glycoproteins in nascent virions or self-incorporation into the virus particle, resulting in poor infectiousness of the virion and impaired spread of the infection. A better understanding of these newly discovered antiviral factors may open new avenues towards the design of drugs that repress the spread of viruses whose genomes have already integrated.

  19. Care of children with HIV infection and AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marum, L H; Tindyebwa, D; Gibb, D

    1997-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality, especially in Africa. The UN Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that 85% of the 2.6 million children with HIV infection are from sub-Saharan Africa. About 650,000 children are living with HIV/AIDS and approximately 1000 infected infants are born every day in Africa. Since few of the 7 million infected African women have access to HIV testing and counseling, not to mention interventions such as AZT to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to their infants, the high incidence of HIV-infected children in Africa will likely continue for some time. The countries of east and southern Africa and several countries in west Africa have the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world. The development of cost-effective strategies to provide care and improve the quality of life of HIV-infected infants and children in Africa should be a priority area for increased research and support. The authors describe progress in understanding the natural history of HIV infection in African children, review strategies for managing HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings, and discuss issues of community response and counseling for children.

  20. IL-15 STIMULATED NATURAL KILLER CELLS CLEAR HIV-1 INFECTED CELLS FOLLOWING LATENCY REVERSAL EX VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Carolina; Abad-Fernandez, Maria; Tuyishime, Marina; Pollara, Justin J; Ferrari, Guido; Soriano-Sarabia, Natalia; Margolis, David M

    2018-03-28

    Current efforts towards HIV eradication include approaches to augment immune recognition and elimination of persistently infected cells following latency reversal. Natural killer (NK) cells, the main effectors of the innate immune system, recognize and clear targets using different mechanisms than CD8 + T cells, offering an alternative or complementary approach for HIV clearance strategies. We assessed the impact of IL-15 treatment on NK cell function and the potential of stimulated NK cells to clear the HIV reservoir. We measured NK cell receptor expression, antibody-dependent cell-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), cytotoxicity, IFN-γ production and antiviral activity in autologous HIV replication systems. All NK cell functions were uniformly improved by IL-15, and more importantly, IL-15-treated NK cells were able to clear latently HIV infected cells after exposure to vorinostat, a clinically relevant latency reversing agent. We also demonstrate that NK cells from HIV infected individuals aviremic on antiretroviral therapy can be efficiently stimulated with IL-15. Our work opens a promising line of investigation towards future immunotherapies to clear persistent HIV infection using NK cells. IMPORTANCE In the search for an HIV cure, strategies to enhance immune function to allow recognition and clearance of HIV infected cells following latency reversal are being evaluated. Natural killer (NK) cells possess characteristics that can be exploited for immunotherapy against persistent HIV infection. We demonstrate that NK cells from HIV-positive donors can be strongly stimulated with IL-15, improving their antiviral and cytotoxic potential, and more importantly, clearing HIV infected cells after latency reversal with a clinically relevant drug. Our results encourage further investigation to design NK cell-based immunotherapies to achieve HIV eradication. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Country of infection among HIV-infected patients born abroad living in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adriouch, Leila; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Adenis, Antoine; Couppié, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Over 75% of patients in the HIV cohort in French Guiana are of foreign origin. Our objective was to estimate what proportion of the migrant population of HIV-infected patients in Cayenne had been infected in French Guiana. We included patients of known foreign origin who were followed in Cayenne, for whom the year of arrival in French Guiana was known and the initial CD4 count at the time of diagnosis was available. The time between seroconversion and time at diagnosis was estimated using the formula [square root (CD4 at seroconversion)-square root(CD4 at HIV diagnosis)] / slope of CD4 decline.CD4 counts at the time of infection and the slope were computed in an age and ethnicity-dependent variable. The median estimated time between infection and diagnosis was 4.5 years (IQR = 0.2-9.2). Overall, using a median estimate of CD4 count at the time of infection, it was estimated that 53.2% (95% CI = 48.3-58%) of HIV infected foreign patients had acquired HIV after having arrived in French Guiana. Patients having arrived in French Guiana before and during the 1990s and those receiving their HIV diagnosis before 2010 were more likely to have been infected in French Guiana. Contrary to widespread belief suggesting that most migrants are already HIV-infected when they arrive in French Guiana, a large proportion of foreign HIV patients seem acquire the virus in French Guiana.There is still much to do in terms of primary prevention and testing among migrants.

  2. Targeted Delivery of Glucan Particle Encapsulated Gallium Nanoparticles Inhibits HIV Growth in Human Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto R. Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucan particles (GPs are hollow, porous 3–5 μm microspheres derived from the cell walls of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The 1,3-β-glucan outer shell provides for receptor-mediated uptake by phagocytic cells expressing β-glucan receptors. GPs have been used for macrophage-targeted delivery of a wide range of payloads (DNA, siRNA, protein, small molecules, and nanoparticles encapsulated inside the hollow GPs or bound to the surface of chemically derivatized GPs. Gallium nanoparticles have been proposed as an inhibitory agent against HIV infection. Here, macrophage targeting of gallium using GPs provides for more efficient delivery of gallium and inhibition of HIV infection in macrophages compared to free gallium nanoparticles.

  3. Cancer clinical trials in persons with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    The era of modern HIV therapeutics is well underway. The cancer and infectious disease epidemiology of HIV disease has markedly altered as populations are availed to the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). The types of cancers occurring among those with HIV infection has broadened but the case burden in absolute numbers is very low relative to the background population. There are fewer incident cases of the AIDS-defining cancers (aggressive B-cell lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cervical cancer). There is an increased risk for certain non-AIDS-defining cancers, but these occur somewhat sporadically relative to clinical trial enrollment. The changing epidemiology of cancer in HIV poses challenges as well as opportunities for participation of persons with HIV in cancer therapy clinical trials. There are excellent examples of cancer trials that inform cancer therapy for patients with HIV infection. Examples include those from HIV-specific trials and from trials mainly focused on the background population that included patients with HIV infection. Interpretation of clinical trials to guide therapy for those with HIV infection and cancer largely depends on data that does not include HIV-infected patients. The ability to extend clinical trial findings to populations not included in clinical trials remains problematic for a variety of populations, including those with HIV or AIDS. Careful prioritization of studies designed to bridge this gap is needed. However, there are published studies that serve as excellent examples bridging these gaps and the portfolio of cancer therapy trials underway will inform HIV and cancer better than at any time in the past.

  4. HIV and syphilis infection among gold and diamond miners--Guyana, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguy, N; Denniston, M; Hladik, W; Edwards, M; Lafleur, C; Singh-Anthony, S; Diaz, T

    2008-11-01

    Guyana had an estimated HIVprevalence of 1.5% among pregnant women in 2006 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-1.9). However, a survey of miners in one mine found a 6.5% HIV prevalence in 2002. To determine whether Guyanese miners are at high risk for HIV infection we conducted a HIV and syphilis prevalence survey of miners in several mines. Adult male consenting miners in 45 Guyanese mines were interviewed, counselled, tested for HIV and syphilis with rapid tests and provided onsite test results. The survey was cross-sectional and used a multi-stage cluster sampling design; population estimates were calculated using SUDAAN. Of 651 miners approached, 539 (83%) were interviewed and 509 (78%) tested. The estimated prevalence for HIV was 3.9% (CI = 2.1, 7.1) and for life-time syphilis exposure was 6.4% (CI = 4.5, 9.1). Fifty-four per cent (CI = 41.3, 66.7) of miners had casual sex during the preceding year, of whom 44.4% (CI = 34.3, 55.0) had always used condoms with these partners. The estimated HIV prevalence among Guyanese miners was higher than that of the general population. Targeted interventions including condom promotion are recommended to prevent further spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among miners.

  5. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  6. Lack of HIV infection among truck drivers in Iran using rapid HIV test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Jabbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HIV infection in Iranian long distance truck drivers using rapid HIV test. Methods: The study included 400 consecutive participants in Bazargan city, north-west of Iran in the late 2008 and the early 2009. Results: No HIV infection was observed among these long distance truck drivers. Conclusions: Although results of this study is plausible compared to other similar studies, repeated surveys are necessary to know the trend of HIV infection in truckers in Iran.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petropoulos Christos J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.

  8. Infection and depletion of CD4+ group-1 innate lymphoid cells by HIV-1 via type-I interferon pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are severely depleted during chronic HIV-1 infection by unclear mechanisms. We report here that human ILC1s comprising of CD4+ and CD4- subpopulations were present in various human lymphoid organs but with different transcription programs and functions. Importantly, CD4+ ILC1s expressed HIV-1 co-receptors and were productively infected by HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, chronic HIV-1 infection activated and depleted both CD4+ and CD4- ILC1s, and impaired their cytokine production activity. Highly active antiretroviral (HAART therapy in HIV-1 patients efficiently rescued the ILC1 numbers and reduced their activation, but failed to restore their functionality. We also found that blocking type-I interferon (IFN-I signaling during HIV-1 infection in vivo in humanized mice prevented HIV-1 induced depletion or apoptosis of ILC1 cells. Therefore, we have identified the CD4+ ILC1 cells as a new target population for HIV-1 infection, and revealed that IFN-I contributes to the depletion of ILC1s during HIV-1 infection.

  9. Taking aim at a moving target: designing drugs to inhibit drug-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafianos, Stefan G; Das, Kalyan; Hughes, Stephen H; Arnold, Eddy

    2004-12-01

    HIV undergoes rapid genetic variation; this variation is caused primarily by the enormous number of viruses produced daily in an infected individual. Because of this variation, HIV presents a moving target for drug and vaccine development. The variation within individuals has led to the generation of diverse HIV-1 subtypes, which further complicates the development of effective drugs and vaccines. In general, it is more difficult to hit a moving target than a stationary target. Two broad strategies for hitting a moving target (in this case, HIV replication) are to understand the movement and to aim at the portions that move the least. In the case of anti-HIV drug development, the first option can be addressed by understanding the mechanism(s) of drug resistance and developing drugs that effectively inhibit mutant viruses. The second can be addressed by designing drugs that interact with portions of the viral machinery that are evolutionarily conserved, such as enzyme active sites.

  10. Occult HBV infection in HIV-infected adults and evaluation of pooled NAT for HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesha, T R; Boobalan, J; Sivamalar, S; Subashini, D; Solomon, S S; Murugavel, K G; Balakrishnan, P; Smith, D M; Saravanan, S

    2018-01-06

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among HIV-infected persons and to evaluate the use of a pooling strategy to detect occult HBV infection in the setting of HIV infection. Five hundred and two HIV-positive individuals were tested for HBV, occult HBV and hepatitis C and D with serologic and nucleic acid testing (NAT). We also evaluated a pooled NAT strategy for screening occult HBV infection among the HIV-positive individuals. The prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive individuals was 32 (6.4%), and occult HBV prevalence was 10%. The pooling HBV NAT had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 100%, compared to HBV DNA NAT of individual samples. In conclusion, this study found a high prevalence of occult HBV infection among our HIV-infected population. We also demonstrated that pooled HBV NAT is highly specific, moderately sensitive and cost-effective. As conventional HBV viral load assays are expensive in resource-limited settings such as India, pooled HBV DNA NAT might be a good way for detecting occult HBV infection and will reduce HBV-associated complications. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Astrocytes sustain long-term productive HIV-1 infection without establishment of reactivable viral latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Corinne; Proust, Alizé; Deshiere, Alexandre; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Drouin, Jean; Tremblay, Michel J

    2018-02-21

    The "shock and kill" HIV-1 cure strategy proposes eradication of stable cellular reservoirs by clinical treatment with latency-reversing agents (LRAs). Although resting CD4 + T cells latently infected with HIV-1 constitute the main reservoir that is targeted by these approaches, their consequences on other reservoirs such as the central nervous system are still unknown and should be taken into consideration. We performed experiments aimed at defining the possible role of astrocytes in HIV-1 persistence in the brain and the effect of LRA treatments on this viral sanctuary. We first demonstrate that the diminished HIV-1 production in a proliferating astrocyte culture is due to a reduced proliferative capacity of virus-infected cells compared with uninfected astrocytes. In contrast, infection of non-proliferating astrocytes led to a robust HIV-1 infection that was sustained for over 60 days. To identify astrocytes latently infected with HIV-1, we designed a new dual-color reporter virus called NL4.3 eGFP-IRES-Crimson that is fully infectious and encodes for all viral proteins. Although we detected a small fraction of astrocytes carrying silent HIV-1 proviruses, we did not observe any reactivation using various LRAs and even strong inducers such as tumor necrosis factor, thus suggesting that these proviruses were either not transcriptionally competent or in a state of deep latency. Our findings imply that astrocytes might not constitute a latent reservoir per se but that relentless virus production by this brain cell population could contribute to the neurological disorders seen in HIV-1-infected persons subjected to combination antiretroviral therapy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004 in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infants were tested for HIV by PCR at birth, 1 week and 5 weeks. Obstetric and neonatal data were collected after delivery and the rates of neonatal ( Results The ratio of miscarriage and stillbirth per 100 live-births were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Higher maternal plasma viral load (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each log10 increase in HIV RNA copies/ml = 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–3.27 and being symptomatic were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 1.46–6.97, and decreasing maternal CD4 count by 100 cells/mm3 with an increased risk of miscarriage (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.02–1.54. The neonatal mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 increasing to 6.3 by 70 days. Intrauterine HIV infection was not associated with neonatal morality but became associated with mortality through 70 days (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.76; 95% CI 1.25–6.08. Low birth weight and cessation of breastfeeding were significant risk factors for both neonatal and early mortality independent of infant HIV infection. Conclusions More advanced maternal HIV disease was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Excess neonatal mortality in HIV-infected women was not primarily explained by infant HIV infection but was strongly associated with low birth weight and prematurity. Intrauterine HIV infection contributed to mortality as early as 70 days of infant age. Interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes for HIV-infected women are needed to

  13. HIV-derived vectors for gene therapy targeting dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Maura; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Gregori, Silvia; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-derived lentiviral vectors (LV) have the potential to mediate stable therapeutic gene transfer. However, similarly to other viral vectors, their benefit is compromised by the induction of an immune response toward transgene-expressing cells that closely mimics antiviral immunity. LV share with the parental HIV the ability to activate dendritic cells (DC), while lack the peculiar ability of subverting DC functions, which is responsible for HIV immune escape. Understanding the interaction between LV and DC, with plasmacytoid and myeloid DC playing fundamental and distinct roles, has paved the way to novel approaches aimed at regulating transgene-specific immune responses. Thanks to the ability to target either DC subsets LV might be a powerful tool to induce immunity (i.e., gene therapy of cancer), cell death (i.e., in HIV/AIDS infection), or tolerance (i.e., gene therapy strategies for monogenic diseases). In this chapter, similarities and differences between the LV-mediated and HIV-mediated induction of immune responses, with specific focus on their interactions with DC, are discussed.

  14. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  15. Qualitative and quantitative intravaginal targeting: key to anti-HIV-1 microbicide delivery from test tube to in vivo success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Viness; Mashingaidze, Felix; Choonara, Yahya E; Du Toit, Lisa C; Buchmann, Eckhart; Maharaj, Vinesh; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-06-01

    The past decade has seen several effective anti-HIV-1 agent discoveries, yet microbicides continue to disappoint clinically. Our review expounds the view that unsatisfactory microbicide failures may be a result of inefficient delivery systems employed. We hereby propose a thorough scientific qualitative and quantitative investigation of important aspects involved in HIV-1 transmission as a prerequisite for microbicide delivery. Intravaginal targeting of HIV-1 increases the chances of microbicide success, wherein vaginal microenvironmental factors including pH should be maintained at HIV-1 prohibitive acidic levels simultaneously to ward off other sexually transmitted diseases, which compromise vaginal epithelial barrier properties. Furthermore, choice of receptors to target both on HIV-1 and on target cells is vital in deterring transmission. Appropriate modeling of virus-target cell interactions as well as targeting early stages of the HIV-1 infection accompanied by computation and delivery of appropriate microbicide quantities could revolutionize microbicide research, ultimately delivering a female-controlled HIV-1 prevention modality appropriately. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa--the need for improved health services, surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Justin; Hoelscher, Michael; Atun, Rifat; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Kapata, Nathan; Ferrara, Giovanni; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2011-03-01

    Prisons have long been associated with rapid transmission of infectious diseases. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has fuelled the spread of TB and HIV in prisons. The poor living conditions and ineffective health services in prisons in SSA are a major breeding ground of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The spread of TB between prisoners, prison staff and visitors and the emergence of drug-resistant TB in prisons now poses a threat to control efforts of national TB programmes in SSA. Accurate data required to develop appropriate interventions to tackle the ominous problem of TB in African prisons are scanty and unreliable. The health of prisoners is by default a neglected political issue. This article reviews the available literature on TB and drug-resistant TB in prisons from SSA countries, discusses the risk factors for acquiring TB and highlights the priorities for further translational research in prisons. Ethical issues pertaining to research on captive African populations are discussed. Scientific, political and funder attention is required urgently to improve prison health services. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. HIV-infected persons with bipolar disorder are less aware of memory deficits as compared to HIV-infected persons without bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Kaitlin; Tobin, Alexis; Posada, Carolina; Gouaux, Ben; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory deficits are common in HIV infection and bipolar disorder, but patient insight into such deficits remains unclear. Thirty-four HIV-infected individuals without bipolar disorder l(HIV+/BD−) and 47 HIV+ individuals with comorbid bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD+) were administered the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised to examine objective learning/memory functioning. Subjective memory complaints were assessed via the memory subscale of ...

  18. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Guthrie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples.HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI.Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01.Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  19. The utility of screening for parasitic infections in HIV-1-infected Africans with eosinophilia in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarner, Liat; Fakoya, Ade O; Tawana, Cheryl; Allen, Elizabeth; Copas, Andrew J; Chiodini, Peter L; Fenton, Kevin A

    2007-09-01

    The presence of asymptomatic eosinophilia in HIV patients has been demonstrated to have a wide variety of causes. Untreated parasitic infections in immunocompromised individuals can have potentially serious consequences. The utility of screening for parasitic infections in immigrant HIV-positive Africans with eosinophilia was investigated in a UK-based HIV clinic. HIV-positive African patients with eosinophilia were matched with HIV-positive African controls without eosinophilia. More than half of African HIV patients with eosinophilia had positive parasitic serology, and were significantly more likely to have positive serology compared with African HIV patients without eosinophilia. This study shows that asymptomatic eosinophilia in HIV-1-infected Africans is strongly suggestive of underlying parasitic infection. Individuals with eosinophilia should thus be screened for parasitic infections according to the infections prevalent in the countries they have lived in or visited for substantial periods of time.

  20. Reducing mortality in HIV-infected infants and achieving the 90-90-90 target through innovative diagnosis approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essajee, Shaffiq; Vojnov, Lara; Penazzato, Martina; Jani, Ilesh; Siberry, George K; Fiscus, Susan A; Markby, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant gains in access to early infant diagnosis (EID) over the past decade, most HIV-exposed infants still do not get tested for HIV in the first two months of life. For those who are tested, the long turnaround time between when the sample is drawn and when the results are returned leads to a high rate of loss to follow-up, which in turn means that few infected infants start antiretroviral treatment. Consequently, there continues to be high mortality from perinatally acquired HIV, and the ambitious goals of 90% of infected children identified, 90% of identified children treated and 90% of treated children with sustained virologic suppression by 2020 seem far beyond our reach. The objective of this commentary is to review recent advances in the field of HIV diagnosis in infants and describe how these advances may overcome long-standing barriers to access to testing and treatment. Several innovative approaches to EID have recently been described. These include point-of-care testing, use of SMS printers to connect the central laboratory and the health facility through a mobile phone network, expanding paediatric testing to other entry points where children access the health system and testing HIV-exposed infants at birth as a rapid way to identify in utero infection. Each of these interventions is discussed here, together with the opportunities and challenges associated with scale-up. Point-of-care testing has the potential to provide immediate results but is less cost-effective in settings where test volumes are low. Virological testing at birth has been piloted in some countries to identify those infants who need urgent treatment, but a negative test at birth does not obviate the need for additional testing at six weeks. Routine testing of infants in child health settings is a useful strategy to identify exposed and infected children whose mothers were not enrolled in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Facility-based SMS

  1. NKT cell depletion in humans during early HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Kelleher, Anthony D; Finlayson, Robert; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2014-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells bridge across innate and adaptive immune responses and have an important role in chronic viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). NKT cells are depleted during chronic HIV infection, but the timing, drivers and implications of this NKT cell depletion are poorly understood. We studied human peripheral blood NKT cell levels, phenotype and function in 31 HIV-infected subjects not on antiretroviral treatment from a mean of 4 months to 2 years after HIV infection. We found that peripheral CD4(+) NKT cells were substantially depleted and dysfunctional by 4 months after HIV infection. The depletion of CD4(+) NKT cells was more marked than the depletion of total CD4(+) T cells. Further, the early depletion of NKT cells correlated with CD4(+) T-cell decline, but not HIV viral levels. Levels of activated CD4(+) T cells correlated with the loss of NKT cells. Our studies suggest that the early loss of NKT cells is associated with subsequent immune destruction during HIV infection.

  2. Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A

    1990-01-01

    During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from...... specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P...

  3. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  4. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages

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    William W. Roth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients.

  5. A model of population dynamics of TB in a prison system and application to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbooi, Peter; Vyambwera, Sibaliwe Maku

    2017-11-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to spread in South African prisons in particular, as prisons are over-capacitated and have poor ventilation. The awaiting trial detainees are not screened on admission and are at high risk of getting infected with TB. We propose a compartmental model to describe the population dynamics of TB disease in prisons. Our model considers the inflow of susceptible, exposed and TB infectives into the prison population. Removal of individuals out of the prison population can be either by death or by being released from prison, as compared to a general population in which removal is only by death. We describe conditions, including non-inflow of infectives into the prison, which will ensure that TB can be eradicated from the prison population. The model is calibrated for the South African prison system, by using data in existing literature. The model can be used to make quantitative projections of TB prevalence and to measure the effect of interventions. Illustrative simulations in this regard are presented. The model can be used for other prison populations too, if data is available to calculate the model parameters. Various simulations generated with our model serve to illustrate how it can be utilized in making future projections of the levels of prevalence of TB, and to quantify the effect of interventions such as screening, treatment or reduction of transmission parameter values through improved living conditions for inmates. This makes it particularly useful as there are various targets set by the World Health Organization and by governments, for reduction of TB prevalence and ultimately its eradication. Towards eradication of TB from a prison system, the theorem on global stability of the disease-free state is a useful indicator.

  6. Risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glinvad; Gerstoft, Jan

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of skin cancer in HIV-infected patients and compare it with the risk in the background population. METHODS: In a matched, nationwide population-based cohort study we...... compared the risk of skin cancer in 4280 HIV-infected patients from the Danish HIV cohort study with a background population cohort, according to the level of immunosuppression and route of transmission. Primary outcomes were time to first basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC...

  7. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients

  8. Challenges to implementing opioid substitution therapy in Ukrainian prisons: Personnel attitudes toward addiction, treatment, and people with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Taxman, Faye S; Grishaev, Evgeny; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-03-01

    Ukraine is experiencing one of the most volatile HIV epidemics globally, fueled primarily by people who inject drugs (PWIDs), and a parallel incarceration epidemic. Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is internationally recognized as one of the most effective forms of treatment for opioid dependence and is among the most effective HIV prevention strategies available, yet efforts to adopt it in Ukraine's Criminal Justice System (CJS) have been thwarted. To understand the reluctance of the Ukrainian CJS to adopt OST despite the overwhelming evidence pointing to its health benefits and improved criminal justice outcomes, we conducted the first survey of Ukrainian prison administrative, medical and custodial staff (N=243) attitudes towards addiction in general, OST, and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in representative regions of Ukraine. Results revealed that Ukrainian CJS workers' attitudes toward OST, PLWHA, and drug addiction were universally negative, but differed substantially along geographic and occupational lines. Whereas geographic and cultural proximity to the European Union drove positive attitudes in the west, in the southern region we observed an identifiability effect, as workers who worked directly with prisoners held the most positive attitudes. We also found that knowledge mediated the effect of drug intolerance on OST attitudes. In Ukraine, adoption of OST is more influenced by myths, biases and ideological prejudices than by existing scientific evidence. By elucidating existing attitudes among CJS personnel, this study will help to direct subsequent interventions to address the barriers to implementing evidence-based HIV prevention treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV INFECTION AND AIDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT

    Full Text Available Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV was first discovered in 1981 in the United States of America and the day of December 1, was announced as ?World AIDS Day? by WHO (World Health Organization. In Turkey, the first announcement of the people living with HIV was made in 1985. HIV/AIDS has killed more than 20 millions people and more than 16,000 people become newly infected each day since the first cases were diagnosed in 1981. It is estimated that 39.4 million people would have been infected with HIV at the end of 2004, with 4.9 million new cases that year. Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst-hit region, with 70 percent of all people living with HIV. In Africa alone, 10,000 people become infected each day. This year?s main theme is ?Women, Girls, HIV and AIDS,? which reflects a focus on how the effects of HIV/AIDS have significantly increased among women. Women now make up half of all people living with HIV worldwide with the number of 17,6 million. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(11.000: 280-290

  10. Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Carsten S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis.

  11. Are HIV-Infected Older Adults Aging Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpiak, Stephen E; Havlik, Richard

    With increasing success in treating HIV, infected persons are living longer, and a new challenge has emerged - the need to understand how HIV-infected adults are aging. What are the similarities with typical aging and what are the unique aspects that may have resulted from HIV infection, interacting with characteristic life style factors and other comorbid conditions? Are specific diseases and conditions (comorbidities), typically seen as part of the aging process, occurring at accelerated rates or with higher frequency (accentuated) in HIV-infected adults? At this juncture, conclusions should be tentative. Certainly, biological processes that correlate with aging occur earlier in the older adult HIV population. Clinical manifestations of these biological processes are age-associated illnesses occurring in greater numbers (multimorbidity), but they are not accelerated. Specifically cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and renal disease are more common with other comorbidities less certain. Management of this elevated risk for developing multimorbidity is a major concern for patients and their health care teams. The medical system must respond to the evolving needs of this aging and growing older adult population who will dominate the epidemic. Adopting a more holistic approach to their health care management is needed to achieve optimal health and well-being in the HIV-infected older adult. Geriatric care principles best embody this approach. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Opt-out screening strategy for HIV infection among patients attending emergency departments: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez-Camacho, C; Villafuerte-Gutierrez, P; Pérez-Molina, J A; Losa, J; Gotuzzo, E; Cheyne, N

    2017-07-01

    International health agencies have promoted nontargeted universal (opt-out) HIV screening tests in different settings, including emergency departments (EDs). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the testing uptake of strategies (opt-in targeted, opt-in nontargeted and opt-out) to detect new cases of HIV infection in EDs. We searched the Pubmed and Embase databases, from 1984 to April 2015, for opt-in and opt-out HIV diagnostic strategies used in EDs. Randomized controlled or quasi experimental studies were included. We assessed the percentage of positive individuals tested for HIV infection in each programme (opt-in and opt-out strategies). The mean percentage was estimated by combining studies in a random-effect meta-analysis. The percentages of individuals tested in the programmes were compared in a random-effect meta-regression model. Data were analysed using stata version 12. Quality assessments were performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Of the 90 papers identified, 28 were eligible for inclusion. Eight trials used opt-out, 18 trials used opt-in, and two trials used both to detect new cases of HIV infection. The test was accepted and taken by 75 155 of 172 237 patients (44%) in the opt-out strategy, and 73 581 of 382 992 patients (19%) in the opt-in strategy. The prevalence of HIV infection detected by the opt-out strategy was 0.40% (373 cases), that detected by the opt-in nontargeted strategy was 0.52% (419 cases), and that detected by the opt-in targeted strategy was 1.06% (52 cases). In this meta-analysis, the testing uptake of the opt-out strategy was not different from that of the opt-in strategy to detect new cases of HIV infection in EDs. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  13. HBV infection in untreated HIV-infected adults in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Mabalane Chambal

    Full Text Available HIV/ HBV coinfected patients are at high risk of developing chronic HBV infection, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In Mozambique, where HIV prevalence is one of the highest in the world, HIV-infected patients are scarcely characterized in terms of HBV coinfection and 3TC-resistance mutations profile.To characterize ART-naïve HIV-infected adults, with and without HBV coinfection, a cross-sectional study was conducted between May and November 2012 in two health centers from Maputo city, Mozambique. Subjects were consecutively enrolled in the study and, then, tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Moreover, CD4+ T cells count, HBV DNA in plasma, HBV genotyping and 3TC-resistance mutations profile of HBV were assessed in HIV/HBV coinfected patients.In total, 518 patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 33 years old and 66.8% were women. The median CD4+ T cells count was 361 cells/mm3 and 47 (9.1% were coinfected with HBV. Out of 46 coinfected patients, 24 (55.2% had HBV DNA ≥ 20 - 2.0 was reported in 4.3% of coinfected and 1.7% of monoinfected patients (p = 0.228, while FIB-4 > 3.25 was reported in 4.4% of coinfected and 1.3% of monoinfected patients (p = 0.112. Genotype A was the most frequent, identified in 25/27 (92.6% patients, whereas genotype E was present in 2/27 (7.4% patients. No patient had 3TC-resistance mutations.This study showed that HBV coinfection was prevalent among ART-naïve HIV-infected adults in Mozambique. Overall, these data highlight the importance of screening HBV coinfection as an integrated measure of HIV routine care to improve health conditions and treatment of HIV/HBV coinfected patients.

  14. Modeling HIV vaccines in Brazil: assessing the impact of a future HIV vaccine on reducing new infections, mortality and number of people receiving ARV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti P Fonseca

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The AIDS epidemic in Brazil remains concentrated in populations with high vulnerability to HIV infection, and the development of an HIV vaccine could make an important contribution to prevention. This study modeled the HIV epidemic and estimated the potential impact of an HIV vaccine on the number of new infections, deaths due to AIDS and the number of people receiving ARV treatment, under various scenarios.The historical HIV prevalence was modeled using Spectrum and projections were made from 2010 to 2050 to study the impact of an HIV vaccine with 40% to 70% efficacy, and 80% coverage of adult population, specific groups such as MSM, IDU, commercial sex workers and their partners, and 15 year olds. The possibility of disinhibition after vaccination, neglecting medium- and high-risk groups, and a disease-modifying vaccine were also considered. The number of new infections and deaths were reduced by 73% and 30%, respectively, by 2050, when 80% of adult population aged 15-49 was vaccinated with a 40% efficacy vaccine. Vaccinating medium- and high-risk groups reduced new infections by 52% and deaths by 21%. A vaccine with 70% efficacy produced a great decline in new infections and deaths. Neglecting medium- and high-risk population groups as well as disinhibition of vaccinated population reduced the impact or even increased the number of new infections. Disease-modifying vaccine also contributed to reducing AIDS deaths, the need for ART and new HIV infections.Even in a country with a concentrated epidemic and high levels of ARV coverage, such as Brazil, moderate efficacy vaccines as part of a comprehensive package of treatment and prevention could have a major impact on preventing new HIV infections and AIDS deaths, as well as reducing the number of people on ARV. Targeted vaccination strategies may be highly effective and cost-beneficial.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Non-Disclosure of HIV Serostatus to Sex partners among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers and HIV-infected Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on HIV disclosure communication and integrated alcohol and sexual risk reduction. PMID:22810892

  16. Superior control of HIV-1 replication by CD8+ T cells targeting conserved epitopes: implications for HIV vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Kunwar

    Full Text Available A successful HIV vaccine will likely induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, however, the enormous diversity of HIV has hampered the development of a vaccine that effectively elicits both arms of the adaptive immune response. To tackle the problem of viral diversity, T cell-based vaccine approaches have focused on two main strategies (i increasing the breadth of vaccine-induced responses or (ii increasing vaccine-induced responses targeting only conserved regions of the virus. The relative extent to which set-point viremia is impacted by epitope-conservation of CD8(+ T cell responses elicited during early HIV-infection is unknown but has important implications for vaccine design. To address this question, we comprehensively mapped HIV-1 CD8(+ T cell epitope-specificities in 23 ART-naïve individuals during early infection and computed their conservation score (CS by three different methods (prevalence, entropy and conseq on clade-B and group-M sequence alignments. The majority of CD8(+ T cell responses were directed against variable epitopes (p<0.01. Interestingly, increasing breadth of CD8(+ T cell responses specifically recognizing conserved epitopes was associated with lower set-point viremia (r = - 0.65, p = 0.009. Moreover, subjects possessing CD8(+ T cells recognizing at least one conserved epitope had 1.4 log10 lower set-point viremia compared to those recognizing only variable epitopes (p = 0.021. The association between viral control and the breadth of conserved CD8(+ T cell responses may be influenced by the method of CS definition and sequences used to determine conservation levels. Strikingly, targeting variable versus conserved epitopes was independent of HLA type (p = 0.215. The associations with viral control were independent of functional avidity of CD8(+ T cell responses elicited during early infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the next-generation of T-cell based HIV-1 vaccines should focus

  17. Factors associated with abnormal spirometry among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M Bradley; Huang, Laurence; Diaz, Philip T; Kirk, Gregory D; Kleerup, Eric C; Morris, Alison; Rom, William; Weiden, Michael D; Zhao, Enxu; Thompson, Bruce; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-08-24

    HIV-infected individuals are susceptible to development of chronic lung diseases, but little is known regarding the prevalence and risk factors associated with different spirometric abnormalities in this population. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors and performance characteristics of risk factors for spirometric abnormalities among HIV-infected individuals. Cross-sectional cohort study. We analyzed cross-sectional US data from the NHLBI-funded Lung-HIV consortium - a multicenter observational study of heterogeneous groups of HIV-infected participants in diverse geographic sites. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors statistically significantly associated with spirometry patterns. A total of 908 HIV-infected individuals were included. The median age of the cohort was 50 years, 78% were men and 68% current smokers. An abnormal spirometry pattern was present in 37% of the cohort: 27% had obstructed and 10% had restricted spirometry patterns. Overall, age, smoking status and intensity, history of Pneumocystis infection, asthma diagnosis and presence of respiratory symptoms were independently associated with an abnormal spirometry pattern. Regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, five HIV-infected participants would need to be screened with spirometry to diagnose two individuals with any abnormal spirometry pattern. Nearly 40% of a diverse US cohort of HIV-infected individuals had an abnormal spirometry pattern. Specific characteristics including age, smoking status, respiratory infection history and respiratory symptoms can identify those at risk for abnormal spirometry. The high prevalence of abnormal spirometry and the poor predictive capability of respiratory symptoms to identify abnormal spirometry should prompt clinicians to consider screening spirometry in HIV-infected populations.

  18. iTRAQ based investigation of plasma proteins in HIV infected and HIV/HBV coinfected patients - C9 and KLK are related to HIV/HBV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Li; Wu, Ao; Zhang, Yujiao; Jia, Xiaofang; Yin, Lin; Lu, Hongzhou; Zhang, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) share similar routes of transmission, and rapid progression of hepatic and immunodeficiency diseases has been observed in coinfected individuals. Our main objective was to investigate the molecular mechanism of HIV/HBV coinfections. We selected HIV infected and HIV/HBV coinfected patients with and without Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Low abundance proteins enriched using a multiple affinity removal system (MARS) were labeled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) kits and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The differential proteins were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) database. A total of 41 differential proteins were found in HIV/HBV coinfected patients as compared to HIV mono-infected patients with or without HAART treatment, including 7 common HBV-regulated proteins. The proteins involved in complement and coagulation pathways were significantly enriched, including plasma kallikrein (KLK) and complement component C9 (C9). C9 and KLK were verified to be down-regulated in HIV/HBV coinfected patients through ELISA analysis. The present iTRAQ based proteomic analyses identified 7 proteins that are related to HIV/HBV coinfection. HBV might influence hepatic and immune functions by deregulating complement and coagulation pathways. C9 and KLK could potentially be used as targets for the treatment of HIV/HBV coinfections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. "It Goes on Everywhere": Injection Drug Use in Canadian Federal Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Emily

    2017-06-07

    International and Canadian research on in-prison injection drug use has documented the frequency of its occurrence as well as some of the resulting consequences such as increased prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Access to prison-based harm reduction programing is thus important. The aim of this study was to learn from former prisoner experiences and insights on in-prison injection drug use in order to advance and improve access to harm reduction options, in particular prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs). The qualitative and community-based study was conducted in 2014/2015 and included former prisoners from Ontario, Canada (N = 30) who had recent experience of incarceration in a federal prison and knowledge of injection drug use. Data analysis followed the deductive approach, drawing on the expertise of the academic and community-based research team members. Interview and focus group participants disclosed that drugs are readily available in Canadian federal prisons and that equipment used to inject is accessed in a variety of ways, sometimes gained through illicit means and sometimes made by prisoners themselves. Equipment sharing is a frequent occurrence, and disposal of such supplies is rare. Conclusions/Importance: While not yet available in Canada, PNSPs have led to positive outcomes in international contexts, including reductions in needle sharing and transmission of HIV and hepatitis C. Support for PNSPs among numerous Canadian organizations and associations, along with a recent change in government, could suggest a renewed opportunity for PNSP implementation.

  20. Early Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants - One Caribbean and Six Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Karidia; Kim, Andrea A; Lecher, Shirley; Ellenberger, Dennis; Beard, R Suzanne; Dale, Helen; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Rivadeneira, Molly; Fonjungo, Peter N; Broyles, Laura N; Zhang, Guoqing; Sleeman, Katrina; Nguyen, Shon; Jadczak, Steve; Abiola, Nadine; Ewetola, Raimi; Muwonga, Jérémie; Fwamba, Franck; Mwangi, Christina; Naluguza, Mary; Kiyaga, Charles; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Varough, Deyde; Wysler, Domercant; Lowrance, David; Louis, Frantz Jean; Desinor, Olbeg; Buteau, Josiane; Kesner, Francois; Rouzier, Vanessa; Segaren, Nat; Lewis, Tessa; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Chipungu, Geoffrey; Gupta, Sundeep; Singer, Daniel; Mwenda, Reuben; Kapoteza, Hilary; Chipeta, Zawadi; Knight, Nancy; Carmona, Sergio; MacLeod, William; Sherman, Gayle; Pillay, Yogan; Ndongmo, Clement B; Mugisa, Bridget; Mwila, Annie; McAuley, James; Chipimo, Peter J; Kaonga, Wezi; Nsofwa, Dailess; Nsama, Davy; Mwamba, Fales Zulu; Moyo, Crispin; Phiri, Clement; Borget, Marie-Yolande; Ya-Kouadio, Leonard; Kouame, Abo; Adje-Toure, Christiane A; Nkengasong, John

    2016-11-25

    Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important public health issue in resource-limited settings. In 2015, 1.4 million children aged 50% decline. The most common challenges for access to testing for early infant diagnosis included difficulties in specimen transport, long turnaround time between specimen collection and receipt of results, and limitations in supply chain management. Further reductions in HIV mortality in children can be achieved through continued expansion and improvement of services for early infant diagnosis in PEPFAR-supported countries, including initiatives targeted to reach HIV-exposed infants, ensure access to programs for early infant diagnosis of HIV, and facilitate prompt linkage to treatment for children diagnosed with HIV infection.

  1. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The role of enacted stigma in parental HIV disclosure among HIV-infected parents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies have delineated that HIV-infected parents face numerous challenges in disclosing their HIV infection to the children ("parental HIV disclosure"), and practices of parental HIV disclosure vary with individual characteristics, family contexts, and social environment. Using cross-sectional data from 1254 HIV-infected parents who had children aged 5-16 years in southwest China, the current study examined the association of parental HIV disclosure with mental health and medication adherence among parents and explored the possible effect of enacted stigma on such association. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents who had experienced disclosure to children reported higher level enacted stigma, worse mental health conditions, and poorer medication adherence. Enacted stigma partially mediated the associations between disclosure and both mental health and medication adherence after controlling basic background characteristics. Our findings highlight the importance of providing appropriate disclosure-related training and counseling service among HIV-infected parents. In a social setting where HIV-related stigma is still persistent, disclosure intervention should address and reduce stigma and discrimination in the practice of parental HIV disclosure.

  3. Targeting screening and social marketing to increase detection of acute HIV infection in men who have sex with men in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Robert, Wayne; Doupe, Glenn; Krajden, Mel; Rekart, Michael

    2013-10-23

    The contribution of acute HIV infection (AHI) to transmission is widely recognized, and increasing AHI diagnosis capacity can enhance HIV prevention through subsequent behavior change or intervention. We examined the impact of targeted pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and social marketing to increase AHI diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vancouver. Observational study. We implemented pooled NAAT following negative third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing for males above 18 years in six clinics accessed by MSM, accompanied by two social marketing campaigns developed by a community gay men's health organization. We compared test volume and diagnosis rates for pre-implementation (April 2006-March 2009) and post-implementation (April 2009-March 2012) periods. After implementation, we used linear regression to examine quarterly trends and calculated diagnostic yield. After implementation, the AHI diagnosis rate significantly increased from 1.03 to 1.84 per 1000 tests, as did quarterly HIV test volumes and acute to non-acute diagnosis ratio. Of the 217 new HIV diagnoses after implementation, 54 (24.9%) were AHIs (25 detected by pooled NAAT only) for an increased diagnostic yield of 11.5%. The average number of prior negative HIV tests (past 2 years) increased significantly for newly diagnosed MSM at the six study clinics compared to other newly diagnosed MSM in British Columbia, per quarter. Targeted implementation of pooled NAAT at clinics accessed by MSM is effective in increasing AHI diagnoses compared to third-generation EIA testing. Social marketing campaigns accompanying pooled NAAT implementation may contribute to increasing AHI diagnoses and frequency of HIV testing.

  4. Estimating the fraction of progeny virions that must incorporate APOBEC3G for suppression of productive HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, Pulari U.; Gupta, Vipul; Dixit, Narendra M.

    2014-01-01

    The contest between the host factor APOBEC3G (A3G) and the HIV-1 protein Vif presents an attractive target of intervention. The extent to which the A3G–Vif interaction must be suppressed to tilt the balance in favor of A3G remains unknown. We employed stochastic simulations and mathematical modeling of the within-host dynamics and evolution of HIV-1 to estimate the fraction of progeny virions that must incorporate A3G to render productive infection unsustainable. Using three different approaches, we found consistently that a transition from sustained infection to suppression of productive infection occurred when the latter fraction exceeded ∼0.8. The transition was triggered by A3G-induced hypermutations that led to premature stop codons compromising viral production and was consistent with driving the basic reproductive number, R 0 , below unity. The fraction identified may serve as a quantitative guideline for strategies targeting the A3G–Vif axis. - Highlights: • We perform simulations and mathematical modeling of the role of APOBEC3G in suppressing HIV-1 infection. • In three distinct ways, we estimate that when over 80% of progeny virions carry APOBEC3G, productive HIV-1 infection would be suppressed. • Our estimate of this critical fraction presents quantitative guidelines for strategies targeting the APOBEC3G–Vif axis

  5. Oral lesions in HIV+/AIDS adolescents perinatally infected undergoing HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Domínguez-Sánchez, Anitza; Pavía-Ruz, Noris; Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío; Verdugo-Díaz, Roberto; Valles-Medina, Ana-María; Meráz-Acosta, Héctor

    2010-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of the oral lesions related to HIV-infection (HIV-OL) in HIV+/AIDS adolescents (=13 years old), and the differences with HIV+/AIDS children (=3 - 0.05). Oral candidiasis was the most prevalent oral lesion in both groups. Association (p<0.05) of a high prevalence of HIV-OL and oral candidiasis with a high viral load was observed in both study groups. Adolescents perinatally HIV-infected have a high prevalence of HIV-OL. Oral Candidiasis still is the most frequent oral opportunistic infection. Oral lesions could have association to viral failure in HIV+/AIDS adolescents undergoing HAART.

  6. THE MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTION IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Marcaelia Valerian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is a RNA retrovirus which causes the clinical disease termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Mother-to-child transmission is the main source of spreading HIV infection to the child with frequency is as high as 25-30%. This may occurred because of the intrapartum maternal blood exposure, infected genital tract secretions and during breastfeeding. The right combination of ARV treatment and elective section caesarean delivery has been proved to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection prevalence and preventing obstetric complications significantly. Consultation and follow up with specialists is highly recommended.

  7. Use of Anti-HIV Immunotoxins as Probes of the Biology of HIV-Infected Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SETH H Pincus

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV immunotoxins are potential treatments for HIV infection. but they may also be used as probes to study the relationship between HIV and the cell it infects. Data from the present study indicate the complexity of this relationship.

  8. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit.

  9. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Brown, C Titus; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Adami, Christoph

    2015-09-29

    Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these "functional" pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit.

  10. CROI 2016: Hot Spots in HIV Infection and Advances in HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Susan P; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) highlighted hot spots in HIV infection. Men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender populations, people who inject drugs, fisherfolk, migrants, adolescents, and older adults are heavily impacted in a number of regions. Stigma contributes to risk behaviors and HIV acquisition across populations. HIV testing is a crucial first step in the HIV care continuum, and several large community-based surveys are underway in Africa to increase HIV testing, linkage to care, and uptake of antiretroviral treatment. Advances in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) featured prominently at CROI 2016. Two large efficacy trials of a vaginal ring containing the investigational drug dapivirine demonstrated efficacy and safety in preventing HIV infections in women in Africa. Data on the safety of long-acting injectable PrEP and several investigational PrEP drugs and formulations were also presented. Knowledge and use of PrEP among MSM in the United States appears to be increasing, and high uptake was seen among black MSM when provided as part of a culturally tailored support program. The use of broadly neutralizing antibodies for HIV prevention is a novel and promising approach to be evaluated in efficacy trials.

  11. A longitudinal study of health outcomes for people released from prison in Fiji: the HIP-Fiji project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Stuart A; Winter, Rebecca; Saxton, Kate

    2015-12-01

    To examine the health of prisoners and ex-prisoners in Fiji, including risk behaviours, service access and HIV status. Longitudinal study of 198 men and women recruited prior to release from prison in Fiji, interviewed in the weeks preceding release, and again 1 and 4 months post-release. Dried blood spot samples taken at baseline were tested for HIV. Eighty percent of participants completed at least one follow-up interview. The prevalence of HIV was low (1%), despite evidence of widespread STI and BBV risk behaviours. A history of risky substance use was normative and more than a third reported high psychological distress prior to release. Fewer than one in four reported accessing health care within a month of release from prison. The health needs of this population are significant but differ in important ways from those of incarcerated populations in other countries. Further research is needed to inform evidence-based care for prisoners and ex-prisoners in Pacific Island nations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Effect of deworming on disease progression markers in HIV-1-infected pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal observational study from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J; Mutimura, Eugene; Rucogoza, Aniceth; Janssen, Saskia; Njunwa, Kato K; Grobusch, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    Deworming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be beneficial, particularly during pregnancy. We determined the efficacy of targeted and nontargeted antihelminth therapy and its effects on Plasmodium falciparum infection status, hemoglobin levels, CD4 counts, and viral load in pregnant, HIV-positive women receiving ART. Nine hundred eighty HIV-infected pregnant women receiving ART were examined at 2 visits during pregnancy and 2 postpartum visits within 12 weeks. Women were given antimalarials when malaria-positive whereas albendazole was given in a targeted (n = 467; treatment when helminth stool screening was positive) or nontargeted (n = 513; treatment at all time points, with stool screening) fashion. No significant differences were noted between targeted and nontargeted albendazole treatments for the variables measured at each study visit except for CD4 counts, which were lower (P pregnant HIV-infected women with helminth coinfections receiving ART. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Hiv infection in patients of sexually transmitted disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1027 male patients suffering from sexually transmitted diseases (STD during 1990 to 1996 were screened for HIV infection. All cases were in the age group 17 years to 48 years. One hundred and sixty-seven STD cases (16.3% were found to have HIV infection. A rising trend in incidence of HIV infection in STD patients from 1990 (2.8% to 1996 (27.8% was noticed countrary to declining trend of STDs from 213 cases in 1990 to 79 cases in 1996. The incidence of HIV infection was 30.3% in lymphogranuloma venereum, 19.5% in chancroid, 13.5% in syphilis, 17.6% in herpes genitatis, 6.7% in gonorrhoea and 11.2% in other STD cases.

  14. Do the factors associated with female HIV infection vary by socioeconomic status in Cameroon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumah, Joyce N; Jackson-Smith, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    One of the most consistent findings in social epidemiology is an inverse relationship between indicators of SES and most types of illness. However, a growing body of research on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suggests an intriguing reversal of this pattern, particularly with respect to HIV among women. In Cameroon, specifically, high-SES women have higher rates of HIV infection compared with low-SES women. Using data from the 2004 Cameroon DHS, this study explored the relationships between SES and HIV and tested a multivariate model designed to highlight the distinctive factors associated with increased risk of HIV among women in different SES classes. The results revealed that high-SES women who reported engaging in riskier sexual behaviour had the highest levels of HIV infection. Surprisingly, among this group increased knowledge of HIV, more domestic decision-making authority and access to health care did not reduce vulnerability. Meanwhile, among low-SES women relative gender inequality was significantly related to HIV risk. Specifically, among this group of women, having a partner with higher education was strongly associated with greater HIV risk. The results suggest that different approaches targeting each sub-group are needed to effectively combat the disease.

  15. Bone health in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Allison R; Mora, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Chronic HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy compromises bone health in children and adolescents, potentially impacting their long-term quality of life. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review the most recent literature on this topic in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Recent studies continue to demonstrate bone abnormalities in HIV-infected children and adolescents, whether HIV is acquired perinatally or during adolescence. Researchers have employed new modalities, both high tech and those that can be utilized in resource-limited settings, to better assess bone health. New data suggest that this population may also be experiencing an increase incidence of fractures, and they may not acquire the same peak bone mass as their HIV-uninfected counterparts. Reassuringly, however, in-utero tenofovir exposure does not appear to have a significant impact on bone health in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. HIV-infected children and adolescents are exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy for many decades starting early in life and during the most critical time for skeletal growth and bone mass accrual. Recent findings underscore the need for further research on bone in this population. Longitudinal studies are especially needed to evaluate long-term risk of osteoporosis and fracture.

  16. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  17. Association of HIV diversity and survival in HIV-infected Ugandan infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M James

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The level of viral diversity in an HIV-infected individual can change during the course of HIV infection, reflecting mutagenesis during viral replication and selection of viral variants by immune and other selective pressures. Differences in the level of viral diversity in HIV-infected infants may reflect differences in viral dynamics, immune responses, or other factors that may also influence HIV disease progression. We used a novel high resolution melting (HRM assay to measure HIV diversity in Ugandan infants and examined the relationship between diversity and survival through 5 years of age.Plasma samples were obtained from 31 HIV-infected infants (HIVNET 012 trial. The HRM assay was used to measure diversity in two regions in the gag gene (Gag1 and Gag2 and one region in the pol gene (Pol.HRM scores in all three regions increased with age from 6-8 weeks to 12-18 months (for Gag1: P = 0.005; for Gag2: P = 0.006; for Pol: P = 0.016. Higher HRM scores at 6-8 weeks of age (scores above the 75(th percentile were associated with an increased risk of death by 5 years of age (for Pol: P = 0.005; for Gag1/Gag2 (mean of two scores: P = 0.003; for Gag1/Gag2/Pol (mean of three scores: P = 0.002. We did not find an association between HRM scores and other clinical and laboratory variables.Genetic diversity in HIV gag and pol measured using the HRM assay was typically low near birth and increased over time. Higher HIV diversity in these regions at 6-8 weeks of age was associated with a significantly increased risk of death by 5 years of age.

  18. Immune biomarker differences and changes comparing HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV spontaneously cleared patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Kushner

    Full Text Available Immune biomarkers are implicated in HCV treatment response, fibrosis, and accelerated pathogenesis of comorbidities, though only D-dimer and C-reactive protein have been consistently studied. Few studies have evaluated HIV/HCV co-infection, and little longitudinal data exists describing a broader antiviral cytokine response.Fifty immune biomarkers were analyzed at baseline (BL and HCV end of treatment follow-up(FU time point using the Luminex 50-plex assay in plasma samples from 15 HCV-cleared, 24 HCV mono- and 49 HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment, who either did or did not receive pegylated-interferon/ribavirin HCV treatment. Biomarker levels were compared among spontaneous clearance patients, mono- and co-infected, untreated and HCV-treated, and sustained virologic responders (SVR and non-responders (NR at BL and FU using nonparametric analyses. A Bonferroni correction, adjusting for tests of 50 biomarkers, was used to reduce Type I error.Compared to HCV patients at BL, HIV/HCV patients had 22 significantly higher and 4 significantly lower biomarker levels, following correction for multiple testing. There were no significantly different BL levels when comparing SVR and NR in mono- or co-infected patients; however, FU levels changed considerably in co-infected patients, with seven becoming significantly higher and eight becoming significantly lower in SVR patients. Longitudinally between BL and FU, 13 markers significantly changed in co-infected SVR patients, while none significantly changed in co-infected NR patients. There were also no significant changes in longitudinal analyses of mono-infected patients achieving SVR or mono-infected and co-infected groups deferring treatment.Clear differences exist in pattern and quantity of plasma immune biomarkers among HCV mono-infected, HIV/HCV co-infected, and HCV-cleared patients; and with SVR in co-infected patients treated for HCV. Though >90% of patients were male and

  19. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson C Yoder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a

  20. Amyloid and tau cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPα and sAPPβ, amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (Aβ1-42, and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+ subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC, 25 with central nervous system (CNS opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV- subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease. Results CSF sAPPα and sAPPβ concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF Aβ1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections. Conclusions Parallel reductions of CSF sAPPα and sAPPβ in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those

  1. Risk Factors for HIV Transmission and Barriers to HIV Disclosure: Metropolitan Atlanta Youth Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F.; Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18–24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined t...

  2. Features associated with underlying HIV infection in severe acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NRUs) in Malawi with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are infected with HIV. There are many similarities in the clinical presentation of SAM and HIV. It is important to identify HIV infected children, in order to improve case management.

  3. Antiretroviral Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Treatment Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection All FDA-approved medicines used in the ...

  4. Early syphilis affects markers of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsafti, Ourania; Paparizos, Vassilios; Kourkounti, Sofia; Chatziioannou, Argiro; Nicolaidou, Electra; Kapsimali, Violetta; Antoniou, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if early syphilis infection affects markers of HIV infection; CD4 T cells and viral load (VL). A retrospective study was performed on 160 HIV-positive patients (111 receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 49 without ART). Early syphilis diagnosis was made in HIV patients during their follow-up at the HIV/AIDS Unit at a Greek Dermatology and Venereology Unit. The patients' blood tests were available at the time of diagnosis, as well as before and 12 weeks after early syphilis diagnosis. CD4 T cell counts and VL levels were measured. It was found that syphilis infection had a negative impact on the CD4 T cell counts in both groups, with reduced CD4 T cell counts observed in 84.6% (99/111) and 79.5% (39/49) of patients receiving and not receiving ART, respectively. After treatment for syphilis, CD4 T cell counts returned to pre-treatment levels in most patients, especially those receiving ART. There was a slight and transient VL increase. Patients receiving ART had a 27% increase in VL, compared to 71.4% among patients not receiving ART. Although the VL increase was slight (41-14,000 copies/ml) in the group under treatment, 4-5% (5/111) patients did not return to pre-treatment levels. Moreover, viral mutations associated with treatment resistance were identified in these patients. Early syphilis accelerates and complicates the progression of HIV infection. Early diagnosis and treatment of syphilis may prevent infection-associated complications in most instances. Consequently, prevention of syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections is of great importance for patients infected with HIV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Immune defence against HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-exposed seronegative persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmechel, S C; Russell, N; Hladik, F; Lang, J; Wilson, A; Ha, R; Desbien, A; McElrath, M J

    2001-11-01

    Rare individuals who are repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 through unprotected sexual contact fail to acquire HIV-1 infection. These persons represent a unique study population to evaluate mechanisms by which HIV-1 replication is either prevented or controlled. We followed longitudinally a group of healthy HIV-1 seronegative persons each reporting repeated high-risk sexual activities with their HIV-1-infected partner at enrollment. The volunteers were primarily (90%) male homosexuals, maintaining high risk activities with their known infected partner (45%) or multiple other partners (61%). We evaluated the quantity and specificity of HIV-1-specific T cells in 31 exposed seronegatives (ES) using a IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay to enumerate T cells recognizing epitopes within HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef. PBMC from only three of the 31 volunteers demonstrated ex vivo HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma secretion, in contrast to nearly 30% exhibiting cytolytic responses in previous studies. These findings suggest that if T cell responses in ES are induced by HIV-1 exposure, the frequency is at low levels in most of them, and below the level of detection using the ELISPOT assay. Alternative approaches to improve the sensitivity of detection may include use of dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells in the ex vivo assay and more careful definition of the risk behavior and extent of HIV-1 exposure in conjunction with the evaluation of T cell responses.

  6. Morphological aspects of liver CT in patients with HIV infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schedel, H.; Wicht, L.; Roegler, G.; Langer, R.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examina