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Sample records for target size analysis

  1. Radiation inactivation analysis of enzymes. Effect of free radical scavengers on apparent target sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.C.; Solomonson, L.P.; Barber, M.J.; McCreery, M.J.; Ness, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    In most cases the apparent target size obtained by radiation inactivation analysis corresponds to the subunit size or to the size of a multimeric complex. In this report, we examined whether the larger than expected target sizes of some enzymes could be due to secondary effects of free radicals. To test this proposal we carried out radiation inactivation analysis on Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, Torula yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Chlorella vulgaris nitrate reductase, and chicken liver sulfite oxidase in the presence and absence of free radical scavengers (benzoic acid and mannitol). In the presence of free radical scavengers, inactivation curves are shifted toward higher radiation doses. Plots of scavenger concentration versus enzyme activity showed that the protective effect of benzoic acid reached a maximum at 25 mM then declined. Mannitol alone had little effect, but appeared to broaden the maximum protective range of benzoic acid relative to concentration. The apparent target size of the polymerase activity of DNA polymerase I in the presence of free radical scavengers was about 40% of that observed in the absence of these agents. This is considerably less than the minimum polypeptide size and may reflect the actual size of the polymerase functional domain. Similar effects, but of lesser magnitude, were observed for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase, and sulfite oxidase. These results suggest that secondary damage due to free radicals generated in the local environment as a result of ionizing radiation can influence the apparent target size obtained by this method

  2. Target size analysis of bioactive substances by radiation inactivation. Comparison with electron beam and. gamma. -ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Yuhei; Ishigaki, Isao; Hirose, Shigehisa

    1988-11-01

    The molecular sizes of various bioactive substances can be measured by the radiation inactivation method. The high energy electron beam (10 MeV) and /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. ray are mainly used for radiation inactivation method. When the practical electron accelerator (/similar to/ 3 MeV) is used for the method, the problems such as penetration and increase of temperature will arise. In this paper the radiation inactivation using 3MeV electron beam is investigated by comparison with ..gamma..-ray. When the plate type glass ampules (glass thickness 1 +- 0.1 mm) were used as the irradiation vessels, relatively uniform dose distribution was obtained. The temperature increased only from 21 degC to 35 degC by irradiation (0.77 mA, 100 passes, 100 kGy). Under the irradiation condition mentioned above, the molecular size of three enzymes were calculated from D/sub 37/ doses. The molecular sizes obtained by electron beam and ..gamma..-ray were 14,000 and 17,000 respectively for lysozyme, 33,000 for pepsin, and 191,000 and 164,000 for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. These values agreed closely with the reported molecular weight, suggesting that the 3 MeV electron beam can also be used for the radiation inactivation under limited conditions.

  3. Sodium modulates opioid receptors through a membrane component different from G-proteins. Demonstration by target size analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.; Costa, T.; Herz, A.

    1988-01-01

    The target size for opioid receptor binding was studied after manipulations known to affect the interactions between receptor and GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). Addition of GTP or its analogs to the binding reaction, exposure of intact cells to pertussis toxin prior to irradiation, or treatment of irradiated membranes with N-ethylmaleimide did not change the target size (approximately equal to 100 kDa) for opioid receptors in NG 108-15 cells and rat brain. These data suggest that the 100-kDa species does not include an active subunit of a G-protein or alternatively that GTP does not promote the dissociation of the receptor-G-protein complex. The presence of Na+ (100 mM) in the radioligand binding assay induced a biphasic decay curve for agonist binding and a flattening of the monoexponential decay curve for a partial agonist. In both cases the effect was explained by an irradiation-induced loss of the low affinity state of the opioid receptor produced by the addition of Na+. This suggests that an allosteric inhibitor that mediates the effect of sodium on the receptor is destroyed at low doses of irradiation, leaving receptors which are no longer regulated by sodium. The effect of Na+ on target size was slightly increased by the simultaneous addition of GTP but was not altered by pertussis toxin treatment. Thus, the sodium unit is distinct from G-proteins and may represent a new component of the opioid receptor complex. Assuming a simple bimolecular model of one Na+ unit/receptor, the size of this inhibitor can be measured as 168 kDa

  4. Analysis of glass fibre sizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Kusano, Yukihiro; Brøndsted, Povl

    2014-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced polymer composites are widely used for industrial and engineering applications which include construction, aerospace, automotive and wind energy industry. During the manufacturing glass fibres, they are surface-treated with an aqueous solution. This process and the treated...... surfaces are called sizing. The sizing influences the properties of the interface between fibres and a matrix, and subsequently affects mechanical properties of composites. In this work the sizing of commercially available glass fibres was analysed so as to study the composition and chemical structures....... Soxhlet extraction was used to extract components of the sizing from the glass fibres. The glass fibres, their extracts and coated glass plates were analysed by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis combined with a mass spectrometer (TGA-MS), and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR...

  5. Macrophages recognize size and shape of their targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishit Doshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognition by macrophages is a key process in generating immune response against invading pathogens. Previous studies have focused on recognition of pathogens through surface receptors present on the macrophage's surface. Here, using polymeric particles of different geometries that represent the size and shape range of a variety of bacteria, the importance of target geometry in recognition was investigated. The studies reported here reveal that attachment of particles of different geometries to macrophages exhibits a strong dependence on size and shape. For all sizes and shapes studied, particles possessing the longest dimension in the range of 2-3 microm exhibited highest attachment. This also happens to be the size range of most commonly found bacteria in nature. The surface features of macrophages, in particular the membrane ruffles, might play an important role in this geometry-based target recognition by macrophages. These findings have significant implications in understanding the pathogenicity of bacteria and in designing drug delivery carriers.

  6. Impact of Target Distance, Target Size, and Visual Acuity on the Video Head Impulse Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Paul D; Rodriguez, Amanda I; Barin, Kamran; Janky, Kristen L

    2018-05-01

    The video head impulse test (vHIT) assesses the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Few have evaluated whether environmental factors or visual acuity influence the vHIT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of target distance, target size, and visual acuity on vHIT outcomes. Thirty-eight normal controls and 8 subjects with vestibular loss (VL) participated. vHIT was completed at 3 distances and with 3 target sizes. Normal controls were subdivided on the basis of visual acuity. Corrective saccade frequency, corrective saccade amplitude, and gain were tabulated. In the normal control group, there were no significant effects of target size or visual acuity for any vHIT outcome parameters; however, gain increased as target distance decreased. The VL group demonstrated higher corrective saccade frequency and amplitude and lower gain as compared with controls. In conclusion, decreasing target distance increases gain for normal controls but not subjects with VL. Preliminarily, visual acuity does not affect vHIT outcomes.

  7. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun; Wang Jiaxiang

    2012-01-01

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  8. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang Jiaxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2012-11-15

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  9. Target size matters: target errors contribute to the generalization of implicit visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenthal, Maayan; Avraham, Guy; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior

    2016-08-01

    The process of sensorimotor adaptation is considered to be driven by errors. While sensory prediction errors, defined as the difference between the planned and the actual movement of the cursor, drive implicit learning processes, target errors (e.g., the distance of the cursor from the target) are thought to drive explicit learning mechanisms. This distinction was mainly studied in the context of arm reaching tasks where the position and the size of the target were constant. We hypothesize that in a dynamic reaching environment, where subjects have to hit moving targets and the targets' dynamic characteristics affect task success, implicit processes will benefit from target errors as well. We examine the effect of target errors on learning of an unnoticed perturbation during unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects played a Pong game, in which they had to hit a moving ball by moving a paddle controlled by their hand. During the game, the movement of the paddle was gradually rotated with respect to the hand, reaching a final rotation of 25°. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: The high-target error group played the Pong with a small ball, and the low-target error group played with a big ball. Before and after the Pong game, subjects performed open-loop reaching movements toward static targets with no visual feedback. While both groups adapted to the rotation, the postrotation reaching movements were directionally biased only in the small-ball group. This result provides evidence that implicit adaptation is sensitive to target errors. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Contingent orienting or contingent capture: a size singleton matching the target-distractor size relation cannot capture attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Yin, Yue; Qi, Yue; Zhang, Kan

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we examined whether a peripheral size-singleton distractor that matches the target-distractor size relation can capture attention and disrupt central target identification. Three experiments consistently showed that a size singleton that matches the target-distractor size relation cannot capture attention when it appears outside of the attentional window, even though the same size singleton produces a cuing effect. In addition, a color singleton that matches the target color, instead of a size singleton that matches the target-distractor size relation, captures attention when it is outside of the attentional window. Thus, a size-relation-matched distractor is much weaker than a color-matched distractor in capturing attention and cannot capture attention when the distractor appears outside of the attentional window.

  11. Membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase: target size and radiation inactivation size of some of its enzymatic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.; Norby, J.G.

    1988-12-05

    Frozen samples of membrane-bound pig kidney Na,K-ATPase were subjected to target size analysis by radiation inactivation with 10-MeV electrons at -15 degrees C. The various properties investigated decreased monoexponentially with radiation dose, and the decay constants, gamma, were independent of the presence of other proteins and of sucrose concentrations above 0.25 M. The temperature factor was the same as described by others. Irradiation of four proteins of known molecular mass, m, showed that gamma for protein integrity was proportional to m with a proportionality factor about 20% higher than that conventionally used. By this standard curve, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity used as internal standard gave a radiation inactivation size of 110 +/- 5 kDa, very close to m = 104-108 kDa for the dimer, as expected. For Na+/K+-transporting ATPase the following target sizes and radiation inactivation size values were very close to m = 112 kDa for the alpha-peptide: peptide integrity of alpha, 115 kDa; unmodified binding sites for ATP and vanadate, 108 kDa; K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, 106 kDa. There was thus no sign of dimerization of the alpha-peptide or involvement of the beta-peptide. In contrast, optimal Na+/K+-transporting ATPase activity had a radiation inactivation size = 189 +/- 7 kDa, and total nucleotide binding capacity corresponded to 72 +/- 3 kDa. These latter results will be extended and discussed in a forthcoming paper.

  12. Membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase: target size and radiation inactivation size of some of its enzymatic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Norby, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Frozen samples of membrane-bound pig kidney Na,K-ATPase were subjected to target size analysis by radiation inactivation with 10-MeV electrons at -15 degrees C. The various properties investigated decreased monoexponentially with radiation dose, and the decay constants, gamma, were independent of the presence of other proteins and of sucrose concentrations above 0.25 M. The temperature factor was the same as described by others. Irradiation of four proteins of known molecular mass, m, showed that gamma for protein integrity was proportional to m with a proportionality factor about 20% higher than that conventionally used. By this standard curve, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity used as internal standard gave a radiation inactivation size of 110 +/- 5 kDa, very close to m = 104-108 kDa for the dimer, as expected. For Na+/K+-transporting ATPase the following target sizes and radiation inactivation size values were very close to m = 112 kDa for the alpha-peptide: peptide integrity of alpha, 115 kDa; unmodified binding sites for ATP and vanadate, 108 kDa; K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, 106 kDa. There was thus no sign of dimerization of the alpha-peptide or involvement of the beta-peptide. In contrast, optimal Na+/K+-transporting ATPase activity had a radiation inactivation size = 189 +/- 7 kDa, and total nucleotide binding capacity corresponded to 72 +/- 3 kDa. These latter results will be extended and discussed in a forthcoming paper

  13. Size-controlled synthesis of biodegradable nanocarriers for targeted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research for synthesis of size-controlled carriers is currently challenging one. In this research paper, a ... There are many methods available for the prepara- tion of drug-loaded ... 2.3 Characterization of nanoparticles. 2.3a FT-IR spectral ...

  14. Quantifying the Ebbinghaus figure effect: Target size, context size, and target-context distance determine the presence and direction of the illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester eKnol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, visual illusions, like the Ebbinghaus figure, have become widespread to investigate functional segregation of the visual system. This segregation reveals itself, so it is claimed, in the insensitivity of movement to optical illusions. This claim, however, faces contradictory results (and interpretations in the literature. These contradictions may be due to methodological weaknesses in, and differences across studies, some of which may hide a lack of perceptual illusion effects. Indeed, despite the long history of research with the Ebbinghaus figure, standardized configurations to predict the illusion effect are missing. Here, we present a complete geometrical description of the Ebbinghaus figure with three target sizes compatible with Fitts’ task. Each trial consisted of a stimulus and an isolated probe. The probe was controlled by the participant’s response through a staircase procedure. The participant was asked whether the probe or target appeared bigger. The factors target size, context size, target-context distance, and a control condition resulted in a 3×3×3+3 factorial design. The results indicate that the illusion magnitude, the perceptual distinctiveness, and the response time depend on the context size, distance, and especially, target size. In 33% of the factor combinations there was no illusion effect. The illusion magnitude ranged from zero to (exceptionally ten percent of the target size. The small (or absent illusion effects on perception and its possible influence on motor tasks might have been overlooked or misinterpreted in previous studies. Our results provide a basis for the application of the Ebbinghaus figure in psychophysical and motor control studies.

  15. Contrast, size, and orientation-invariant target detection in infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Tong; Crawshaw, Richard D.

    1991-08-01

    Automatic target detection in IR imagery is a very difficult task due to variations in target brightness, shape, size, and orientation. In this paper, the authors present a contrast, size, and orientation invariant algorithm based on Gabor functions for detecting targets from a single IR image frame. The algorithms consists of three steps. First, it locates potential targets by using low-resolution Gabor functions which resist noise and background clutter effects, then, it removes false targets and eliminates redundant target points based on a similarity measure. These two steps mimic human vision processing but are different from Zeevi's Foveating Vision System. Finally, it uses both low- and high-resolution Gabor functions to verify target existence. This algorithm has been successfully tested on several IR images that contain multiple examples of military vehicles with different size and brightness in various background scenes and orientations.

  16. Effects of diffraction and target finite size on coherent transition radiation spectra in bunch length measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, M.; Cianchi, A.; Verzilov, V.A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Orlandi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)]|[Rome Univ., Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Effects of diffraction and the size of the target on TR in the context of CTR-based bunch length measurements are studied on the basis of Kirchhoff diffraction theory. Spectra of TR from the finite-size target for several schemes of measurements are calculated in the far-infrared region showing strong distortion at low frequencies. Influence of the effect on the accuracy of bunch length measurements is estimated.

  17. Uncertainties in thick-target PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.L.; Cookson, J.A.; Paul, H.

    1983-01-01

    Thick-target PIXE analysis insolves uncertainties arising from the calculation of thick-target X-ray production in addition to the usual PIXE uncertainties. The calculation demands knowledge of ionization cross-sections, stopping powers and photon attenuation coefficients. Information on these is reviewed critically and a computational method is used to estimate the uncertainties transmitted from this data base into results of thick-target PIXE analyses with reference to particular specimen types using beams of 2-3 MeV protons. A detailed assessment of the accuracy of thick-target PIXE is presented. (orig.)

  18. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  19. Impedance modulation and feedback corrections in tracking targets of variable size and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selen, Luc P J; van Dieën, Jaap H; Beek, Peter J

    2006-11-01

    Humans are able to adjust the accuracy of their movements to the demands posed by the task at hand. The variability in task execution caused by the inherent noisiness of the neuromuscular system can be tuned to task demands by both feedforward (e.g., impedance modulation) and feedback mechanisms. In this experiment, we studied both mechanisms, using mechanical perturbations to estimate stiffness and damping as indices of impedance modulation and submovement scaling as an index of feedback driven corrections. Eight subjects tracked three differently sized targets (0.0135, 0.0270, and 0.0405 rad) moving at three different frequencies (0.20, 0.25, and 0.33 Hz). Movement variability decreased with both decreasing target size and movement frequency, whereas stiffness and damping increased with decreasing target size, independent of movement frequency. These results are consistent with the theory that mechanical impedance acts as a filter of noisy neuromuscular signals but challenge stochastic theories of motor control that do not account for impedance modulation and only partially for feedback control. Submovements during unperturbed cycles were quantified in terms of their gain, i.e., the slope between their duration and amplitude in the speed profile. Submovement gain decreased with decreasing movement frequency and increasing target size. The results were interpreted to imply that submovement gain is related to observed tracking errors and that those tracking errors are expressed in units of target size. We conclude that impedance and submovement gain modulation contribute additively to tracking accuracy.

  20. Angle dependent focal spot size of a conical X-ray target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed Raza, Hamid; Jin Kim, Hyun; Nam Kim, Hyun; Oh Cho, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Misaligned phantoms may severely affect the focal spot calculations. A method is proposed to determine the geometry of the X-ray target and the position of the image radiograph around the X-ray target to get a relatively smaller focal spot size. Results reveal that the focal spot size is not always isotropic around the target but it decreases as the point of observation shifts radially away from the center line of the conical X-ray target. This research will help in producing high quality X-ray images in multi-directions by properly aligning the phantoms and the radiograph tallies. - Highlights: • Misaligned phantoms may severely affect the focal spot calculations. • The aim of this research is to analyze systematically the angle dependent behavior of the focal spot size around a conical shaped X-ray target. • A general purpose Monte Carlo (MCNP5) computer code is used to achieve a relatively small focal spot size. • Angular distribution of the X-ray focal spot size mainly depends on the angular orientation of the phantom and its aligned FIR tally. • This research will help in producing high quality X-ray images in multi-directions

  1. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  2. Smaller Fixation Target Size Is Associated with More Stable Fixation and Less Variance in Threshold Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available The aims of this randomized observational case control study were to quantify fixation behavior during standard automated perimetry (SAP with different fixation targets and to evaluate the relationship between fixation behavior and threshold variability at each test point in healthy young participants experienced with perimetry. SAP was performed on the right eyes of 29 participants using the Octopus 900 perimeter, program 32, dynamic strategy. The fixation targets of Point, Cross, and Ring were used for SAP. Fixation behavior was recorded using a wearable eye-tracking glass. All participants underwent SAP twice with each fixation target in a random fashion. Fixation behavior was quantified by calculating the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA and the frequency of deviation from the fixation target. The BCEAs (deg2 of Point, Cross, and Ring targets were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.02, respectively. In all cases, BCEA increased significantly with increasing fixation target size (p < 0.05. The logarithmic value of BCEA demonstrated the same tendency (p < 0.05. A positive correlation was identified between fixation behavior and threshold variability for the Point and Cross targets (ρ = 0.413-0.534, p < 0.05. Fixation behavior increased with increasing fixation target size. Moreover, a larger fixation behavior tended to be associated with a higher threshold variability. A small fixation target is recommended during the visual field test.

  3. Size-change termination and bound analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    . The extended size-change principle is realized through combining abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with the use of size-change graphs. In the cases when data types are well founded, the method handles every case that is handled by LJB size-change termination. The method has been...

  4. Analysis of target implosion irradiated by proton beam, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamba, Moritake; Nagata, Norimasa; Kawata, Shigeo; Niu, Keishiro.

    1982-10-01

    Numerical simulation and analysis were performed for the implosion of a hollow shell target driven by proton beam. The target consists of three layers of Pb, Al and DT. As the Al layer is heated by proton beam, the layer expands and pushes the DT layer toward the target center. To obtain the optimal velocity of DT implosion, the optimal target size and optimal layer thickness were determined. The target size is determined by, for example, the instability of the implosion or beam focusing on the target surface. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the unstable implosion due to the inhomogeneity were investigated. Dissipation, nonlinear effects and density gradient at the boundary were expected to reduce the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability during the implosion. In order that the deviation of the boundary surface during the implosion is less than the thickness of fuel, the inhomogeneity of the temperature and the density of the target should be less than ten percent. The amplitude of the boundary surface roughness is required to be less than 4 micrometer. (Kato, T.)

  5. Radiation inactivation target size of rat adipocyte glucose transporters in the plasma membrane and intracellular pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.B.; Berenski, C.J.; Spangler, R.A.; Jung, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The in situ assembly states of the glucose transport carrier protein in the plasma membrane and in the intracellular (microsomal) storage pool of rat adipocytes were assessed by studying radiation-induced inactivation of the D-glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding activities. High energy radiation inactivated the glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding of each of these membrane preparations by reducing the total number of the binding sites without affecting the dissociation constant. The reduction in total number of binding sites was analyzed as a function of radiation dose based on target theory, from which a radiation-sensitive mass (target size) was calculated. When the plasma membranes of insulin-treated adipocytes were used, a target size of approximately 58,000 daltons was obtained. For adipocyte microsomal membranes, we obtained target sizes of approximately 112,000 and 109,000 daltons prior to and after insulin treatment, respectively. In the case of microsomal membranes, however, inactivation data showed anomalously low radiation sensitivities at low radiation doses, which may be interpreted as indicating the presence of a radiation-sensitive inhibitor. These results suggest that the adipocyte glucose transporter occurs as a monomer in the plasma membrane while existing in the intracellular reserve pool either as a homodimer or as a stoichiometric complex with a protein of an approximately equal size

  6. Classification of video sequences into chosen generalized use classes of target size and lighting level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Dudek, Łukasz; Witkowski, Marcin

    The VQiPS (Video Quality in Public Safety) Working Group, supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has been developing a user guide for public safety video applications. According to VQiPS, five parameters have particular importance influencing the ability to achieve a recognition task. They are: usage time-frame, discrimination level, target size, lighting level, and level of motion. These parameters form what are referred to as Generalized Use Classes (GUCs). The aim of our research was to develop algorithms that would automatically assist classification of input sequences into one of the GUCs. Target size and lighting level parameters were approached. The experiment described reveals the experts' ambiguity and hesitation during the manual target size determination process. However, the automatic methods developed for target size classification make it possible to determine GUC parameters with 70 % compliance to the end-users' opinion. Lighting levels of the entire sequence can be classified with an efficiency reaching 93 %. To make the algorithms available for use, a test application has been developed. It is able to process video files and display classification results, the user interface being very simple and requiring only minimal user interaction.

  7. Granule size control and targeting in pulsed spray fluid bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Henrik; Liu, Anchang; Räikkönen, Heikki; Hatara, Juha; Antikainen, Osmo; Airaksinen, Sari; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Lou, Honxiang; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2009-07-30

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pulsed liquid feed on granule size. The secondary aim was to increase knowledge of this technique in granule size targeting. Pulsed liquid feed refers to the pump changing between on- and off-positions in sequences, called duty cycles. One duty cycle consists of one on- and off-period. The study was performed with a laboratory-scale top-spray fluid bed granulator with duty cycle length and atomization pressure as studied variables. The liquid feed rate, amount and inlet air temperature were constant. The granules were small, indicating that the powder has only undergone ordered mixing, nucleation and early growth. The effect of atomizing pressure on granule size depends on inlet air relative humidity, with premature binder evaporation as a reason. The duty cycle length was of critical importance to the end product attributes, by defining the extent of intermittent drying and rewetting. By varying only the duty cycle length, it was possible to control granule nucleation and growth, with a wider granule size target range in increased relative humidity. The present study confirms that pulsed liquid feed in fluid bed granulation is a useful tool in end product particle size targeting.

  8. miR-11 regulates pupal size of Drosophila melanogaster via directly targeting Ras85D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Li, Shengjie; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs play diverse roles in various physiological processes during Drosophila development. In the present study, we reported that miR-11 regulates pupal size during Drosophila metamorphosis via targeting Ras85D with the following evidences: pupal size was increased in the miR-11 deletion mutant; restoration of miR-11 in the miR-11 deletion mutant rescued the increased pupal size phenotype observed in the miR-11 deletion mutant; ectopic expression of miR-11 in brain insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and whole body shows consistent alteration of pupal size; Dilps and Ras85D expressions were negatively regulated by miR-11 in vivo; miR-11 targets Ras85D through directly binding to Ras85D 3'-untranslated region in vitro; removal of one copy of Ras85D in the miR-11 deletion mutant rescued the increased pupal size phenotype observed in the miR-11 deletion mutant. Thus, our current work provides a novel mechanism of pupal size determination by microRNAs during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Effective source size, yield and beam profile from multi-layered bremsstrahlung targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, R.; Brahme, A.

    1996-01-01

    Modern conformal radiotherapy benefits from heterogeneous dose delivery using scanned narrow bremsstrahlung beams of high energy in combination with dynamic double focused multi-leaf collimation and purging magnets. When using a purging magnet to remove electrons and positrons the target space is limited and unorthodox thin multi-layered targets are needed. A computational technique has therefore been developed to determine the forward yield and the angular distributions of the bremsstrahlung beam as well as the size and location of the effective and the virtual photon point source for arbitrary multi-layer bremsstrahlung targets. The Gaussian approximation of the diffusion equation for the electrons has been used and convolved with the bremsstrahlung production process. For electrons with arbitrary emittance impinging on targets of any multi-layer and atomic number combination, the model is well applicable, at least for energies in the range 1-100 MeV. The intrinsic bremsstrahlung photon profile has been determined accurately by deconvolving the electron multiple scattering process from thin experimental beryllium target profiles. For electron pencil beams incident on a target of high density and atomic number such as tungsten, the size of the effective photon source stays at around a tenth of a millimetre. The effective photon source for low-Z materials such as Be, C and Al is located at depths from 3-7 mm in the target, decreasing with increasing atomic number. The effective photon source at off-axis positions then moves out considerably from the central axis, which should be considered when aligning collimators. For high-Z materials such as tungsten, the location of the effective photon source is at a few tenths of a millimetre deep. The virtual photon point source is located only a few tenths of a millimetre upstream of the effective photon source both for high- and low-Z materials. For 50 MeV electrons incident on multi-layered full range targets the radial

  10. CFD analysis of the HYPER spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chungho; Tak, Nam-il; Choi, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-Bum

    2008-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing an accelerator driven system (ADS) named HYPER (HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) for a transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes. One of the challenging tasks for the HYPER system is to design a large spallation target with a beam power of 15-25 MW. The paper focuses on a thermal-hydraulic analysis of the active part of the HYPER target. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed by using a commercial code CFX 5.7.1. Several advanced turbulence models with different grid structures were applied. The CFX results reveal a significant impact of the turbulence model on the window temperature. Particularly, the k-ε model predicts the lowest window temperature among the five investigated turbulence models

  11. Uncertainty Prediction in Passive Target Motion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Number 15/152,696 Filing Date 12 May 2016 Inventor John G. Baylog et al Address any questions concerning this matter to the Office of...300118 1 of 25 UNCERTAINTY PREDICTION IN PASSIVE TARGET MOTION ANALYSIS STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein...at an unknown location and following an unknown course relative to an observer 12. Observer 12 has a sensor array such as a passive sonar or radar

  12. Effects of target size on the comparison of photon and charged particle dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Tjoa, T.; Lyman, J.T.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Levy, R.P.

    1989-12-01

    The work presented here is part of an ongoing project to quantify and evaluate the differences in the use of different radiation types and irradiation geometries in radiosurgery. We are examining dose distributions for photons using the ''Gamma Knife'' and the linear accelerator arc methods, as well as different species of charged particles from protons to neon ions. A number of different factors need to be studied to accurately compare the different modalities such as target size, shape and location, the irradiation geometry, and biological response. This presentation focuses on target size, which has a large effect on the dose distributions in normal tissue surrounding the lesion. This work concentrates on dose distributions found in radiosurgery, as opposed to those usually found in radiotherapy. 5 refs., 2 figs

  13. Small-sized pump for the target chamber of the E-SUVI accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borts, B.V.; Kravchenko, S.F.; Pisarev, G.V.; Rubashko, V.G.; Khorenko, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    The target chamber of the accelerator ESUVI is located at the high voltage end of the accelerating tube under the electrostatic generator conductor. The pumping out from the target chamber region has been performed through the accelerating tube its rate constituting 1.5 l/s which resulted in oxidation and contamination of the surface of irradiated targets in the course of the irradiation of chemically active materials. For obtaining high vacuum in a target chamber a small-size gettering-ionic pump of the ORBITRON type has been developed which operates in the autonomous mode. The pump pumping out rate in the pressure range 10 -5 -10 -7 mm Hg constitutes for air and nitrogen 20-25 l/s, ffor oxygen 30-40 l/s, for hydrogen 100-120 l/s. The pump weight without supply units is 2 kg. The pumps permits performing pressure indicator in the target chamber. Using the developed pump makes possible to decrease the target chamber pressure to 1x10 -6 mm Hg for active gases to 10 -8 -10 -9 mm Hg

  14. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  15. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This document is the Final Report for NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Grant 15-NIAC16A-0145, titled Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets. The research was focused on developing a system concept for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets, such as Asteroids, Comets, Planets and Moons from a distant vantage, for example from a spacecraft that is orbiting the target (Hughes et al., 2015). The orbiting spacecraft is equipped with a high-power laser, which is run by electricity from photovoltaic panels. The laser is directed at a spot on the target. Materials on the surface of the target are heated by the laser beam, and begin to melt and then evaporate, forming a plume of asteroid molecules in front of the heated spot. The heated spot glows, producing blackbody illumination that is visible from the spacecraft, via a path through the evaporated plume. As the blackbody radiation from the heated spot passes through the plume of evaporated material, molecules in the plume absorb radiation in a manner that is specific to the rotational and vibrational characteristics of the specific molecules. A spectrometer aboard the spacecraft is used to observe absorption lines in the blackbody signal. The pattern of absorption can be used to estimate the molecular composition of materials in the plume, which originated on the target. Focusing on a single spot produces a borehole, and shallow subsurface profiling of the targets bulk composition is possible. At the beginning of the Phase I research, the estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the system was TRL-1. During the Phase I research, an end-to-end theoretical model of the sensor system was developed from first principles. The model includes laser energy and optical propagation, target heating, melting and evaporation of target material, plume density, thermal radiation from the heated spot, molecular cross section of likely asteroid materials, and estimation of the

  16. Analysis of directly driven ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Aragones, J.M.; Gago, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The current capabilities at DENIM for the analysis of directly driven targets are presented. These include theoretical, computational and applied physical studies and developments of detailed simulation models for the most relevant processes in ICF. The simulation of directly driven ICF targets is carried out with the one-dimensional NORCLA code developed at DENIM. This code contains two main segments: NORMA and CLARA, able to work fully coupled and in an iterative manner. NORMA solves the hydrodynamic equations in a lagrangian mesh. It has modular programs couple to it to treat the laser or particle beam interaction with matter. Equations of state, opacities and conductivities are taken from a DENIM atomic data library, generated externally with other codes that will also be explained in this work. CLARA solves the transport equation for neutrons, as well as for charged particles, and suprathermal electrons using discrete ordinates and finite element methods in the computational procedure. Parametric calculations of multilayered single-shell targets driven by heavy ion beams are also analyzed. Finally, conclusions are focused on the ongoing developments in the areas of interest such as: radiation transport, atomic physics, particle in cell method, charged particle transport, two-dimensional calculations and instabilities. (author)

  17. Failure probability analysis on mercury target vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2005-03-01

    Failure probability analysis was carried out to estimate the lifetime of the mercury target which will be installed into the JSNS (Japan spallation neutron source) in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The lifetime was estimated as taking loading condition and materials degradation into account. Considered loads imposed on the target vessel were the static stresses due to thermal expansion and static pre-pressure on He-gas and mercury and the dynamic stresses due to the thermally shocked pressure waves generated repeatedly at 25 Hz. Materials used in target vessel will be degraded by the fatigue, neutron and proton irradiation, mercury immersion and pitting damages, etc. The imposed stresses were evaluated through static and dynamic structural analyses. The material-degradations were deduced based on published experimental data. As a result, it was quantitatively confirmed that the failure probability for the lifetime expected in the design is very much lower, 10 -11 in the safety hull, meaning that it will be hardly failed during the design lifetime. On the other hand, the beam window of mercury vessel suffered with high-pressure waves exhibits the failure probability of 12%. It was concluded, therefore, that the leaked mercury from the failed area at the beam window is adequately kept in the space between the safety hull and the mercury vessel by using mercury-leakage sensors. (author)

  18. Analysis of reduced widths and size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.C.; Ram Raj; Nath, N.

    1977-01-01

    Recent data on S-wave neutron reduced widths for a large number of nuclei have been analysed nucleus-wise and the calculations for the degree of freedom of the associated (chi) 2 -distribution have been made using the Porter and Thomas procedure. It is noted that a number of nuclei can be fitted by a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom one, while there are few which are identified to follow a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom two and even more than two. The present analysis thus contradicts the usual presumption according to which the degree of freedom is taken to be always unity. An analytical attempt has also been made to ascertain the suitability of the data on reduced widths to be used for the analysis. These considerations are likely to modify the neutron cross-section evaluations. (author)

  19. Survival Function Analysis of Planet Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Applying the survival function analysis to the planet radius distribution of the Kepler exoplanet candidates, we have identified two natural divisions of planet radius at 4 Earth radii and 10 Earth radii. These divisions place constraints on planet formation and interior structure model. The division at 4 Earth radii separates small exoplanets from large exoplanets above. When combined with the recently-discovered radius gap at 2 Earth radii, it supports the treatment of planets 2-4 Earth rad...

  20. Nuclear Security: Target Analysis-rev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bultz, Garl A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand target identification, including roll-up and protracted theft; evaluate target identification in the SNRI; recognize the target characteristics and consequence levels; and understand graded safeguards.

  1. Targeting Triple Negative Breast Cancer with a Small-sized Paramagnetic Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Gang, Zhang Z.; Ewing, James R.; Arbab, Ali S; Ali, Meser M

    2016-01-01

    There is no available targeted therapy or imaging agent for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We developed a small-sized dendrimer-based nanoparticle containing a clinical relevant MRI contrast agent, GdDOTA and a NIR fluorescent dye, DL680. Systemic delivery of dual-modal nanoparticles led to accumulation of the agents in a flank mouse model of TNBC that were detected by both optical and MR imaging. In-vivo fluorescence images, as well as ex-vivo fluorescence images of individual organs, demonstrated that nanoparticles accumulated into tumor selectively. A dual modal strategy resulted in a selective delivery of a small-sized (GdDOTA)42-G4-DL680 dendrimeric agent to TNBC tumors, avoiding other major organs. PMID:28018751

  2. Particle size, magnetic field, and blood velocity effects on particle retention in magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Erica M; Maxim, Peter G; Eaton, John K

    2010-01-01

    A physics-based model of a general magnetic drug targeting (MDT) system was developed with the goal of realizing the practical limitations of MDT when electromagnets are the source of the magnetic field. The simulation tracks magnetic particles subject to gravity, drag force, magnetic force, and hydrodynamic lift in specified flow fields and external magnetic field distributions. A model problem was analyzed to determine the effect of drug particle size, blood flow velocity, and magnetic field gradient strength on efficiency in holding particles stationary in a laminar Poiseuille flow modeling blood flow in a medium-sized artery. It was found that particle retention rate increased with increasing particle diameter and magnetic field gradient strength and decreased with increasing bulk flow velocity. The results suggest that MDT systems with electromagnets are unsuitable for use in small arteries because it is difficult to control particles smaller than about 20 microm in diameter.

  3. Communication target object recognition for D2D connection with feature size limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jiheon; Kim, Soochang; Kim, Young-hoon; Lee, Chulhee

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a new concept of device-to-device (D2D) communication, which is called "point-and-link communication" has attracted great attentions due to its intuitive and simple operation. This approach enables user to communicate with target devices without any pre-identification information such as SSIDs, MAC addresses by selecting the target image displayed on the user's own device. In this paper, we present an efficient object matching algorithm that can be applied to look(point)-and-link communications for mobile services. Due to the limited channel bandwidth and low computational power of mobile terminals, the matching algorithm should satisfy low-complexity, low-memory and realtime requirements. To meet these requirements, we propose fast and robust feature extraction by considering the descriptor size and processing time. The proposed algorithm utilizes a HSV color histogram, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) features and object aspect ratios. To reduce the descriptor size under 300 bytes, a limited number of SIFT key points were chosen as feature points and histograms were binarized while maintaining required performance. Experimental results show the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  4. SU-F-T-574: MLC Based SRS Beam Commissioning - Minimum Target Size Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakikhani, R [Florida Cancer Specialists - Largo, Largo, FL (United States); Able, C [Florida Cancer Specialists - New Port Richey, New Port Richey, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement a MLC accelerator based SRS program using small fields down to 1 cm × 1 cm and to determine the smallest target size safe for clinical treatment. Methods: Computerized beam scanning was performed in water using a diode detector and a linac-head attached transmission ion chamber to characterize the small field dosimetric aspects of a 6 MV photon beam (Trilogy-Varian Medical Systems, Inc.). The output factors, PDD and profiles of field sizes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10 cm{sup 2} were measured and utilized to create a new treatment planning system (TPS) model (AAA ver 11021). Static MLC SRS treatment plans were created and delivered to a homogeneous phantom (Cube 20, CIRS, Inc.) for a 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm “PTV” target. A 12 field DMLC plan was created for a 2.1 cm target. Radiochromic film (EBT3, Ashland Inc.) was used to measure the planar dose in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes. A micro ion chamber (0.007 cc) was used to measure the dose at isocenter for each treatment delivery. Results: The new TPS model was validated by using a tolerance criteria of 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement. For fields ≤ 3 cm{sup 2}, the max PDD, Profile and OF difference was 0.9%, 2%/2mm and 1.4% respectively. The measured radiochromic film planar dose distributions had gamma scores of 95.3% or higher using a 3%/2mm criteria. Ion chamber measurements for all 3 test plans effectively met our goal of delivering the dose accurately to within 5% when compared to the expected dose reported by the TPS (1 cm plan Δ= −5.2%, 1.5 cm plan Δ= −2.0%, 2 cm plan Δ= 1.5%). Conclusion: End to end testing confirmed that MLC defined SRS for target sizes ≥ 1.0 cm can be safely planned and delivered.

  5. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS WITH ENDOGENOUS SYSTEM SIZING

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Lewell F.; Smathers, Webb M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is concerned with analysis of economic feasibility of solar energy systems. Methodology for estimating energy output from different sized systems is briefly presented, and this is used to determine technical coefficients for a mixed integer model which optimizes the size of the solar heating unit for a particular use. An empirical example of hot water heating on a Georgia dairy is presented. Cost curves are provided for the dairy example to illustrate the effect of sizing on the ec...

  6. Size, Albedo, and Taxonomy of the Don Quijote Space Mission Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Fitzsimmons, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Rendezvous and lander missions are a very effective but very expensive way of investigating Solar-System bodies. The planning, optimization and success of space missions depends crucially on prior remotely-sensed knowledge of target bodies. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), which are mainly fragments of main-belt asteroids, are seen as important goals for investigation by space missions, mainly due to the role their forebears played in planet formation and the evolution of the Solar System, but also for the pragmatic reason that these objects can collide with the Earth with potentially devastating consequences. The European Space Agency is currently planning the Don Quijote mission to a NEA, which includes a rendezvous (and perhaps a lander) spacecraft and an impactor vehicle. The aim is to study the physical properties of the target asteroid and the effects of the impact on its dynamical state, as a first step in considering realistic mitigation measures against an eventual hazardous NEA. Two potential targets have been selected for the mission, the preferred one being (10302) 1989 ML, which is energetically easier to reach and is possibly a scientifically interesting primitive asteroid. However, due to the ambiguity of available spectral data, it is currently not possible to confidently determine the taxonomic type and mineralogy of this object. Crucially, the albedo is uncertain by a factor of 10, which leads to large uncertainties in the size and mass and hence the planned near-surface operations of Don Quijote. Thermal-infrared observations are urgently required for accurate size and albedo determination. These observations, which can only be carried out by Spitzer and would require only a modest amount of observing time, would enable an accurate diameter to be derived for the first time and the resulting albedo would remove the taxonomic ambiguity. The proposed Spitzer observations are critical for effective mission planning and would greatly increase our

  7. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Okuda

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug's effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm. We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents.

  8. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Keiji; Fu, Hai Ying; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Araki, Ryo; Tsuchida, Shota; Thanikachalam, Punniyakoti V; Fukuta, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiro; Yamato, Masaki; Sanada, Shoji; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asano, Yoshihiro; Asakura, Masanori; Hanawa, Haruo; Hao, Hiroyuki; Oku, Naoto; Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Sakata, Yasushi; Minamino, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug's effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm). We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents.

  9. Scrapie prion liposomes and rods exhibit target sizes of 55,000 Da

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinger-Kawahara, C.G.; Kempner, E.; Groth, D.; Gabizon, R.; Prusiner, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Scrapie is a degenerative neurologic disease in sheep and goats which can be experimentally transmitted to laboratory rodents. Considerable evidence suggests that the scrapie agent is composed largely, if not entirely, of an abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc). Inactivation of scrapie prions by ionizing radiation exhibited single-hit kinetics and gave a target size of 55,000 +/- 9000 mol wt. The inactivation profile was independent of the form of the prion. Scrapie agent infectivity in brain homogenates, microsomal fractions, detergent-extracted microsomes, purified amyloid rods, and liposomes exhibited the same inactivation profile. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the infectious particle causing scrapie contains approximately 2 PrPSc molecules

  10. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  11. Sample size determination for mediation analysis of longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haitao; Liu, Suyu; Miao, Danmin; Yuan, Ying

    2018-03-27

    Sample size planning for longitudinal data is crucial when designing mediation studies because sufficient statistical power is not only required in grant applications and peer-reviewed publications, but is essential to reliable research results. However, sample size determination is not straightforward for mediation analysis of longitudinal design. To facilitate planning the sample size for longitudinal mediation studies with a multilevel mediation model, this article provides the sample size required to achieve 80% power by simulations under various sizes of the mediation effect, within-subject correlations and numbers of repeated measures. The sample size calculation is based on three commonly used mediation tests: Sobel's method, distribution of product method and the bootstrap method. Among the three methods of testing the mediation effects, Sobel's method required the largest sample size to achieve 80% power. Bootstrapping and the distribution of the product method performed similarly and were more powerful than Sobel's method, as reflected by the relatively smaller sample sizes. For all three methods, the sample size required to achieve 80% power depended on the value of the ICC (i.e., within-subject correlation). A larger value of ICC typically required a larger sample size to achieve 80% power. Simulation results also illustrated the advantage of the longitudinal study design. The sample size tables for most encountered scenarios in practice have also been published for convenient use. Extensive simulations study showed that the distribution of the product method and bootstrapping method have superior performance to the Sobel's method, but the product method was recommended to use in practice in terms of less computation time load compared to the bootstrapping method. A R package has been developed for the product method of sample size determination in mediation longitudinal study design.

  12. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape and Color on Stable Fly (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable fly management has been challenging. Insecticide-treated targets made from blue and black fabric, developed in Africa, were evaluated in Louisiana and Florida to determine if they would attract and kill stable flies. Untreated targets were used to answer questions about configuration, size an...

  13. Survival analysis and classification methods for forest fire size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pier-Olivier; Duchesne, Thierry; Cumming, Steven G

    2018-01-01

    Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene) and the size at "being held" (a state when no further increase in size is expected). We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i.e., the size at "being held" exceeds the size at initial assessment). Logistic regression was preferred over two alternative classifiers, with covariates consistent with similar past analyses. We conducted survival analysis on the group of fires exhibiting a size increase. A screening process selected three covariates: an index of fire weather at the day the fire started, the fuel type burning at initial assessment, and a factor for the type and capabilities of the method of initial attack. The Cox proportional hazards model performed better than three accelerated failure time alternatives. Both fire weather and fuel type were highly significant, with effects consistent with known fire behaviour. The effects of initial attack method were not statistically significant, but did suggest a reverse causality that could arise if fire management agencies were to dispatch resources based on a-priori assessment of fire growth potentials. We discuss how a more sophisticated analysis of larger data sets could produce unbiased estimates of fire suppression effect under such circumstances.

  14. Survival analysis and classification methods for forest fire size

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene) and the size at “being held” (a state when no further increase in size is expected). We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i.e., the size at “being held” exceeds the size at initial assessment). Logistic regression was preferred over two alternative classifiers, with covariates consistent with similar past analyses. We conducted survival analysis on the group of fires exhibiting a size increase. A screening process selected three covariates: an index of fire weather at the day the fire started, the fuel type burning at initial assessment, and a factor for the type and capabilities of the method of initial attack. The Cox proportional hazards model performed better than three accelerated failure time alternatives. Both fire weather and fuel type were highly significant, with effects consistent with known fire behaviour. The effects of initial attack method were not statistically significant, but did suggest a reverse causality that could arise if fire management agencies were to dispatch resources based on a-priori assessment of fire growth potentials. We discuss how a more sophisticated analysis of larger data sets could produce unbiased estimates of fire suppression effect under such circumstances. PMID:29320497

  15. Determining wood chip size: image analysis and clustering methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Febbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the standard methods for the determination of the size distribution of wood chips is the oscillating screen method (EN 15149- 1:2010. Recent literature demonstrated how image analysis could return highly accurate measure of the dimensions defined for each individual particle, and could promote a new method depending on the geometrical shape to determine the chip size in a more accurate way. A sample of wood chips (8 litres was sieved through horizontally oscillating sieves, using five different screen hole diameters (3.15, 8, 16, 45, 63 mm; the wood chips were sorted in decreasing size classes and the mass of all fractions was used to determine the size distribution of the particles. Since the chip shape and size influence the sieving results, Wang’s theory, which concerns the geometric forms, was considered. A cluster analysis on the shape descriptors (Fourier descriptors and size descriptors (area, perimeter, Feret diameters, eccentricity was applied to observe the chips distribution. The UPGMA algorithm was applied on Euclidean distance. The obtained dendrogram shows a group separation according with the original three sieving fractions. A comparison has been made between the traditional sieve and clustering results. This preliminary result shows how the image analysis-based method has a high potential for the characterization of wood chip size distribution and could be further investigated. Moreover, this method could be implemented in an online detection machine for chips size characterization. An improvement of the results is expected by using supervised multivariate methods that utilize known class memberships. The main objective of the future activities will be to shift the analysis from a 2-dimensional method to a 3- dimensional acquisition process.

  16. Early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Survival Is Dependent on Size: Positive Implications for Future Targeted Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Chin; Tramontano, Angela C; Dowling, Emily C; Brooks, Gabriel A; Jeon, Alvin; Brugge, William R; Gazelle, G Scott; Kong, Chung Yin; Pandharipande, Pari V

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not experienced a meaningful mortality improvement for the past few decades. Successful screening is difficult to accomplish because most PDACs present late in their natural history, and current interventions have not provided significant benefit. Our goal was to identify determinants of survival for early PDAC to help inform future screening strategies. Early PDACs from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database (2000-2010) were analyzed. We stratified by size and included carcinomas in situ (Tis). Overall cancer-specific survival was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was developed and the significance of key covariates for survival prediction was evaluated. A Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated significant differences in survival by size at diagnosis; these survival benefits persisted after adjustment for key covariates in the Cox proportional hazards analysis. In addition, relatively weaker predictors of worse survival included older age, male sex, black race, nodal involvement, tumor location within the head of the pancreas, and no surgery or radiotherapy. For early PDAC, we found tumor size to be the strongest predictor of survival, even after adjustment for other patient characteristics. Our findings suggest that early PDAC detection can have clinical benefit, which has positive implications for future screening strategies.

  17. In situ assembly states of (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase in human erythrocytes. Radiation target size analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hah, J.; Goldinger, J.M.; Jung, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The in situ assembly state of the (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase of human erythrocytes was studied by applying the classical target theory to radiation inactivation data of the ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux and ATP hydrolysis. Erythrocytes and their extensively washed white ghosts were irradiated at -45 to -50 degrees C with an increasing dose of 1.5-MeV electron beam, and after thawing, the Na+-pump flux and/or enzyme activities were assayed. Each activity measured was reduced as a simple exponential function of radiation dose, from which a radiation sensitive mass (target size) was calculated. When intact cells were used, the target sizes for the pump and for the ATPase activities were equal and approximately 620,000 daltons. The target size for the ATPase activity was reduced to approximately 320,000 daltons if the cells were pretreated with digitoxigenin. When ghosts were used, the target size for the ATPase activity was again approximately 320,000 daltons. Our target size measurements together with other information available in literature suggest that (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase may exist in human erythrocytes either as a tetramer of alpha beta or as a dimer of alpha beta in tight association with other protein mass, probably certain glycolytic enzymes, and that this tetrameric or heterocomplex association is dissociable by digitoxigenin treatment or by extensive wash during ghost preparation

  18. Neutron performance analysis for ESS target proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magán, M.; Terrón, S.; Thomsen, K.; Sordo, F.; Perlado, J.M.; Bermejo, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the course of discussing different target types for their suitability in the European Spallation Source (ESS) one main focus was on neutronics' performance. Diverse concepts have been assessed baselining some preliminary engineering and geometrical details and including some optimization. With the restrictions and resulting uncertainty imposed by the lack of detailed designs optimizations at the time of compiling this paper, the conclusion drawn is basically that there is a little difference in the neutronic yield of the investigated targets. Other criteria like safety, environmental compatibility, reliability and cost will thus dominate the choice of an ESS target.

  19. Analysis of Noise Mechanisms in Cell-Size Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Saurabh; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar Augusto; Ghusinga, Khem Raj; Singh, Abhyudai

    2017-06-06

    At the single-cell level, noise arises from multiple sources, such as inherent stochasticity of biomolecular processes, random partitioning of resources at division, and fluctuations in cellular growth rates. How these diverse noise mechanisms combine to drive variations in cell size within an isoclonal population is not well understood. Here, we investigate the contributions of different noise sources in well-known paradigms of cell-size control, such as adder (division occurs after adding a fixed size from birth), sizer (division occurs after reaching a size threshold), and timer (division occurs after a fixed time from birth). Analysis reveals that variation in cell size is most sensitive to errors in partitioning of volume among daughter cells, and not surprisingly, this process is well regulated among microbes. Moreover, depending on the dominant noise mechanism, different size-control strategies (or a combination of them) provide efficient buffering of size variations. We further explore mixer models of size control, where a timer phase precedes/follows an adder, as has been proposed in Caulobacter crescentus. Although mixing a timer and an adder can sometimes attenuate size variations, it invariably leads to higher-order moments growing unboundedly over time. This results in a power-law distribution for the cell size, with an exponent that depends inversely on the noise in the timer phase. Consistent with theory, we find evidence of power-law statistics in the tail of C. crescentus cell-size distribution, although there is a discrepancy between the observed power-law exponent and that predicted from the noise parameters. The discrepancy, however, is removed after data reveal that the size added by individual newborns in the adder phase itself exhibits power-law statistics. Taken together, this study provides key insights into the role of noise mechanisms in size homeostasis, and suggests an inextricable link between timer-based models of size control and

  20. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a system capable of probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets such as asteroids, comets, planets and moons from a distant vantage....

  1. A comparative analysis of DNA barcode microarray feature size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density, but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity. Results We demonstrate that barcode microarrays with smaller features are equally capable of detecting variation in DNA barcode intensity when compared to larger feature sizes within a specific microarray platform. The barcodes used in this study are the well-characterized set derived from the Yeast KnockOut (YKO collection used for screens of pooled yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. We treated these pools with the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin as a test compound. Three generations of barcode microarrays at 30, 8 and 5 μm features sizes independently identified the primary target of tunicamycin to be ALG7. Conclusion We show that the data obtained with 5 μm feature size is of comparable quality to the 30 μm size and propose that further shrinking of features could yield barcode microarrays with equal or greater resolving power and, more importantly, higher density.

  2. New target for high-intensity laser-matter interaction: Gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servol, M.; Quere, F.; Bougeard, M.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Faenov, A.Ya; Pikuz, T.A.; Audebert, P.; Francucci, M.; Petrocelli, G.

    2005-01-01

    The design of efficient targets for high-intensity laser-matter interaction is essential to fully exploit the advantages of laser-induced photons or particles sources. We present an advantageous kind of target, consisting in a free gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powder, and describe its main technical characteristics. We demonstrate a laser-induced keV x-ray source using this target, and show that the photon flux obtained for the Kα line of Si by irradiating different silica powders is comparable to the one obtained with a bulk silica target

  3. Evolution of the sedimentation technique for particle size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, R.

    1998-01-01

    After an introduction on the significance of particle size measurements, sedimentation methods are described, with emphasis on the evolution of the gravitational approach. The gravitational technique based on mass determination by X-ray adsorption allows fast analysis by automation and easy data handling, in addition to providing the accuracy required by quality control and research applications [it

  4. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  5. Intermediate size inducer pump - structural analysis and transient deformation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.K.; Nishizaka, J.N.

    1979-05-01

    This report summarizes the structural and thermal transient deformation analysis of the Intermediate Size Inducer Pump. The analyses were performed in accordance to the requirements of N266ST310001, the specification for the ISIP. Results of stress analysis indicate that the thermal transient stress and strain are within the stress strain limits of RDT standard F9-4 which was used as a guide

  6. One size does not fit all: Establishing the need for targeted eco-feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrowpour, Ardalan; Xie, Yimeng; Taylor, John E.; Hong, Yili

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined occupants’ responses to an eco-feedback system in a commercial building. • We analyzed the impact of notifications on the level of engagement of participants. • We found notification effectiveness to be highly dependent on the type of feedback. • Occupant response to uniform normative comparison eco-feedback varied substantially. • This highlights the need for targeted eco-feedback based on consumption patterns. - Abstract: Despite all improvements in buildings shell, equipment, and design, CO_2 emissions from buildings are increasing. Since occupants spend more than 87% of their time indoors, they are inseparable and significant elements of building system dynamics. Hence, there is a great potential for energy efficiency in buildings using a wide range of programs such as intervention and eco-feedback. Despite the high level of individual differences and intra-class variability of occupants’ behaviors, the current state-of-the-art eco-feedback programs treat all the occupants uniformly and do not target and tailor the feedback. Therefore, it leaves an opportunity to increase the efficacy of eco-feedback systems through the designing of tailored and targeted programs. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive analysis and tested hypotheses on occupants’ behavioral responses to a normative comparison feedback program, in addition to the impact of notifications on the level of engagement of each group of occupants. We categorized occupants who participated in the normative comparison feedback program into three groups (i.e. low, medium, and high energy consumers) based on their baseline energy consumption, and tested 9 hypotheses. A mixed-effect regression model (MRM) and a paired t-test was implemented to evaluate the proposed hypotheses. The hypotheses examine the variability of occupants’ responses under the same eco-feedback program, and the effectiveness of notifications on reinforcing occupants’ engagement in

  7. Detection and size analysis of proteins with switchable DNA layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Pringsheim, Erika; Kaiser, Wolfgang; Arinaga, Kenji; Knezevic, Jelena; Tornow, Marc; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    We introduce a chip-compatible scheme for the label-free detection of proteins in real-time that is based on the electrically driven conformation switching of DNA oligonucleotides on metal surfaces. The switching behavior is a sensitive indicator for the specific recognition of IgG antibodies and antibody fragments, which can be detected in quantities of less than 10(-18) mol on the sensor surface. Moreover, we show how the dynamics of the induced molecular motion can be monitored by measuring the high-frequency switching response. When proteins bind to the layer, the increase in hydrodynamic drag slows the switching dynamics, which allows us to determine the size of the captured proteins. We demonstrate the identification of different antibody fragments by means of their kinetic fingerprint. The switchDNA method represents a generic approach to simultaneously detect and size target molecules using a single analytical platform.

  8. Size matters: a meta-analysis on the impact of hospital size on patient mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Naleef

    2012-06-01

    This paper seeks to understand the relationship between hospital size and patient mortality. Patient mortality has been used by several studies in the health services research field as a proxy for measuring healthcare quality. A systematic review is conducted to identify studies that investigate the impact of hospital size on patient mortality. Using the findings of 21 effect sizes from 10 eligible studies, a meta-analysis is performed using a random effects model. Subgroup analyses using three factors--the measure used for hospital size, type of mortality measure used and whether mortality was adjusted or unadjusted--were utilised to investigate their moderating influence on the study's primary relationship. Results from this analysis indicate that big hospitals have lower odds of patient mortality versus small hospitals. Specifically, the probability of patient mortality in a big hospital, in reference to a small hospital, is 11% less. Subgroup analyses show that studies with unadjusted mortality rates have an even lower overall odds ratio of mortality versus studies with adjusted mortality rates. Aside from some limitations in data reporting, the findings of this paper support theoretical notions that big hospitals have lower mortality rates than small hospitals. Guidelines for better data reporting and future research are provided to further explore the phenomenon. Policy implications of this paper's findings are underscored and a sense of urgency is called for in an effort to help improve the state of a healthcare system that struggles with advancing healthcare quality. © 2012 The Author. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2012 The Joanna Briggs Institute.

  9. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted

  10. Size analysis of single-core magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Frank, E-mail: f.ludwig@tu-bs.de [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Balceris, Christoph; Viereck, Thilo [Institut für Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Gavilan, Helena; Costo, Rocio [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Zeng, Lunjie; Olsson, Eva [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer [ACREO Swedish ICT AB, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Single-core iron-oxide nanoparticles with nominal core diameters of 14 nm and 19 nm were analyzed with a variety of non-magnetic and magnetic analysis techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), static magnetization vs. magnetic field (M-H) measurements, ac susceptibility (ACS) and magnetorelaxometry (MRX). From the experimental data, distributions of core and hydrodynamic sizes are derived. Except for TEM where a number-weighted distribution is directly obtained, models have to be applied in order to determine size distributions from the measurand. It was found that the mean core diameters determined from TEM, M-H, ACS and MRX measurements agree well although they are based on different models (Langevin function, Brownian and Néel relaxation times). Especially for the sample with large cores, particle interaction effects come into play, causing agglomerates which were detected in DLS, ACS and MRX measurements. We observed that the number and size of agglomerates can be minimized by sufficiently strong diluting the suspension. - Highlights: • Investigation of size parameters of single-core magnetic nanoparticles with nominal core diameters of 14 nm and 19 nm utilizing different magnetic and non-magnetic methods • Hydrodynamic size determined from ac susceptibility measurements is consistent with the DLS findings • Core size agrees determined from static magnetization curves, MRX and ACS data agrees with results from TEM although the estimation is based on different models (Langevin function, Brownian and Néel relaxation times).

  11. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape, and Color on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Foil, Lane D

    2018-04-02

    Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds. Studies with electric grid targets and with targets paired with Olson traps showed cloth target color attraction in the following decreasing order: black > blue-black > blue. A solid black target is easier to make than a blue-black target because no sewing is involved. Attraction was not affected when flat 1-m2 targets were formed into cylinders, despite the limited view of the blue and black colors together. There was no reduction in attraction when the 1-m2 cylindrical targets were compared with smaller (63 × 30 cm high) cylindrical targets. In addition, there was no difference in attraction between the small blue-black, blue, and black targets. Significance of findings and implications of potential uses for treated targets are discussed. Target attraction was indicated by the numbers of stable flies captured on an Olson sticky trap placed 30 cm from the target. Although this system is adequate for field research, it greatly underestimates the actual numbers of stable flies attracted to treated targets.

  12. A new certified reference material for size analysis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Adelina; Kestens, Vikram; Franks, Katrin; Roebben, Gert; Lamberty, Andrée; Linsinger, Thomas P. J.

    2012-01-01

    A certified reference material, ERM-FD100, for quality assurance and validation of various nanoparticle sizing methods, was developed by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements. The material was prepared from an industrially sourced colloidal silica containing nanoparticles with a nominal equivalent spherical diameter of 20 nm. The homogeneity and stability of the candidate reference material was assessed by means of dynamic light scattering and centrifugal liquid sedimentation. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on a global interlaboratory comparison in which 34 laboratories participated with various analytical methods (DLS, CLS, EM, SAXS, ELS). After scrutinising the interlaboratory comparison data, 4 different certified particle size values, specific for the corresponding analytical method, could be assigned. The good comparability of results allowed the certification of the colloidal silica material for nanoparticle size analysis.

  13. Growing axons analysis by using Granulometric Size Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Mariela A; Ballarin, Virginia L; Rapacioli, Melina; CelIn, A R; Sanchez, V; Flores, V

    2011-01-01

    Neurite growth (neuritogenesis) in vitro is a common methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analyses of growing neurites are usually difficult because their thinness and low contrast usually prevent to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution in order to automatically obtain information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results here presented show that the granulometric size distribution results in a very useful morphological tool since it allows the automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation such as the quantification of the angle of deviation of the growing direction. The developed algorithms automatically quantify this orientation by facilitating the analysis of these images, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  14. A pretreatment method for grain size analysis of red mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Liu, Li'an

    2011-11-01

    Traditional sediment disaggregation methods work well for loose mud sediments, but not for tightly cemented mudstones by ferric oxide minerals. In this paper, a new pretreatment method for analyzing the grain size of red mudstones is presented. The experimental samples are Eocene red mudstones from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin. The red mudstones are composed mainly of clay minerals, clastic sediments and ferric oxides that make the mudstones red and tightly compacted. The procedure of the method is as follows. Firstly, samples of the red mudstones were crushed into fragments with a diameter of 0.6-0.8 mm in size; secondly, the CBD (citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite) treatment was used to remove ferric oxides so that the cementation of intra-aggregates and inter-aggregates became weakened, and then 5% dilute hydrochloric acid was added to further remove the cements; thirdly, the fragments were further ground with a rubber pestle; lastly, an ultrasonicator was used to disaggregate the samples. After the treatment, the samples could then be used for grain size analysis or for other geological analyses of sedimentary grains. Compared with other pretreatment methods for size analysis of mudstones, this proposed method is more effective and has higher repeatability.

  15. Size and targeting to PECAM vs ICAM control endothelial delivery, internalization and protective effect of multimolecular SOD conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muro, Silvia; Arguiri, Evguenia; Khoshnejad, Makan; Tliba, Samira; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2016-07-28

    Controlled endothelial delivery of SOD may alleviate abnormal local surplus of superoxide involved in ischemia-reperfusion, inflammation and other disease conditions. Targeting SOD to endothelial surface vs. intracellular compartments is desirable to prevent pathological effects of external vs. endogenous superoxide, respectively. Thus, SOD conjugated with antibodies to cell adhesion molecule PECAM (Ab/SOD) inhibits pro-inflammatory signaling mediated by endogenous superoxide produced in the endothelial endosomes in response to cytokines. Here we defined control of surface vs. endosomal delivery and effect of Ab/SOD, focusing on conjugate size and targeting to PECAM vs. ICAM. Ab/SOD enlargement from about 100 to 300nm enhanced amount of cell-bound SOD and protection against extracellular superoxide. In contrast, enlargement inhibited endocytosis of Ab/SOD and diminished mitigation of inflammatory signaling of endothelial superoxide. In addition to size, shape is important: endocytosis of antibody-coated spheres was more effective than that of polymorphous antibody conjugates. Further, targeting to ICAM provides higher endocytic efficacy than targeting to PECAM. ICAM-targeted Ab/SOD more effectively mitigated inflammatory signaling by intracellular superoxide in vitro and in animal models, although total uptake was inferior to that of PECAM-targeted Ab/SOD. Therefore, both geometry and targeting features of Ab/SOD conjugates control delivery to cell surface vs. endosomes for optimal protection against extracellular vs. endosomal oxidative stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Locally Targeted Delivery of a Micron-Size Radiation Therapy Source Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Seol, Dong Rim [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Mohapatra, Sucheta [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Sunderland, John J. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Schultz, Michael K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Lim, Tae-Hong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel radiation therapy (RT) delivery modality: locally targeted delivery of micron-size RT sources by using temperature-sensitive hydrogel (RT-GEL) as an injectable vehicle. Methods and Materials: Hydrogel is a water-like liquid at room temperature but gels at body temperature. Two US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers were synthesized. Indium-111 (In-111) was used as the radioactive RT-GEL source. The release characteristics of In-111 from polymerized RT-GEL were evaluated. The injectability and efficacy of RT-GEL delivery to human breast tumor were tested using animal models with control datasets of RT-saline injection. As proof-of-concept studies, a total of 6 nude mice were tested by injecting 4 million tumor cells into their upper backs after a week of acclimatization. Three mice were injected with RT-GEL and 3 with RT-saline. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT scans were performed on each mouse at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection. The efficacy of RT-GEL was determined by comparison with that of the control datasets by measuring kidney In-111 accumulation (mean nCi/cc), representing the distant diffusion of In-111. Results: RT-GEL was successfully injected into the tumor by using a 30-gauge needle. No difficulties due to polymerization of hydrogel during injection and intratumoral pressure were observed during RT-GEL injection. No back flow occurred for either RT-GEL or RT-saline. The residual tumor activities of In-111 were 49% at 24 h (44% at 48 h, respectively) for RT-GEL and 29% (22%, respectively) for RT-saline. Fused SPECT-CT images of RT-saline showed considerable kidney accumulation of In-111 (2886%, 261%, and 262% of RT-GEL at 0, 24, and 48 h, respectively). Conclusions: RT-GEL was successfully injected and showed much higher residual tumor activity: 170% (200%, respectively), than that of RT-saline at 24 h (48 h, respectively) after injection with a minimal accumulation of In-111 to the

  17. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  18. Biological functionalization of drug delivery carriers to bypass size restrictions of receptor-mediated endocytosis independently from receptor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2013-12-23

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and microcarriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and microcarriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems.

  19. Coupling analysis of the target temperature and thermal stress due to pulsed ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jie; Liu Meng; Lin Jufang; An Li; Long Xinggui

    2013-01-01

    Background: Target temperature has an important effect on the target life for the sealed neutron generator without cooling system. Purpose: To carry out the thermal-mechanical coupling analysis of the film-substrate target bombarded by the pulsed ion beam. Methods: The indirect coupling Finite Element Method (FEM) with a 2-dimensional time-space Gaussian axisymmetric power density as heat source was used to simulate the target temperature and thermal stress fields. Results: The effects of the target temperature and thermal stress fields under difference pulse widths and beam sizes were analyzed in terms of the FEM results. Conclusions: Combining with the temperature requirement and the thermal stress inducing film thermal mechanical destruction effect of the sealed neutron generator film-substrate targets, an optimized pulsed ion beam work status was proposed. (authors)

  20. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane.

  1. Automatic particle-size analysis of HTGR nuclear fuel microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    An automatic particle-size analyzer (PSA) has been developed at ORNL for measuring and counting samples of nuclear fuel microspheres in the diameter range of 300 to 1000 μm at rates in excess of 2000 particles per minute, requiring no sample preparation. A light blockage technique is used in conjunction with a particle singularizer. Each particle in the sample is sized, and the information is accumulated by a multi-channel pulse height analyzer. The data are then transferred automatically to a computer for calculation of mean diameter, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skewness of the distribution. Entering the sample weight and pre-coating data permits calculation of particle density and the mean coating thickness and density. Following this nondestructive analysis, the sample is collected and returned to the process line or used for further analysis. The device has potential as an on-line quality control device in processes dealing with spherical or near-spherical particles where rapid analysis is required for process control

  2. Micron-size hydrogen cluster target for laser-driven proton acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, S.; Kanasaki, M.; Uno, M.; Matsui, R.; Uesaka, M.; Kishimoto, Y.; Fukuda, Y.

    2018-04-01

    As a new laser-driven ion acceleration technique, we proposed a way to produce impurity-free, highly reproducible, and robust proton beams exceeding 100 MeV using a Coulomb explosion of micron-size hydrogen clusters. In this study, micron-size hydrogen clusters were generated by expanding the cooled high-pressure hydrogen gas into a vacuum via a conical nozzle connected to a solenoid valve cooled by a mechanical cryostat. The size distributions of the hydrogen clusters were evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of laser light scattered from the clusters. The data were analyzed mathematically based on the Mie scattering theory combined with the Tikhonov regularization method. The maximum size of the hydrogen cluster at 25 K and 6 MPa in the stagnation state was recognized to be 2.15 ± 0.10 μm. The mean cluster size decreased with increasing temperature, and was found to be much larger than that given by Hagena’s formula. This discrepancy suggests that the micron-size hydrogen clusters were formed by the atomization (spallation) of the liquid or supercritical fluid phase of hydrogen. In addition, the density profiles of the gas phase were evaluated for 25 to 80 K at 6 MPa using a Nomarski interferometer. Based on the measurement results and the equation of state for hydrogen, the cluster mass fraction was obtained. 3D particles-in-cell (PIC) simulations concerning the interaction processes of micron-size hydrogen clusters with high power laser pulses predicted the generation of protons exceeding 100 MeV and accelerating in a laser propagation direction via an anisotropic Coulomb explosion mechanism, thus demonstrating a future candidate in laser-driven proton sources for upcoming multi-petawatt lasers.

  3. SIZE OF BOEHMITE NANOPARTICLES BY TEM IMAGES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Moreaud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition aluminas, and especially the gamma type, are largely used as catalyst supports in refining and petrochemicals. Most studies focus on properties resulting from material texture and casting (specific surface, porous volume, pore shape and diameter. However, surface properties of alumina should be considered as well, as the catalytic activity is tightly related to the structure of exposed crystalline faces. As γ alumina results from controlled thermal treatment of boehmite γ-AlOOH by a topotactic transformation, the nature of exposed crystalline planes is related to the starting material. Therefore, the synthesis of the oxihydroxide γ-AlOOH, and especially size and shape of these particles, is critical in determining the relevant surface properties. Unlike often aggregated alumina, boehmite nanoparticles can be observed by TEM. Analysis of these TEM images can be performed to estimate the size of the boehmite nanoparticles. Information about morphology of the nanoparticles is obtained by the analysis of the covariance, modeling micrographs by a dilution model.

  4. Visual accumulation tube for size analysis of sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, B.C.; Christensen, R.P.

    1956-01-01

    The visual-accumulation-tube method was developed primarily for making size analyses of the sand fractions of suspended-sediment and bed-material samples. Because the fundamental property governing the motion of a sediment particle in a fluid is believed to be its fall velocity. the analysis is designed to determine the fall-velocity-frequency distribution of the individual particles of the sample. The analysis is based on a stratified sedimentation system in which the sample is introduced at the top of a transparent settling tube containing distilled water. The procedure involves the direct visual tracing of the height of sediment accumulation in a contracted section at the bottom of the tube. A pen records the height on a moving chart. The method is simple and fast, provides a continuous and permanent record, gives highly reproducible results, and accurately determines the fall-velocity characteristics of the sample. The apparatus, procedure, results, and accuracy of the visual-accumulation-tube method for determining the sedimentation-size distribution of sands are presented in this paper.

  5. Effects of thermomechanical processing on the recrystallization texture and grain size of Al-1%Si sputtering target material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.R.; Xu, C.L.; Huang, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    An Al-1%Si alloy was solution treated and deformed by conventional cold rolling to different strains, followed by annealing at various temperatures until complete recrystallization. The microstructures of annealed samples were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. It is found that un...... that under optimal conditions of cold rolling and annealing, the microstructure desired for sputtering target materials with fine, uniformly sized and randomly textured grains can be obtained for the Al-1%Si alloy....

  6. Nano-sized metabolic precursors for heterogeneous tumor-targeting strategy using bioorthogonal click chemistry in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Jung, Seulhee; Koo, Heebeom; Na, Jin Hee; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Shim, Man Kyu; Park, Jooho; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Ahn, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we developed nano-sized metabolic precursors (Nano-MPs) for new tumor-targeting strategy to overcome the intrinsic limitations of biological ligands such as the limited number of biological receptors and the heterogeneity in tumor tissues. We conjugated the azide group-containing metabolic precursors, triacetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine to generation 4 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer backbone. The nano-sized dendrimer of Nano-MPs could generate azide groups on the surface of tumor cells homogeneously regardless of cell types via metabolic glycoengineering. Importantly, these exogenously generated 'artificial chemical receptors' containing azide groups could be used for bioorthogonal click chemistry, regardless of phenotypes of different tumor cells. Furthermore, in tumor-bearing mice models, Nano-MPs could be mainly localized at the target tumor tissues by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, and they successfully generated azide groups on tumor cells in vivo after an intravenous injection. Finally, we showed that these azide groups on tumor tissues could be used as 'artificial chemical receptors' that were conjugated to bioorthogonal chemical group-containing liposomes via in vivo click chemistry in heterogeneous tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, overall results demonstrated that our nano-sized metabolic precursors could be extensively applied to new alternative tumor-targeting technique for molecular imaging and drug delivery system, regardless of the phenotype of heterogeneous tumor cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional size analysis of bioactive materials by radiation inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1994-01-01

    When the research on various proteins including enzymes is carried out, first molecular weight is measured. The physical chemical methods used for measuring molecular weight cannot measure it in the state of actually acting in living bodies. Radiation inactivation method is the unique method which can measure the molecular weight of the active substances in living bodies. Paying attention to this point, recently it is attempted to measure the activity unit of enzymes, receptors and others, and to apply to the elucidation of their functions. In this report, the concept of the method of measuring molecular size based on radiation inactivation, the detailed experimental method and the points to which attention must be paid are described. Also its application to the elucidation of living body functions according to the example of the studies by the author is reported. The concept of the measurement of molecular weight by radiation inactivation is based on target theory. The preparation of samples, the effect of oxygen, radiation sources, dosimetry, irradiation temperature, internal standard process and so on are reported. The trend of the research is shown. (K.I.)

  8. Preliminary analysis of a target factory for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherohman, J.W.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of a target factory leading to the determination of production expressions has provided for the basis of a parametric study. Parameters involving the input and output rate of a process system, processing yield factors, and multiple processing steps and production lines have been used to develop an understanding of their dependence on the rate of target injection for laser fusion. Preliminary results have indicated that a parametric study of this type will be important in the selection of processing methods to be used in the final production scheme of a target factory

  9. [Segment analysis of the target market of physiotherapeutic services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the possibilities to analyse selected segments of the target market of physiotherapeutic services provided by medical and preventive-facilities of two major types. The main features of a target segment, such as provision of therapeutic massage, are illustrated in terms of two characteristics, namely attractiveness to the users and the ability of a given medical facility to satisfy their requirements. Based on the analysis of portfolio of the available target segments the most promising ones (winner segments) were selected for further marketing studies. This choice does not exclude the possibility of involvement of other segments of medical services in marketing activities.

  10. Finite size scaling analysis of disordered electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markos, P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated the application of the finite size scaling method to the analysis of the transition of the disordered system from the metallic to the insulating regime. The method enables us to calculate the critical point and the critical exponent which determines the divergence of the correlation length in the vicinity of the critical point. The universality of the metal-insulator transition was verified by numerical analysis of various physical parameters and the critical exponent was calculated with high accuracy for different disordered models. Numerically obtained value of the critical exponent for the three dimensional disordered model (1) has been recently supported by the semi-analytical work and verified by experimental optical measurements equivalent to the three dimensional disordered model (1). Another unsolved problem of the localization is the disagreement between numerical results and predictions of the analytical theories. At present, no analytical theory confirms numerically obtained values of critical exponents. The reason for this disagreement lies in the statistical character of the process of localization. The theory must consider all possible scattering processes on randomly distributed impurities. All physical variables are statistical quantities with broad probability distributions. It is in general not know how to calculate analytically their mean values. We believe that detailed numerical analysis of various disordered systems bring inspiration for the formulation of analytical theory. (authors)

  11. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Lulofs, Kris

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must be diffused more rapidly and on a larger market scale. Markets develop gradually however, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the innovators and early adopters (the early market), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations: the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream markets actors from a behavioural change point of view, and (2) in what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analysed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviour, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasise communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings, and present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrelhead'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  12. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, C.; Jonkers, R.; Kok, G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must diffuse more rapidly into a larger market. However, markets develop gradually, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the early market (innovators and early adopters), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations; the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream market actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream market actors from a behavioural-change point of view? (2) In what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analyzed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviours, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasize communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings. Furthermore, they should present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrel-head'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  13. Origin of discrepancies between crater size-frequency distributions of coeval lunar geologic units via target property contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Dundas, C. M.; Krüger, T.; McEwen, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent work on dating Copernican-aged craters, using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera data, re-encountered a curious discrepancy in crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements that was observed, but not understood, during the Apollo era. For example, at Tycho, Copernicus, and Aristarchus craters, CSFDs of impact melt deposits give significantly younger relative and absolute model ages (AMAs) than impact ejecta blankets, although these two units formed during one impact event, and would ideally yield coeval ages at the resolution of the CSFD technique. We investigated the effects of contrasting target properties on CSFDs and their resultant relative and absolute model ages for coeval lunar impact melt and ejecta units. We counted craters with diameters through the transition from strength- to gravity-scaling on two large impact melt deposits at Tycho and King craters, and we used pi-group scaling calculations to model the effects of differing target properties on final crater diameters for five different theoretical lunar targets. The new CSFD for the large King Crater melt pond bridges the gap between the discrepant CSFDs within a single geologic unit. Thus, the observed trends in the impact melt CSFDs support the occurrence of target property effects, rather than self-secondary and/or field secondary contamination. The CSFDs generated from the pi-group scaling calculations show that targets with higher density and effective strength yield smaller crater diameters than weaker targets, such that the relative ages of the former are lower relative to the latter. Consequently, coeval impact melt and ejecta units will have discrepant apparent ages. Target property differences also affect the resulting slope of the CSFD, with stronger targets exhibiting shallower slopes, so that the final crater diameters may differ more greatly at smaller diameters. Besides their application to age dating, the CSFDs may provide additional information about the

  14. Estimation of the target stem-cell population size in chronic myeloid leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radivoyevitch, T.; Ramsey, M.J.; Tucker, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Estimation of the number of hematopoietic stem cells capable of causing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is relevant to the development of biologically based risk models of radiation-induced CML. Through a comparison of the age structure of CML incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the age structure of chromosomal translocations found in healthy subjects, the number of CML target stem cells is estimated for individuals above 20 years of age. The estimation involves three steps. First, CML incidence among adults is fit to an exponentially increasing function of age. Next, assuming a relatively short waiting time distribution between BCR-ABL induction and the appearance of CML, an exponential age function with rate constants fixed to the values found for CML is fitted to the translocation data. Finally, assuming that translocations are equally likely to occur between any two points in the genome, the parameter estimates found in the first two steps are used to estimate the number of target stem cells for CML. The population-averaged estimates of this number are found to be 1.86 x 10 8 for men and 1.21 x 10 8 for women; the 95% confidence intervals of these estimates are (1.34 x 10 8 , 2.50 x 10 8 ) and (0.84 x 10 8 , 1.83 x 10 8 ), respectively. (orig.)

  15. Finite size effects in the intermittency analysis of the fragment-size correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P.; Ploszajczak, M.; Tucholski, A.

    1991-01-01

    An influence of the finite size effect on the fragment-size correlations in the nuclear multifragmentation is studied using the method of scaled factorial moments for a 1 - dim percolation model and for a statistical model of the fragmentation process, which for a certain value of a tuning parameter yields the power-law behaviour of the fragment-size distribution. It is shown that the statistical models of this type contain only repulsive correlations due to the conservation laws. The comparison of the results with those obtained in the non-critical 1 - dim percolation and in the 3 - dim percolation at around the critical point is presented. Correlations in the 1 - dim percolation model are analysed analytically and the mechanism of the attractive correlations in 1 - dim and 3 - dim is identified. (author) 30 refs., 7 figs

  16. Structural impact of armor monoblock dimensions on the failure behavior of ITER-type divertor target components: Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Muyuan; You, Jeong-Ha, E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of size effects was conducted numerically for W monoblock. • Decreasing the width of W monoblock leads to a lower risk of failure. • The Cu interlayer was not affected significantly by varying armor thickness. • The predicted trends were in line with the experimental observations. - Abstract: Plenty of high-heat-flux tests conducted on tungsten monoblock type divertor target mock-ups showed that the threshold heat flux density for cracking and fracture of tungsten armor seems to be related to the dimension of the monoblocks. Thus, quantitative assessment of such size effects is of practical importance for divertor target design. In this paper, a computational study about the thermal and structural impact of monoblock size on the plastic fatigue and fracture behavior of an ITER-type tungsten divertor target is reported. As dimensional parameters, the width and thickness of monoblock, the thickness of sacrificial armor, and the inner diameter of cooling tube were varied. Plastic fatigue lifetime was estimated for the loading surface of tungsten armor and the copper interlayer by use of a cyclic-plastic constitutive model. The driving force of brittle crack growth through the tungsten armor was assessed in terms of J-integral at the crack tip. Decrease of the monoblock width effectively reduced accumulation of plastic strain at the armor surface and the driving force of brittle cracking. Decrease of sacrificial armor thickness led to decrease of plastic deformation at the loading surface due to lower surface temperature, but the thermal and mechanical response of the copper interlayer was not affected by the variation of armor thickness. Monoblock with a smaller tube diameter but with the same armor thickness and shoulder thickness experienced lower fatigue load. The predicted trends were in line with the experimental observations.

  17. Monte Carlo calculated microdosimetric spread for cell nucleus-sized targets exposed to brachytherapy 125I and 192Ir sources and 60Co cell irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fernanda; Tilly, Nina; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2013-09-07

    The stochastic nature of ionizing radiation interactions causes a microdosimetric spread in energy depositions for cell or cell nucleus-sized volumes. The magnitude of the spread may be a confounding factor in dose response analysis. The aim of this work is to give values for the microdosimetric spread for a range of doses imparted by (125)I and (192)Ir brachytherapy radionuclides, and for a (60)Co source. An upgraded version of the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to obtain frequency distributions of specific energy for each of these radiation qualities and for four different cell nucleus-sized volumes. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of the microdosimetric spread increases when the target size decreases or when the energy of the radiation quality is reduced. Frequency distributions calculated according to the formalism of Kellerer and Chmelevsky using full convolution of the Monte Carlo calculated single track frequency distributions confirm that at doses exceeding 0.08 Gy for (125)I, 0.1 Gy for (192)Ir, and 0.2 Gy for (60)Co, the resulting distribution can be accurately approximated with a normal distribution. A parameterization of the width of the distribution as a function of dose and target volume of interest is presented as a convenient form for the use in response modelling or similar contexts.

  18. Introduction to charm decay analysis in fixed target experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bediaga, Ignacio; Goebel, Carla

    1996-01-01

    We present an introduction to data analysis in Experimental High Energy Physics, and some concepts and useful tools are discussed. To illustrate, we use the data of E-791, a fixed target experiment recently realized at Fermilab. In particular, we analyse decay modes of D{sup +} meson with three charged particles in the final state. (author). 8 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Introduction to charm decay analysis in fixed target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bediaga, Ignacio; Goebel, Carla.

    1996-01-01

    We present an introduction to data analysis in Experimental High Energy Physics, and some concepts and useful tools are discussed. To illustrate, we use the data of E-791, a fixed target experiment recently realized at Fermilab. In particular, we analyse decay modes of D + meson with three charged particles in the final state. (author). 8 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  20. A Longitudinal Analysis of Search Engine Index Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; De Kunder, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel...... method of estimating the size of a Web search engine’s index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing’s indexes over a nine-year period, from March 2006...... until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find...

  1. Calcium Pectinate Beads Formation: Shape and Size Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon-Beng Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationship between process variables and the size and shape of pectin solution droplets upon detachment from a dripping tip as well as Ca-pectinate beads formed after gelation via image analysis. The sphericity factor (SF of the droplets was generally smaller than 0.05. There was no specific trend between the SF of the droplets and the pectin concentration or the dripping tip radius. The SF the beads formed from high-concentration pectin solutions and a small dripping tip was smaller than 0.05. The results show that the Reynolds number and Ohnesorge number of the droplets fall within the operating region for forming spherical beads in the shape diagram, with the exception to the lower boundary. The lower boundary of the operating region has to be revised to Oh = 2.3. This is because the critical viscosity for Ca-pectinate bead formation is higher than that of Ca-alginate beads. On the other hand, the radius of the droplets and beads increased as the dripping tip radius increased. The bead radius can easily be predicted by Tate’s law equation.

  2. Sample Size of One: Operational Qualitative Analysis in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hoven

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative analysis has two extraordinary capabilities: first, finding answers to questions we are too clueless to ask; and second, causal inference – hypothesis testing and assessment – within a single unique context (sample size of one. These capabilities are broadly useful, and they are critically important in village-level civil-military operations. Company commanders need to learn quickly, "What are the problems and possibilities here and now, in this specific village? What happens if we do A, B, and C?" – and that is an ill-defined, one-of-a-kind problem. The U.S. Army's Eighty-Third Civil Affairs Battalion is our "first user" innovation partner in a new project to adapt qualitative research methods to an operational tempo and purpose. Our aim is to develop a simple, low-cost methodology and training program for local civil-military operations conducted by non-specialist conventional forces. Complementary to that, this paper focuses on some essential basics that can be implemented by college professors without significant cost, effort, or disruption.

  3. A mathematical analysis of multiple-target SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeon-Jung; Chen, Shiliang; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Levine, Howard A

    2010-10-01

    SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) is a procedure by which a mixture of nucleic acids can be fractionated with the goal of identifying those with specific biochemical activities. One combines the mixture with a specific target molecule and then separates the target-NA complex from the resulting reactions. The target-NA complex is separated from the unbound NA by mechanical means (such as by filtration), the NA is eluted from the complex, amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), and the process repeated. After several rounds, one should be left with the nucleic acids that best bind to the target. The problem was first formulated mathematically in Irvine et al. (J. Mol. Biol. 222:739-761, 1991). In Levine and Nilsen-Hamilton (Comput. Biol. Chem. 31:11-25, 2007), a mathematical analysis of the process was given. In Vant-Hull et al. (J. Mol. Biol. 278:579-597, 1998), multiple target SELEX was considered. It was assumed that each target has a single nucleic acid binding site that permits occupation by no more than one nucleic acid. Here, we revisit Vant-Hull et al. (J. Mol. Biol. 278:579-597, 1998) using the same assumptions. The iteration scheme is shown to be convergent and a simplified algorithm is given. Our interest here is in the behavior of the multiple target SELEX process as a discrete "time" dynamical system. Our goal is to characterize the limiting states and their dependence on the initial distribution of nucleic acid and target fraction components. (In multiple target SELEX, we vary the target component fractions, but not their concentrations, as fixed and the initial pool of nucleic acids as a variable starting condition). Given N nucleic acids and a target consisting of M subtarget component species, there is an M × N matrix of affinities, the (i,j) entry corresponding to the affinity of the jth nucleic acid for the ith subtarget. We give a structure condition on this matrix that is equivalent to the following

  4. Molecular sizes of lichen ice nucleation sites determined by gamma radiation inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, T.L.; Ruscetti, T.

    1992-01-01

    It has previously been shown that some species of lichen fungi contain proteinaceous ice nuclei which are active at temperatures as warm as −2 °C. This experiment was undertaken to determine the molecular sizes of ice nuclei in the lichen fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and to compare them to bacterial ice nuclei from Pseudomonas syringae. Gamma radiation inactivation analysis was used to determine molecular weights. Radiation inactivation analysis is based on target theory, which states that the likelihood of a molecule being inactivated by gamma rays increases as its size increases. Three different sources of ice nuclei from the lichen R. chrysoleuca were tested: field-collected lichens, extract of lichen fungus, and a pure culture of the fungus R. chrysoleuca. P. syringae strain Cit7 was used as a source of bacterial ice nuclei. Samples were lyophilized, irradiated with gamma doses ranging from 0 to 10.4 Mrads, and then tested for ice nucleation activity using a droplet-freezing assay. Data for all four types of samples were in rough agreement; sizes of nucleation sites increased logarithmically with increasing temperatures of ice nucleation activity. Molecular weights of nucleation sites active between −3 and −4 °C from the bacteria and from the field-collected lichens were approximately 1.0 × 10 6 Da. Nuclei from the lichen fungus and in the lichen extract appeared to be slightly smaller but followed the same log-normal pattern with temperature of ice nucleation activity. The data for both the bacterial and lichen ice nuclei are in agreement with ice nucleation theory which states that the size of ice nucleation sites increases logarithmically as the temperature of nucleation increases linearly. This suggests that although some differences exist between bacterial and lichen ice nucleation sites, their molecular sizes are quite similar

  5. Mesh size in Lichtenstein repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the importance of mesh size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D; Oztuna, D; Kulacoglu, H; Genc, Y; Akcil, M

    2013-04-01

    Small mesh size has been recognized as one of the factors responsible for recurrence after Lichtenstein hernia repair due to insufficient coverage or mesh shrinkage. The Lichtenstein Hernia Institute recommends a 7 × 15 cm mesh that can be trimmed up to 2 cm from the lateral side. We performed a systematic review to determine surgeons' mesh size preference for the Lichtenstein hernia repair and made a meta-analysis to determine the effect of mesh size, mesh type, and length of follow-up time on recurrence. Two medical databases, PubMed and ISI Web of Science, were systematically searched using the key word "Lichtenstein repair." All full text papers were selected. Publications mentioning mesh size were brought for further analysis. A mesh surface area of 90 cm(2) was accepted as the threshold for defining the mesh as small or large. Also, a subgroup analysis for recurrence pooled proportion according to the mesh size, mesh type, and follow-up period was done. In total, 514 papers were obtained. There were no prospective or retrospective clinical studies comparing mesh size and clinical outcome. A total of 141 papers were duplicated in both databases. As a result, 373 papers were obtained. The full text was available in over 95 % of papers. Only 41 (11.2 %) papers discussed mesh size. In 29 studies, a mesh larger than 90 cm(2) was used. The most frequently preferred commercial mesh size was 7.5 × 15 cm. No papers mentioned the size of the mesh after trimming. There was no information about the relationship between mesh size and patient BMI. The pooled proportion in recurrence for small meshes was 0.0019 (95 % confidence interval: 0.007-0.0036), favoring large meshes to decrease the chance of recurrence. Recurrence becomes more marked when follow-up period is longer than 1 year (p < 0.001). Heavy meshes also decreased recurrence (p = 0.015). This systematic review demonstrates that the size of the mesh used in Lichtenstein hernia repair is rarely

  6. Computer-aided target tracking in motion analysis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Dominic C.; Marcuse, M. L.; Mislan, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    Motion analysis studies require the precise tracking of reference objects in sequential scenes. In a typical situation, events of interest are captured at high frame rates using special cameras, and selected objects or targets are tracked on a frame by frame basis to provide necessary data for motion reconstruction. Tracking is usually done using manual methods which are slow and prone to error. A computer based image analysis system has been developed that performs tracking automatically. The objective of this work was to eliminate the bottleneck due to manual methods in high volume tracking applications such as the analysis of crash test films for the automotive industry. The system has proven to be successful in tracking standard fiducial targets and other objects in crash test scenes. Over 95 percent of target positions which could be located using manual methods can be tracked by the system, with a significant improvement in throughput over manual methods. Future work will focus on the tracking of clusters of targets and on tracking deformable objects such as airbags.

  7. Use of methods for specifying the target difference in randomised controlled trial sample size calculations: Two surveys of trialists' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan A; Hislop, Jennifer M; Altman, Doug G; Briggs, Andrew H; Fayers, Peter M; Norrie, John D; Ramsay, Craig R; Harvey, Ian M; Vale, Luke D

    2014-06-01

    the most recent trial, the target difference was usually one viewed as important by a stakeholder group, mostly also viewed as a realistic difference given the interventions under evaluation, and sometimes one that led to an achievable sample size. The response rates achieved were relatively low despite the surveys being short, well presented, and having utilised reminders. Substantial variations in practice exist with awareness, use, and willingness to recommend methods varying substantially. The findings support the view that sample size calculation is a more complex process than would appear to be the case from trial reports and protocols. Guidance on approaches for sample size estimation may increase both awareness and use of appropriate formal methods. © The Author(s), 2014.

  8. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  9. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. W.; Yoo, Y. H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction) and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete) models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  10. A longitudinal analysis of search engine index size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Bogers, T.; Kunder, M. de; Salah, A. A.; Tonta, Y.; Salah, A. A. A.; Sugimoto, C.; Al, U.

    2015-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size and quality of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We

  11. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Size-Prediction Analysis for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erusiafe, N. E.; Chendo, M. A. C.

    2002-01-01

    The cost - effectiveness of photovoltaic (PV) generator depends, among others, on its ability to satisfy energy demand and the cost of achieving this. In this work a step - by - step procedure for predicting the size of the main components of a stand - alone PV system (array and storage) is presented. The results yield an expression which can he used lo determine the size of both components at optimum cost and desired reliability. The result from this work compare favourably with some earlier works in that, the system sizes shows some degree of agreement

  13. Particle size analysis in estimating the significance of airborne contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In this report information on pertinent methods and techniques for analysing particle size distributions is compiled. The principles underlying the measurement methods are described, and the merits of different methods in relation to the information being sought and to their usefulness in the laboratory and in the field are explained. Descriptions on sampling methods, gravitational and inertial particle separation methods, electrostatic sizing devices, diffusion batteries, optical sizing techniques and autoradiography are included. Finally, the report considers sampling for respirable activity and problems related to instrument calibration

  14. Automatic particle-size analysis of HTGR recycle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.; Pechin, W.H.

    1977-09-01

    An automatic particle-size analyzer was designed, fabricated, tested, and put into operation measuring and counting HTGR recycle fuel particles. The particle-size analyzer can be used for particles in all stages of fabrication, from the loaded, uncarbonized weak acid resin up to fully-coated Biso or Triso particles. The device handles microspheres in the range of 300 to 1000 μm at rates up to 2000 per minute, measuring the diameter of each particle to determine the size distribution of the sample, and simultaneously determining the total number of particles. 10 figures

  15. Integrative analysis to select cancer candidate biomarkers to targeted validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberle, Henry; Domingues, Romênia R.; Granato, Daniela C.; Yokoo, Sami; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Winck, Flavia V.; Ribeiro, Ana Carolina P.; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Filgueiras, Paulo R.; Cruz, Karen S. P.; Barbuto, José Alexandre; Poppi, Ronei J.; Minghim, Rosane; Telles, Guilherme P.; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Fox, Jay W.; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Paes Leme, Adriana F.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted proteomics has flourished as the method of choice for prospecting for and validating potential candidate biomarkers in many diseases. However, challenges still remain due to the lack of standardized routines that can prioritize a limited number of proteins to be further validated in human samples. To help researchers identify candidate biomarkers that best characterize their samples under study, a well-designed integrative analysis pipeline, comprising MS-based discovery, feature selection methods, clustering techniques, bioinformatic analyses and targeted approaches was performed using discovery-based proteomic data from the secretomes of three classes of human cell lines (carcinoma, melanoma and non-cancerous). Three feature selection algorithms, namely, Beta-binomial, Nearest Shrunken Centroids (NSC), and Support Vector Machine-Recursive Features Elimination (SVM-RFE), indicated a panel of 137 candidate biomarkers for carcinoma and 271 for melanoma, which were differentially abundant between the tumor classes. We further tested the strength of the pipeline in selecting candidate biomarkers by immunoblotting, human tissue microarrays, label-free targeted MS and functional experiments. In conclusion, the proposed integrative analysis was able to pre-qualify and prioritize candidate biomarkers from discovery-based proteomics to targeted MS. PMID:26540631

  16. Design and Analysis of LT Codes with Decreasing Ripple Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new design of LT codes, which decreases the amount of necessary overhead in comparison to existing designs. The design focuses on a parameter of the LT decoding process called the ripple size. This parameter was also a key element in the design proposed in the original...... work by Luby. Specifically, Luby argued that an LT code should provide a constant ripple size during decoding. In this work we show that the ripple size should decrease during decoding, in order to reduce the necessary overhead. Initially we motivate this claim by analytical results related...... to the redundancy within an LT code. We then propose a new design procedure, which can provide any desired achievable decreasing ripple size. The new design procedure is evaluated and compared to the current state of the art through simulations. This reveals a significant increase in performance with respect...

  17. Single-Molecule Analysis for RISC Assembly and Target Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi M; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Tomari, Yukihide

    2018-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a small RNA-protein complex that mediates silencing of complementary target RNAs. Biochemistry has been successfully used to characterize the molecular mechanism of RISC assembly and function for nearly two decades. However, further dissection of intermediate states during the reactions has been warranted to fill in the gaps in our understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms. Single-molecule analysis with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful imaging-based approach to interrogate complex formation and dynamics at the individual molecule level with high sensitivity. Combining this technique with our recently established in vitro reconstitution system of fly Ago2-RISC, we have developed a single-molecule observation system for RISC assembly. In this chapter, we summarize the detailed protocol for single-molecule analysis of chaperone-assisted assembly of fly Ago2-RISC as well as its target cleavage reaction.

  18. Size Exclusion HPLC Detection of Small-Size Impurities as a Complementary Means for Quality Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For extracellular vesicle research, whether for biomarker discoveries or therapeutic applications, it is critical to have high-quality samples. Both microscopy and NanoSight Tracking Analysis (NTA for size distribution have been used to detect large vesicles. However, there is currently no well-established method that is convenient for routine quality analysis of small-size impurities in vesicle samples. In this paper we report a convenient method, called ‘size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography’ (SE-HPLC, alongside NTA and Microscopy analysis to guide and qualify the isolation and processing of vesicles. First, the SE-HPLC analysis was used to detect impurities of small-size proteins during the ultra-centrifugation process of vesicle isolation; it was then employed to test the changes of vesicles under different pH conditions or integrity after storage. As SE-HPLC is generally accessible in most institutions, it could be used as a routine means to assist researchers in examining the integrity and quality of extracellular vesicles along with other techniques either during isolation/preparation or for further engineering and storage.

  19. Insulin alters the target size of the peripheral cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase but not the integral cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in liver plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.V.; Martin, B.R.; Houslay, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of the two high affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in liver plasma membranes afforded an estimation of their molecular target sizes in situ. The activity of the peripheral plasma membrane PDE decayed as a single exponential with a target size corresponding to a monomer of circa 54 kDa. The integral, cyclic GMP-stimulated PDE decayed as a dimer of circa 125 kDa. Preincubation of plasma membranes with insulin (10nM), prior to irradiation, caused the target size of only the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to increase. We suggest that insulin addition causes the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to alter its coupling to an integral plasma membrane protein with a target size of circa 90 kDa

  20. Bioinformatics analysis of Brucella vaccines and vaccine targets using VIOLIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Xiang, Zuoshuang

    2010-09-27

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the commonest zoonotic diseases found worldwide in humans and a variety of animal species. While several animal vaccines are available, there is no effective and safe vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in humans. VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org) is a web-based vaccine database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes published data of commercialized vaccines, and vaccines in clinical trials or in research. VIOLIN contains information for 454 vaccines or vaccine candidates for 73 pathogens. VIOLIN also contains many bioinformatics tools for vaccine data analysis, data integration, and vaccine target prediction. To demonstrate the applicability of VIOLIN for vaccine research, VIOLIN was used for bioinformatics analysis of existing Brucella vaccines and prediction of new Brucella vaccine targets. VIOLIN contains many literature mining programs (e.g., Vaxmesh) that provide in-depth analysis of Brucella vaccine literature. As a result of manual literature curation, VIOLIN contains information for 38 Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates, 14 protective Brucella antigens, and 68 host response studies to Brucella vaccines from 97 peer-reviewed articles. These Brucella vaccines are classified in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) system and used for different ontological applications. The web-based VIOLIN vaccine target prediction program Vaxign was used to predict new Brucella vaccine targets. Vaxign identified 14 outer membrane proteins that are conserved in six virulent strains from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis that are pathogenic in humans. Of the 14 membrane proteins, two proteins (Omp2b and Omp31-1) are not present in B. ovis, a Brucella species that is not pathogenic in humans. Brucella vaccine data stored in VIOLIN were compared and analyzed using the VIOLIN query system. Bioinformatics curation and ontological representation of Brucella vaccines

  1. R2 effect-size measures for mediation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; MacKinnon, David P.; Taborga, Marcia P.; Taylor, Aaron B.

    2010-01-01

    R2 effect-size measures are presented to assess variance accounted for in mediation models. The measures offer a means to evaluate both component paths and the overall mediated effect in mediation models. Statistical simulation results indicate acceptable bias across varying parameter and sample-size combinations. The measures are applied to a real-world example using data from a team-based health promotion program to improve the nutrition and exercise habits of firefighters. SAS and SPSS computer code are also provided for researchers to compute the measures in their own data. PMID:19363189

  2. R2 effect-size measures for mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Amanda J; Mackinnon, David P; Taborga, Marcia P; Taylor, Aaron B

    2009-05-01

    R(2) effect-size measures are presented to assess variance accounted for in mediation models. The measures offer a means to evaluate both component paths and the overall mediated effect in mediation models. Statistical simulation results indicate acceptable bias across varying parameter and sample-size combinations. The measures are applied to a real-world example using data from a team-based health promotion program to improve the nutrition and exercise habits of firefighters. SAS and SPSS computer code are also provided for researchers to compute the measures in their own data.

  3. Layout Optimization of Structures with Finite-size Features using Multiresolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellappa, S.; Diaz, A. R.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for layout optimization in structures with multiple finite-sized heterogeneities is presented. Multiresolution analysis is used to compute reduced operators (stiffness matrices) representing the elastic behavior of material distributions with heterogeneities of sizes that are comparable...

  4. Polybutadiene latex particle size distribution analysis utilizing a disk centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdurmen, E.M.F.J.; Albers, J.G.; German, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Polybutadiene (I) latexes prepd. by emulsifier-free emulsion polymn. and having particle diam. 50-300 nm for both unimodal and bimodal particles size distributions were analyzed by the line-start (LIST) method in a Brookhaven disk centrifuge photosedimentometer. A special spin fluid was designed to

  5. Nuclear genome size analysis of Agave tequilana Weber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palomino, G.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Méndez, I.; Rubluo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2003), s. 37-46 ISSN 0008-7114 Grant - others:Itálie(IT) Z5038910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Flow cytometry * nuclear genome size * Agave tequilana Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.337, year: 2003

  6. Thermal Analysis of Fission Moly Target Solid Waste Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyung Min; Park, Jonghark [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There are various ways to produce Mo-99. Among them, nuclear transmutation of uranium target became the major one owing to its superior specific activity. After the fission molybdenum (FM) target is irradiated, it is transported to treatment facility to extract wanted isotope. During the process, various forms of wastes are produced including filter cake and other solid wastes. The filter cake is mostly consisted of decaying uranium compounds. The solid wastes are then packaged and moved to storage facility which will stay there for considerable amount of time. Being the continuous source of heat, the solid wastes are required to be cooled for the certain amount of time before transported to the storage area. In this study, temperature evaluation of the storage facility is carried out with pre-cooling time sensitivity to check its thermal integrity. In this study, thermal analysis on the FM target solid waste storage is performed. Finite volume method is utilized to numerically discretize and solve the geometry of interest. Analysis shows that the developed method can simulate temperature behavior during storage process, but needs to be checked against other code to see calculation accuracy. Highest temperature distribution is observed when every hole is filled with waste containers. Sensitivity results on pre-cooling time shows that at least 13 months of cooling is necessary to keep the structure integrity.

  7. SPATIAL ANALYSIS TO SUPPORT GEOGRAPHIC TARGETING OF GENOTYPES TO ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn eHyman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop improvement efforts have benefited greatly from advances in available data, computing technology and methods for targeting genotypes to environments. These advances support the analysis of genotype by environment interactions to understand how well a genotype adapts to environmental conditions. This paper reviews the use of spatial analysis to support crop improvement research aimed at matching genotypes to their most appropriate environmental niches. Better data sets are now available on soils, weather and climate, elevation, vegetation, crop distribution and local conditions where genotypes are tested in experimental trial sites. The improved data are now combined with spatial analysis methods to compare environmental conditions across sites, create agro-ecological region maps and assess environment change. Climate, elevation and vegetation data sets are now widely available, supporting analyses that were much more difficult even five or ten years ago. While detailed soil data for many parts of the world remains difficult to acquire for crop improvement studies, new advances in digital soil mapping are likely to improve our capacity. Site analysis and matching and regional targeting methods have advanced in parallel to data and technology improvements. All these developments have increased our capacity to link genotype to phenotype and point to a vast potential to improve crop adaptation efforts.

  8. Determination of grain size by XRD profile analysis and TEM counting in nano-structured Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yong; Ping Dehai; Song Xiaoyan; Yin Fuxing

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a serial of pure copper sample with different grain sizes from nano- to micro-scale were prepared by sparkle plasma sintering (SPS) and following anneal treatment at 873 K and 1073 K, respectively. The grain size distributions of these samples were determined by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis and transmission electronic microscope (TEM) micrograph counting. Although these two methods give similar distributions of grain size in the case of as-SPS sample with nano-scale grain size (around 10 nm), there are apparent discrepancies between the grain size distributions of the annealed samples obtained from XRD and TEM, especially for the sample annealed at 1073 K after SPS with micro-scale grain size (around 2 μm), which TEM counting provides much higher values of grain sizes than XRD analysis does. It indicates that for large grain-sized material, XRD analysis lost its validity for determination of grain size. It might be due to some small sized substructures possibly existed in even annealed (large grain-sized) samples, whereas there is no substructures in as-SPS (nanocrystalline) sample. Moreover, it has been found that the effective outer cut-off radius R e derived from XRD analysis coincides with the grain sizes given by TEM counting. The potential relationship between grain size and R e was discussed in the present work. These results might provide some new hints for deeper understanding of the physical meaning of XRD analysis and the parameters derived.

  9. Comparison of the calcium release channel of cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum by target inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, S.G.; Inui, Makoto; Chadwick, C.C.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Jung, C.Y.; Fleischer, S.

    1989-01-01

    The calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum which triggers muscle contraction in excitation-contraction coupling has recently been isolated. The channel has been found to be morphologically identical with the feet structures of the junctional face membrane of terminal cisternae and consists of an oligomer of a unique high molecular weight polypeptide. In this study, the authors compare the target size of the calcium release channel from heart and skeletal muscle using target inactivation analysis. The target molecular weights of the calcium release channel estimated by measuring ryanodine binding after irradiation are similar for heart (139,000) and skeletal muscle (143,000) and are smaller than the monomeric unit (estimated to be about 360,000). The target size, estimated by measuring polypeptide remaining after irradiation, was essentially the same for heart and skeletal muscle, 1,061,000 and 1,070,000, respectively, indicating an oligomeric association of protomers. Thus, the calcium release channel of both cardiac and skeletal muscle reacts uniquely with regard to target inactivation analysis in that (1) the size by ryanodine binding is smaller than the monomeric unit and (2) a single hit leads to destruction of more than one polypeptide, by measuring polypeptide remaining. The target inactivation analysis studies indicate that heart and skeletal muscle receptors are structurally very similar

  10. Impact analysis of flow variability in sizing kanbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Pergher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of variability flow, advocated by Factory Physics, in sizing Kanban production systems. The variability of flow presupposes that the variability of activities performed by a process is dissipated throughout the productive flow system, causing variations in the lead time, the work-in-process levels and the equipment availability, among others. To conduct the research, we created a didactic model of discrete event computer simulation. The proposed model aims to present the possible impacts caused by the variability flow in a production system regarding the sizing of the number of Kanbans cards, by using the results supplied by two different investigated scenarios. The main results of the research allow concluding that, by comparing the two scenarios developed in the model, the presence of variability in the production system caused an average increase of 32% in the number of Kanban cards (p=0,000. This implies that, in real productive systems, the study of Kanban sizing should consider the variability of individual operations, a fact often relegated as an assumption in the formulation from classical literature on the definition of the number of Kanbans, thus providing opportunities for the development of future research.

  11. Analysis of filler particle levels and sizes in dental alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lemes Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic filler fractions and sizes of commercially alginates. The inorganic particles volumetric fractions of five alginates - Jeltrate(J, Jeltrate Plus(JP, Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho(JC, Hydrogum(H and Ezact Krom(E were accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 450 °C for 3 hours. Unsettled materials were soaked in acetone and chloroform and sputter-coated with gold for SEM evaluation of fillers' morphology and size. The results for the volumetric inorganic particle content were (%: J - 48.33, JP - 48.33, JC - 33.79, H - 37.55 and E - 40.55. The fillers presented a circular appearance with helical form and various perforations. Hydrogum fillers looked like cylindrical, perforated sticks. The mean values for fillers size were (μm: J - 12.91, JP - 13.67, JC - 13.44, E - 14.59 and H - 9 (diameter, 8.81 (length. The results of this study revealed differences in filler characteristics that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  12. Prediction methodologies for target scene generation in the aerothermal targets analysis program (ATAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Douglas J.; Torres, Manuel; Dougherty, Catherine; Rajendran, Natesan; Thompson, Rhoe A.

    2003-09-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Aerothermal Targets Analysis Program (ATAP) is a user-friendly, engineering-level computational tool that features integrated aerodynamics, six-degree-of-freedom (6-DoF) trajectory/motion, convective and radiative heat transfer, and thermal/material response to provide an optimal blend of accuracy and speed for design and analysis applications. ATAP is sponsored by the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility at Eglin AFB, where it is used with the CHAMP (Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume) technique for rapid infrared (IR) signature and imagery predictions. ATAP capabilities include an integrated 1-D conduction model for up to 5 in-depth material layers (with options for gaps/voids with radiative heat transfer), fin modeling, several surface ablation modeling options, a materials library with over 250 materials, options for user-defined materials, selectable/definable atmosphere and earth models, multiple trajectory options, and an array of aerodynamic prediction methods. All major code modeling features have been validated with ground-test data from wind tunnels, shock tubes, and ballistics ranges, and flight-test data for both U.S. and foreign strategic and theater systems. Numerous applications include the design and analysis of interceptors, booster and shroud configurations, window environments, tactical missiles, and reentry vehicles.

  13. Stakeholder analysis and mapping as targeted communication strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-09-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author highlights the importance of stakeholder theory and discusses how to apply the theory to conduct a stakeholder analysis. This article also provides an explanation of how to use related stakeholder mapping techniques with targeted communication strategies.

  14. Ideal MHD stability analysis of KSTAR target AT mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, S.M.; Kim, J.H.; You, K.I.; Kim, J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A main research objective of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device is to demonstrate the steady-state operation capability of high-performance AT (Advanced Tokamak) mode. To meet this goal, it is critical for KSTAR to have a good MHD stability boundary, particularly against the high-beta ideal instabilities such as the external kink and the ballooning modes. To support this MHD stability KSTAR has been designed to have a strong plasma shape and a close interval between plasma and passive- plate wall. During the conceptual design phase of KSTAR, a preliminary study was performed to estimate the high beta MHD stability limit of KSTAR target AT mode using PEST and VACUUM codes and it was shown that the target AT mode can be stable up to β N ∼ 5 with a well-defined plasma pressure and current profiles. Recently, a new calculation has been performed to estimate the ideal stability limit in various KSTAR operating conditions using DCON code, and it has been observed that there is some difference between the new and old calculation results, particularly in the dependence of the maximum β N value on the toroidal mode number. Here, we thus present a more detailed analysis of the ideal MHD stability limit of KSTAR target AT mode using various codes, which include GATO as well as PEST and DCON, in the comparison of calculation results among the three codes. (author)

  15. Global analysis of small molecule binding to related protein targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A Kruger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the integration of pharmacological data and homology information for a large scale analysis of small molecule binding to related targets. Differences in small molecule binding have been assessed for curated pairs of human to rat orthologs and also for recently diverged human paralogs. Our analysis shows that in general, small molecule binding is conserved for pairs of human to rat orthologs. Using statistical tests, we identified a small number of cases where small molecule binding is different between human and rat, some of which had previously been reported in the literature. Knowledge of species specific pharmacology can be advantageous for drug discovery, where rats are frequently used as a model system. For human paralogs, we demonstrate a global correlation between sequence identity and the binding of small molecules with equivalent affinity. Our findings provide an initial general model relating small molecule binding and sequence divergence, containing the foundations for a general model to anticipate and predict within-target-family selectivity.

  16. Protein targeting in the analysis of learning and memory: a potential alternative to gene targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, R; Williams, S P; Cairns, B; Van Bruggen, N; Moran, P; Shih, A; Caras, I; Sauer, H; Phillips, H S; Winslow, J W

    1998-11-01

    Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells offers unprecedented precision with which one may manipulate single genes and investigate the in vivo effects of defined mutations in the mouse. Geneticists argue that this technique abrogates the lack of highly specific pharmacological tools in the study of brain function and behavior. However, by now it has become clear that gene targeting has some limitations too. One problem is spatial and temporal specificity of the generated mutation, which may appear in multiple brain regions or even in other organs and may also be present throughout development, giving rise to complex, secondary phenotypical alterations. This may be a disadvantage in the functional analysis of a number of genes associated with learning and memory processes. For example, several proteins, including neurotrophins--cell-adhesion molecules--and protein kinases, that play a significant developmental role have recently been suggested to be also involved in neural and behavioral plasticity. Knocking out genes of such proteins may lead to developmental alterations or even embryonic lethality in the mouse, making it difficult to study their function in neural plasticity, learning, and memory. Therefore, alternative strategies to gene targeting may be needed. Here, we suggest a potentially useful in vivo strategy based on systemic application of immunoadhesins, genetically engineered fusion proteins possessing the Fc portion of the human IgG molecule and, for example, a binding domain of a receptor of interest. These proteins are stable in vivo and exhibit high binding specificity and affinity for the endogenous ligand of the receptor, but lack the ability to signal. Thus, if delivered to the brain, immunoadhesins may specifically block signalling of the receptor of interest. Using osmotic minipumps, the protein can be infused in a localized region of the brain for a specified period of time (days or weeks). Thus, the location

  17. United States petroleum pipelines: An empirical analysis of pipeline sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, L. L.

    1980-12-01

    The undersizing theory hypothesizes that integrated oil companies have a strong economic incentive to size the petroleum pipelines they own and ship over in a way that means that some of the demand must utilize higher cost alternatives. The DOJ theory posits that excess or monopoly profits are earned due to the natural monopoly characteristics of petroleum pipelines and the existence of market power in some pipelines at either the upstream or downstream market. The theory holds that independent petroleum pipelines owned by companies not otherwise affiliated with the petroleum industry (independent pipelines) do not have these incentives and all the efficiencies of pipeline transportation are passed to the ultimate consumer. Integrated oil companies on the other hand, keep these cost efficiencies for themselves in the form of excess profits.

  18. A biometric analysis of brain size in micrencephalics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, M A

    1984-01-01

    Brain weight and head circumference in micrencephalic patients were analysed as a function of age, height and sex in relation to normal human standards. A quantitative definition of micrencephaly is proposed, which is based on these analyses. Evidence is presented, furthermore, that micrencephalics have a significantly lower brain weight in adolescence than in early childhood, and that this cerebral dystrophy continues throughout adulthood, leading to death in more than 85% of the males and 78% of the females before they reach the age of 30 years. Since this decline in brain weight after approximately 3-5 years of age is not accompanied by a similar reduction in head circumference, the brains of elderly micrencephalic patients no longer occupy the entire cranial cavity. It is evident, therefore, that head circumference in the case of micrencephaly is an unsuitable parameter for estimating brain size.

  19. Analysis of time series and size of equivalent sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Nestor; Molina, Alicia; Pabon, Daniel; Martinez, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    In a meteorological context, a first approach to the modeling of time series is to use models of autoregressive type. This allows one to take into account the meteorological persistence or temporal behavior, thereby identifying the memory of the analyzed process. This article seeks to pre-sent the concept of the size of an equivalent sample, which helps to identify in the data series sub periods with a similar structure. Moreover, in this article we examine the alternative of adjusting the variance of the series, keeping in mind its temporal structure, as well as an adjustment to the covariance of two time series. This article presents two examples, the first one corresponding to seven simulated series with autoregressive structure of first order, and the second corresponding to seven meteorological series of anomalies of the air temperature at the surface in two Colombian regions

  20. Morphological analysis of polymer systems with broad particle size distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Nevoralová, Martina; Fortelný, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, April (2015), s. 8-16 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer blends * morphology * image analysis Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2015

  1. Challenges in thermal and hydraulic analysis of ADS target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetzbach, G.; Batta, A.; Lefhalm, C.-H.; Otic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid metal cooled spallation targets of Accelerator Driven nuclear reactor Systems obey high thermal loads; in addition some flow and cooling conditions are of a prototypical character; in contrast the operating conditions for the engaged materials are narrow; thus, the target development requires a very careful analysis by experimental and numerical means. Especially the cooling of the steel window, which is heated by the proton beam, needs special care. Some of the main goals of the experimental and numerical analyses of the thermal dynamics of those systems are discusses. The prediction of locally detached flows and of flows with larger recirculation areas suffers from insufficient turbulence modeling; this has to be compensated by using prototypical model experiments, e.g. with water, to select the adequate models and numerical schemes. The well known problems with the Reynolds analogy in predicting the heat transfer in liquid metals requires always prototypic liquid metal experiments to select and adapt the turbulent heat flux models. The uncertainties in liquid metal experiments cannot be neglected; so it is necessary to perform CFD calculations and experiments always hand in hand and to develop improve turbulent heat flux models. One contribution to an improved 3 or 4-equation model is deduced from recent Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data. (author)

  2. SeedVicious: Analysis of microRNA target and near-target sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Here I describe seedVicious, a versatile microRNA target site prediction software that can be easily fitted into annotation pipelines and run over custom datasets. SeedVicious finds microRNA canonical sites plus other, less efficient, target sites. Among other novel features, seedVicious can compute evolutionary gains/losses of target sites using maximum parsimony, and also detect near-target sites, which have one nucleotide different from a canonical site. Near-target sites are important to study population variation in microRNA regulation. Some analyses suggest that near-target sites may also be functional sites, although there is no conclusive evidence for that, and they may actually be target alleles segregating in a population. SeedVicious does not aim to outperform but to complement existing microRNA prediction tools. For instance, the precision of TargetScan is almost doubled (from 11% to ~20%) when we filter predictions by the distance between target sites using this program. Interestingly, two adjacent canonical target sites are more likely to be present in bona fide target transcripts than pairs of target sites at slightly longer distances. The software is written in Perl and runs on 64-bit Unix computers (Linux and MacOS X). Users with no computing experience can also run the program in a dedicated web-server by uploading custom data, or browse pre-computed predictions. SeedVicious and its associated web-server and database (SeedBank) are distributed under the GPL/GNU license.

  3. Feed particle size evaluation: conventional approach versus digital holography based image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of image analysis approach based on digital holography in defining particle size in comparison with the sieve shaker method (sieving method as reference method. For this purpose ground corn meal was analyzed by a sieve shaker Retsch VS 1000 and by image analysis approach based on digital holography. Particle size from digital holography were compared with results obtained by screen (sieving analysis for each of size classes by a cumulative distribution plot. Comparison between particle size values obtained by sieving method and image analysis indicated that values were comparable in term of particle size information, introducing a potential application for digital holography and image analysis in feed industry.

  4. In-depth resistome analysis by targeted metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Val F; Baquero, Fernando; Martínez, José Luís; Ramos-Ruíz, Ricardo; González-Zorn, Bruno; Andremont, Antoine; Sánchez-Valenzuela, Antonio; Ehrlich, Stanislav Dusko; Kennedy, Sean; Ruppé, Etienne; van Schaik, Willem; Willems, Rob J; de la Cruz, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2018-01-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major global health challenge. Metagenomics allows analyzing the presence and dynamics of "resistomes" (the ensemble of genes encoding antimicrobial resistance in a given microbiome) in disparate microbial ecosystems. However, the low sensitivity and specificity of available metagenomic methods preclude the detection of minority populations (often present below their detection threshold) and/or the identification of allelic variants that differ in the resulting phenotype. Here, we describe a novel strategy that combines targeted metagenomics using last generation in-solution capture platforms, with novel bioinformatics tools to establish a standardized framework that allows both quantitative and qualitative analyses of resistomes. We developed ResCap, a targeted sequence capture platform based on SeqCapEZ (NimbleGene) technology, which includes probes for 8667 canonical resistance genes (7963 antibiotic resistance genes and 704 genes conferring resistance to metals or biocides), and 2517 relaxase genes (plasmid markers) and 78,600 genes homologous to the previous identified targets (47,806 for antibiotics and 30,794 for biocides or metals). Its performance was compared with metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) for 17 fecal samples (9 humans, 8 swine). ResCap significantly improves MSS to detect "gene abundance" (from 2.0 to 83.2%) and "gene diversity" (26 versus 14.9 genes unequivocally detected per sample per million of reads; the number of reads unequivocally mapped increasing up to 300-fold by using ResCap), which were calculated using novel bioinformatic tools. ResCap also facilitated the analysis of novel genes potentially involved in the resistance to antibiotics, metals, biocides, or any combination thereof. ResCap, the first targeted sequence capture, specifically developed to analyze resistomes, greatly enhances the sensitivity and specificity of available metagenomic methods and offers the possibility to analyze genes

  5. Meta-Analysis of Effect Sizes Reported at Multiple Time Points Using General Linear Mixed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekiwa, Alfred; Manda, Samuel O. M.; Mwambi, Henry G.; Chen, Ding-Geng

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies combines effect sizes measured at pre-determined time points. The most common approach involves performing separate univariate meta-analyses at individual time points. This simplistic approach ignores dependence between longitudinal effect sizes, which might result in less precise parameter estimates. In this paper, we show how to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal effect sizes where we contrast different covariance structures for dependence between effect sizes, both within and between studies. We propose new combinations of covariance structures for the dependence between effect size and utilize a practical example involving meta-analysis of 17 trials comparing postoperative treatments for a type of cancer, where survival is measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months post randomization. Although the results from this particular data set show the benefit of accounting for within-study serial correlation between effect sizes, simulations are required to confirm these results. PMID:27798661

  6. Influence of tumour size on the efficacy of targeted alpha therapy with (213)Bi-[DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ho Sze; Konijnenberg, Mark W; de Blois, Erik; Koelewijn, Stuart; Baum, Richard P; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Breeman, Wouter A; de Jong, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Targeted alpha therapy has been postulated to have great potential for the treatment of small clusters of tumour cells as well as small metastases. (213)Bismuth, an α-emitter with a half-life of 46 min, has shown to be effective in preclinical as well as in clinical applications. In this study, we evaluated whether (213)Bi-[DOTA(0), Tyr(3)]-octreotate ((213)Bi-DOTATATE), a (213)Bi-labelled somatostatin analogue with high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), is suitable for the treatment of larger neuroendocrine tumours overexpressing SSTR2 in comparison to its effectiveness for smaller tumours. We performed a preclinical targeted radionuclide therapy study with (213)Bi-DOTATATE in animals bearing tumours of different sizes (50 and 200 mm(3)) using two tumour models: H69 (human small cell lung carcinoma) and CA20948 (rat pancreatic tumour). Pharmacokinetics was determined for calculation of dosimetry in organs and tumours. H69- or CA20948-xenografted mice with tumour volumes of approximately 120 mm(3) were euthanized at 10, 30, 60 and 120 min post injection of a single dose of (213)Bi-DOTATATE (1.5-4.8 MBq). To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of (213)Bi-DOTATATE, xenografted H69 and CA20948 tumour-bearing mice with tumour sizes of 50 and 200 mm(3) were administered daily with a therapeutic dose of (213)Bi-DOTATATE (0.3 nmol, 2-4 MBq) for three consecutive days. The animals were followed for 90 days after treatment. At day 90, mice were injected with 25 MBq (99m)Tc-DMSA and imaged by SPECT/CT to investigate possible renal dysfunction due to (213)Bi-DOTATATE treatment. Higher tumour uptakes were found in CA20948 tumour-bearing animals compared to those in H69 tumour-bearing mice with the highest tumour uptake of 19.6 ± 6.6 %IA/g in CA20948 tumour-bearing animals, while for H69 tumour-bearing mice, the highest tumour uptake was found to be 9.8 ± 2.4 %IA/g. Nevertheless, as the anti-tumour effect was more pronounced in H69

  7. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  8. Synthesis and in vitro experiments of carcinoma vascular endothelial targeting polymeric nano-micelles combining small particle size and supermagnetic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Pan, Jielin; Xu, Qilan; Li, Hao; Wang, Jianhao; Zhang, Chao; Hong, Guobin

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To construct carcinoma vascular endothelial-targeted polymeric nanomicelles with high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity and to evaluate their biological safety and in vitro tumor-targeting effect, and to monitor their feasibility using clinical MRI scanner. Method: Amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)- b -poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) was synthesized via the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) initiated by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), in which cyclic pentapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) was conjugated with the terminal of hydrophilic PEG block. During the self-assembly of PEG-PCL micelles, superparamagnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (11 nm) was loaded into the hydrophobic core. The cRGD-terminated γ-Fe 2 O 3 -loaded polymeric micelles targeting to carcinoma vascular endothelial cells, were characterized in particle size, morphology, loading efficiency and so on, especially high MRI sensitivity in vitro. Normal hepatic vascular endothelial cells (ED25) were incubated with the resulting micelles for assessing their safety. Human hepatic carcinoma vascular endothelial cells (T3A) were cultured with the resulting micelles to assess the micelle uptake using Prussian blue staining and the cell signal intensity using MRI. Results: All the polymeric micelles exhibited ultra-small particle sizes with approximately 50 nm, high relaxation rate, and low toxicity even at high iron concentrations. More blue-stained iron particles were present in the targeting group than the non-targeting and competitive inhibition groups. In vitro MRI showed T 2 WI and T 2 relaxation times were significantly lower in the targeting group than in the other two groups. Conclusion: γ-Fe 2 O 3 -loaded PEG-PCL micelles not only possess ultra-small size and high superparamagnetic sensitivity, also can be actively targeted to carcinoma vascular endothelial cells by tumor-targeted cRGD. It appears to be a promising contrast agent for tumor-targeted

  9. Study on the Matching Relationship between Polymer Hydrodynamic Characteristic Size and Pore Throat Radius of Target Block S Based on the Microporous Membrane Filtration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the hydrodynamic characteristic size of polymer was proposed in this study, to characterize the size of aggregates of many polymer molecules in the polymer percolation process. The hydrodynamic characteristic sizes of polymers used in the target block S were examined by employing microporous membrane filtration method, and the factors were studied. Natural core flow experiments were conducted in order to set up the flow matching relationship plate. According to the flow matching plate, the relationship between the hydrodynamic characteristic size of polymer and pore throat radius obtained from core mercury injection data was found. And several suitable polymers for different reservoirs permeability were given. The experimental results of microporous membrane filtration indicated that the hydrodynamic characteristic size of polymer maintained a good nonlinear relationship with polymer viscosity; the value increased as the molecular weight and concentration of the polymer increased and increased as the salinity of dilution water decreased. Additionally, the hydrodynamic characteristic size decreased as the pressure increased, so the hydrodynamic characteristic size ought to be determined based on the pressure of the target block. In the core flow studies, good matching of polymer and formation was identified as polymer flow pressure gradient lower than the fracture pressure gradient of formation. In this case, good matching that was the pore throat radius should be larger than 10 times the hydrodynamic characteristic size of polymer in this study. Using relationship, more matching relationship between the hydrodynamic characteristic sizes of polymer solutions and the pore throat radius of target block was determined.

  10. Radiation inactivation analysis of assimilatory NADH:nitrate reductase. Apparent functional sizes of partial activities associated with intact and proteolytically modified enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomonson, L.P.; McCreery, M.J.; Kay, C.J.; Barber, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated that target sizes for the partial activities of nitrate reductase were considerably smaller than the 100-kDa subunit which corresponded to the target size of the full (physiologic) activity NADH:nitrate reductase. These results suggested that the partial activities resided on functionally independent domains and that radiation inactivation may be due to localized rather than extensive damage to protein structure. The present study extends these observations and addresses several associated questions. Monophasic plots were observed over a wide range of radiation doses, suggesting a single activity component in each case. No apparent differences were observed over a 10-fold range of concentration for each substrate, suggesting that the observed slopes were not due to marked changes in Km values. Apparent target sizes estimated for partial activities associated with native enzyme and with limited proteolysis products of native enzyme suggested that the functional size obtained by radiation inactivation analysis is independent of the size of the polypeptide chain. The presence of free radical scavengers during irradiation reduced the apparent target size of both the physiologic and partial activities by an amount ranging from 24 to 43%, suggesting that a free radical mechanism is at least partially responsible for the inactivation. Immunoblot analysis of nitrate reductase irradiated in the presence of free radical scavengers revealed formation of distinct bands at 90, 75, and 40 kDa with increasing doses of irradiation rather than complete destruction of the polypeptide chain

  11. Integrative analysis of RUNX1 downstream pathways and target genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Marjorie

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RUNX1 transcription factor gene is frequently mutated in sporadic myeloid and lymphoid leukemia through translocation, point mutation or amplification. It is also responsible for a familial platelet disorder with predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD-AML. The disruption of the largely unknown biological pathways controlled by RUNX1 is likely to be responsible for the development of leukemia. We have used multiple microarray platforms and bioinformatic techniques to help identify these biological pathways to aid in the understanding of why RUNX1 mutations lead to leukemia. Results Here we report genes regulated either directly or indirectly by RUNX1 based on the study of gene expression profiles generated from 3 different human and mouse platforms. The platforms used were global gene expression profiling of: 1 cell lines with RUNX1 mutations from FPD-AML patients, 2 over-expression of RUNX1 and CBFβ, and 3 Runx1 knockout mouse embryos using either cDNA or Affymetrix microarrays. We observe that our datasets (lists of differentially expressed genes significantly correlate with published microarray data from sporadic AML patients with mutations in either RUNX1 or its cofactor, CBFβ. A number of biological processes were identified among the differentially expressed genes and functional assays suggest that heterozygous RUNX1 point mutations in patients with FPD-AML impair cell proliferation, microtubule dynamics and possibly genetic stability. In addition, analysis of the regulatory regions of the differentially expressed genes has for the first time systematically identified numerous potential novel RUNX1 target genes. Conclusion This work is the first large-scale study attempting to identify the genetic networks regulated by RUNX1, a master regulator in the development of the hematopoietic system and leukemia. The biological pathways and target genes controlled by RUNX1 will have considerable importance in disease

  12. Error Analysis of Fast Moving Target Geo-location in Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-chao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important mode in airborne radar systems, Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication (WAS-GMTI mode has the ability of monitoring a large area in a short time, and then the detected moving targets can be located quickly. However, in real environment, many factors introduce considerable errors into the location of moving targets. In this paper, a fast location method based on the characteristics of the moving targets in WAS-GMTI mode is utilized. And in order to improve the location performance, those factors that introduce location errors are analyzed and moving targets are relocated. Finally, the analysis of those factors is proved to be reasonable by simulation and real data experiments.

  13. Physical Activity Targeted at Maximal Lipid Oxidation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Romain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is recognized as a part of the management of obesity and diabetes. Various protocols of exercise are proposed for the management of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. One of the strategies proposed by several authors is low intensity endurance training targeted at the level of maximal oxidation. Large series using this technique are lacking. Addressing this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of the studies on anthropometric measurements. From a database of 433 articles, 15 were selected, including 279 subjects with 6 different populations. Studies duration ranged from 2 months to 12 months. Concerning weight loss, in the intervention versus control analysis, five studies with 185 participants were included with a significant effect size favors exercise (P=0.02 without significant heterogeneity (I2=0.0%, P=0.83. Further randomized controlled trials for comparing it with other exercise protocols and defining its dose effectiveness on large samples are needed.

  14. Rapid analysis of seed size in Arabidopsis for mutant and QTL discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin Samantha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model organism for deciphering the genetic determinants of seed size; however the small size of its seeds makes measurements difficult. Bulk seed weights are often used as an indicator of average seed size, but details of individual seed is obscured. Analysis of seed images is possible but issues arise from variations in seed pigmentation and shadowing making analysis laborious. We therefore investigated the use of a consumer level scanner to facilitate seed size measurements in conjunction with open source image-processing software. Results By using the transmitted light from the slide scanning function of a flatbed scanner and particle analysis of the resulting images, we have developed a method for the rapid and high throughput analysis of seed size and seed size distribution. The technical variation due to the approach was negligible enabling us to identify aspects of maternal plant growth that contribute to biological variation in seed size. By controlling for these factors, differences in seed size caused by altered parental genome dosage and mutation were easily detected. The method has high reproducibility and sensitivity, such that a mutant with a 10% reduction in seed size was identified in a screen of endosperm-expressed genes. Our study also generated average seed size data for 91 Arabidopsis accessions and identified a number of quantitative trait loci from two recombinant inbred line populations, generated from Cape Verde Islands and Burren accessions crossed with Columbia. Conclusions This study describes a sensitive, high-throughput approach for measuring seed size and seed size distribution. The method provides a low cost and robust solution that can be easily implemented into the workflow of studies relating to various aspects of seed development.

  15. Size and surface AREA analysis of some metallic and intermetallic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Abadir, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The powder characterization of three intermetallic compounds ( Cr B, B 4 c and S ib 4 ) and three metallic powders (Fe, Co, and Ni) has been performed. This included the determination of powder density, chemical analysis, impurity analysis, shape factor, particle size analysis and specific surface area. The particle size analysis for the six powders was carried out using three techniques, namely; the 0-23, the microtrac and the fisher sub sieve and size. It was found that the analysis of the two powders and deviates from the log-normal probability distribution and the deviation was corrected. The specific surface area of the powders was measured using the high speed surface area analysis (BET method), and it was also calculated from surface area analysis findings, the BET technique was found to give the highest specific surface area values, and was attributed to the inclusion of internal porosity in the measurement. 8 fig., 10 tab

  16. Qweak Data Analysis for Target Modeling Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Covrig, Silviu

    2015-04-01

    The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak parity violation experiment is the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) at Jefferson Lab. The Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from unpolarized liquid hydrogen at small momentum transfer (Q2 = 0 . 025 GeV2). This target met the design goals of bench-marked with the Qweak target data. This work is an essential ingredient in future designs of very high power low noise targets like MOLLER (5 kW, target noise asymmetry contribution < 25 ppm) and MESA (4.5 kW).

  17. Radiological error: analysis, standard setting, targeted instruction and teamworking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology does not have objective benchmarks for acceptable levels of missed diagnoses [1]. Until now, data collection of radiological discrepancies has been very time consuming. The culture within the specialty did not encourage it. However, public concern about patient safety is increasing. There have been recent innovations in compiling radiological interpretive discrepancy rates which may facilitate radiological standard setting. However standard setting alone will not optimise radiologists' performance or patient safety. We must use these new techniques in radiological discrepancy detection to stimulate greater knowledge sharing, targeted instruction and teamworking among radiologists. Not all radiological discrepancies are errors. Radiological discrepancy programmes must not be abused as an instrument for discrediting individual radiologists. Discrepancy rates must not be distorted as a weapon in turf battles. Radiological errors may be due to many causes and are often multifactorial. A systems approach to radiological error is required. Meaningful analysis of radiological discrepancies and errors is challenging. Valid standard setting will take time. Meanwhile, we need to develop top-up training, mentoring and rehabilitation programmes. (orig.)

  18. Transmutation technology development; thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis of the HYPER target beam window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H.; Ju, E. S.; Song, M. K.; Jeon, Y. Z. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    A thermal hydraulic power analysis, a structure analysis and optimization computation for some design factor for the design of spallation target suitable for HYPER with 1000 MW thermal power in this study was performed. Heat generation formula was used which was evaluated recently based on the LAHET code, mainly to find the maximum beam current under given computation conditions. Thermal hydraulic power of HYPER target system was calculated using FLUENT code, structure conducted by inputting the data into ANSYS. On the temp of beam windows and the pressure distribution calculated using FLUENT. Data transformation program was composed apply the data calculated using FLUENT being commercial CFD code and ANSYS being FEM code for CFX structure analysis. A basic study was conducted on various singular target to obtain fundamental data on the shape for optimum target design. A thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis were conducted on the shapes of parabolic, uniform, scanning beams to choose the optimum shape of beam current analysis was done according to some turbulent model to simulate the real flow. To evaluate the reliability of numerical analysis result, benchmarking of FLUENT code reformed at SNU and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and it was compared to CFX in the possession of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and evaluated. Reliable deviation was observed in the results calculated using FLUENT code, but temperature deviation of about 200 .deg. C was observed in the result from CFX analysis at optimum design condition. Several benchmarking were performed on the basis of numerical analysis concerning conventional HYPER. It was possible to allow a beam arrests of 17.3 mA in the case of the {phi} 350 mm parabolic beam suggested to the optimum in nuclear transmutation when stress equivalent to VON-MISES was calculated to be 140 MPa. 29 refs., 109 figs. (Author)

  19. 48 CFR 52.219-21 - Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employees for the past 12 months (check this column if size standard stated in solicitation is expressed in terms of number of employees) or Offeror's average annual gross revenue for the last 3 fiscal years (check this column if size standard stated in solicitation is expressed in terms of annual receipts...

  20. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  1. Grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon coastal system, Lagos, Nigeria; its implication on coastal erosion. R Abdulkarim, EA Akinnigbagbe, DO Imo, MT Imhansoloeva, VO Aniebone, MP Ibitola, BR Faleye, O Shonde, YJ Appia ...

  2. CRISPRTarget: bioinformatic prediction and analysis of crRNA targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswas, A.; Gagnon, J.N.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Fineran, P.C.; Brown, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial and archaeal CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system targets specific protospacer nucleotide sequences in invading organisms. This requires base pairing between processed CRISPR RNA and the target protospacer. For type I and II CRISPR/Cas systems, protospacer adjacent motifs (PAM) are

  3. Efficient internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes by primary human macrophages without impairment of macrophage clearance of apoptotic or antibody-opsonized target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witasp, Erika; Kupferschmidt, Natalia; Bengtsson, Linnea; Hultenby, Kjell; Smedman, Christian; Paulie, Staffan; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.; Fadeel, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage recognition and ingestion of apoptotic cell corpses, a process referred to as programmed cell clearance, is of considerable importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, macrophages are the first line of defense against microorganisms and other foreign materials including particles. However, there is sparse information on the mode of uptake of engineered nanomaterials by primary macrophages. In this study, mesoporous silica particles with cubic pore geometries and covalently fluorescein-grafted particles were synthesized through a novel route, and their interactions with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were assessed. Efficient and active internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes was observed by transmission electron microscopic and flow cytometric analysis and studies using pharmacological inhibitors suggested that uptake occurred through a process of endocytosis. Moreover, uptake of silica particles was independent of serum factors. The silica particles with very high surface areas due to their porous structure did not impair cell viability or function of macrophages, including the ingestion of different classes of apoptotic or opsonized target cells. The current findings are relevant to the development of mesoporous materials for drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

  4. Targeting gender: A content analysis of alcohol advertising in magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, A-Reum; Hovland, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Creating target specific advertising is fundamental to maximizing advertising effectiveness. When crafting an advertisement, message and creative strategies are considered important because they affect target audiences' attitudes toward advertised products. This study endeavored to find advertising strategies that are likely to have special appeal for men or women by examining alcohol advertising in magazines. The results show that the substance of the messages is the same for men and women, but they only differ in terms of presentation. However, regardless of gender group, the most commonly used strategies in alcohol advertising are appeals to the target audience's emotions.

  5. Functional and physical molecular size of the chicken hepatic lectin determined by radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, C.J.; Osborne, J.C. Jr.; Kempner, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis were used to determine the functional and physical size of the chicken hepatic membrane receptor that binds N-acetylglucosamine-terminated glycoproteins. Purified plasma membranes from chicken liver were irradiated with high energy electrons and assayed for 125I-agalactoorosomucoid binding. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation resulted in a monoexponential decay in binding activity due to a progressive loss of binding sites. The molecular mass of the chicken lectin, determined in situ by target analysis, was 69,000 +/- 9,000 Da. When the same irradiated membranes were solubilized in Brij 58 and assayed, the binding protein exhibited a target size of 62,000 +/- 4,000 Da; in Triton X-100, the functional size of the receptor was 85,000 +/- 10,000 Da. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements of the purified binding protein yielded a lower limit molecular weight of 79,000 +/- 7,000. However, the solubilized lectin was detected as a heterogeneous population of oligomers with molecular weights as high as 450,000. Addition of calcium or calcium plus N-acetylglucosamine decreased the higher molecular weight species, but the lower limit molecular weights remained invariant. Similar results were determined when the chicken lectin was solubilized in Brij 58, C12E9, or 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonic acid (CHAPS). Results from the present study suggest that in the plasma membrane, the functional species of the chicken hepatic lectin exists as a trimer. However, in detergent solution, the purified receptor forms a heterogeneous population of irreversible oligomers that exhibit binding activity proportional to size

  6. Hierarchical self-assembly of magnetic nanoclusters for theranostics: Tunable size, enhanced magnetic resonance imagability, and controlled and targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dai Hai; Lee, Jung Seok; Choi, Jong Hoon; Park, Kyung Min; Lee, Yunki; Park, Ki Dong

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticle-based imaging and therapy are of interest for theranostic nanomedicine. In particular, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much attention in cancer imaging, diagnostics, and treatment because of their superior imagability and biocompatibility (approved by the Food and Drug Administration). Here, we developed SPIO nanoparticles (NPs) that self-assembled into magnetic nanoclusters (SAMNs) in aqueous environments as a theranostic nano-system. To generate multi-functional SPIO NPs, we covalently conjugated β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to SPIO NPs using metal-adhesive dopamine groups. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and paclitaxel (PTX) were hosted in the β-CD cavity through high affinity complexation. The core-shell structure of the magnetic nanoclusters was elucidated based on the condensed SPIO core and a PEG shell using electron microscopy and the composition was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Our results indicate that nanocluster size could be readily controlled by changing the SPIO/PEG ratio in the assemblies. Interestingly, we observed a significant enhancement in magnetic resonance contrast due to the large cluster size and dense iron oxide core. In addition, tethering a tumor-targeting peptide to the SAMNs enhanced their uptake into tumor cells. PTX was efficiently loaded into β-CDs and released in a controlled manner when exposed to competitive guest molecules. These results strongly indicate that the SAMNs developed in this study possess great potential for application in image-guided cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we developed multi-functional SPIO NPs that self-assembled into magnetic nanoclusters (SAMNs) in aqueous conditions as a theranostic nano-system. The beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was immobilized on the surfaces of SPIO NPs and RGD-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and paclitaxel (PTX) were hosted in the β-CD cavity through high affinity complexation. We found that nanocluster size could be

  7. Monetary targeting and financial system characteristics : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, A..

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how reforms and characteristics of the financial system affect the likelihood of countries to abandon their strategy of monetary targeting. Apart from financial system characteristics, we include macroeconomic, fiscal, and institutional factors potentially associated with

  8. The Terahertz Scattering Analysis of Rough Metallic and Dielectric Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The terahertz scattering characteristics of metallic and dielectric rough targets is important for the investigation of the terahertz radar targets properties. According to the stationary phase theory and scalar approximation, if the radius of curvature at any point of the surface is much larger than the incident wavelength, and the wavelength is also much longer than the surface height function and Root-Mean-Square (RMS surface slope, the coherent and incoherent scattering Radar Cross Section (RCS of rough metallic and dielectric targets can be obtained. Based on the stationary phase approximation, the coherent RCS of rough conductors, smooth dielectric targets and rough dielectric targets can be easily deputed. The scattering characteristics of electrically large smooth Al and painted spheres are investigated in this paper, and the calculated RCS are verified by Mie scattering theory, the error is less than 0.1 dBm2. Based on lambert theory, it is demonstrated that the incoherent RCS is analyzed with better precision if the rough surfaces are divided into much more facets. In this paper, the coherent and incoherent scattering of rough Al and painted spheres are numerically observed, and the effects of surface roughness and materials are analyzed. The conclusions provide theoretical foundation for the terahertz scattering characteristics of electrically large rough targets.

  9. Systems biology approaches and tools for analysis of interactomes and multi-target drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrattenholz, André; Groebe, Karlfried; Soskic, Vukic

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology is essentially a proteomic and epigenetic exercise because the relatively condensed information of genomes unfolds on the level of proteins. The flexibility of cellular architectures is not only mediated by a dazzling number of proteinaceous species but moreover by the kinetics of their molecular changes: The time scales of posttranslational modifications range from milliseconds to years. The genetic framework of an organism only provides the blue print of protein embodiments which are constantly shaped by external input. Indeed, posttranslational modifications of proteins represent the scope and velocity of these inputs and fulfil the requirements of integration of external spatiotemporal signal transduction inside an organism. The optimization of biochemical networks for this type of information processing and storage results in chemically extremely fine tuned molecular entities. The huge dynamic range of concentrations, the chemical diversity and the necessity of synchronisation of complex protein expression patterns pose the major challenge of systemic analysis of biological models. One further message is that many of the key reactions in living systems are essentially based on interactions of moderate affinities and moderate selectivities. This principle is responsible for the enormous flexibility and redundancy of cellular circuitries. In complex disorders such as cancer or neurodegenerative diseases, which initially appear to be rooted in relatively subtle dysfunctions of multimodal physiologic pathways, drug discovery programs based on the concept of high affinity/high specificity compounds ("one-target, one-disease"), which has been dominating the pharmaceutical industry for a long time, increasingly turn out to be unsuccessful. Despite improvements in rational drug design and high throughput screening methods, the number of novel, single-target drugs fell much behind expectations during the past decade, and the treatment of "complex

  10. Egg size and offspring quality: a meta-analysis in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Miloš

    2011-08-01

    Parents affect offspring fitness by propagule size and quality, selection of oviposition site, quality of incubation, feeding of dependent young, and their defence against predators and parasites. Despite many case studies on each of these topics, this knowledge has not been rigorously integrated into individual parental care traits for any taxon. Consequently, we lack a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of how parental care modifies offspring phenotypes. This meta-analysis of 283 studies with 1805 correlations between egg size and offspring quality in birds is intended to fill this gap. The large sample size enabled testing of how the magnitude of the relationship between egg size and offspring quality depends on a number of variables. Egg size was positively related to nearly all studied offspring traits across all stages of the offspring life cycle. Not surprisingly, the relationship was strongest at hatching but persisted until the post-fledging stage. Morphological traits were the most closely related to egg size but significant relationships were also found with hatching success, chick survival, and growth rate. Non-significant effect sizes were found for egg fertility, chick immunity, behaviour, and life-history or sexual traits. Effect size did not depend on whether chicks were raised by their natural parents or were cross-fostered to other territories. Effect size did not depend on species-specific traits such as developmental mode, clutch size, and relative size of the egg, but was larger if tested in captive compared to wild populations and between rather than within broods. In sum, published studies support the view that egg size affects juvenile survival. There are very few studies that tested the relationship between egg size and the fecundity component of offspring fitness, and no studies on offspring survival as adults or on global fitness. More data are also needed for the relationships between egg size and offspring behavioural and

  11. Standardized Effect Size Measures for Mediation Analysis in Cluster-Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Dion, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article presents 3 standardized effect size measures to use when sharing results of an analysis of mediation of treatment effects for cluster-randomized trials. The authors discuss 3 examples of mediation analysis (upper-level mediation, cross-level mediation, and cross-level mediation with a contextual effect) with demonstration of the…

  12. X-ray diffraction from thin films : Size/strain analysis and whole pattern fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardi, P [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Line Profile Analysis (LPA) and whole pattern fitting may be used with success for the characterization of thin films from XRD data collected with the traditional Bragg-Brentano geometry. The size/strain analysis was conducted by an integrated procedure of profile modelling-assisted Fourier analysis, in order to measure the content of lattice imperfections and crystalline domain size along the growth direction in heteroepitaxial thin films. The microstructure of these films is typical of several PVD processes for the production of highly textured and low-defect thin crystalline layers. The same analysis could be conducted on random thin films as well, and in this case it is possible to determine an average crystallite size and shape. As will be shown in the paper, structural and microstructural parameters obtained by these methods may be correlated with thin film properties of technological interest. The whole pattern analysis may be used to obtain the information contained in a wide region of the diffraction pattern. This approach, currently used for the quantitative analysis of phase mixtures in traditional powder samples, was modified to account both for the size/strain effects, according to a simplified LPA, and for the structure of thin films and multi-layer systems. In this way, a detailed analysis based on a structural model for the present phases can be performed considering the real geometry of these samples. In particular, the quantitative phase analysis could be conducted in terms of layer thickness instead of volume or weight fractions.

  13. X-ray diffraction from thin films : Size/strain analysis and whole pattern fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Line Profile Analysis (LPA) and whole pattern fitting may be used with success for the characterization of thin films from XRD data collected with the traditional Bragg-Brentano geometry. The size/strain analysis was conducted by an integrated procedure of profile modelling-assisted Fourier analysis, in order to measure the content of lattice imperfections and crystalline domain size along the growth direction in heteroepitaxial thin films. The microstructure of these films is typical of several PVD processes for the production of highly textured and low-defect thin crystalline layers. The same analysis could be conducted on random thin films as well, and in this case it is possible to determine an average crystallite size and shape. As will be shown in the paper, structural and microstructural parameters obtained by these methods may be correlated with thin film properties of technological interest. The whole pattern analysis may be used to obtain the information contained in a wide region of the diffraction pattern. This approach, currently used for the quantitative analysis of phase mixtures in traditional powder samples, was modified to account both for the size/strain effects, according to a simplified LPA, and for the structure of thin films and multi-layer systems. In this way, a detailed analysis based on a structural model for the present phases can be performed considering the real geometry of these samples. In particular, the quantitative phase analysis could be conducted in terms of layer thickness instead of volume or weight fractions

  14. Evaluating targets and trade-offs among fisheries and conservation objectives using a multispecies size spectrum model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, J.L.; Andersen, K.H.; Scott, F.; Hintzen, N.T.; Piet, G.J.; Jennings, S.

    2014-01-01

    Marine environmental management policies seek to ensure that fishing impacts on fished populations and other components of the ecosystem are sustainable, to simultaneously meet objectives for fisheries and conservation. For example, in Europe, targets for (i) biodiversity, (ii) food web structure as

  15. Targets for parathyroid hormone in secondary hyperparathyroidism: is a “one-size-fits-all” approach appropriate? A prospective incident cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Laurain, Emmanuelle; Ayav, Carole; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Kessler, Michèle; Briançon, Serge; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) consider that a “one-size-fits-all” target enables efficacy of care. In routine clinical practice, SHPT continues to pose diagnosis and treatment challenges. One hypothesis that could explain these difficulties is that dialysis population with SHPT is not homogeneous. Methods EPHEYL is a prospective, multicenter, pharmacoepidemiological study including chronic dialysis patients (≥3 months) with newly SHPT diagnosis, i.e. para...

  16. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  17. Size does matter: Cre-mediated somatic deletion efficiency depends on the distance between the target lox-sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppoolse, E.R.; Vroomen, de M.J.; Gennip, van F.; Hersmus, B.J.M.; Haaren, van M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cre/lox recombination in vivo has become an important tool to induce chromosomal rearrangements like deletions. Using a combination of Ds transposition and Cre/lox recombination in two independent experiments on chromosomes 6 and 7 of tomato, two sets of somatic deletions up to a size of 200 kb were

  18. Extreme value paradigm for the effect of size of target volume on end results in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    In clinical radiation oncology, it is commonly reported that complications of normal tissue occur more readily at larger field sizes for a given dose and recurrence of disease is observed more frequently from the larger tumors for a given dose. Cognate phenomena have long been observed in the study of the strength of materials. That is, the larger specimens will fracture under less applied stress, breakdown under less applied voltage, corrode in a shorter time, etc. The statistical theory of extreme values has provided both a rational explanation and a technique for exploitation of these ''size effects'' on the likelihood of specimen failure. This theory describes the relation which exists between the parameters (in particular, the location parameter) of the frequency distributions of the extreme values [smallest x(1) and largest x(n)] in a sample from a population of observations xi and the sample size n. It is shown in the present paper that the clinical failure phenomena are not inconsistent with the statistical theory of extreme values. The paper presents heuristic comparisons of the predictions of this theory with the received clinical observations of the effect of the size of the volume of irradiated tissues on the likelihood of occurrence of the misadventures of clinical radiation oncology: recurrence of disease and complication of normal tissue. The concordance of observations and predictions is acceptable. The quality and quantity of the currently available data have precluded the construction of any apodictic representations

  19. Genome-wide analysis of Polycomb targets in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Yuri B.; Kahn, Tatyana G.; Nix, David A.; Li,Xiao-Yong; Bourgon, Richard; Biggin, Mark; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2006-04-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) complexes are multiprotein assemblages that bind to chromatin and establish chromatin states leading to epigenetic silencing. PcG proteins regulate homeotic genes in flies and vertebrates but little is known about other PcG targets and the role of the PcG in development, differentiation and disease. We have determined the distribution of the PcG proteins PC, E(Z) and PSC and of histone H3K27 trimethylation in the Drosophila genome. At more than 200 PcG target genes, binding sites for the three PcG proteins colocalize to presumptive Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). In contrast, H3 me3K27 forms broad domains including the entire transcription unit and regulatory regions. PcG targets are highly enriched in genes encoding transcription factors but receptors, signaling proteins, morphogens and regulators representing all major developmental pathways are also included.

  20. Targets for bulk hydrogen analysis using thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Csikai, J; Buczko, C M

    2002-01-01

    The reflection property of substances can be characterized by the reflection cross-section of thermal neutrons, sigma subbeta. A combination of the targets with thin polyethylene foils allowed an estimation of the flux depression of thermal neutrons caused by a bulk sample containing highly absorbing elements or compounds. Some new and more accurate sigma subbeta values were determined by using the combined target arrangement. For the ratio, R of the reflection and the elastic scattering cross-sections of thermal neutrons, R=sigma subbeta/sigma sub E sub L a value of 0.60+-0.02 was found on the basis of the data obtained for a number of elements from H to Pb. Using this correlation factor, and the sigma sub E sub L values, the unknown sigma subbeta data can be deduced. The equivalent thicknesses, to polyethylene or hydrogen, of the different target materials were determined from the sigma subbeta values.

  1. Fissure formation in coke. 3: Coke size distribution and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; D.E. Shaw; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    A model of coke stabilization, based on a fundamental model of fissuring during carbonisation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the fissuring model to actual coke size distributions. The results indicate that the degree of stabilization is important in determining the size distribution. A modified form of the Weibull distribution is shown to provide a better representation of the whole coke size distribution compared to the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is generally only fitted to the lump coke. A statistical analysis of a large number of experiments in a pilot scale coke oven shows reasonably good prediction of the coke mean size, based on parameters related to blend rank, amount of low rank coal, fluidity and ash. However, the prediction of measures of the spread of the size distribution is more problematic. The fissuring model, the size distribution representation and the statistical analysis together provide a comprehensive capability for understanding and predicting the mean size and distribution of coke lumps produced during carbonisation. 12 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Whole genome analysis of CRISPR Cas9 sgRNA off-target homologies via an efficient computational algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Michael; Li, Daisy; Manthey, Joseph; Lioutikova, Ekaterina; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Xiao

    2017-11-17

    The beauty and power of the genome editing mechanism, CRISPR Cas9 endonuclease system, lies in the fact that it is RNA-programmable such that Cas9 can be guided to any genomic loci complementary to a 20-nt RNA, single guide RNA (sgRNA), to cleave double stranded DNA, allowing the introduction of wanted mutations. Unfortunately, it has been reported repeatedly that the sgRNA can also guide Cas9 to off-target sites where the DNA sequence is homologous to sgRNA. Using human genome and Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) as an example, this article mathematically analyzed the probabilities of off-target homologies of sgRNAs and discovered that for large genome size such as human genome, potential off-target homologies are inevitable for sgRNA selection. A highly efficient computationl algorithm was developed for whole genome sgRNA design and off-target homology searches. By means of a dynamically constructed sequence-indexed database and a simplified sequence alignment method, this algorithm achieves very high efficiency while guaranteeing the identification of all existing potential off-target homologies. Via this algorithm, 1,876,775 sgRNAs were designed for the 19,153 human mRNA genes and only two sgRNAs were found to be free of off-target homology. By means of the novel and efficient sgRNA homology search algorithm introduced in this article, genome wide sgRNA design and off-target analysis were conducted and the results confirmed the mathematical analysis that for a sgRNA sequence, it is almost impossible to escape potential off-target homologies. Future innovations on the CRISPR Cas9 gene editing technology need to focus on how to eliminate the Cas9 off-target activity.

  3. Inflation targeting and inflation performance : a comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; De Haan, Jakob; Terpstra, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how the impact of inflation targeting on inflation performance depends on the choice of country samples, adoption dates, time periods and methodological approaches. We apply two different estimation methods - difference-in-differences and propensity score matching - for our

  4. Analysis of Myc-induced histone modifications on target chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Martinato

    Full Text Available The c-myc proto-oncogene is induced by mitogens and is a central regulator of cell growth and differentiation. The c-myc product, Myc, is a transcription factor that binds a multitude of genomic sites, estimated to be over 10-15% of all promoter regions. Target promoters generally pre-exist in an active or poised chromatin state that is further modified by Myc, contributing to fine transcriptional regulation (activation or repression of the afferent gene. Among other mechanisms, Myc recruits histone acetyl-transferases to target chromatin and locally promotes hyper-acetylation of multiple lysines on histones H3 and H4, although the identity and combination of the modified lysines is unknown. Whether Myc dynamically regulates other histone modifications (or marks at its binding sites also remains to be addressed. Here, we used quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP to profile a total of 24 lysine-acetylation and -methylation marks modulated by Myc at target promoters in a human B-cell line with a regulatable c-myc transgene. Myc binding promoted acetylation of multiple lysines, primarily of H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, H4K5 and H4K12, but significantly also of H4K8, H4K91 and H2AK5. Dimethylation of H3K79 was also selectively induced at target promoters. A majority of target promoters showed co-induction of multiple marks - in various combinations - correlating with recruitment of the two HATs tested (Tip60 and HBO1, incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z and transcriptional activation. Based on this and previous findings, we surmise that Myc recruits the Tip60/p400 complex to achieve a coordinated histone acetylation/exchange reaction at activated promoters. Our data are also consistent with the additive and redundant role of multiple acetylation events in transcriptional activation.

  5. Cluster analysis of rural, urban, and curbside atmospheric particle size data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddows, David C S; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M

    2009-07-01

    Particle size is a key determinant of the hazard posed by airborne particles. Continuous multivariate particle size data have been collected using aerosol particle size spectrometers sited at four locations within the UK: Harwell (Oxfordshire); Regents Park (London); British Telecom Tower (London); and Marylebone Road (London). These data have been analyzed using k-means cluster analysis, deduced to be the preferred cluster analysis technique, selected from an option of four partitional cluster packages, namelythe following: Fuzzy; k-means; k-median; and Model-Based clustering. Using cluster validation indices k-means clustering was shown to produce clusters with the smallest size, furthest separation, and importantly the highest degree of similarity between the elements within each partition. Using k-means clustering, the complexity of the data set is reduced allowing characterization of the data according to the temporal and spatial trends of the clusters. At Harwell, the rural background measurement site, the cluster analysis showed that the spectra may be differentiated by their modal-diameters and average temporal trends showing either high counts during the day-time or night-time hours. Likewise for the urban sites, the cluster analysis differentiated the spectra into a small number of size distributions according their modal-diameter, the location of the measurement site, and time of day. The responsible aerosol emission, formation, and dynamic processes can be inferred according to the cluster characteristics and correlation to concurrently measured meteorological, gas phase, and particle phase measurements.

  6. Size distribution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using Warren-Averbach XRD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, S.; Behera, S. P.; Gnanaprakash, G.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, J.; Rao, B. P. C.

    2012-07-01

    We use the Fourier transform based Warren-Averbach (WA) analysis to separate the contributions of X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile broadening due to crystallite size and microstrain for magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The profile shape of the column length distribution, obtained from WA analysis, is used to analyze the shape of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. From the column length distribution, the crystallite size and its distribution are estimated for these nanoparticles which are compared with size distribution obtained from dynamic light scattering measurements. The crystallite size and size distribution of crystallites obtained from WA analysis are explained based on the experimental parameters employed in preparation of these magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The variation of volume weighted diameter (Dv, from WA analysis) with saturation magnetization (Ms) fits well to a core shell model wherein it is known that Ms=Mbulk(1-6g/Dv) with Mbulk as bulk magnetization of iron oxide and g as magnetic shell disorder thickness.

  7. Micro gas turbine thermodynamic and economic analysis up to 500 kWe size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanti, Leandro; Massardo, Aristide F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines up to 500 kWe. → Analysis carried out for both regenerative and intercooled regenerative cycles. → Focus on thermodynamic, geometric and cost parameters of the main MGT devices. → ICR cycle has an interesting reduction in capital and electricity costs, rising size. → Complete thermoeconomic investigation is essential to support thermodynamic analysis. -- Abstract: In this paper a thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines (MGT) up to 500 kWe is presented. This analysis is strongly related to the need of minimizing specific capital cost, still high for MGT large market penetration, and optimizing MGT size to match market needs. The analysis was carried out for both existing regenerative MGT cycles and new inter-cooled regenerative cycles, using the Web-based ThermoEconomic Modular Program by the University of Genoa. The attention is mainly focused on the basis of thermodynamic, geometric and capital cost parameters of the main MGT devices (such as recuperator size, material and effectiveness, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio) and on economic scenario (fuel cost, cost of electricity, etc.) for different MGT size in the range 25-500 kWe.

  8. Efficient moving target analysis for inverse synthetic aperture radar images via joint speeded-up robust features and regular moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxin; Su, Fulin

    2018-01-01

    We propose a moving target analysis algorithm using speeded-up robust features (SURF) and regular moment in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image sequences. In our study, we first extract interest points from ISAR image sequences by SURF. Different from traditional feature point extraction methods, SURF-based feature points are invariant to scattering intensity, target rotation, and image size. Then, we employ a bilateral feature registering model to match these feature points. The feature registering scheme can not only search the isotropic feature points to link the image sequences but also reduce the error matching pairs. After that, the target centroid is detected by regular moment. Consequently, a cost function based on correlation coefficient is adopted to analyze the motion information. Experimental results based on simulated and real data validate the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method.

  9. Thermal shock analysis of liquid-mercury spallation target

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikura, S; Futakawa, M; Hino, R; Date, H

    2002-01-01

    The developments of the neutron scattering facilities are carried out under the high-intensity proton accelerator project promoted by JAERI and KEK. To estimate the structural integrity of the heavy liquid-metal (Hg) target used as a spallation neutron source in a MW-class neutron scattering facility, dynamic stress behavior due to the incident of a 1 MW-pulsed proton beam was analyzed by using FEM code. Two-type target containers with semi-cylindrical type and flat-plate type window were used as models for analyses. As a result, it is confirmed that the stress (pressure wave) generated by dynamic thermal shock becomes the largest at the center of window, and the flat-plate type window is more advantageous from the structural viewpoint than the semi-cylindrical type window. It has been understood that the stress generated in the window by the pressure wave can be treated as the secondary stress. (author)

  10. Box-Cox transformation of firm size data in statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting Ting; Takaishi, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    Firm size data usually do not show the normality that is often assumed in statistical analysis such as regression analysis. In this study we focus on two firm size data: the number of employees and sale. Those data deviate considerably from a normal distribution. To improve the normality of those data we transform them by the Box-Cox transformation with appropriate parameters. The Box-Cox transformation parameters are determined so that the transformed data best show the kurtosis of a normal distribution. It is found that the two firm size data transformed by the Box-Cox transformation show strong linearity. This indicates that the number of employees and sale have the similar property as a firm size indicator. The Box-Cox parameters obtained for the firm size data are found to be very close to zero. In this case the Box-Cox transformations are approximately a log-transformation. This suggests that the firm size data we used are approximately log-normal distributions.

  11. Box-Cox transformation of firm size data in statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ting Ting; Takaishi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Firm size data usually do not show the normality that is often assumed in statistical analysis such as regression analysis. In this study we focus on two firm size data: the number of employees and sale. Those data deviate considerably from a normal distribution. To improve the normality of those data we transform them by the Box-Cox transformation with appropriate parameters. The Box-Cox transformation parameters are determined so that the transformed data best show the kurtosis of a normal distribution. It is found that the two firm size data transformed by the Box-Cox transformation show strong linearity. This indicates that the number of employees and sale have the similar property as a firm size indicator. The Box-Cox parameters obtained for the firm size data are found to be very close to zero. In this case the Box-Cox transformations are approximately a log-transformation. This suggests that the firm size data we used are approximately log-normal distributions

  12. Analysis of hard coal quality for narrow size fraction under 20 mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedoba, Tomasz; Pięta, Paulina

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an analysis of hard coal quality diversion in narrow size fraction by using taxonomic methods. Raw material samples were collected in selected mines of Upper Silesian Industrial Region and they were classified according to the Polish classification as types 31, 34.2 and 35. Then, each size fraction was characterized in terms of the following properties: density, ash content, calorific content, volatile content, total sulfur content and analytical moisture. As a result of the analysis it can be stated that the best quality in the entire range of the tested size fractions was the 34.2 coking coal type. At the same time, in terms of price parameters, high quality of raw material characterised the following size fractions: 0-6.3 mm of 31 energetic coal type and 0-3.15 mm of 35 coking coal type. The methods of grouping (Ward's method) and agglomeration (k-means method) have shown that the size fraction below 10 mm was characterized by higher quality in all the analyzed hard coal types. However, the selected taxonomic methods do not make it possible to identify individual size fraction or hard coal types based on chosen parameters.

  13. Analysis of an XADS Target with the System Code TRACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor H.; Feng, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) present an option to reduce the radioactive waste of the nuclear industry. The experimental Accelerator-Driven System (XADS) has been designed to investigate the feasibility of using ADS on an industrial scale to burn minor actinides. The target section lies in the middle of the subcritical core and is bombarded by a proton beam to produce spallation neutrons. The thermal energy produced from this reaction requires a heat removal system for the target section. The target is cooled by liquid lead-bismuth-eutectics (LBE) in the primary system which in turn transfers the heat via a heat exchanger (HX) to the secondary coolant, Diphyl THT (DTHT), a synthetic diathermic fluid. Since this design is still in development, a detailed investigation of the system is necessary to evaluate the behavior during normal and transient operations. Due to the lack of experimental facilities and data for ADS, the analyses are mostly done using thermal hydraulic codes. In addition to evaluating the thermal hydraulics of the XADS, this paper also benchmarks a new code developed by the NRC, TRACE, against other established codes. The events used in this study are beam power switch-on/off transients and a loss of heat sink accident. The obtained results from TRACE were in good agreement with the results of various other codes. (authors)

  14. Analysis of Mo99 production irradiating 20% U targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, C. Ruben; Grant, Carlos R.; Marajofsky, Andres; Parkansky, David G.

    1999-01-01

    At present time, the National Atomic Energy Commission is producing about 800 Ci of Mo99 per week irradiating 90% enriched uranium-aluminum alloy plate targets in the RA-3 reactor, a 5 MW. Mtr type one. In order to change to 20% enriched uranium, and to increase the production to about 3000 Ci per week some configurations were studied with rod and plate geometry with uranium (20% enriched) -aluminum targets. The first case was the irradiation of a plate target element in the normal reactor configuration. Results showed a good efficiency, but both reactivity value and power density were too high. An element with rods was also analyzed, but results showed a poor efficiency, too much aluminum involved in the process, although a low reactivity and an acceptable rod power density. Finally, a solution consisting of plate elements with a Zircaloy cladding was adopted, which has shown not only a good efficiency, but it is also acceptable from the viewpoint of safety, heat transference criteria and feasibility

  15. Economic Cost-Analysis of the Impact of Container Size on Transplanted Tree Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Garcia Chance

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and costs of varying container sizes have yet to be fully evaluated to determine which container size affords the most advantageous opportunity for consumers. To determine value of the tree following transplant, clonal replicates of Vitex agnus-castus L. [Chaste Tree], Acer rubrum L. var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn. ex Nutt. Sarg. [Drummond Red Maple], and Taxodium distichum (L. Rich. [Baldcypress] were grown under common conditions in each of five container sizes 3.5, 11.7, 23.3, 97.8 or 175.0 L, respectively (#1, 3, 7, 25 or 45. In June 2013, six trees of each container size and species were transplanted to a sandy clay loam field in College Station, Texas. To determine the increase in value over a two-year post-transplant period, height and caliper measurements were taken at the end of nursery production and again at the end of the second growing season in the field, October 2014. Utilizing industry standards, initial costs of materials and labor were then compared with the size of trees after two years. Replacement cost analysis after two growing seasons indicated a greater increase in value for 11.7 and 23.3 L trees compared to losses in value for some 175.0 L trees. In comparison with trees from larger containers, trees from smaller size containers experienced shorter establishment times and increased growth rates, thus creating a quicker return on investment for trees transplanted from the smaller container sizes.

  16. A Fourier analysis on the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete proton beam dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haisen S.; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Dempsey, James F.

    2006-01-01

    We developed an analytical method for determining the maximum acceptable grid size for discrete dose calculation in proton therapy treatment plan optimization, so that the accuracy of the optimized dose distribution is guaranteed in the phase of dose sampling and the superfluous computational work is avoided. The accuracy of dose sampling was judged by the criterion that the continuous dose distribution could be reconstructed from the discrete dose within a 2% error limit. To keep the error caused by the discrete dose sampling under a 2% limit, the dose grid size cannot exceed a maximum acceptable value. The method was based on Fourier analysis and the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem as an extension of our previous analysis for photon beam intensity modulated radiation therapy [J. F. Dempsey, H. E. Romeijn, J. G. Li, D. A. Low, and J. R. Palta, Med. Phys. 32, 380-388 (2005)]. The proton beam model used for the analysis was a near mono-energetic (of width about 1% the incident energy) and monodirectional infinitesimal (nonintegrated) pencil beam in water medium. By monodirection, we mean that the proton particles are in the same direction before entering the water medium and the various scattering prior to entrance to water is not taken into account. In intensity modulated proton therapy, the elementary intensity modulation entity for proton therapy is either an infinitesimal or finite sized beamlet. Since a finite sized beamlet is the superposition of infinitesimal pencil beams, the result of the maximum acceptable grid size obtained with infinitesimal pencil beam also applies to finite sized beamlet. The analytic Bragg curve function proposed by Bortfeld [T. Bortfeld, Med. Phys. 24, 2024-2033 (1997)] was employed. The lateral profile was approximated by a depth dependent Gaussian distribution. The model included the spreads of the Bragg peak and the lateral profiles due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The dependence of the maximum acceptable dose grid size on the

  17. Percolation through voids around overlapping spheres: A dynamically based finite-size scaling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priour, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The percolation threshold for flow or conduction through voids surrounding randomly placed spheres is calculated. With large-scale Monte Carlo simulations, we give a rigorous continuum treatment to the geometry of the impenetrable spheres and the spaces between them. To properly exploit finite-size scaling, we examine multiple systems of differing sizes, with suitable averaging over disorder, and extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit. An order parameter based on the statistical sampling of stochastically driven dynamical excursions and amenable to finite-size scaling analysis is defined, calculated for various system sizes, and used to determine the critical volume fraction ϕc=0.0317±0.0004 and the correlation length exponent ν =0.92±0.05.

  18. Analysis of tecniques for measurement of the size distribution of solid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Arouca

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the size distribution of solid particles is fundamental for analysis of the performance several pieces of equipment used for solid-fluid separation. The main objective of this work is to compare the results obtained with two traditional methods for determination of the size grade distribution of powdery solids: the gamma-ray attenuation technique (GRAT and the LADEQ test tube technique. The effect of draining the suspension in the two techniques used was also analyzed. The GRAT can supply the particle size distribution of solids through the monitoring of solid concentration in experiments on batch settling of diluted suspensions. The results show that use of the peristaltic pump in the GRAT and the LADEQ methods produced a significant difference between the values obtained for the parameters of the particle size model.

  19. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rosado, José Carlos; L'hermite, Daniel; Levi, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 μm to 90 μm) of Al 2 O 3 in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 μm as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: ► We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. ► Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. ► The ablation rate on Al 2 O 3 particles in suspension in water has been estimated. ► We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  20. Estimating Most Productive Scale Size in Data Envelopment Analysis with Integer Value Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Sari, Yunita; Angria S, Layla; Efendi, Syahril; Zarlis, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    The most productive scale size (MPSS) is a measurement that states how resources should be organized and utilized to achieve optimal results. The most productive scale size (MPSS) can be used as a benchmark for the success of an industry or company in producing goods or services. To estimate the most productive scale size (MPSS), each decision making unit (DMU) should pay attention the level of input-output efficiency, by data envelopment analysis (DEA) method decision making unit (DMU) can identify units used as references that can help to find the cause and solution from inefficiencies can optimize productivity that main advantage in managerial applications. Therefore, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is chosen to estimating most productive scale size (MPSS) that will focus on the input of integer value data with the CCR model and the BCC model. The purpose of this research is to find the best solution for estimating most productive scale size (MPSS) with input of integer value data in data envelopment analysis (DEA) method.

  1. Heat-shock protein 40 is the key farnesylation target in meristem size control, abscisic acid signaling, and drought resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghetti, Andrea; Sjögren, Lars; Floris, Maïna; Paredes, Esther Botterweg; Wenkel, Stephan; Brodersen, Peter

    2017-11-15

    Protein farnesylation is central to molecular cell biology. In plants, protein farnesyl transferase mutants are pleiotropic and exhibit defective meristem organization, hypersensitivity to the hormone abscisic acid, and increased drought resistance. The precise functions of protein farnesylation in plants remain incompletely understood because few relevant farnesylated targets have been identified. Here, we show that defective farnesylation of a single factor-heat-shock protein 40 (HSP40), encoded by the J2 and J3 genes-is sufficient to confer ABA hypersensitivity, drought resistance, late flowering, and enlarged meristems, indicating that altered function of chaperone client proteins underlies most farnesyl transferase mutant phenotypes. We also show that expression of an abiotic stress-related microRNA (miRNA) regulon controlled by the transcription factor SPL7 requires HSP40 farnesylation. Expression of a truncated SPL7 form mimicking its activated proteolysis fragment of the membrane-bound SPL7 precursor partially restores accumulation of SPL7-dependent miRNAs in farnesyl transferase mutants. These results implicate the pathway directing SPL7 activation from its membrane-bound precursor as an important target of farnesylated HSP40, consistent with our demonstration that HSP40 farnesylation facilitates its membrane association. The results also suggest that altered gene regulation via select miRNAs contributes to abiotic stress-related phenotypes of farnesyl transferase mutants. © 2017 Barghetti et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Metal-assisted chemical etching of CIGS thin films for grain size analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Chaowei [Research and Development Centre, Hanergy Thin Film Power Group Limited, Chengdu (China); Loi, Huu-Ha; Duong, Anh; Parker, Magdalena [Failure Analysis Department, MiaSole Hi-Tech Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Grain size of the CIGS absorber is an important monitoring factor in the CIGS solar cell manufacturing. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis is commonly used to perform CIGS grain size analysis in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Although direct quantification on SEM image using the average grain intercept (AGI) method is faster and simpler than EBSD, it is hardly applicable on CIGS thin films. The challenge is that, not like polycrystalline silicon, to define grain boundaries by selective chemical etching is not easily realizable for the multi-component CIGS alloy. In this Letter, we present direct quantification of CIGS thin film grain size using the AGI method by developing metal-assisted wet chemical etching process to define CIGS grain boundaries. The calculated value is similar to EBSD result. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Improved soil particle-size analysis by gamma-ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.C.M.; Vaz, C.M.P.; Reichardt, K.; Swartzendruber, D.

    1997-01-01

    The size distribution of particles is useful for physical characterization of soil. This study was conducted to determine whether a new method of soil particle-size analysis by gamma-ray attenuation could be further improved by changing the depth and time of measurement of the suspended particle concentration during sedimentation. In addition to the advantage of nondestructive, undisturbed measurement by gamma-ray attenuation, as compared with conventional pipette or hydrometer methods, the modifications here suggested and employed do substantially decrease the total time for analysis, and will also facilitate total automation and generalize the method for other sedimentation studies. Experimental results are presented for three different Brazilian soil materials, and illustrate the nature of the fine detail provided in the cumulative particle-size distribution as given by measurements obtained during the relatively short time period of 28 min

  4. A Macrophysiological Analysis of Energetic Constraints on Geographic Range Size in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological processes are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of organisms, and recently, with widespread attention to climate change, physiology has been ushered back to the forefront of ecological thinking. We present a macrophysiological analysis of the energetics of geographic range size using combined data on body size, basal metabolic rate (BMR), phylogeny and range properties for 574 species of mammals. We propose three mechanisms by which interspecific variation in BMR should relate positively to geographic range size: (i) Thermal Plasticity Hypothesis, (ii) Activity Levels/Dispersal Hypothesis, and (iii) Energy Constraint Hypothesis. Although each mechanism predicts a positive correlation between BMR and range size, they can be further distinguished based on the shape of the relationship they predict. We found evidence for the predicted positive relationship in two dimensions of energetics: (i) the absolute, mass-dependent dimension (BMR) and (ii) the relative, mass-independent dimension (MIBMR). The shapes of both relationships were similar and most consistent with that expected from the Energy Constraint Hypothesis, which was proposed previously to explain the classic macroecological relationship between range size and body size in mammals and birds. The fact that this pattern holds in the MIBMR dimension indicates that species with supra-allometric metabolic rates require among the largest ranges, above and beyond the increasing energy demands that accrue as an allometric consequence of large body size. The relationship is most evident at high latitudes north of the Tropics, where large ranges and elevated MIBMR are most common. Our results suggest that species that are most vulnerable to extinction from range size reductions are both large-bodied and have elevated MIBMR, but also, that smaller species with elevated MIBMR are at heightened risk. We also provide insights into the global latitudinal trends in range size and MIBMR

  5. Estimating an Effect Size in One-Way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, H. S., Jr.; Ellis, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    When two or more univariate population means are compared, the proportion of variation in the dependent variable accounted for by population group membership is eta-squared. This effect size can be generalized by using multivariate measures of association, based on the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) statistics, to establish whether…

  6. A simple sample size formula for analysis of covariance in cluster randomized trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Eldridge, S.; Graff, M.J.; Hoop, E. de; Borm, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    For cluster randomized trials with a continuous outcome, the sample size is often calculated as if an analysis of the outcomes at the end of the treatment period (follow-up scores) would be performed. However, often a baseline measurement of the outcome is available or feasible to obtain. An

  7. Automated quantification and sizing of unbranched filamentous cyanobacteria by model based object oriented image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zeder, M; Van den Wyngaert, S; Köster, O; Felder, K M; Pernthaler, J

    2010-01-01

    Quantification and sizing of filamentous cyanobacteria in environmental samples or cultures are time-consuming and are often performed by using manual or semiautomated microscopic analysis. Automation of conventional image analysis is difficult because filaments may exhibit great variations in length and patchy autofluorescence. Moreover, individual filaments frequently cross each other in microscopic preparations, as deduced by modeling. This paper describes a novel approach based on object-...

  8. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanna; Chaijaroenkul; Artitiya; Thiengsusuk; Kanchana; Rungsihirunrat; Stephen; Andrew; Ward; Kesara; Na-Bangchang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcina mangostana Linn.(G.mangostana)(pericarp)in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry(LC/MS/MS).Methods:3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G.mangostana Linn.(pericarp)at the concentrations of 12μg/mL(1C50level:concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%)and 30μg/mL(1C90level:concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%)for 12 h.Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS.Results:At the IC50concentration,about 82%of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control(non-exposed),while at the IC90concentration,only 15%matched proteins were found.The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12μg/mL were identified as eneymes that play role in glycolysis pathway,i.e.,phosphoglyeerate mutase putative,L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,and fruetose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglyeerate kinase.The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30μg/mL of the extract.Conclusions:Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G.mangostana Linn.(pericarp).

  9. Validation of a particle tracking analysis method for the size determination of nano- and microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestens, Vikram; Bozatzidis, Vassili; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Ramaye, Yannic; Roebben, Gert

    2017-08-01

    Particle tracking analysis (PTA) is an emerging technique suitable for size analysis of particles with external dimensions in the nano- and sub-micrometre scale range. Only limited attempts have so far been made to investigate and quantify the performance of the PTA method for particle size analysis. This article presents the results of a validation study during which selected colloidal silica and polystyrene latex reference materials with particle sizes in the range of 20 nm to 200 nm were analysed with NS500 and LM10-HSBF NanoSight instruments and video analysis software NTA 2.3 and NTA 3.0. Key performance characteristics such as working range, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, sensitivity, robustness, precision and trueness were examined according to recommendations proposed by EURACHEM. A model for measurement uncertainty estimation following the principles described in ISO/IEC Guide 98-3 was used for quantifying random and systematic variations. For nominal 50 nm and 100 nm polystyrene and a nominal 80 nm silica reference materials, the relative expanded measurement uncertainties for the three measurands of interest, being the mode, median and arithmetic mean of the number-weighted particle size distribution, varied from about 10% to 12%. For the nominal 50 nm polystyrene material, the relative expanded uncertainty of the arithmetic mean of the particle size distributions increased up to 18% which was due to the presence of agglomerates. Data analysis was performed with software NTA 2.3 and NTA 3.0. The latter showed to be superior in terms of sensitivity and resolution.

  10. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  11. Crystal size and shape analysis of Pt nanoparticles in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontard, L Cervera; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Ozkaya, D; Hyde, T; Midgley, P A; Ash, P

    2006-01-01

    The majority of industrial catalysts are high-surface-area solids, onto which an active component is dispersed in the form of nanoparticles that have sizes of between 1 and 20 nm. In an industrial environment, the crystal size distributions of such particles are conventionally measured by using either bright-field transmission electron microscope (TEM) images or X-ray diffraction. However, the analysis of particle sizes and shapes from two-dimensional bright-field TEM images is affected by variations in image contrast between adjacent particles, by the difficulty of distinguishing the particles from their matrix, and by overlap between particles when they are imaged in projection. High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) electron tomography provides a convenient technique for overcoming many of these problems, by allowing the three-dimensional shapes and sizes of high atomic number nanoparticles that are supported on a low atomic number support to be recorded. Here, we discuss the three-dimensional analysis of particle sizes and shapes from such tomographic data, and we assess whether such measurements provide different information from that obtained using two-dimensional TEM images and X-ray diffraction measurements

  12. SEM analysis of particle size during conventional treatment of CMP process wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Gary A.; Neu-Baker, Nicole M.; Brenner, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are currently employed by many industries and have different physical and chemical properties from their bulk counterparts that may confer different toxicity. Nanoparticles used or generated in semiconductor manufacturing have the potential to enter the municipal waste stream via wastewater and their ultimate fate in the ecosystem is currently unknown. This study investigates the fate of ENMs used in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a polishing process repeatedly utilized in semiconductor manufacturing. Wastewater sampling was conducted throughout the wastewater treatment (WWT) process at the fabrication plant's on-site wastewater treatment facility. The goal of this study was to assess whether the WWT processes resulted in size-dependent filtration of particles in the nanoscale regime by analyzing samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistical analysis demonstrated no significant differences in particle size between sampling points, indicating low or no selectivity of WWT methods for nanoparticles based on size. All nanoparticles appeared to be of similar morphology (near-spherical), with a high variability in particle size. EDX verified nanoparticles composition of silicon- and/or aluminum-oxide. Nanoparticle sizing data compared between sampling points, including the final sampling point before discharge from the facility, suggested that nanoparticles could be released to the municipal waste stream from industrial sources. - Highlights: • The discrete treatments of a semiconductor wastewater treatment system were examined. • A sampling scheme and method for analyzing nanoparticles in wastewater was devised. • The wastewater treatment process studied is not size-selective for nanoparticles

  13. Grain-size effects on PIXE and INAA analysis of IAEA-336 lichen reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, A. P.; Freitas, M. C.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.; Verburg, T. G.; De Goeij, J. J. M.

    2007-02-01

    IAEA-336 lichen certified reference material was used to compare outcomes from INAA and PIXE elemental analyses, in relationship with grain size. The IAEA material (grain size lichen reference material's particle size distribution follows a bimodal distribution, which is turning more and more monomodal after further fine sieving. Replicates of each fraction were analysed by INAA and PIXE. Results for Cl, K, Mn, Fe and Zn by both techniques were compared by application of z-values tested against the criterion ∣ z∣ limited amount of lichen material as "seen" in the PIXE analysis and the grain size distribution in the lichen material were no causes of measurable differences between the results of both techniques. However, fractionation into smaller grain sizes showed to be associated with lower element content, for Na, Cl, K, Mn and Sr even up to a factor of 2. The observed increases of the proportion of algae in the smaller grain-size fractions and the possible accumulation capacity for certain elements in the fungal part of the lichen may explain the observed phenomenon. The sieving process and consequently the discarding of part of the material have lead to a change of the properties of the original sample, namely algae/fungus percentage and elemental contents.

  14. Thermal analysis of titanium drive-in target for D-D neutron generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, N S; Kim, I J; Kim, S J; Choi, H D

    2010-01-01

    Thermal analysis was performed for a titanium drive-in target of a D-D neutron generator. Computational fluid dynamics code CFX-5 was used in this study. To define the heat flux term for the thermal analysis, beam current profile was measured. Temperature of the target was calculated at some of the operating conditions. The cooling performance of the target was evaluated by means of the comparison of the calculated maximum target temperature and the critical temperature of titanium. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazhnik, V A; Lebed, S A; Ponomarev, A G; Storizhko, V E [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sumy (Ukraine). Applied Physics Institute; Dymnikov, A D [University of St Petersburg, Stary (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Processes; Jamieson, D N; Legge, S A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazhnik, V.A.; Lebed, S.A.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Storizhko, V.E. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sumy (Ukraine). Applied Physics Institute; Dymnikov, A.D. [University of St Petersburg, Stary (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Processes; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, S.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazhnik, V.A.; Lebed, S.A.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Storizhko, V.E.; Dymnikov, A.D.; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs

  18. Target size dependence of relativistic hadron emission from S-32 nuclear collisions at 3.7-A-GeV and 200-A-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelsalam, A; Hafiz, M E

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of the relativistic hadron (shower particle) multiplicity for (32)S-nucleus interactions is investigated. The experiment is carried out at 3.7A GeV (Dubna energy) and 200A GeV (SPS energy) to search for the incident energy effect on the interactions inside the different emulsion target nuclei. Data are presented in terms of the number of emitted relativistic hadrons in both forward and backward angular zones. The dependence on the target size is presented. For this purpose the statistical events are separated into groups according to the interactions with H, CNO, Em, and AgBr target nuclei. The separation of events, into these groups, is executed based on predictions of Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Features suggestive of a decay mechanism seem to be a characteristic of the backward emission of relativistic hadrons. The results strongly support the assumption that the relativistic hadrons may already be emitted during the de-excitation of the excited target nucleus, in a behavior like tha...

  19. Influence of eye size and beam entry angle on dose to non-targeted tissues of the eye during stereotactic x-ray radiosurgery of AMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantley, Justin L; Bolch, Wesley E; Hanlon, Justin; Chell, Erik; Lee, Choonsik; Smith, W Clay

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of vision loss for the elderly population of industrialized nations. The IRay® Radiotherapy System, developed by Oraya® Therapeutics, Inc., is a stereotactic low-voltage irradiation system designed to treat the wet form of the disease. The IRay System uses three robotically positioned 100 kVp collimated photon beams to deliver an absorbed dose of up to 24 Gy to the macula. The present study uses the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX to assess absorbed dose to six non-targeted tissues within the eye—total lens, radiosensitive tissues of the lens, optic nerve, distal tip of the central retinal artery, non-targeted portion of the retina, and the ciliary body-–all as a function of eye size and beam entry angle. The ocular axial length was ranged from 20 to 28 mm in 2 mm increments, with the polar entry angle of the delivery system varied from 18° to 34° in 2° increments. The resulting data showed insignificant variations in dose for all eye sizes. Slight variations in the dose to the optic nerve and the distal tip of the central retinal artery were noted as the polar beam angle changed. An increase in non-targeted retinal dose was noted as the entry angle increased, while the dose to the lens, sensitive volume of the lens, and ciliary body decreased as the treatment polar angle increased. Polar angles of 26° or greater resulted in no portion of the sensitive volume of the lens receiving an absorbed dose of 0.5 Gy or greater. All doses to non-targeted structures reported in this study were less than accepted thresholds for post-procedure complications. (paper)

  20. Influence of eye size and beam entry angle on dose to non-targeted tissues of the eye during stereotactic x-ray radiosurgery of AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Justin L.; Hanlon, Justin; Chell, Erik; Lee, Choonsik; Smith, W. Clay; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of vision loss for the elderly population of industrialized nations. The IRay® Radiotherapy System, developed by Oraya® Therapeutics, Inc., is a stereotactic low-voltage irradiation system designed to treat the wet form of the disease. The IRay System uses three robotically positioned 100 kVp collimated photon beams to deliver an absorbed dose of up to 24 Gy to the macula. The present study uses the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX to assess absorbed dose to six non-targeted tissues within the eye—total lens, radiosensitive tissues of the lens, optic nerve, distal tip of the central retinal artery, non-targeted portion of the retina, and the ciliary body--all as a function of eye size and beam entry angle. The ocular axial length was ranged from 20 to 28 mm in 2 mm increments, with the polar entry angle of the delivery system varied from 18° to 34° in 2° increments. The resulting data showed insignificant variations in dose for all eye sizes. Slight variations in the dose to the optic nerve and the distal tip of the central retinal artery were noted as the polar beam angle changed. An increase in non-targeted retinal dose was noted as the entry angle increased, while the dose to the lens, sensitive volume of the lens, and ciliary body decreased as the treatment polar angle increased. Polar angles of 26° or greater resulted in no portion of the sensitive volume of the lens receiving an absorbed dose of 0.5 Gy or greater. All doses to non-targeted structures reported in this study were less than accepted thresholds for post-procedure complications.

  1. Quantitative analysis of lattice disorder and crystallite size in organic semiconductor thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2011-07-07

    The crystallite size and cumulative lattice disorder of three prototypical, high-performing organic semiconducting materials are investigated using a Fourier-transform peak shape analysis routine based on the method of Warren and Averbach (WA). A thorough incorporation of error propagation throughout the multistep analysis and a weighted fitting of Fourier-transformed data to the WA model allows for more accurate results than typically obtained and for determination of confidence bounds. We compare results obtained when assuming two types of column-length distributions, and discuss the benefits of each model in terms of simplicity and accuracy. For strongly disordered materials, the determination of a crystallite size is greatly hindered because disorder dominates the coherence length, not finite size. A simple analysis based on trends of peak widths and Lorentzian components of pseudo-Voigt line shapes as a function of diffraction order is also discussed as an approach to more easily and qualitatively assess the amount and type of disorder present in a sample. While applied directly to organic systems, this methodology is general for the accurate deconvolution of crystalline size and lattice disorder for any material investigated with diffraction techniques. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  2. Direct U isotope analysis in μm-sized particles by LA-MC-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, S.; Boulyga, S.F.; Prohaska, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the isotopic composition of individual μm-sized hot particles is of great interest especially for strengthened nuclear safeguards in order to identify undeclared nuclear activities. We present the potential of a 'Nu Plasma HR' MC-ICPMS coupled to a New Wave 'UP 193' laser ablation (LA) system for the direct analysis of U isotope abundance ratios in individual μm-sized particles. The ability to determine 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was successfully demonstrated in the NUSIMEP-6 interlaboratory comparison, which was organized by the IRMM (Geel, Belgium). (author)

  3. ANALYSIS OF COMPANY SIZE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, AND PROFITABILITY AND ITS EFFECT TO CSR DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suskim Riantani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and recognize the effect of financial performance measured through company size, financial leverage and profitability to Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD. The research was done in Tobacco Company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during period of 2007-2011. Descriptive analysis and verification method was used as the research method. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain the sample and there are three cigarette companies as the sample. Multiple linear regression and correlation analysis using t test and F test were applied as a technique of analysis. The test of the classical assumption such as the normality, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and autocorrelation applied before the multiple linear regression. The result shows that the company size had positive and significant effect to the CSR disclosure, financial leverage does not show significant effect to the CSR disclosure, profitability does not have significant effect to the CSR disclosure during the investigation.

  4. Range shortening, radiation transport, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability phenomena in ion-beam-driven inertial-fusion-reactor-size targets: Implosion, ignition, and burn phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, K.A.; Tahir, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the theory of the energy deposition of ions in cold materials and hot dense plasmas together with numerical calculations for heavy and light ions of interest to ion-beam fusion. We have used the gorgon computer code of Long, Moritz, and Tahir (which is an extension of the code originally written for protons by Nardi, Peleg, and Zinamon) to carry out these calculations. The energy-deposition data calculated in this manner has been used in the design of heavy-ion-beam-driven fusion targets suitable for a reactor, by its inclusion in the medusa code of Christiansen, Ashby, and Roberts as extended by Tahir and Long. A number of other improvements have been made in this code and these are also discussed. Various aspects of the theoretical analysis of such targets are discussed including the calculation of the hydrodynamic stability, the hydrodynamic efficiency, and the gain. Various different target designs have been used, some of them new. In general these targets are driven by Bi + ions of energy 8--12 GeV, with an input energy of 4--6.5 MJ, with output energies in the range 600--900 MJ, and with gains in the range 120--180. The peak powers are in the range of 500--750 TW. We present detailed calculations of the ablation, compression, ignition, and burn phases. By the application of a new stability analysis which includes ablation and density-gradient effects we show that these targets appear to implode in a stable manner. Thus the targets designed offer working examples suited for use in a future inertial-confinement fusion reactor

  5. Kinetic analysis of the effects of target structure on siRNA efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawen; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    RNAi efficiency for target cleavage and protein expression is related to the target structure. Considering the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) as a multiple turnover enzyme, we investigated the effect of target mRNA structure on siRNA efficiency with kinetic analysis. The 4-step model was used to study the target cleavage kinetic process: hybridization nucleation at an accessible target site, RISC-mRNA hybrid elongation along with mRNA target structure melting, target cleavage, and enzyme reactivation. At this model, the terms accounting for the target accessibility, stability, and the seed and the nucleation site effects are all included. The results are in good agreement with that of experiments which show different arguments about the structure effects on siRNA efficiency. It shows that the siRNA efficiency is influenced by the integrated factors of target's accessibility, stability, and the seed effects. To study the off-target effects, a simple model of one siRNA binding to two mRNA targets was designed. By using this model, the possibility for diminishing the off-target effects by the concentration of siRNA was discussed.

  6. Bioinformatic analysis to discover putative drug targets against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... JVIRTUAL GEL. GELBANK was available from the NCBI FTP server. This website incorporates only completed genomes and information pertinent to 2-DE. Link is available at www.gelbank.anl.gov. JVirGel is a software for the simulation and analysis of proteomics data (http://www.jvirgel.de/). The Java TM.

  7. Analysis of litter size and average litter weight in pigs using a recursive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel; Thompson, Robin

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of litter size and average piglet weight at birth in Landrace and Yorkshire using a standard two-trait mixed model (SMM) and a recursive mixed model (RMM) is presented. The RMM establishes a one-way link from litter size to average piglet weight. It is shown that there is a one......-to-one correspondence between the parameters of SMM and RMM and that they generate equivalent likelihoods. As parameterized in this work, the RMM tests for the presence of a recursive relationship between additive genetic values, permanent environmental effects, and specific environmental effects of litter size......, on average piglet weight. The equivalent standard mixed model tests whether or not the covariance matrices of the random effects have a diagonal structure. In Landrace, posterior predictive model checking supports a model without any form of recursion or, alternatively, a SMM with diagonal covariance...

  8. Quantitative analysis of crystal/grain sizes and their distributions in 2D and 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Herwegh, Marco; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver

    2011-01-01

    data for grain size data are either 1D (i.e. line intercept methods), 2D (area analysis) or 3D (e.g., computed tomography, serial sectioning). These data have been used for different data treatments over the years, whereas several studies assume a certain probability function (e.g., logarithm, square......-piezometers or grain size sensitive flow laws. Such compatibility is tested for different data treatments using one- and two-dimensional measurements. We propose an empirical conversion matrix for different datasets. These conversion factors provide the option to make different datasets compatible with each other...... is important for studies of nucleation and growth of minerals. The shape of the crystal size distribution of garnet populations is compared between different 2D and 3D measurements, which are serial sectioning and computed tomography. The comparison of different direct measured 3D data; stereological data...

  9. Investigating size effects of complex nanostructures through Young-Laplace equation and finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Dingjie; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Analytical studies on the size effects of a simply-shaped beam fixed at both ends have successfully explained the sudden changes of effective Young's modulus as its diameter decreases below 100 nm. Yet they are invalid for complex nanostructures ubiquitously existing in nature. In accordance with a generalized Young-Laplace equation, one of the representative size effects is transferred to non-uniformly distributed pressure against an external surface due to the imbalance of inward and outward loads. Because the magnitude of pressure depends on the principal curvatures, iterative steps have to be adopted to gradually stabilize the structure in finite element analysis. Computational results are in good agreement with both experiment data and theoretical prediction. Furthermore, the investigation on strengthened and softened Young's modulus for two complex nanostructures demonstrates that the proposed computational method provides a general and effective approach to analyze the size effects for nanostructures in arbitrary shape

  10. Collection of size fractionated particulate matter sample for neutron activation analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko; Nakamatsu, Hiroaki; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    According to the decision of the 2001 Workshop on Utilization of Research Reactor (Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Section), size fractionated particulate matter collection for NAA was started from 2002 at two sites in Japan. The two monitoring sites, ''Tokyo'' and ''Sakata'', were classified into ''urban'' and ''rural''. In each site, two size fractions, namely PM 2-10 '' and PM 2 '' particles (aerodynamic particle size between 2 to 10 micrometer and less than 2 micrometer, respectively) were collected every month on polycarbonate membrane filters. Average concentrations of PM 10 (sum of PM 2-10 and PM 2 samples) during the common sampling period of August to November 2002 in each site were 0.031mg/m 3 in Tokyo, and 0.022mg/m 3 in Sakata. (author)

  11. Development of the ECLSS Sizing Analysis Tool and ARS Mass Balance Model Using Microsoft Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlothlin, E. P.; Yeh, H. Y.; Lin, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a Microsoft Excel-compatible Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) sizing analysis "tool" for conceptual design of Mars human exploration missions makes it possible for a user to choose a certain technology in the corresponding subsystem. This tool estimates the mass, volume, and power requirements of every technology in a subsystem and the system as a whole. Furthermore, to verify that a design sized by the ECLSS Sizing Tool meets the mission requirements and integrates properly, mass balance models that solve for component throughputs of such ECLSS systems as the Water Recovery System (WRS) and Air Revitalization System (ARS) must be developed. The ARS Mass Balance Model will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Effect Sizes for Growth-Modeling Analysis for Controlled Clinical Trials in the Same Metric as for Classical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The use of growth-modeling analysis (GMA)--including hierarchical linear models, latent growth models, and general estimating equations--to evaluate interventions in psychology, psychiatry, and prevention science has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, an effect size associated with the difference between the trajectories of the…

  13. Grain-size effects on PIXE and INAA analysis of IAEA-336 lichen reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, A.P.; Freitas, M.C.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Verburg, T.G.; Goeij, J.J.M. de

    2007-01-01

    IAEA-336 lichen certified reference material was used to compare outcomes from INAA and PIXE elemental analyses, in relationship with grain size. The IAEA material (grain size <125 μm) was ground and sieved through nylon nets with 64 μm, 41 μm and 20 μm pores. Particle sizes were determined by Laser Light Scattering technique: the data indicate that, after sieving, the IAEA-336 lichen reference material's particle size distribution follows a bimodal distribution, which is turning more and more monomodal after further fine sieving. Replicates of each fraction were analysed by INAA and PIXE. Results for Cl, K, Mn, Fe and Zn by both techniques were compared by application of z-values tested against the criterion vertical bar z vertical bar < 3 for approval of results at the 99.7% confidence level. Under the conditions of this study, the limited amount of lichen material as 'seen' in the PIXE analysis and the grain size distribution in the lichen material were no causes of measurable differences between the results of both techniques. However, fractionation into smaller grain sizes showed to be associated with lower element content, for Na, Cl, K, Mn and Sr even up to a factor of 2. The observed increases of the proportion of algae in the smaller grain-size fractions and the possible accumulation capacity for certain elements in the fungal part of the lichen may explain the observed phenomenon. The sieving process and consequently the discarding of part of the material have lead to a change of the properties of the original sample, namely algae/fungus percentage and elemental contents

  14. Size of government and entrepreneurship. Analysis of three groups of countries with different economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Díaz Casero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of the "size of government" in entrepreneurial activity for countries with different levels of economical development. It has been used the variables "size of government" of the economic freedom indices released by the Economic Freedom Network (2000-2009 and by The Heritage Foundation (2000-2011, and the variables of "entrepreneurship" released by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Furthermore, the same analysis has been carried out grouping the countries by development level, following the classification elaborated by the World Economic Forum. Statistical analyses of correlations have shown that the “size of government” is related to entrepreneurship. The variables "Size of Government: Expenditures, Taxes and Enterprises" and " Government Size” have revealed a positive correlation with the total, opportunity and necessity entrepreneurial activity indices for the economies based on efficiency and innovation, thus less taxes on income and lower government spending, increase the entrepreneurship of the country. In “factor driven economies”, there is no relationship between the size of government and entrepreneurship

  15. Neutron activation analysis of size-separated airborne dust particles, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Atsushi; Ishii, Taka; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Isao.

    1976-01-01

    The size distribution of the component element concentration in particle floating matters contained in the atmosphere is related closely to atmospheric pollution. In this paper, the results of the neutron activation analysis and the measurement of size distribution of component element concentration are reported, which were carried out in Minami-ku, Kyoto, in May and November, 1975, by collecting airbone dust with Andersen air samples. The activation of samples was carried out with the research reactor in Kyoto University. The gamma-ray spectra of the samples were measured with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. The size distributions of Al, Sc, Th and Ti showed the similar pattern. The concentration of Zn was abnormally high as compared with that in other districts, and it is related to the local industry in this district. The size distribution of airborne dust usually follows the logarithmic normal distribution when it is not affected by atmospheric pollution. Accordingly, the size distribution of the concentration also follows the same distribution. The accumulated percentages of the concentrations of Al, Sc and Th fall on the same straight line, and it means that these elements were contained in the same particles as the components. Also it was decided that the particles of Al, Sc, Th, Fe and Ti were soil particles. (Kako, I.)

  16. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Dampare, S.B.; Addo, M.A.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.K.; Adomako, D.

    2005-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite sample was determined as a function of particle size by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The concentrations of gold for the corresponding particle sizes were 16.4 ± 0.17mg/kg for sizes <63μm; 161± 0.75 mg/kg for 63 - 125 μm, 0.53 + 0.03 mg/kg for 125 - 250 μm, 4.66± 0.07 mg/kg for 250 - 355 μm, 1.55 ± 0.06 for 355 - 425 μm, 0.80 ± 0.008 mg/kg for 425 -1000 μm, and 1.27 + 0.05 mg/kg for 1000-2000 μm. The average gold content in a 7.127 kg composite sample based on particle size found to be 3.08 mg/kg. (au)

  17. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rosado, Jose Carlos [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); National University of Engineering, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 31-139, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru); L' hermite, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lhermite@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Levi, Yves [Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2012-08-15

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 {mu}m to 90 {mu}m) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 {mu}m as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation rate on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in suspension in water has been estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  18. Integrative Analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 Target Sites in the Human HBB Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR system has emerged as a powerful customizable artificial nuclease to facilitate precise genetic correction for tissue regeneration and isogenic disease modeling. However, previous studies reported substantial off-target activities of CRISPR system in human cells, and the enormous putative off-target sites are labor-intensive to be validated experimentally, thus motivating bioinformatics methods for rational design of CRISPR system and prediction of its potential off-target effects. Here, we describe an integrative analytical process to identify specific CRISPR target sites in the human β-globin gene (HBB and predict their off-target effects. Our method includes off-target analysis in both coding and noncoding regions, which was neglected by previous studies. It was found that the CRISPR target sites in the introns have fewer off-target sites in the coding regions than those in the exons. Remarkably, target sites containing certain transcriptional factor motif have enriched binding sites of relevant transcriptional factor in their off-target sets. We also found that the intron sites have fewer SNPs, which leads to less variation of CRISPR efficiency in different individuals during clinical applications. Our studies provide a standard analytical procedure to select specific CRISPR targets for genetic correction.

  19. Uncertainty budget in internal monostandard NAA for small and large size samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, K.B.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Total uncertainty budget evaluation on determined concentration value is important under quality assurance programme. Concentration calculation in NAA or carried out by relative NAA and k0 based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method. IM-NAA method has been used for small and large sample analysis of clay potteries. An attempt was made to identify the uncertainty components in IM-NAA and uncertainty budget for La in both small and large size samples has been evaluated and compared. (author)

  20. Precise estimation of HPHT nanodiamond size distribution based on transmission electron microscopy image analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehoř, Ivan; Cígler, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, Jun (2014), s. 21-24 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0640; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11027 Grant - others:OPPK(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : TEM * nanoparticles * nanodiamonds * size distribution * high-pressure high-temperature * image analysis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2014

  1. ANALYSIS OF COMPANY SIZE, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, AND PROFITABILITY AND ITS EFFECT TO CSR DISCLOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Suskim Riantani; Hafidz Nurzamzam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze and recognize the effect of financial performance measured through company size, financial leverage and profitability to Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD). The research was done in Tobacco Company listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during period of 2007-2011. Descriptive analysis and verification method was used as the research method. The purposive sampling method was used to obtain the sample and there are three cigarette companies as the sample. M...

  2. Flaw-size measurement in a weld samples by ultrasonic frequency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Whaley, H.L. Jr.; McClung, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic frequency-analysis technique was developed and applies to characterize flaws in an 8-in. (203-mm) thick heavy-section steel weld specimen. The technique applies a multitransducer system. The spectrum of the received broad-band signal is frequency analyzed at two different receivers for each of the flaws. From the two spectra, the size and orientation of the flaw are determined by the use of an analytic model proposed earlier. (auth)

  3. Cost Minimization Analysis of Hypnotic Drug: Target Controlled Inhalation Anesthesia (TCIA Sevoflurane and Target Controlled Infusion (TCI Propofol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Wiryana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cost minimization analysis is a pharmaco-economic study used to compare two or more health interventions that have been shown to have the same effect, similar or equivalent. With limited health insurance budget from the Indonesian National Social Security System implementation in 2015, the quality control and the drug cost are two important things that need to be focused. The application of pharmaco-economic study results in the selection and use of drugs more effectively and efficiently. Objective: To determine cost minimization analysis of hypnotic drug between a target controlled inhalation anesthesia (TCIA sevoflurane and a target controlled infusion (TCI propofol in patients underwent a major oncologic surgery in Sanglah General Hospital. Methods: Sixty ASA physical status I-II patients underwent major oncologic surgery were divided into two groups. Group A was using TCIA sevoflurane and group B using TCI propofol. Bispectral index monitor (BIS index was used to evaluate the depth of anesthesia. The statistical tests used are the Shapiro-Wilk test, Lavene test, Mann-Whitney U test and unpaired t-test (α = 0.05. The data analysis used the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows. Results: In this study, the rate of drug used per unit time in group A was 0.12 ml sevoflurane per minute (± 0.03 and the group B was 7.25 mg propofol per minute (±0.98. Total cost of hypnotic drug in group A was IDR598.43 (IQR 112.47 per minute, in group B was IDR703.27 (IQR 156.73 per minute (p>0.05. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference from the analysis of the drug cost minimization hypnotic drug in a major oncologic surgery using TCIA sevoflurane and TCI propofol.

  4. Challenges in the size analysis of a silica nanoparticle mixture as candidate certified reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Herrmann, Jan; Jämting, Åsa; Coleman, Victoria; Minelli, Caterina; Clifford, Charles; Temmerman, Pieter-Jan De; Mast, Jan; Junjie, Liu; Babick, Frank; Cölfen, Helmut; Emons, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis. After scrutinising the received datasets, certified and indicative values for different method-defined equivalent diameters that are specific for dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle tracking analysis (PTA) and asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) were assigned. The value assignment was a particular challenge because metrological concepts were not always interpreted uniformly across all participating laboratories. This paper presents the main elements and results of the ERM-FD102 characterisation study and discusses in particular the key issues of measurand definition and the estimation of measurement uncertainty.

  5. Challenges in the size analysis of a silica nanoparticle mixture as candidate certified reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestens, Vikram, E-mail: vikram.kestens@ec.europa.eu; Roebben, Gert [Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) (Belgium); Herrmann, Jan; Jämting, Åsa; Coleman, Victoria [National Measurement Institute Australia, Nanometrology Section (Australia); Minelli, Caterina; Clifford, Charles [National Physical Laboratory, Analytical Science Division (United Kingdom); Temmerman, Pieter-Jan De; Mast, Jan [Service Electron Microscopy, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (CODA-CERVA) (Belgium); Junjie, Liu [National Institute of Metrology, Division of Nanoscale Measurement and Advanced Materials (China); Babick, Frank [Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Verfahrens- und Umwelttechnik (Germany); Cölfen, Helmut [University of Konstanz, Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Emons, Hendrik [Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis. After scrutinising the received datasets, certified and indicative values for different method-defined equivalent diameters that are specific for dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle tracking analysis (PTA) and asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) were assigned. The value assignment was a particular challenge because metrological concepts were not always interpreted uniformly across all participating laboratories. This paper presents the main elements and results of the ERM-FD102 characterisation study and discusses in particular the key issues of measurand definition and the estimation of measurement uncertainty.

  6. Soil Particle Size Analysis by Laser Diffractometry: Result Comparison with Pipette Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šinkovičová, Miroslava; Igaz, Dušan; Kondrlová, Elena; Jarošová, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Soil texture as the basic soil physical property provides a basic information on the soil grain size distribution as well as grain size fraction representation. Currently, there are several methods of particle dimension measurement available that are based on different physical principles. Pipette method based on the different sedimentation velocity of particles with different diameter is considered to be one of the standard methods of individual grain size fraction distribution determination. Following the technical advancement, optical methods such as laser diffraction can be also used nowadays for grain size distribution determination in the soil. According to the literature review of domestic as well as international sources related to this topic, it is obvious that the results obtained by laser diffractometry do not correspond with the results obtained by pipette method. The main aim of this paper was to analyse 132 samples of medium fine soil, taken from the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia, from depths of 15-20 cm and 40-45 cm, respectively, using laser analysers: ANALYSETTE 22 MicroTec plus (Fritsch GmbH) and Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments Ltd). The results obtained by laser diffractometry were compared with pipette method and the regression relationships using linear, exponential, power and polynomial trend were derived. Regressions with the three highest regression coefficients (R2) were further investigated. The fit with the highest tightness was observed for the polynomial regression. In view of the results obtained, we recommend using the estimate of the representation of the clay fraction (analysis is done according to laser diffractometry. The advantages of laser diffraction method comprise the short analysis time, usage of small sample amount, application for the various grain size fraction and soil type classification systems, and a wide range of determined fractions. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on this issue further to address the

  7. A statistical analysis of North East Atlantic (submicron aerosol size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Atmospheric Watch research station at Mace Head (Ireland offers the possibility to sample some of the cleanest air masses being imported into Europe as well as some of the most polluted being exported out of Europe. We present a statistical cluster analysis of the physical characteristics of aerosol size distributions in air ranging from the cleanest to the most polluted for the year 2008. Data coverage achieved was 75% throughout the year. By applying the Hartigan-Wong k-Means method, 12 clusters were identified as systematically occurring. These 12 clusters could be further combined into 4 categories with similar characteristics, namely: coastal nucleation category (occurring 21.3 % of the time, open ocean nucleation category (occurring 32.6% of the time, background clean marine category (occurring 26.1% of the time and anthropogenic category (occurring 20% of the time aerosol size distributions. The coastal nucleation category is characterised by a clear and dominant nucleation mode at sizes less than 10 nm while the open ocean nucleation category is characterised by a dominant Aitken mode between 15 nm and 50 nm. The background clean marine aerosol exhibited a clear bimodality in the sub-micron size distribution, with although it should be noted that either the Aitken mode or the accumulation mode may dominate the number concentration. However, peculiar background clean marine size distributions with coarser accumulation modes are also observed during winter months. By contrast, the continentally-influenced size distributions are generally more monomodal (accumulation, albeit with traces of bimodality. The open ocean category occurs more often during May, June and July, corresponding with the North East (NE Atlantic high biological period. Combined with the relatively high percentage frequency of occurrence (32.6%, this suggests that the marine biota is an important source of new nano aerosol particles in NE Atlantic Air.

  8. LABOUR INPUT IN POLISH AGRICULTURE AGAINST SIZE OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS – SPATIAL ANALYSIS*

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    Łukasz Wiśniewski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of spatial diversifi cation in the labour input in agriculture on the basis of these selected indicators: annual work unit (AWU per 100 ha agricultural acreage; number of people per AWU; and comparison of labour input to EU-15 standards (LI-EU. Agricultural holdings have been categorised by size into three groups: 0–10 ha (small, 10–20 ha (average, and over 20 ha (large. Labour resources were subject to a comparative study of the density rates of AWUs per 100 ha agricultural acreage in Poland and the EU (EU-15. The analysis covered all of Poland with consideration of the administrative division into sixteen voivodeships (tabular analysis and 314 poviats (townships and country districts together, including regional offi ces of the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (ARiMR; cartographic analysis. The results of the Agricultural Census of 2010 were used in the study. It demonstrated a signifi cant spatial diversifi cation in labour input in agriculture in general and in each holding size group. Predominantly, the diff erences are related to historical and political factors. The analysis corroborated agrarian overpopulation in south-east Poland.

  9. Beyond typing and grading: target analysis in individualized therapy as a new challenge for tumour pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipe, Hans H; von Wasielewski, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    In order to bring about its beneficial effects in oncology, targeted therapy depends on accurate target analysis. Whether cells of a tumour will be sensitive to a specific treatment is predicted by the detection of appropriate targets in cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry or molecular methods. In most instances this is performed by histopathologists. Reliability and reproducibility of tissue-based target analysis in histopathology require novel measures of quality assurance by internal and external controls. As a model for external quality assurance in targeted therapy an annual inter-laboratory trial has been set up in Germany applying tissue arrays with up to 60 mammary cancer samples which are tested by participants for expression of HER2/neu and steroid hormone receptors.

  10. Thermal hydraulics analysis of LIBRA-SP target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogahed, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    LIBRA-SP is a conceptual design study of an inertially confined 1000 MWe fusion power reactor utilizing self-pinched light ion beams. There are 24 ion beams which are arranged around the reactor cavity. The reaction chamber is an upright cylinder with an inverted conical roof resembling a mushroom, and a pool floor. The vertical sides of the cylinder are occupied by a blanket zone consisting of many perforated rigid HT-9 ferritic steel tubes called PERITs (PEr-forated RIgid Tube). The breeding/cooling material, liquid lead-lithium, flows through the PERITs, providing protection to the reflector/vacuum chamber so as to make it a lifetime component. The neutronics analysis and cavity hydrodynamics calculations are performed to account for the neutron heating and also to determine the effects of vaporization/condensation processes on the surface heat flux. The steady state nuclear heating distribution at the midplane is used for thermal hydraulics calculations. The maximum surface temperature of the HT-9 is chosen to not exceed 625 degree C to avoid drastic deterioration of the metal's mechanical properties. This choice restricts the thermal hydraulics performance of the reaction cavity. The inlet first surface coolant bulk temperature is 370 degree C, and the heat exchanger inlet coolant bulk temperature is 502 degree C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Analysis of drug adversiting targeted to health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Campos Esqueff Abdalla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The advertising of medicines is the dissemination of the product by the pharmaceutical industry, with emphasis on brand, aiming to promote their prescription and/or purchase. This practice must comply with the legal provisions in effect determined by Brazilian National Surveillance Agency. The present work aimed to analyze advertisements of medicines offered by the industry to health professionals. The capture of advertisements covered physician offices of various specialties, public and private hospitals and magazines directed at health professionals. The analysis of the collected parts involved the verification of legibility and viewing of information required, as well as the compliance with the health legislation that regulates the promotion and advertising of medicines in Brazil – agency’s resolution n. 96/2008. The results showed that no piece meets the health legislation in full. Most industries employs strategies that hinder access to restricted information of use of the medicine, as contra-indications, for example, constituting an obstacle to rational use. It was also observed the presence of indications other than those approved by the agency and use indication for different age groups in the specified product registration. It is obvious the need for a new model controller and more rigid regulator that prioritize above all particular interests, a major importance, that is the society. This must be protected from false advertising and abusive, promoting the rational use of medicines.

  12. Investigating selective transport and abrasion on an alluvial fan using quantitative grain size and shape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, K. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Selective sorting and abrasion are the two major fluvial processes that are attributed to the downstream fining of sediments in rivers and alluvial fans. Selective transport is the process by which smaller grains are preferentially transported downstream while larger grains are deposited closer to the source. Abrasion is defined by the production of fine sediments and sand that occurs by saltation of gravel, where particle-to-particle collisions supply the energy required to break apart grains. We hypothesize that abrasion results in the gradual fining of large grains and the production of fine sands and silts, while sorting accounts for the differences in transport of these two grain-size fractions produced from abrasion, thereby creating the abrupt gravel-sand transition observed in many channel systems. In this research, we explore both selective transport and abrasion processes on the Dog Canyon alluvial fan near Alamogordo, New Mexico. We complete an extensive grain size analysis down the main channel of the fan employing an image-based technique that utilizes an autocorrelation process. We also characterize changes in grain shape using standard shape parameters, as well as Fourier analysis, which allows the study of contributions of grain roughness on a variety of length scales. Sorting appears to dominate the upper portion of the fan; the grain-size distribution narrows moving downstream until reaching a point of equal mobility, at which point sorting ceases. Abrasion exerts a subtle but persistent effect on grains during transport down the fan. Shape analysis reveals that particles become more rounded by the removal of small-scale textural features, a process that is expected to only modestly influence grain size of gravel, but should produce significant quantities of sand. This study provides a better understanding of the importance of grain abrasion and sorting on the downstream fining of channel grains in an alluvial fan, as well as an improved knowledge

  13. Drug target mining and analysis of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    Full Text Available The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research.

  14. Identifying target processes for microbial electrosynthesis by elementary mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracke, Frauke; Krömer, Jens O

    2014-12-30

    Microbial electrosynthesis and electro fermentation are techniques that aim to optimize microbial production of chemicals and fuels by regulating the cellular redox balance via interaction with electrodes. While the concept is known for decades major knowledge gaps remain, which make it hard to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Here we present an in silico approach to identify beneficial production processes for electro fermentation by elementary mode analysis. Since the fundamentals of electron transport between electrodes and microbes have not been fully uncovered yet, we propose different options and discuss their impact on biomass and product yields. For the first time 20 different valuable products were screened for their potential to show increased yields during anaerobic electrically enhanced fermentation. Surprisingly we found that an increase in product formation by electrical enhancement is not necessarily dependent on the degree of reduction of the product but rather the metabolic pathway it is derived from. We present a variety of beneficial processes with product yield increases of maximal 36% in reductive and 84% in oxidative fermentations and final theoretical product yields up to 100%. This includes compounds that are already produced at industrial scale such as succinic acid, lysine and diaminopentane as well as potential novel bio-commodities such as isoprene, para-hydroxybenzoic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid. Furthermore, it is shown that the way of electron transport has major impact on achievable biomass and product yields. The coupling of electron transport to energy conservation could be identified as crucial for most processes. This study introduces a powerful tool to determine beneficial substrate and product combinations for electro-fermentation. It also highlights that the maximal yield achievable by bio electrochemical techniques depends strongly on the actual electron transport mechanisms. Therefore it is of great importance to

  15. Geometric size optimization and behavior analysis of a dual-cooled annular fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yangbin; Wu Yingwei; Zhang Dalin; Tian Wenxi; Qiu Suizheng; Su Guanghui; Zhang Weixu; Wu Junmei

    2014-01-01

    The dual-cooled annular fuel is one of the innovative fuel concepts, which allows substantial power density increase while maintaining safety margins comparing with that used in currently operating PWRs. In this study, a thermal-hydraulic calculation code, on the basis of inner and outer cooling balance theory, was independently developed to optimize the geometric size of dual-cooled annular fuel elements. The optimization results show that the fuel element with the optimal geometric sizes presents fantastic symmetry in temperature distribution. The optimized geometric sizes agree well with the sizes obtained by MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), which on the other side validates the code reliability and accuracy as well. In addition, a thermo-mechanical-burnup coupling code was developed to study the thermodynamic and mechanical characteristics of fuel elements with considering the irradiation and burnup effects. This coupling program was applied to perform the behavior analysis of annular fuels. The calculation results show that, when the power density increases on the order of up to 50%, the dual-cooled annular fuel elements have much lower fuel temperature and much less fission gas release comparing with conventional fuel rods. Furthermore, the results indicate that the thicknesses of inner and outer gas gap cannot remain the same with the burnup increasing due to the mechanical deformations of fuel pellets and claddings, which results in significantly asymmetric temperature distribution especially at the last phase of burnup. (author)

  16. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Pedro, E-mail: pedrocarv@coc.ufrj.br [Computational Modelling in Engineering and Geophysics Laboratory (LAMEMO), Department of Civil Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pedro Calmon - Ilha do Fundão, 21941-596 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Center for Urban and Regional Systems (CESUR), CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Marques, Rui Cunha, E-mail: pedro.c.carvalho@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Center for Urban and Regional Systems (CESUR), CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. - Highlights: • This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the water sector; • The usefulness of the application of Bayesian methods is highlighted; • Important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope are found.

  17. Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggi, Marco [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: marco.paggi@polito.it; Carpinteri, Alberto [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.

  18. Fractal and multifractal approaches for the analysis of crack-size dependent scaling laws in fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paggi, Marco; Carpinteri, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced ability to detect and measure very short cracks, along with a great interest in applying fracture mechanics formulae to smaller and smaller crack sizes, has pointed out the so-called anomalous behavior of short cracks with respect to their longer counterparts. The crack-size dependencies of both the fatigue threshold and the Paris' constant C are only two notable examples of these anomalous scaling laws. In this framework, a unified theoretical model seems to be missing and the behavior of short cracks can still be considered as an open problem. In this paper, we propose a critical reexamination of the fractal models for the analysis of crack-size effects in fatigue. The limitations of each model are put into evidence and removed. At the end, a new generalized theory based on fractal geometry is proposed, which permits to consistently interpret the short crack-related anomalous scaling laws within a unified theoretical formulation. Finally, this approach is herein used to interpret relevant experimental data related to the crack-size dependence of the fatigue threshold in metals.

  19. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. - Highlights: • This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the water sector; • The usefulness of the application of Bayesian methods is highlighted; • Important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope are found.

  20. Promise and Pitfalls of Using Grain Size Analysis to Identify Glacial Sediments in Alpine Lake Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lakes fed by glacier outwash should have a clastic particle-size record distinct from non-glacial lakes in the same area, but do they? The unique turquoise color of alpine glacial lakes reflects the flux of suspended clastic glacial rock flour to those lakes; conversely, lakes not fed by outwash are generally clear with sediments dominated by organics or slope-wash from nearby hillslopes. This contrast in sediment types and sources should produce a distinct and measureable different in grain sizes between the two settings. Results from a variety of lakes suggest the actual situation is often more subtle and complex. I compare grain size results to other proxies to assess the value of grain size analysis for paleoglacier studies. Over the past 10 years, my colleagues and I have collected and analyzed sediment cores from a wide variety of lakes below small alpine glaciers in an attempt to constrain the timing and magnitude of alpine glaciation in those basins. The basic concept is that these lakes act as continuous catchments for any rock flour produced upstream by glacier abrasion; as a glacier grows, the flux of rock flour to the lake will also increase. If the glacier disappears entirely, rock flour deposition will also cease in short order. We have focused our research in basins with simple sedimentologic settings: mostly small, high-altitude, stripped granitic or metamorphic cirques in which the cirque glaciers are the primary source of clastic sediments. In most cases, the lakes are fed by meltwater from a modern glacier, but were ice free during the earlier Holocene. In such cases, the lake cores should record formation of and changes in activity of the glacier upstream. We used a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 laser particle size analyzer for our grain size analyses, as well as recording magnetic susceptibility, color, and organics for the same cores. The results indicate that although lakes often experience increases in silt and clay-size (<0.63 mm) clastic

  1. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. D.; Rahman, H. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a design steps in sizing of standalone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage using intuitive method. The main advantage of this method is it uses a direct mathematical approach to find system’s size based on daily load consumption and average irradiation data. The keys of system design are to satisfy a pre-determined load requirement and maintain hydrogen storage’s state of charge during low solar irradiation period. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study is conducted using Kuala Lumpur’s generated meteorological data and rural area’s typical daily load profile of 2.215 kWh. In addition, an economic analysis is performed to appraise the proposed system feasibility. The finding shows that the levelized cost of energy for proposed system is RM 1.98 kWh. However, based on sizing results obtained using a published method with AGM battery as back-up supply, the system cost is lower and more economically viable. The feasibility of PV system with hydrogen storage can be improved if the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future. Hence, a sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the effect of electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy. Efficiencies of electrolyzer and fuel cell available in current market are validated using laboratory’s experimental data. This finding is needed to envisage the applicability of photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage as a future power supply source in Malaysia.

  2. GRAIN-SIZE MEASUREMENTS OF FLUVIAL GRAVEL BARS USING OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Castro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for classifying the average grain size in gravel bars require manual measurements of each grain diameter. Aiming productivity, more efficient methods have been developed by applying remote sensing techniques and digital image processing. This research proposes an Object-Based Image Analysis methodology to classify gravel bars in fluvial channels. First, the study evaluates the performance of multiresolution segmentation algorithm (available at the software eCognition Developer in performing shape recognition. The linear regression model was applied to assess the correlation between the gravels’ reference delineation and the gravels recognized by the segmentation algorithm. Furthermore, the supervised classification was validated by comparing the results with field data using the t-statistic test and the kappa index. Afterwards, the grain size distribution in gravel bars along the upper Bananeiras River, Brazil was mapped. The multiresolution segmentation results did not prove to be consistent with all the samples. Nonetheless, the P01 sample showed an R2 =0.82 for the diameter estimation and R2=0.45 the recognition of the eliptical ft. The t-statistic showed no significant difference in the efficiencies of the grain size classifications by the field survey data and the Object-based supervised classification (t = 2.133 for a significance level of 0.05. However, the kappa index was 0.54. The analysis of the both segmentation and classification results did not prove to be replicable.

  3. Underestimated effect sizes in GWAS: fundamental limitations of single SNP analysis for dichotomous phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stringer

    Full Text Available Complex diseases are often highly heritable. However, for many complex traits only a small proportion of the heritability can be explained by observed genetic variants in traditional genome-wide association (GWA studies. Moreover, for some of those traits few significant SNPs have been identified. Single SNP association methods test for association at a single SNP, ignoring the effect of other SNPs. We show using a simple multi-locus odds model of complex disease that moderate to large effect sizes of causal variants may be estimated as relatively small effect sizes in single SNP association testing. This underestimation effect is most severe for diseases influenced by numerous risk variants. We relate the underestimation effect to the concept of non-collapsibility found in the statistics literature. As described, continuous phenotypes generated with linear genetic models are not affected by this underestimation effect. Since many GWA studies apply single SNP analysis to dichotomous phenotypes, previously reported results potentially underestimate true effect sizes, thereby impeding identification of true effect SNPs. Therefore, when a multi-locus model of disease risk is assumed, a multi SNP analysis may be more appropriate.

  4. Analysis of size effect applicable to evaluation of fracture toughness of base metal for PWR vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamou, C.; Joly, P.; Andrieu, A.; Parrot, A.; Vidard, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the specimen size effect (also called crack front length effect) on Fracture Toughness of PWR Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel base metal. The analysis of the reality and amplitude of this effect is conducted in a first step on a database (the so-called GKSS database) including fracture toughness test results on a single representative material using specimens of different thicknesses, tested in the same temperature range. A realistic analytical form for describing the size effect observed in this data set is thus derived from statistical analyses and proposed for engineering application. In a second step, this size effect formulation is then applied to a large number of fracture toughness data, obtained in Irradiation Surveillance Programs, and also to the numerous data used for the definition of the ASME (and RCC-M) fracture toughness reference curves. This analysis allows normalizing all the available fracture toughness data with a single specimen width of 100 mm and defining the fracture toughness reference curve as the lower bound of this normalized set of data points. It is thus demonstrated that the fracture toughness reference curve is associated with a reference crack length of 100 mm, and can be used in RPV integrity analyses for other crack front length in association with the crack front length correction formula defined in the first step. (authors)

  5. Investigation of active vibration drilling using acoustic emission and cutting size analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjian Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of active bit vibration on the penetration mechanisms and bit-rock interaction for drilling with a diamond impregnated coring bit. A series of drill-off tests (DOTs were conducted where the drilling rate-of-penetration (ROP was measured at a series of step-wise increasing static bit thrusts or weight-on-bits (WOBs. Two active DOTs were conducted by applying 60 Hz axial vibration at the bit-rock interface using an electromagnetic vibrating table mounted underneath the drilling samples, and a passive DOT was conducted where the bit was allowed to vibrate naturally with lower amplitude due to the compliance of the drilling sample mountings. During drilling, an acoustic emission (AE system was used to record the AE signals generated by the diamond cutter penetration and the cuttings were collected for grain size analysis. The instrumented drilling system recorded the dynamic motions of the bit-rock interface using a laser displacement sensor, a load cell, and an LVDT (linear variable differential transformer recorded the dynamic WOB and the ROP, respectively. Calibration with the drilling system showed that rotary speed was approximately the same at any given WOB, facilitating comparison of the results at the same WOB. Analysis of the experimental results shows that the ROP of the bit at any given WOB increased with higher amplitude of axial bit-rock vibration, and the drill cuttings increased in size with a higher ROP. Spectral analysis of the AEs indicated that the higher ROP and larger cutting size were correlated with a higher AE energy and a lower AE frequency. This indicated that larger fractures were being created to generate larger cutting size. Overall, these results indicate that a greater magnitude of axial bit-rock vibration produces larger fractures and generates larger cuttings which, at the same rotary speed, results in a higher ROP. Keywords: Active bit vibration, Diamond coring drilling, Drill

  6. Standardizing effect size from linear regression models with log-transformed variables for meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Tobías, Aurelio; Redondo, Daniel; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Sánchez, María José

    2017-03-17

    Meta-analysis is very useful to summarize the effect of a treatment or a risk factor for a given disease. Often studies report results based on log-transformed variables in order to achieve the principal assumptions of a linear regression model. If this is the case for some, but not all studies, the effects need to be homogenized. We derived a set of formulae to transform absolute changes into relative ones, and vice versa, to allow including all results in a meta-analysis. We applied our procedure to all possible combinations of log-transformed independent or dependent variables. We also evaluated it in a simulation based on two variables either normally or asymmetrically distributed. In all the scenarios, and based on different change criteria, the effect size estimated by the derived set of formulae was equivalent to the real effect size. To avoid biased estimates of the effect, this procedure should be used with caution in the case of independent variables with asymmetric distributions that significantly differ from the normal distribution. We illustrate an application of this procedure by an application to a meta-analysis on the potential effects on neurodevelopment in children exposed to arsenic and manganese. The procedure proposed has been shown to be valid and capable of expressing the effect size of a linear regression model based on different change criteria in the variables. Homogenizing the results from different studies beforehand allows them to be combined in a meta-analysis, independently of whether the transformations had been performed on the dependent and/or independent variables.

  7. Validation Of Intermediate Large Sample Analysis (With Sizes Up to 100 G) and Associated Facility Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Pragmatic rather than physical correction factors for neutron and gamma-ray shielding were studied for samples of intermediate size, i.e. up to the 10-100 gram range. It was found that for most biological and geological materials, the neutron self-shielding is less than 5 % and the gamma-ray self-attenuation can easily be estimated. A trueness control material of 1 kg size was made based on use of left-overs of materials, used in laboratory intercomparisons. A design study for a large sample pool-side facility, handling plate-type volumes, had to be stopped because of a reduction in human resources, available for this CRP. The large sample NAA facilities were made available to guest scientists from Greece and Brazil. The laboratory for neutron activation analysis participated in the world’s first laboratory intercomparison utilizing large samples. (author)

  8. Analysis of crystallite size and microdeformation crystal lattice the tungsten carbide milling in mill high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.T. da; Nunes, M.A.M.; Souza, C.P. de; Gomes, U.U.

    2010-01-01

    The tungsten carbide (WC) has wide application due to its properties like high melting point, high hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and good electrical conductivity. The microstructural characteristics of the starting powders influences the final properties of the carbide. In this context, the use of nanoparticle powders is an efficient way to improve the final properties of the WC. The high energy milling stands out from other processes to obtain nanometric powders due to constant microstructural changes caused by this process. Therefore, the objective is to undertake an analysis of microstructural characteristics on the crystallite size and microdeformations of the crystal lattice using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement. The results show an efficiency of the milling process to reduce the crystallite size, leading to a significant deformation in the crystal lattice of WC from 5h milling. (author)

  9. Noise Parameter Analysis of SiGe HBTs for Different Sizes in the Breakdown Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-In Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise parameters of silicon germanium (SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs for different sizes are investigated in the breakdown region for the first time. When the emitter length of SiGe HBTs shortens, minimum noise figure at breakdown decreases. In addition, narrower emitter width also decreases noise figure of SiGe HBTs in the avalanche region. Reduction of noise performance for smaller emitter length and width of SiGe HBTs at breakdown resulted from the lower noise spectral density resulting from the breakdown mechanism. Good agreement between experimental and simulated noise performance at breakdown is achieved for different sized SiGe HBTs. The presented analysis can benefit the RF circuits operating in the breakdown region.

  10. External Determinants of the Development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises – Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lisowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify external determinants of the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and assess their impact on the functioning of these entities in Poland. Meeting this objective required: identifying determinants of the development of SMEs, determining the current development situation of the surveyed enterprises and examining the impact of external determinants on the development of SMEs. The implementation of the above-presented goals was based on the following assumptions: (i the current situation of the surveyed enterprises is determined with the use of quantitative indicators (turnover volume, number of employees, market share, profit levels (ii the analysis of external determinants encompasses three components of the environment: the macro-environment, the meso-environment and the micro-environment, (iii in each analysed area there are separate analyses conducted for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, enabling greater precision in the identification of external determinants of development for each category of businesses.

  11. Hierarchical evaluation of electrical stimulation protocols for chronic wound healing: An effect size meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, Charles; Kotzki, Sylvain; Roustit, Matthieu; Blaise, Sophie; Gueyffier, Francois; Cracowski, Jean-Luc

    2017-09-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) has been tested for decades to improve chronic wound healing. However, uncertainty remains on the magnitude of the efficacy and on the best applicable protocol. We conducted an effect size meta-analysis to assess the overall efficacy of ES on wound healing, to compare the efficacy of the different modalities of electrical stimulation, and to determine whether efficacy differs depending on the wound etiology, size, and age of the chronic wound. Twenty-nine randomized clinical trials with 1,510 patients and 1,753 ulcers were selected. Overall efficacy of ES on would healing was a 0.72 SMD (95% CI: 0.48, 1) corresponding to a moderate to large effect size. We found that unidirectional high voltage pulsed current (HVPC) with the active electrode over the wound was the best evidence-based protocol to improve wound healing with a 0.8 SMD (95% CI: 0.38, 1.21), while evaluation of the efficacy of direct current was limited by the small number of studies. ES was more effective on pressure ulcers compared to venous and diabetic ulcers, and efficacy trended to be inversely associated with the wound size and duration. This study confirms the overall efficacy of ES to enhance healing of chronic wounds and highlights the superiority of HVPC over other type of currents, which is more effective on pressure ulcers, and inversely associated with the wound size and duration. This will enable to standardize future ES practices. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Effects of Group Size and Lack of Sphericity on the Recovery of Clusters in K-Means Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Craen, Saskia; Commandeur, Jacques J. F.; Frank, Laurence E.; Heiser, Willem J.

    2006-01-01

    K-means cluster analysis is known for its tendency to produce spherical and equally sized clusters. To assess the magnitude of these effects, a simulation study was conducted, in which populations were created with varying departures from sphericity and group sizes. An analysis of the recovery of clusters in the samples taken from these…

  13. Genome size variation among and within Camellia species by using flow cytometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Camellia, belonging to the family Theaceae, is economically important group in flowering plants. Frequent interspecific hybridization together with polyploidization has made them become taxonomically "difficult taxa". The DNA content is often used to measure genome size variation and has largely advanced our understanding of plant evolution and genome variation. The goals of this study were to investigate patterns of interspecific and intraspecific variation of DNA contents and further explore genome size evolution in a phylogenetic context of the genus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The DNA amount in the genus was determined by using propidium iodide flow cytometry analysis for a total of 139 individual plants representing almost all sections of the two subgenera, Camellia and Thea. An improved WPB buffer was proven to be suitable for the Camellia species, which was able to counteract the negative effects of secondary metabolite and generated high-quality results with low coefficient of variation values (CV <5%. Our results showed trivial effects on different tissues of flowers, leaves and buds as well as cytosolic compounds on the estimation of DNA amount. The DNA content of C. sinensis var. assamica was estimated to be 1C = 3.01 pg by flow cytometric analysis, which is equal to a genome size of about 2940 Mb. CONCLUSION: Intraspecific and interspecific variations were observed in the genus Camellia, and as expected, the latter was larger than the former. Our study suggests a directional trend of increasing genome size in the genus Camellia probably owing to the frequent polyploidization events.

  14. Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Rabiul Hossain; Bhuiyan, Md IqbalKaiser; Saha, Ayan; Mosleh, Ivan Mhai; Mondol, Sobuj; Ahmed, C M Sabbir

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein-protein interaction. In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic pathways were revealed by this research. Active sites and druggable pockets of these selected proteins were investigated with bioinformatic techniques. In addition, this study also mentions the activity of those proteins, as well as their interactions with the other proteins. Our findings helped to identify the type of protein to be considered as an efficient drug target. This study will pave the way for researchers to develop and discover more effective and specific

  15. Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Rabiul Hossain; Bhuiyan, Md IqbalKaiser; Saha, Ayan; Mosleh, Ivan MHAI; Mondol, Sobuj; Ahmed, C M Sabbir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. Materials and methods In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein–protein interaction. Results In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic pathways were revealed by this research. Active sites and druggable pockets of these selected proteins were investigated with bioinformatic techniques. In addition, this study also mentions the activity of those proteins, as well as their interactions with the other proteins. Conclusion Our findings helped to identify the type of protein to be considered as an efficient drug target. This study will pave the way for researchers to

  16. Identification and analysis of potential targets in Streptococcus sanguinis using computer aided protein data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury MRH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Md Rabiul Hossain Chowdhury,1 Md IqbalKaiser Bhuiyan,2 Ayan Saha,2 Ivan MHAI Mosleh,2 Sobuj Mondol,2 C M Sabbir Ahmed3 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 2Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh; 3Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh Purpose: Streptococcus sanguinis is a Gram-positive, facultative aerobic bacterium that is a member of the viridans streptococcus group. It is found in human mouths in dental plaque, which accounts for both dental cavities and bacterial endocarditis, and which entails a mortality rate of 25%. Although a range of remedial mediators have been found to control this organism, the effectiveness of agents such as penicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin, was observed. The emphasis of this investigation was on finding substitute and efficient remedial approaches for the total destruction of this bacterium. Materials and methods: In this computational study, various databases and online software were used to ascertain some specific targets of S. sanguinis. Particularly, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases were applied to determine human nonhomologous proteins, as well as the metabolic pathways involved with those proteins. Different software such as Phyre2, CastP, DoGSiteScorer, the Protein Function Predictor server, and STRING were utilized to evaluate the probable active drug binding site with its known function and protein–protein interaction. Results: In this study, among 218 essential proteins of this pathogenic bacterium, 81 nonhomologous proteins were accrued, and 15 proteins that are unique in several metabolic pathways of S. sanguinis were isolated through metabolic pathway analysis. Furthermore, four essentially membrane-bound unique proteins that are involved in distinct metabolic

  17. The transcription factor Swi4 is target for PKA regulation of cell size at the G1 to S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigoni, Loredana; Colombo, Sonia; Belotti, Fiorella; Alberghina, Lilia; Martegani, Enzo

    2015-08-03

    To investigate the specific target of PKA in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell size we developed a new approach using the yeast strain GG104 bearing a deletion in adenylate cyclase gene and permeable to cAMP ( cyr1Δ, pde2Δ, msn2Δ, msn4Δ). In this strain the PKA activity is absent and can be activated by addition of cAMP in the medium, without any other change of the growth conditions. In the present work we show that the activation of PKA by exogenous cAMP in the GG104 strain exponentially growing in glucose medium caused a marked increase of cell size and perturbation of cell cycle with a transient arrest of cells in G1, followed by an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase with a minimal change in the growth rate. Deletion of CLN1 gene, but not of CLN2, abolished the transient G1 phase arrest. Consistently we found that PKA activation caused a transcriptional repression of CLN1 gene. Transcription of CLN1 is controlled by SBF and MBF dual-regulated promoter. We found that also the deletion of SWI4 gene abolished the transient G1 arrest suggesting that Swi4 is a target responsible for PKA modulation of G1/S phase transition. We generated a SWI4 allele mutated in the consensus site for PKA (Swi4(S159A)) and we found that expression of Swi4(S159A) protein in the GG104-Swi4Δ strain did not restore the transient G1 arrest induced by PKA activation, suggesting that Swi4 phosphorylation by PKA regulates CLN1 gene expression and G1/S phase transition.

  18. Road safety risk evaluation and target setting using data envelopment analysis and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Vanhoof, Koen

    2012-09-01

    Currently, comparison between countries in terms of their road safety performance is widely conducted in order to better understand one's own safety situation and to learn from those best-performing countries by indicating practical targets and formulating action programmes. In this respect, crash data such as the number of road fatalities and casualties are mostly investigated. However, the absolute numbers are not directly comparable between countries. Therefore, the concept of risk, which is defined as the ratio of road safety outcomes and some measure of exposure (e.g., the population size, the number of registered vehicles, or distance travelled), is often used in the context of benchmarking. Nevertheless, these risk indicators are not consistent in most cases. In other words, countries may have different evaluation results or ranking positions using different exposure information. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a performance measurement technique is investigated to provide an overall perspective on a country's road safety situation, and further assess whether the road safety outcomes registered in a country correspond to the numbers that can be expected based on the level of exposure. In doing so, three model extensions are considered, which are the DEA based road safety model (DEA-RS), the cross-efficiency method, and the categorical DEA model. Using the measures of exposure to risk as the model's input and the number of road fatalities as output, an overall road safety efficiency score is computed for the 27 European Union (EU) countries based on the DEA-RS model, and the ranking of countries in accordance with their cross-efficiency scores is evaluated. Furthermore, after applying clustering analysis to group countries with inherent similarity in their practices, the categorical DEA-RS model is adopted to identify best-performing and underperforming countries in each cluster, as well as the reference sets or benchmarks for those

  19. Network analysis of translocated Takahe populations to identify disease surveillance targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Zoë L; VAN Andel, Mary; French, Nigel P; Gartrell, Brett D

    2014-04-01

    Social network analysis is being increasingly used in epidemiology and disease modeling in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. We investigated this tool in describing a translocation network (area that allows movement of animals between geographically isolated locations) used for the conservation of an endangered flightless rail, the Takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri). We collated records of Takahe translocations within New Zealand and used social network principles to describe the connectivity of the translocation network. That is, networks were constructed and analyzed using adjacency matrices with values based on the tie weights between nodes. Five annual network matrices were created using the Takahe data set, each incremental year included records of previous years. Weights of movements between connected locations were assigned by the number of Takahe moved. We calculated the number of nodes (i(total)) and the number of ties (t(total)) between the nodes. To quantify the small-world character of the networks, we compared the real networks to random graphs of the equivalent size, weighting, and node strength. Descriptive analysis of cumulative annual Takahe movement networks involved determination of node-level characteristics, including centrality descriptors of relevance to disease modeling such as weighted measures of in degree (k(i)(in)), out degree (k(i)(out)), and betweenness (B(i)). Key players were assigned according to the highest node measure of k(i)(in), k(i)(out), and B(i) per network. Networks increased in size throughout the time frame considered. The network had some degree small-world characteristics. Nodes with the highest cumulative tie weights connecting them were the captive breeding center, the Murchison Mountains and 2 offshore islands. The key player fluctuated between the captive breeding center and the Murchison Mountains. The cumulative networks identified the captive breeding center every year as the hub of the network until the final

  20. Design of the solid target structure and the study on the coolant flow distribution in the solid target using the 2-dimensional flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Katsuhiro; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ishikura, Shuichi; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaminaga, Masaki; Hino, Ryutaro; Susuki, Akira

    1999-11-01

    A solid target cooled by heavy water is presently under development under the Neutron Science Research Project of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Target plates of several millimeters thickness made of heavy metal are used as the spallation target material and they are put face to face in a row with one to two millimeters gaps in between though which heavy water flows, as the coolant. Based on the design criteria regarding the target plate cooling, the volume percentage of the coolant, and the thermal stress produced in the target plates, we conducted thermal and hydraulic analysis with a one dimensional target plate model. We choosed tungsten as the target material, and decided on various target plate thicknesses. We then calculated the temperature and the thermal stress in the target plates using a two dimensional model, and confirmed the validity of the target plate thicknesses. Based on these analytical results, we proposed a target structure in which forty target plates are divided into six groups and each group is cooled using a single pass of coolant. In order to investigate the relationship between the distribution of the coolant flow, the pressure drop, and the coolant velocity, we conducted a hydraulic analysis using the general purpose hydraulic analysis code. As a result, we realized that an uniform coolant flow distribution can be achieved under a wide range of flow velocity conditions in the target plate cooling channels from 1 m/s to 10 m/s. The pressure drop along the coolant path was 0.09 MPa and 0.17 MPa when the coolant flow velocity was 5 m/s and 7 m/s respectively, which is required to cool the 1.5 MW and 2.5 MW solid targets. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the combined effects of target size, respiratory motion and background activity on 3D and 4D PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang-June; Ionascu, Dan; Killoran, Joseph; Chin, Lee; Berbeco, Ross; Mamede, Marcelo; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2008-01-01

    Gated (4D) PET/CT has the potential to greatly improve the accuracy of radiotherapy at treatment sites where internal organ motion is significant. However, the best methodology for applying 4D-PET/CT to target definition is not currently well established. With the goal of better understanding how to best apply 4D information to radiotherapy, initial studies were performed to investigate the effect of target size, respiratory motion and target-to-background activity concentration ratio (TBR) on 3D (ungated) and 4D PET images. Using a PET/CT scanner with 4D or gating capability, a full 3D-PET scan corrected with a 3D attenuation map from 3D-CT scan and a respiratory gated (4D) PET scan corrected with corresponding attenuation maps from 4D-CT were performed by imaging spherical targets (0.5-26.5 mL) filled with 18 F-FDG in a dynamic thorax phantom and NEMA IEC body phantom at different TBRs (infinite, 8 and 4). To simulate respiratory motion, the phantoms were driven sinusoidally in the superior-inferior direction with amplitudes of 0, 1 and 2 cm and a period of 4.5 s. Recovery coefficients were determined on PET images. In addition, gating methods using different numbers of gating bins (1-20 bins) were evaluated with image noise and temporal resolution. For evaluation, volume recovery coefficient, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated as a function of the number of gating bins. Moreover, the optimum thresholds which give accurate moving target volumes were obtained for 3D and 4D images. The partial volume effect and signal loss in the 3D-PET images due to the limited PET resolution and the respiratory motion, respectively were measured. The results show that signal loss depends on both the amplitude and pattern of respiratory motion. However, the 4D-PET successfully recovers most of the loss induced by the respiratory motion. The 5-bin gating method gives the best temporal resolution with acceptable image noise. The results based on the 4D

  2. An assessment of independent component analysis for detection of military targets from hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K. C.; Arora, M. K.; Singh, D.

    2011-10-01

    Hyperspectral data acquired over hundreds of narrow contiguous wavelength bands are extremely suitable for target detection due to their high spectral resolution. Though spectral response of every material is expected to be unique, but in practice, it exhibits variations, which is known as spectral variability. Most target detection algorithms depend on spectral modelling using a priori available target spectra In practice, target spectra is, however, seldom available a priori. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a new evolving technique that aims at finding out components which are statistically independent or as independent as possible. The technique therefore has the potential of being used for target detection applications. A assessment of target detection from hyperspectral images using ICA and other algorithms based on spectral modelling may be of immense interest, since ICA does not require a priori target information. The aim of this paper is, thus, to assess the potential of ICA based algorithm vis a vis other prevailing algorithms for military target detection. Four spectral matching algorithms namely Orthogonal Subspace Projection (OSP), Constrained Energy Minimisation (CEM), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM), and four anomaly detection algorithms namely OSP anomaly detector (OSPAD), Reed-Xiaoli anomaly detector (RXD), Uniform Target Detector (UTD) and a combination of Reed-Xiaoli anomaly detector and Uniform Target Detector (RXD-UTD) were considered. The experiments were conducted using a set of synthetic and AVIRIS hyperspectral images containing aircrafts as military targets. A comparison of true positive and false positive rates of target detections obtained from ICA and other algorithms plotted on a receiver operating curves (ROC) space indicates the superior performance of the ICA over other algorithms.

  3. Dynamic analysis of the Nova Target Chamber to assess alignment errors due to ambient noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallen, D.B.; Murray, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    We performed a study to determine the dynamic behavior of the Nova Target Chamber. We conducted a free vibration analysis to determine the natural frequencies of vibration and the corresponding modeshapes of the target chamber. Utilizing the free vibration results, we performed forced vibration analysis to predict the displacements of the chamber due to ambient vibration. The input support motion for the forced vibration analysis was defined by a white noise acceleration spectrum which was based on previous measurements of ground noise near the Nova site. A special purpose computer program was prepared to process the results of the forced vibration analysis. The program yields distances by which the lines of sight of the various laser beams miss the target as a result of ambient vibrations. We also performed additional estimates of miss distance to provide bounds on the results. A description of the finite element model of the chamber, the input spectrum, and the results of the analyses are included

  4. Sentiment analysis enhancement with target variable in Kumar’s Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, A. A.; Kawi, A. B.; Hurriyati, R.

    2016-04-01

    Sentiment analysis (also known as opinion mining) refers to the use of text analysis and computational linguistics to identify and extract subjective information in source materials. Sentiment analysis is widely applied to reviews discussion that is being talked in social media for many purposes, ranging from marketing, customer service, or public opinion of public policy. One of the popular algorithm for Sentiment Analysis implementation is Kumar algorithm that developed by Kumar and Sebastian. Kumar algorithm can identify the sentiment score of the statement, sentence or tweet, but cannot determine the relationship of the object or target related to the sentiment being analysed. This research proposed solution for that challenge by adding additional component that represent object or target to the existing algorithm (Kumar algorithm). The result of this research is a modified algorithm that can give sentiment score based on a given object or target.

  5. Heavy metal speciation in various grain sizes of industrially contaminated street dust using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Gülşen; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife

    2016-02-01

    A total of 36 street dust samples were collected from the streets of the Organised Industrial District in Kayseri, Turkey. This region includes a total of 818 work places in various industrial areas. The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied to evaluate the mobility and bioavailability of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in street dusts of the study area. The BCR was classified into three steps: water/acid soluble fraction, reducible and oxidisable fraction. The remaining residue was dissolved by using aqua regia. The concentrations of the metals in street dust samples were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Also the effect of the different grain sizes (dust samples on the mobility of the metals was investigated using the modified BCR procedure. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the first three phases (for grain size) was: Cd (71.3)>Cu (48.9)>Pb (42.8)=Cr (42.1)>Ni (41.4)>Zn (40.9)>Co (36.6)=Mn (36.3)>Fe (3.1). No significant difference was observed among metal partitioning for the three particle sizes. Correlation, principal component and cluster analysis were applied to identify probable natural and anthropogenic sources in the region. The principal component analysis results showed that this industrial district was influenced by traffic, industrial activities, air-borne emissions and natural sources. The accuracy of the results was checked by analysis of both the BCR-701 certified reference material and by recovery studies in street dust samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design study and heat transfer analysis of a neutron converter target for medical radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud Behzad; Sang-In Bak; Seung-Woo Hong; Jong-Seo Chai; Yacine Kadi; Claudio Tenreiro; University of Talca, Talca

    2014-01-01

    A worldwide challenge in the near future will be to find a way of producing radioisotopes in sufficient quantity without relying on research reactors. The motivation for this innovative work on targets lies in the accelerator-based production of radioisotopes using a neutron converter target as in the transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing concept. Thermal analysis of a multi-channel helium cooled device is performed with the computational fluid dynamics code CFX. Different boundary conditions are taken into account in the simulation process and many important parameters such as maximum allowable solid target temperature as well as uniform inlet velocity and outlet pressure changes in the channels are investigated. The results confirm that the cooling configuration works well; hence such a solid target could be operated safely and may be considered for a prototype target. (author)

  7. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    OpenAIRE

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abu...

  8. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one.

  9. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Sklyarov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM) in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW) has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  10. One Size Fits All: Evaluation of the Transferability of a New "Learning" Histologic Image Analysis Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Janine; Homeyer, André; Sänger, Constanze; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of histologic slides is of importance for pathology and also to address surgical questions. Recently, a novel application was developed for the automated quantification of whole-slide images. The aim of this study was to test and validate the underlying image analysis algorithm with respect to user friendliness, accuracy, and transferability to different histologic scenarios. The algorithm splits the images into tiles of a predetermined size and identifies the tissue class of each tile. In the training procedure, the user specifies example tiles of the different tissue classes. In the subsequent analysis procedure, the algorithm classifies each tile into the previously specified classes. User friendliness was evaluated by recording training time and testing reproducibility of the training procedure of users with different background. Accuracy was determined with respect to single and batch analysis. Transferability was demonstrated by analyzing tissue of different organs (rat liver, kidney, small bowel, and spleen) and with different stainings (glutamine synthetase and hematoxylin-eosin). Users of different educational background could apply the program efficiently after a short introduction. When analyzing images with similar properties, accuracy of >90% was reached in single images as well as in batch mode. We demonstrated that the novel application is user friendly and very accurate. With the "training" procedure the application can be adapted to novel image characteristics simply by giving examples of relevant tissue structures. Therefore, it is suitable for the fast and efficient analysis of high numbers of fully digitalized histologic sections, potentially allowing "high-throughput" quantitative "histomic" analysis.

  11. Analysis of the Neutron Generator and Target for the LSDTS System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Je; Lee, Yong Deok; Song, Jae Hoon; Song, Kee Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    A preliminary analysis was performed based on the literatures and the patents for the neutron generators and targets for the lead slowing down time spectrometer (LSDTS) system. It was found that local neutron generator did not exhibit enough neutron intensity such as 1E+12 n/s, which is a minimum requirement for the LSDTS system to overcome curium backgrounds. However, a neutron generator implemented with an electron accelerator may provide a higher intensity around 1E+13 n/s and it is required to investigate further including a detail analysis. In addition to the neutron generator, a study on target was performed with the Monte Carlo simulation. In the study, an optimal design of target was suggested to provide a high neutron yield and a better thermal resistance. The suggested target consists several cylindrical plates with a certain cooling gap, which have increasing thickness and increasing radius.

  12. Comparison of photon correlation spectroscopy with photosedimentation analysis for the determination of aqueous colloid size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Terry F.

    1990-01-01

    Colloidal materials, dispersed phases with dimensions between 0.001 and 1 μm, are potential transport media for a variety of contaminants in surface and ground water. Characterization of these colloids, and identification of the parameters that control their movement, are necessary before transport simulations can be attempted. Two techniques that can be used to determine the particle-size distribution of colloidal materials suspended in natural waters are compared. Photon correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) utilizes the Doppler frequency shift of photons scattered off particles undergoing Brownian motion to determine the size of colloids suspended in water. Photosedimentation analysis (PSA) measures the time-dependent change in optical density of a suspension of colloidal particles undergoing centrifugation. A description of both techniques, important underlying assumptions, and limitations are given. Results for a series of river water samples show that the colloid-size distribution means are statistically identical as determined by both techniques. This also is true of the mass median diameter (MMD), even though MMD values determined by PSA are consistently smaller than those determined by PCS. Because of this small negative bias, the skew parameters for the distributions are generally smaller for the PCS-determined distributions than for the PSA-determined distributions. Smaller polydispersity indices for the distributions are also determined by PCS.

  13. New analysis procedure for fast and reliable size measurement of nanoparticles from atomic force microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Robert D.; Cuenat, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Accurate size measurement during nanoparticle production is essential for the continuing innovation, quality and safety of nano-enabled products. Size measurement by analysing a number of separate particles individually has particular advantages over ensemble methods. In the latter case nanoparticles have to be well dispersed in a fluid and changes that may occur during analysis, such as agglomeration and degradation, will not be detected which could lead to misleading results. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows imaging of particles both in air and liquid, however, the strong interactions between the probe and the particle will cause the broadening of the lateral dimension in the final image. In this paper a new procedure to measure the size of spherical nanoparticles from AFM images via vertical height measurement is described. This procedure will quickly analyse hundred of particles simultaneously and reproduce the measurements obtained from electron microscopy (EM). Nanoparticles samples that were difficult, if not impossible, to analyse with EM were successfully measured using this method. The combination of this procedure with the use of a metrological AFM moves closer to true traceable measurements of nanoparticle dispersions.

  14. Real-Time Measurement of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Size Distribution and Metals Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, Vladimir B; Brinkman, Marielle C; Granville, Courtney A; Gordon, Sydney M; Clark, Pamela I

    2016-09-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing worldwide and is highest among both daily and nondaily smokers. E-cigarettes are perceived as a healthier alternative to combustible tobacco products, but their health risk factors have not yet been established, and one of them is lack of data on aerosol size generated by e-cigarettes. We applied a real-time, high-resolution aerosol differential mobility spectrometer to monitor the evolution of aerosol size and concentration during puff development. Particles generated by e-cigarettes were immediately delivered for analysis with minimal dilution and therefore with minimal sample distortion, which is critically important given the highly dynamic aerosol/vapor mixture inherent to e-cigarette emissions. E-cigarette aerosols normally exhibit a bimodal particle size distribution: nanoparticles (11-25nm count median diameter) and submicron particles (96-175nm count median diameter). Each mode has comparable number concentrations (10(7)-10(8) particles/cm(3)). "Dry puff" tests conducted with no e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) present in the e-cigarette tank demonstrated that under these conditions only nanoparticles were generated. Analysis of the bulk aerosol collected on the filter showed that e-cigarette emissions contained a variety of metals. E-cigarette aerosol size distribution is different from that of combustible tobacco smoke. E-cigarettes generate high concentrations of nanoparticles and their chemical content requires further investigation. Despite the small mass of nanoparticles, their toxicological impact could be significant. Toxic chemicals that are attached to the small nanoparticles may have greater adverse health effects than when attached to larger submicron particles. The e-cigarette aerosol size distribution is different from that of combustible tobacco smoke and typically exhibits a bimodal behavior with comparable number concentrations of nanoparticles and submicron particles. While vaping the e

  15. Regional statistical and economic analysis of small and medium-sized businesses development in Zhytomyr region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Pavlova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized businesses play an important role in the development of the regional economic system in particular and in solving a number of the following local problems: developing competition, developing the market for goods and services, providing jobs for the able-bodied population, raising living standards and improving the social environment in society. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state and development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Zhytomyr region, to analyze its contribution to the economic development of the region, and to identify the main problems existing in the region. According to the indicators of state statistics, the author presents the general characteristics of enterprises in the Zhytomyr region from 2012 to 2016 in the context of indicators of the number of enterprises, the number of employed workers and the volume of the products sold, highlighting the activities of small enterprises and assessing their share in general levels. In addition, the paper provides the description of the activities of individual entrepreneurs. The structural comparison for the above-listed indicators of the distribution of influence on the economic system of the Zhytomyr region in terms of enterprises by size is presented. In terms of quantity 93,5 % are small enterprises that provide 31,4 % of the total number of employees with work and make up 23,1 % of the total volume of sales. Average enterprises in these indicators have 6,4 %, 62,0 % and 54,8 % respectively. The statistical and economic analysis of the structure of small enterprises by types of economic activity, by indicators of the number of registered enterprises, and by the volumes of sold products is carried out. The uniformity of the distribution is estimated using the index of the concentration coefficient. The indicators of revenues to budgets of different levels from small and medium-sized businesses are set. The paper presents and summarizes the

  16. Target preparation and neutron activation analysis a successful story at IRMM

    CERN Document Server

    Robouch, P; Eguskiza, M; Maguregui, M I; Pommé, S; Ingelbrecht, C

    2002-01-01

    The main task of a target producer is to make well characterized and homogeneous deposits on specific supports. Alpha and/or gamma spectrometry are traditionally used to monitor the quality of actinide deposits. With the increasing demand for enriched stable isotope targets, other analytical techniques, such as ICP-MS and NAA, are needed. This paper presents the application of neutron activation analysis to quality control of 'thin' targets, 'thicker' neutron dosimeters and 'thick' bronze disks prepared by the Reference Materials Unit at the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements.

  17. Target preparation and neutron activation analysis: a successful story at IRMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, P.; Arana, G.; Eguskiza, M.; Maguregui, M.I.; Pomme, S.; Ingelbrecht, C.

    2002-01-01

    The main task of a target producer is to make well characterized and homogeneous deposits on specific supports. Alpha and/or gamma spectrometry are traditionally used to monitor the quality of actinide deposits. With the increasing demand for enriched stable isotope targets, other analytical techniques, such as ICP-MS and NAA, are needed. This paper presents the application of neutron activation analysis to quality control of 'thin' targets, 'thicker' neutron dosimeters and 'thick' bronze disks prepared by the Reference Materials Unit at the Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements

  18. Statistical analysis of support thickness and particle size effects in HRTEM imaging of metal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, Stephen D., E-mail: sdh46@pitt.edu [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Grieshaber, Ross V.; Li, Long; Zhang, Zhongfan [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Ciston, Jim [National Center of Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stach, Eric A. [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Yang, Judith C. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, and Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination of nanoparticles requires their placement on some manner of support – either TEM grid membranes or part of the material itself, as in many heterogeneous catalyst systems – but a systematic quantification of the practical imaging limits of this approach has been lacking. Here we address this issue through a statistical evaluation of how nanoparticle size and substrate thickness affects the ability to resolve structural features of interest in HRTEM images of metallic nanoparticles on common support membranes. The visibility of lattice fringes from crystalline Au nanoparticles on amorphous carbon and silicon supports of varying thickness was investigated with both conventional and aberration-corrected TEM. Over the 1–4 nm nanoparticle size range examined, the probability of successfully resolving lattice fringes differed significantly as a function both of nanoparticle size and support thickness. Statistical analysis was used to formulate guidelines for the selection of supports and to quantify the impact a given support would have on HRTEM imaging of crystalline structure. For nanoparticles ≥1 nm, aberration-correction was found to provide limited benefit for the purpose of visualizing lattice fringes; electron dose is more predictive of lattice fringe visibility than aberration correction. These results confirm that the ability to visualize lattice fringes is ultimately dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the HRTEM images, rather than the point-to-point resolving power of the microscope. This study provides a benchmark for HRTEM imaging of crystalline supported metal nanoparticles and is extensible to a wide variety of supports and nanostructures. - Highlights: • The impact of supports on imaging nanoparticle lattice structure is quantified. • Visualization probabilities given particle size and support thickness are estimated. • Aberration-correction provided limited benefit

  19. Statistical analysis of support thickness and particle size effects in HRTEM imaging of metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, Stephen D.; Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Grieshaber, Ross V.; Li, Long; Zhang, Zhongfan; Ciston, Jim; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Judith C.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination of nanoparticles requires their placement on some manner of support – either TEM grid membranes or part of the material itself, as in many heterogeneous catalyst systems – but a systematic quantification of the practical imaging limits of this approach has been lacking. Here we address this issue through a statistical evaluation of how nanoparticle size and substrate thickness affects the ability to resolve structural features of interest in HRTEM images of metallic nanoparticles on common support membranes. The visibility of lattice fringes from crystalline Au nanoparticles on amorphous carbon and silicon supports of varying thickness was investigated with both conventional and aberration-corrected TEM. Over the 1–4 nm nanoparticle size range examined, the probability of successfully resolving lattice fringes differed significantly as a function both of nanoparticle size and support thickness. Statistical analysis was used to formulate guidelines for the selection of supports and to quantify the impact a given support would have on HRTEM imaging of crystalline structure. For nanoparticles ≥1 nm, aberration-correction was found to provide limited benefit for the purpose of visualizing lattice fringes; electron dose is more predictive of lattice fringe visibility than aberration correction. These results confirm that the ability to visualize lattice fringes is ultimately dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the HRTEM images, rather than the point-to-point resolving power of the microscope. This study provides a benchmark for HRTEM imaging of crystalline supported metal nanoparticles and is extensible to a wide variety of supports and nanostructures. - Highlights: • The impact of supports on imaging nanoparticle lattice structure is quantified. • Visualization probabilities given particle size and support thickness are estimated. • Aberration-correction provided limited benefit

  20. Impact of focal spot size on radiologic image quality: A visual grading analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, Sinead [Diagnostic Imaging, Biological Imaging Research, UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Health Science, Belfield, UCD, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Brennan, Patrick C., E-mail: patrick.brennan@ucd.i [Diagnostic Imaging, Biological Imaging Research, UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Health Science, Belfield, UCD, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-11-15

    Fine and broad focal spot sizes are available on general X-ray tubes. Excessive use of fine focus can impact on tube life and whilst it is established that fine focal spot size reduces geometric unsharpness, the extent of this benefit on clinical image quality is unclear. The current cadaver-based work compares images produced with effective focal sizes of 0.8 mm and 1.8 mm. Four projection types were included, lateral ankle, antero-posterior (AP) knee, AP thoracic spine and horizontal beam lateral (HBL) lumbar spine, and a visual grading analysis was used to assess visibility of anatomical criteria. Five clinicians scored each image using a 1-4 scoring scale, a reference image was employed for standardization and a Mann-Whitney U statistical test compared results derived from each focus. Radiation doses were monitored using a dose area product (DAP) meter. Statistical analyses demonstrated no significant differences between images produced at each focus, although a relationship between body part thickness and number of criteria with a higher (non-significant) score for the fine focus compared with the broad focal spot size was demonstrated. Choice of focus had no radiation dose implications. Fine foci X-ray sources are used predominantly for extremity imaging to enhance visualization of fine detail such as trabecular patterns, yet there is no evidence to support this practice. The argument for regular employment of fine foci, particularly for the type of acquisition and display devices used in this study, needs to be revisited.

  1. Malware Analysis: From Large-Scale Data Triage to Targeted Attack Recognition (Dagstuhl Seminar 17281)

    OpenAIRE

    Zennou, Sarah; Debray, Saumya K.; Dullien, Thomas; Lakhothia, Arun

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the program and the outcomes of the Dagstuhl Seminar 17281, entitled "Malware Analysis: From Large-Scale Data Triage to Targeted Attack Recognition". The seminar brought together practitioners and researchers from industry and academia to discuss the state-of-the art in the analysis of malware from both a big data perspective and a fine grained analysis. Obfuscation was also considered. The meeting created new links within this very diverse community.

  2. Meta-Analysis of PECS with Individuals with ASD: Investigation of Targeted versus Non-Targeted Outcomes, Participant Characteristics, and Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Davis, John L.; Lund, Emily M.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Simpson, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a widely used picture/icon aided augmentative communication system designed for learners with autism and other developmental disorders. This meta-analysis analyzes the extant empirical literature for PECS relative to targeted (functional communication) and non-targeted concomitant outcomes…

  3. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A

    2017-06-30

    Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  5. Estimation of particle size distribution in Athabasca oil sands by indirect neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutte, R.; Thompson, G.R.; Donkor, K.K. [New Caledonia College, Prince George, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Duke, M.J.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). SLOWPOKE Nuclear Reactor Facility; Cowles, R. [Syncrude Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Li, X.P.; Kratochvil, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    Knowledge concerning the particle size distribution (PSD) of oil sands is necessary for optimal extraction of bitumen from the sand, and it indicates ore quality, gives a measure of process performance during bitumen extraction, and yields information useful for tailings management. Oil sands with mainly coarse particulates are usually bitumen rich and easy to process in the conventional hot water extraction process. These ores do not require the addition of sodium hydroxide as a process aid, and tailings volumes are minimal in contrast to high fines oil sands. Compared to the methods currently in use for determining the PSD in the oil sand industry, a method is described that is rapid, simple to carry out, and does not involve the use of organic solvents with attendant disposal problems. The principle behind the method is the development of a set of correlations by applying regression analysis to a large set of PSD and elemental analysis data. Predicted PSDs compare favorably with results obtained by existing methods. Each of the three PSD methods currently in use could be simulated by the INAA method. The INAA-based model that predicts hydrometer equivalent data was only applicable above certain lower limits for the amount of the fine size fractions present because of the limited sensitivity of the hydrometer method for PSD determination of fine fractions. For all six particle sizes studied, the INAA model had lower overall uncertainty than the corresponding Microtrac and Coulter instrument methods; the instrument repeatability of the INAA fell between those of Microtrac and Coulter. For Athabasca oil sands, the INAA-based method for PSD determination at and below 44 microm afforded results comparable to current Microtrac and Coulter methods. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Synthesis of ultrasound contrast agents: characteristics and size distribution analysis (secondary publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Jong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Il [Dept. of Applied Bioscience, CHA University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C40H80NO8P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH3(CH2)15O]2P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF6 gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy.

  7. Synthesis of ultrasound contrast agents: characteristics and size distribution analysis (secondary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Yoon, Tae Jong; Yoon, Young Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a method for ultrasound (US) contrast agent synthesis and to evaluate the characteristics of the synthesized US contrast agent. A US contrast agent, composed of liposome and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was synthesized by dissolving 21 μmol 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, C40H80NO8P), 9 μmol cholesterol, and 1.9 μmol of dihexadecylphosphate (DCP, [CH3(CH2)15O]2P(O)OH) in chloroform. After evaporation in a warm water bath and drying for 12-24 hours, the contrast agent was synthesized using the sonication process by the addition of a buffer and SF6 gas. The size distribution of the bubbles was analyzed using dynamic light scattering measurement methods. The degradation curve was evaluated by assessing the change in the number of contrast agent bubbles using light microscopy immediately, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 hours after synthesis. The echogenicity of the synthesized microbubbles was compared with commercially available microbubbles (SonoVue, Bracco). contrast agent was synthesized successfully using an evaporation-drying-sonication method. Most bubbles had a mean diameter of 154.2 nm and showed marked degradation 24 hours after synthesis. Although no statistically significant differences were observed between SonoVue and the synthesized contrast agent, a difference in echogenicity was observed between the synthesized contrast agent and saline (P<0.01). We successfully synthesized a US contrast agent using an evaporation-dryingsonication method. These results may help future research in the fields of anticancer drug delivery, gene delivery, targeted molecular imaging, and targeted therapy

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Pamela J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.

  9. Bioinformatic analysis of xenobiotic reactive metabolite target proteins and their interacting partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzlik Robert P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein covalent binding by reactive metabolites of drugs, chemicals and natural products can lead to acute cytotoxicity. Recent rapid progress in reactive metabolite target protein identification has shown that adduction is surprisingly selective and inspired the hope that analysis of target proteins might reveal protein factors that differentiate target- vs. non-target proteins and illuminate mechanisms connecting covalent binding to cytotoxicity. Results Sorting 171 known reactive metabolite target proteins revealed a number of GO categories and KEGG pathways to be significantly enriched in targets, but in most cases the classes were too large, and the "percent coverage" too small, to allow meaningful conclusions about mechanisms of toxicity. However, a similar analysis of the directlyinteracting partners of 28 common targets of multiple reactive metabolites revealed highly significant enrichments in terms likely to be highly relevant to cytotoxicity (e.g., MAP kinase pathways, apoptosis, response to unfolded protein. Machine learning was used to rank the contribution of 211 computed protein features to determining protein susceptibility to adduction. Protein lysine (but not cysteine content and protein instability index (i.e., rate of turnover in vivo were among the features most important to determining susceptibility. Conclusion As yet there is no good explanation for why some low-abundance proteins become heavily adducted while some abundant proteins become only lightly adducted in vivo. Analyzing the directly interacting partners of target proteins appears to yield greater insight into mechanisms of toxicity than analyzing target proteins per se. The insights provided can readily be formulated as hypotheses to test in future experimental studies.

  10. Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kate; Watson, Jane F; Collins, Clare E

    2014-05-28

    Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007. Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data was from children aged 2-16 years who participated in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 2198) and 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 4799). Differences were found across survey years in median portion size of common foods and beverages assessed by 24-hour recalls for age and sex categories. Of the 61 foods items evaluated across the whole population sample, portion size increased in 18 items, decreased in 22, with no change in 20, although the magnitude of change varied by age and sex. Decreases in portion size were detected for most dairy products, breakfast cereal, some packaged snack foods and vegetables, p portion sizes were detected over 12 years in Australian children and adolescents with the degree of change varying by sex, age and food group. Knowledge of usual portion sizes could inform programs targeting appropriate serving sizes selection in children and adolescents.

  11. Numerical analysis of free surface instabilities in the IFMIF lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Moeslang, A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Facility (IFMIF) facility uses a high speed (10-20 m/s) Lithium (Li) jet flow as a target for two 40 MeV/125 mA deuteron beams. The major function of the Li target is to provide a stable Li jet for the production of an intense neutron flux. For the understanding the lithium jet behaviour and elimination of the free-surface flow instabilities a detailed analysis of the Li jet flow is necessary. Different kinds of instability mechanisms in the liquid jet flow have been evaluated and classified based on analytical and experimental data. Numerical investigations of the target free surface flow have been performed. Previous numerical investigations have shown in principle the suitability of CFD code Star- CD for the simulation of the Li-target flow. The main objective of this study is detailed numerical analysis of instabilities in the Li-jet flow caused by boundary layer relaxation near the nozzle exit, transition to the turbulence flow and back wall curvature. A number of CFD models are developed to investigate the formation of instabilities on the target surface. Turbulence models are validated on the experimental data. Experimental observations have shown that the change of the nozzle geometry at the outlet such as a slight divergence of the nozzle surfaces or nozzle edge defects causes the flow separation and occurrence of longitudinal periodic structures on the free surface with an amplitude up to 5 mm. Target surface fluctuations of this magnitude can lead to the penetration of the deuteron beam in the target structure and cause the local overheating of the back plat. Analysis of large instabilities in the Li-target flow combined with the heat distribution in lithium depending on the free surface shape is performed in this study. (orig.)

  12. A collection of target mimics for comprehensive analysis of microRNA function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Todesco

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many targets of plant microRNAs (miRNAs are thought to play important roles in plant physiology and development. However, because plant miRNAs are typically encoded by medium-size gene families, it has often been difficult to assess their precise function. We report the generation of a large-scale collection of knockdowns for Arabidopsis thaliana miRNA families; this has been achieved using artificial miRNA target mimics, a recently developed technique fashioned on an endogenous mechanism of miRNA regulation. Morphological defects in the aerial part were observed for approximately 20% of analyzed families, all of which are deeply conserved in land plants. In addition, we find that non-cleavable mimic sites can confer translational regulation in cis. Phenotypes of plants expressing target mimics directed against miRNAs involved in development were in several cases consistent with previous reports on plants expressing miRNA-resistant forms of individual target genes, indicating that a limited number of targets mediates most effects of these miRNAs. That less conserved miRNAs rarely had obvious effects on plant morphology suggests that most of them do not affect fundamental aspects of development. In addition to insight into modes of miRNA action, this study provides an important resource for the study of miRNA function in plants.

  13. Inference of miRNA targets using evolutionary conservation and pathway analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nimwegen Erik

    2007-03-01

    assigns a posterior probability to each putative target site. The results presented here indicate that our general method achieves very good performance in predicting miRNA target sites, providing at the same time insights into the evolution of target sites for individual miRNAs. Moreover, by combining our predictions with pathway analysis, we propose functions of specific miRNAs in nervous system development, inter-cellular communication and cell growth. The complete target site predictions as well as the miRNA/pathway associations are accessible on the ElMMo web server.

  14. Thermal analysis of Ti drive-in target for D-D neutron generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, N.S.; Kim, I.J.; Kim, S.J.; Choi, H.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Thermal analysis was performed for a Ti drive-in target of a D-D neutron generator. Numerical calculation was the only feasible way to obtain the information of the target temperature, since it was very difficult to measure the target temperature during neutron generation due to high voltage being applied to the target. Computational fluid dynamics code CFX-5 was used in this study. In order to define the heat flux term for the thermal analysis, the current profile of the ion beam was measured. The one-dimensional, integrated current profile was measured by using a single slit and a Faraday cup. The measured current profile was transformed into the axially symmetric two-dimensional distribution function by using the Abel inversion, which had the two-dimensional Gaussian function shape. Temperature distribution in the target was calculated at the operating condition. The influence of operational parameters like the ion beam energy, current, coolant mass flow rate and coolant inlet temperature on the target temperature was investigated

  15. The influence of government targeted procurement strategies on the growth performance of construction small and medium-sized contractors (SMCs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurauf Adediran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines government targeted procurement (TP strategies in South Africa and whether these strategies have an influence on the growth performance of Small and medium-sized contractors (SMCs in the construction industry. The rationale for this study stems from reports that while TP has been widely used as an instrument to improve the position of SMCs in the South African construction industry, three out of five SMCs do not become established firms. In addition, the nature of the influence of TP strategies on the growth performance of SMCs is not known. Following a review of existing literature, the study mainly adopted a quantitative research approach. Questionnaire surveys were administered to Construction Industry Development Board (cidb Grades 3 to 6 contractors that have executed TP projects within the last 5 years. The collected data was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses – Spearman’s rank order correlation was used as an index of association between the study variables. The study found that tendering equity is the most frequently used TP strategy, closely followed by preferencing and mandatory subcontracting. The study also found that positive significant associations exists among preferencing and turnover; third-party management and company assets; tendering equity, turnover and number of employees; as well as accelerated rotations, turnover and number of employees. The study concluded that government intervention through targeted procurement has the potential to achieve its intended results of improving the position of historically disadvantaged SMCs in the construction industry in South Africa if selected and implemented appropriately.

  16. LIQHYSMES-size, loss and cost considerations for the SMES-a conceptual analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, Michael; Neumann, Holger

    2011-01-01

    A new energy storage concept for variable renewable energy, LIQHYSMES, has been proposed which combines the use of liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). LH 2 with its high volumetric energy density and, compared with compressed hydrogen, increased operational safety is the prime energy carrier for large scale stationary energy storage. But balancing load or supply fluctuations with hydrogen alone is unrealistic due to the response times of the flow control. To operate the hydrogen part more steadily, additional short-term electrical energy storage is needed. For this purpose a SMES based on coated conductors or magnesium diboride MgB 2 operated in the LH 2 bath, is proposed. Different solenoidal and toroidal SMES designs for the 10 GJ range are compared in terms of size and ramping losses. Cost targets for different power levels and supply periods are addressed, taking into account current developments in competing short-term storage devices like super-capacitors, batteries and flywheels.

  17. LIQHYSMES—size, loss and cost considerations for the SMES—a conceptual analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Michael; Neumann, Holger

    2011-10-01

    A new energy storage concept for variable renewable energy, LIQHYSMES, has been proposed which combines the use of liquid hydrogen (LH2) with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). LH2 with its high volumetric energy density and, compared with compressed hydrogen, increased operational safety is the prime energy carrier for large scale stationary energy storage. But balancing load or supply fluctuations with hydrogen alone is unrealistic due to the response times of the flow control. To operate the hydrogen part more steadily, additional short-term electrical energy storage is needed. For this purpose a SMES based on coated conductors or magnesium diboride MgB2 operated in the LH2 bath, is proposed. Different solenoidal and toroidal SMES designs for the 10 GJ range are compared in terms of size and ramping losses. Cost targets for different power levels and supply periods are addressed, taking into account current developments in competing short-term storage devices like super-capacitors, batteries and flywheels.

  18. Positioning accuracy analysis of adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Wang Kun; Sun Linzhi; Zhou Shasha

    2012-01-01

    A novel adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude is presented according to the characteristics of the target transport subsystem in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The mechanism consists of a tangent mechanism adjusting rotation angle and a set of orthogonal tangent mechanism adjusting two-dimensional deflection angles. The structural parameters of the adjusting target mechanism are analyzed according to principle errors, structure errors and motion errors of following. The analysis results indicate that the system error of the adjusting target mechanism is influenced by the displacement of the linear actuators, the actuator ball radius, the working radius of the tangent mechanism, the angle error of the inclined installation hole, the centralization error of the actuators, the orthogonal error of the two tangent mechanism, and the angle errors of the inclined target rod inclined rotation shaft. The errors of the inclined target rod and inclined rotation shaft are the two greatest impact factors, the spherical contact error is the next. By means of precise assembly and control system compensation, the accuracy of the adjusting target mechanism can be less than 0.1 mrad. (authors)

  19. Quantification by image analysis of grain size of the high temperature phase (austenite) of martensitic steels 9Cr-1Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, F.; Brachet, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In martensitic steels, the austenitic grain size before transformation may influence mechanical properties. 9Cr-1Mo steel (EM10) is used in hexagonal pipes fabrication in fast neutrons reactors. Image analysis allows to quantify the older grain size in function of the austenization heat treatment conditions. (A.B.). 2 figs

  20. Estimating size and scope economies in the Portuguese water sector using the Bayesian stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-02-15

    This study aims to search for economies of size and scope in the Portuguese water sector applying Bayesian and classical statistics to make inference in stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). This study proves the usefulness and advantages of the application of Bayesian statistics for making inference in SFA over traditional SFA which just uses classical statistics. The resulting Bayesian methods allow overcoming some problems that arise in the application of the traditional SFA, such as the bias in small samples and skewness of residuals. In the present case study of the water sector in Portugal, these Bayesian methods provide more plausible and acceptable results. Based on the results obtained we found that there are important economies of output density, economies of size, economies of vertical integration and economies of scope in the Portuguese water sector, pointing out to the huge advantages in undertaking mergers by joining the retail and wholesale components and by joining the drinking water and wastewater services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-Related Changes in Pharyngeal Lumen Size: A Retrospective MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Brumm, J D; Hagiwara, M; Roof, S A; Lazarus, C L

    2015-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle bulk and strength (sarcopenia) is often cited as a potential mechanism underlying age-related changes in swallowing. Our goal was to explore this phenomenon in the pharynx, specifically, by measuring pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area in a sample of young versus older women. MRI scans of the neck were retrospectively reviewed from 60 women equally stratified into three age groups (20s, 60s, 70+). Four de-identified slices were extracted per scan for randomized, blinded analysis: one mid-sagittal and three axial slices were selected at the anterior inferior border of C2 and C3, and at the pit of the vallecula. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were completed using ImageJ and then converted to metric units. Measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were compared between age groups with one-way ANOVAs using Sidak adjustments for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant main effect for age was observed across all variables whereby pharyngeal wall thickness decreased and pharyngeal lumen area increased with advancing age. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between 20s versus 70+ for all variables and 20s versus 60s for all variables except those measured at C2. Effect sizes ranged from 0.54 to 1.34. Consistent with existing sacropenia literature, the pharyngeal muscles appear to atrophy with age and consequently, the size of the pharyngeal lumen increases.

  2. Analysis of Dyes Extracted from Millimeter-Size Nylon Fibers by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Learning Objective is to present to the forensic community a potential qualitative/quantitative method for trace-fiber color comparisons using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Developing a means of analyzing extracted dye constituents from millimeter-size nylon fiber samples was the objective of this research initiative. Aside from ascertaining fiber type, color evaluation and source comparison of trace-fiber evidence plays a critical role in forensic-fiber examinations. Literally thousands of dyes exist to date, including both natural and synthetic compounds. Typically a three-color-dye combination is employed to affect a given color on fiber material. The result of this practice leads to a significant number of potential dye combinations capable of producing a similar color and shade. Since a typical forensic fiber sample is 2 mm or less in length, an ideal forensic dye analysis would qualitatively and quantitatively identify the extracted dye constituents from a sample size of 1 mm or smaller. The goal of this research was to develop an analytical method for comparing individual dye constituents from trace-fiber evidence with dyes extracted from a suspected source, while preserving as much of the original evidence as possible

  3. TRAC analysis of design basis events for the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Elson, J.

    1997-01-01

    A two-loop primary cooling system with a residual heat removal system was designed to mitigate the heat generated in the tungsten neutron source rods inside the rungs of the ladders and the shell of the rungs. The Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) was used to analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary cooling system during a pump coastdown transient; a cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA); a hot-leg LBLOCA; and a target downcomer LBLOCA. The TRAC analysis results showed that the heat generated in the tungsten neutron source rods can be mitigated by the primary cooling system for the pump coastdown transient and all the LBLOCAs except the target downcomer LBLOCA. For the target downcomer LBLOCA, a cavity flood system is required to fill the cavity with water at a level above the large fixed headers

  4. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Half-size ABCG Genes in Malus × domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan MA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Half-size adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter subgroup G (ABCG genes play crucial roles in regulating the movements of a variety of substrates and have been well studied in several plants. However, half-size ABCGs have not been characterized in detail in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.. Here, we performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the half-size ABCG gene family in apple. A total of 46 apple half-size ABCGs were identified and divided into six clusters according to the phylogenetic analysis. A gene structural analysis showed that most half-size ABCGs in the same cluster shared a similar exon–intron organization. A gene duplication analysis showed that segmental, tandem and whole-genome duplications could account for the expansion of half-size ABCG transporters in M. domestica. Moreover, a promoter scan, digital expression analysis and RNA-seq revealed that MdABCG21 may be involved in root's cytokinin transport and that ABCG17 may be involved in the lateral bud development of M. spectabilis ‘Bly114’ by mediating cytokinin transport. The data presented here lay the foundation for further investigations into the biological and physiological processes and functions of half-size ABCG genes in apple. Keywords: apple, ABCG gene, duplication, gene expression

  5. Multi-actinide analysis with AMS for ultra-trace determination and small sample sizes: advantages and drawbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, Francesca; Lagos, Markus; Plaschke, Markus; Schaefer, Thorsten; Geckeis, Horst [Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    With the abundance sensitivities of AMS for U-236, Np-237 and Pu-239 relative to U-238 at levels lower than 1E-15, a simultaneous determination of several actinides without previous chemical separation from each other is possible. The actinides are extracted from the matrix elements via an iron hydroxide co-precipitation and the nuclides sequentially measured from the same sputter target. This simplified method allows for the use of non-isotopic tracers and consequently the determination of Np-237 and Am-243 for which isotopic tracers with the degree of purity required by ultra-trace mass-spectrometric analysis are not available. With detection limits of circa 1E+4 atoms in a sample, 1E+8 atoms are determined with circa 1 % relative uncertainty due to counting statistics. This allows for an unprecedented reduction of the sample size down to 100 ml of natural water. However, the use of non-isotopic tracers introduces a dominating uncertainty of up to 30 % related to the reproducibility of the results. The advantages and drawbacks of the novel method will be presented with the aid of recent results from the CFM Project at the Grimsel Test Site and from the investigation of global fallout in environmental samples.

  6. A procedure for partitioning bulk sediments into distinct grain-size fractions for geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti, A.; Bothner, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    A method to separate sediments into discrete size fractions for geochemical analysis has been tested. The procedures were chosen to minimize the destruction or formation of aggregates and involved gentle sieving and settling of wet samples. Freeze-drying and sonication pretreatments, known to influence aggregates, were used for comparison. Freeze-drying was found to increase the silt/clay ratio by an average of 180 percent compared to analysis of a wet sample that had been wet sieved only. Sonication of a wet sample decreased the silt/clay ratio by 51 percent. The concentrations of metals and organic carbon in the separated fractions changed depending on the pretreatment procedures in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that aggregates consist of fine-grained organic- and metal-rich particles. The coarse silt fraction of a freeze-dried sample contained 20–44 percent higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, and organic carbon than the coarse silt fraction of the wet sample. Sonication resulted in concentrations of these analytes that were 18–33 percent lower in the coarse silt fraction than found in the wet sample. Sonication increased the concentration of lead in the clay fraction by an average of 40 percent compared to an unsonicated sample. Understanding the magnitude of change caused by different analysis protocols is an aid in designing future studies that seek to interpret the spatial distribution of contaminated sediments and their transport mechanisms.

  7. PIXE–PIGE analysis of size-segregated aerosol samples from remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, G., E-mail: calzolai@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Taccetti, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Becagli, S.; Frosini, D.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    The chemical characterization of size-segregated samples is helpful to study the aerosol effects on both human health and environment. The sampling with multi-stage cascade impactors (e.g., Small Deposit area Impactor, SDI) produces inhomogeneous samples, with a multi-spot geometry and a non-negligible particle stratification. At LABEC (Laboratory of nuclear techniques for the Environment and the Cultural Heritage), an external beam line is fully dedicated to PIXE–PIGE analysis of aerosol samples. PIGE is routinely used as a sidekick of PIXE to correct the underestimation of PIXE in quantifying the concentration of the lightest detectable elements, like Na or Al, due to X-ray absorption inside the individual aerosol particles. In this work PIGE has been used to study proper attenuation correction factors for SDI samples: relevant attenuation effects have been observed also for stages collecting smaller particles, and consequent implications on the retrieved aerosol modal structure have been evidenced.

  8. Noctilucent cloud particle size determination based on multi-wavelength all-sky analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolnikov, Oleg S.; Galkin, Alexey A.; Pilgaev, Sergey V.; Roldugin, Alexey V.

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the analysis of color distribution in noctilucent clouds (NLC) in the sky based on multi-wavelength (RGB) CCD-photometry provided with the all-sky camera in Lovozero in the north of Russia (68.0°N, 35.1°E) during the bright expanded NLC performance in the night of August 12, 2016. Small changes in the NLC color across the sky are interpreted as the atmospheric absorption and extinction effects combined with the difference in the Mie scattering functions of NLC particles for the three color channels of the camera. The method described in this paper is used to find the effective monodisperse radius of particles about 55 nm. The result of these simple and cost-effective measurements is in good agreement with previous estimations of comparable accuracy. Non-spherical particles, Gaussian and lognormal distribution of the particle size are also considered.

  9. Rapid prototyping of nanofluidic systems using size-reduced electrospun nanofibers for biomolecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Min; Huh, Yun Suk; Szeto, Kylan; Joe, Daniel J; Kameoka, Jun; Coates, Geoffrey W; Edel, Joshua B; Erickson, David; Craighead, Harold G

    2010-11-05

    Biomolecular transport in nanofluidic confinement offers various means to investigate the behavior of biomolecules in their native aqueous environments, and to develop tools for diverse single-molecule manipulations. Recently, a number of simple nanofluidic fabrication techniques has been demonstrated that utilize electrospun nanofibers as a backbone structure. These techniques are limited by the arbitrary dimension of the resulting nanochannels due to the random nature of electrospinning. Here, a new method for fabricating nanofluidic systems from size-reduced electrospun nanofibers is reported and demonstrated. As it is demonstrated, this method uses the scanned electrospinning technique for generation of oriented sacrificial nanofibers and exposes these nanofibers to harsh, but isotropic etching/heating environments to reduce their cross-sectional dimension. The creation of various nanofluidic systems as small as 20 nm is demonstrated, and practical examples of single biomolecular handling, such as DNA elongation in nanochannels and fluorescence correlation spectroscopic analysis of biomolecules passing through nanochannels, are provided.

  10. Fracture Mechanics Assessment for Different Notch Sizes Using Finite Element Analysis Based on Ductile Failure Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Keun Hyung; Jeon, Jun Young; Han, Jae Jun; Nam, Hyun Suk; Lee, Dae Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, notch defects are evaluated using fracture mechanics. To understand the effects of notch defects, FE analysis is conducted to predict the limit load and J-integral for middle-cracked and single-edge cracked plates with various sizes of notch under tension and bending. As the radius of the notch increases, the energy release rate also increases, although the limit load remains constant. The values of fracture toughness(J{sub IC}) of SM490A are determined for various notch radii through FE simulation instead of conducting an experiment. As the radius of the notch increases, the energy release rate also increases, together with a more significant increase in fracture toughness. To conclude, as the notch radius increases, the resistance to crack propagation also increases.

  11. Performance Analysis of an Optical CDMA MAC Protocol With Variable-Size Sliding Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Aly A.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Abdel-Moety El-Badawy, El-Sayed

    2006-10-01

    A media access control protocol for optical code-division multiple-access packet networks with variable length data traffic is proposed. This protocol exhibits a sliding window with variable size. A model for interference-level fluctuation and an accurate analysis for channel usage are presented. Both multiple-access interference (MAI) and photodetector's shot noise are considered. Both chip-level and correlation receivers are adopted. The system performance is evaluated using a traditional average system throughput and average delay. Finally, in order to enhance the overall performance, error control codes (ECCs) are applied. The results indicate that the performance can be enhanced to reach its peak using the ECC with an optimum number of correctable errors. Furthermore, chip-level receivers are shown to give much higher performance than that of correlation receivers. Also, it has been shown that MAI is the main source of signal degradation.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Video Frame Size Distribution Originating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ahmadpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing an effective and high performance network requires an accurate characterization and modeling of network traffic. The modeling of video frame sizes is normally applied in simulation studies and mathematical analysis and generating streams for testing and compliance purposes. Besides, video traffic assumed as a major source of multimedia traffic in future heterogeneous network. Therefore, the statistical distribution of video data can be used as the inputs for performance modeling of networks. The finding of this paper comprises the theoretical definition of distribution which seems to be relevant to the video trace in terms of its statistical properties and finds the best distribution using both the graphical method and the hypothesis test. The data set used in this article consists of layered video traces generating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC video compression technique of three different movies.

  13. Finite size scaling analysis on Nagel-Schreckenberg model for traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana

    2015-03-01

    The traffic flow problem as a many-particle non-equilibrium system has caught the interest of physicists for decades. Understanding the traffic flow properties and though obtaining the ability to control the transition from the free-flow phase to the jammed phase plays a critical role in the future world of urging self-driven cars technology. We have studied phase transitions in one-lane traffic flow through the mean velocity, distributions of car spacing, dynamic susceptibility and jam persistence -as candidates for an order parameter- using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model to simulate traffic flow. The length dependent transition has been observed for a range of maximum velocities greater than a certain value. Finite size scaling analysis indicates power-law scaling of these quantities at the onset of the jammed phase.

  14. Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis for optimal sizing of an autonomous Hybrid Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahboune, Hassan; Zouggar, Smail; Yong, Jun Yow; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Elhafyani, Mohammed; Ziani, Elmostafa; Zarhloule, Yassine

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring sufficient generation for covering the power demand at minimum cost of the system are the goals of using renewable energy on isolated sites. Solar and wind capture are most widely used to generate clean electricity. Their availability is generally shifted in time. Therefore, it is advantageous to consider both sources simultaneously while designing an electrical power supply module of the studied system. A specific challenge in this context is to find the optimal sizes of the power generation and storage facilities, which would minimise the overall system cost and will still satisfy the demand. In this work, a new design algorithm is presented minimising the system cost, based on the Electric System Cascade Analysis and the Power Pinch Analysis. The algorithm takes as inputs the wind speed, solar irradiation, as well as cost data for the generation and storage facilities. It has also been applied to minimise the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and to ensure the minimum of the used storage units without using outsourced electricity. The algorithm has been demonstrated on a case study with daily electrical energy demand of 18.7 kWh, resulting in a combination of PV Panels, wind turbine, and the batteries at minimal cost. For the conditions in Oujda city, the case study results indicate that it is possible to achieve 0.25 €/kWh Levelised Cost of Electricity for the generated power. - Highlights: • Renewable electricity systems for remote locations. • Optimal sizes of the power generation and storage facilities. • Improved Power Pinch procedure. • Achieves viable power cost levels.

  15. Evaluation of Mid-Size Male Hybrid III Models for use in Spaceflight Occupant Protection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, J.; Somers, J.; Wells, J.; Newby, N.; Currie-Gregg, N.; Lawrence, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an effort to improve occupant safety during dynamic phases of spaceflight, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked to develop occupant protection standards for future crewed spacecraft. One key aspect of these standards is the identification of injury mechanisms through anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Within this analysis, both physical and computational ATD evaluations are required to reasonably encompass the vast range of loading conditions any spaceflight crew may encounter. In this study the accuracy of publically available mid-size male HIII ATD finite element (FE) models are evaluated within applicable loading conditions against extensive sled testing performed on their physical counterparts. Methods: A series of sled tests were performed at the Wright Patterson Air force Base (WPAFB) employing variations of magnitude, duration, and impact direction to encompass the dynamic loading range for expected spaceflight. FE simulations were developed to the specifications of the test setup and driven using measured acceleration profiles. Both fast and detailed FE models of the mid-size male HIII were ran to quantify differences in their accuracy and thus assess the applicability of each within this field. Results: Preliminary results identify the dependence of model accuracy on loading direction, magnitude, and rate. Additionally the accuracy of individual response metrics are shown to vary across each model within evaluated test conditions. Causes for model inaccuracy are identified based on the observed relationships. Discussion: Computational modeling provides an essential component to ATD injury metric evaluation used to ensure the safety of future spaceflight occupants. The assessment of current ATD models lays the groundwork for how these models can be used appropriately in the future. Identification of limitations and possible paths for improvement aid in the development of these effective analysis tools.

  16. School programs targeting stress management in children and adolescence: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraag, G.C; Zeegers, M.P.; Kok, G.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.; Huijer Abu-Saad, H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This meta-analysis evaluates the effect of school programs targeting stress management or coping skills in school children. Methods Articles were selected through a systematic literature search. Only randomized controlled trials or quasi-experimental studies were included. The

  17. Simulating Serial-Target Antibacterial Drug Synergies Using Flux Balance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Andrew S.; Munck, Christian; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is an increasingly useful approach for modeling the behavior of metabolic systems. However, standard FBA modeling of genetic knockouts cannot predict drug combination synergies observed between serial metabolic targets, even though such synergies give rise to some of t...

  18. Analysis of shots on target and goals scored in soccer matches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics and patterns of shots on target and goals scored during the 2012-European Championship. The broadcasted matches were recorded and converted into electronic video files for a computerbased analysis. This quantitative study examined 31 matches of the ...

  19. Doing Televised Rhetorical Analysis as a Means of Promoting College Awareness in a Target Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    This paper describes aspects of doing televised rhetorical analysis as they relate to the promotion of college awareness in a particular target market. Considerations in the paper include variables that most professors encounter in their efforts to address the "service" expectations of their employment and how these variables can be…

  20. Proposal for element size and time increment selection guideline by 3-D finite element method for elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a guideline for selection of element size and time increment by 3-D finite element method, which is applied to elastic wave propagation analysis for a long distance of a large structure. An element size and a time increment are determined by quantitative evaluation of strain, which must be 0 on the analysis model with a uniform motion, caused by spatial and time discretization. (author)

  1. In vitro toxicity analysis of nanoscale aluminum: Particle size and shape effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazuelos Jorganes, Maria

    2007-12-01

    Nanostructured materials promise to revolutionize many key areas of science and technology. As our ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale increases, there is a need to assess the effects of these materials on human health and the environment. Materials at the nanoscale are interesting and useful because they possess properties that are different from the equivalent bulk or molecular scale. These same properties can make toxicological profiles very different from those of the same materials on a different scale. There is a rising consensus that toxicity analysis of nanomaterials should start from a thorough physicochemical characterization of the materials under investigation in order to be able to establish a proper correlation between the nanoparticles characteristics and their effects and behavior in physiological environments. This research is a clear example of the necessity of comprehensive studies when investigating the toxicity of nanomaterials. Aluminum nanoparticles are being extensively used for their very unique energetic properties. These materials offer a very promising market that is fostering many startup companies which are expected to consolidate on strong technological positions. Aluminum is generally recognized as a non-toxic material to humans and it is widely used for applications which imply direct human contact. The effect of aluminum nanoparticles in human health is still an unknown. My research consisted of an in vitro toxicity screening of aluminum materials from nano to micron size, including spherical irregularly shaped particles. Several issues relating to size, shape, detection and characterization of nanoparticles in the different environments relevant to in vitro toxicity analysis were addressed and suitable protocols were developed. Lung human epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of these materials and the effects were analyzed by means of various toxicity tests. Some of the materials investigated caused

  2. Sampling and chemical analysis by TXRF of size-fractionated ambient aerosols and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, A.C.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Fissan, H.; Schmidt, K.-G-; Schmidt, F.; Pfeffer, H.-U.; Gladtke, D.

    2000-01-01

    Results of recent epidemiological studies led to new European air quality standards which require the monitoring of particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM 10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) instead of TSP (total suspended particulate matter). As these ambient air limit values will be exceeded most likely at several locations in Europe, so-called 'action plans' have to be set up to reduce particle concentrations, which requires information about sources and processes of PMx aerosols. For chemical characterization of the aerosols, different samplers were used and total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) was applied beside other methods (elemental and organic carbon analysis, ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry). For TXRF analysis, a specially designed sampling unit was built where the particle size classes 10-2.5 μm and 2.5-1.0 μm were directly impacted on TXRF sample carriers. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was used as a back-up filter to collect particles <1 μm directly on a TXRF sample carrier. The sampling unit was calibrated in the laboratory and then used for field measurements to determine the elemental composition of the mentioned particle size fractions. One of the field campaigns was carried out at a measurement site in Duesseldorf, Germany, in November 1999. As the composition of the ambient aerosols may have been influenced by a large construction site directly in the vicinity of the station during the field campaign, not only the aerosol particles, but also construction material was sampled and analyzed by TXRF. As air quality is affected by natural and anthropogenic sources, the emissions of particles ≤ 10 μm and ≤ 2.5 μm, respectively, have to be determined to estimate their contributions to the so called coarse and fine particle modes of ambient air. Therefore, an in-stack particle sampling system was developed according to the new ambient air quality standards. This PM 10/PM 2.5 cascade impactor was

  3. Analysis of Deregulated microRNAs and Their Target Genes in Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonas Juzėnas

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are widely studied non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression. MiRNAs are deregulated in different tumors including gastric cancer (GC and have potential diagnostic and prognostic implications. The aim of our study was to determine miRNA profile in GC tissues, followed by evaluation of deregulated miRNAs in plasma of GC patients. Using available databases and bioinformatics methods we also aimed to evaluate potential target genes of confirmed differentially expressed miRNA and validate these findings in GC tissues.The study included 51 GC patients and 51 controls. Initially, we screened miRNA expression profile in 13 tissue samples of GC and 12 normal gastric tissues with TaqMan low density array (TLDA. In the second stage, differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in a replication cohort using qRT-PCR in tissue and plasma samples. Subsequently, we analyzed potential target genes of deregulated miRNAs using bioinformatics approach, determined their expression in GC tissues and performed correlation analysis with targeting miRNAs.Profiling with TLDA revealed 15 deregulated miRNAs in GC tissues compared to normal gastric mucosa. Replication analysis confirmed that miR-148a-3p, miR-204-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-375 were consistently deregulated in GC tissues. Analysis of GC patients' plasma samples showed significant down-regulation of miR-148a-3p, miR-375 and up-regulation of miR-223-3p compared to healthy subjects. Further, using bioinformatic tools we identified targets of replicated miRNAs and performed disease-associated gene enrichment analysis. Ultimately, we evaluated potential target gene BCL2 and DNMT3B expression by qRT-PCR in GC tissue, which correlated with targeting miRNA expression.Our study revealed miRNA profile in GC tissues and showed that miR-148a-3p, miR-223-3p and miR-375 are deregulated in GC plasma samples, but these circulating miRNAs showed relatively weak diagnostic performance as sole biomarkers

  4. Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J.; Thorlund, K.; Gluud, C.

    2008-01-01

    in 80% (insufficient information size). TSA(15%) and TSA(LBHIS) found that 95% and 91% had absence of evidence. The remaining nonsignificant meta-analyses had evidence of lack of effect. CONCLUSION: TSA reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meta-analyses with trial sequential analysis (TSA). TSA adjusts for random error risk and provides the required number of participants (information size) in a meta-analysis. Meta-analyses not reaching information size are analyzed with trial sequential monitoring boundaries...... analogous to interim monitoring boundaries in a single trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied TSA on meta-analyses performed in Cochrane Neonatal reviews. We calculated information sizes and monitoring boundaries with three different anticipated intervention effects of 30% relative risk reduction (TSA...

  5. Toxicogenomic analysis of the particle dose- and size-response relationship of silica particles-induced toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaoyan; Jin Tingting; Jin Yachao; Wu Leihong; Hu Bin; Tian Yu; Fan Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between particle size and toxicity of silica particles (SP) with diameters of 30, 70, and 300 nm, which is essential to the safe design and application of SP. Data obtained from histopathological examinations suggested that SP of these sizes can all induce acute inflammation in the liver. In vivo imaging showed that intravenously administrated SP are mainly present in the liver, spleen and intestinal tract. Interestingly, in gene expression analysis, the cellular response pathways activated in the liver are predominantly conserved independently of particle dose when the same size SP are administered or are conserved independently of particle size, surface area and particle number when nano- or submicro-sized SP are administered at their toxic doses. Meanwhile, integrated analysis of transcriptomics, previous metabonomics and conventional toxicological results support the view that SP can result in inflammatory and oxidative stress, generate mitochondrial dysfunction, and eventually cause hepatocyte necrosis by neutrophil-mediated liver injury. (paper)

  6. Improved target detection and bearing estimation utilizing fast orthogonal search for real-time spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Abdalla; El-Sheimy, Naser; Nourledin, Aboelamgd; Theriault, Jim; Campbell, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The problem of target detection and tracking in the ocean environment has attracted considerable attention due to its importance in military and civilian applications. Sonobuoys are one of the capable passive sonar systems used in underwater target detection. Target detection and bearing estimation are mainly obtained through spectral analysis of received signals. The frequency resolution introduced by current techniques is limited which affects the accuracy of target detection and bearing estimation at a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This research investigates the development of a bearing estimation method using fast orthogonal search (FOS) for enhanced spectral estimation. FOS is employed in this research in order to improve both target detection and bearing estimation in the case of low SNR inputs. The proposed methods were tested using simulated data developed for two different scenarios under different underwater environmental conditions. The results show that the proposed method is capable of enhancing the accuracy for target detection as well as bearing estimation especially in cases of a very low SNR

  7. Interacting with target tracking algorithms in a gaze-enhanced motion video analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, particularly if real-time analysis is required. It is therefore an important issue how to provide suitable assistance for the human operator. Given that the use of customized video analysis systems is more and more established, one supporting measure is to provide system functions which perform subtasks of the analysis. Recent progress in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms allow, e.g., real-time moving target tracking. Another supporting measure is to provide a user interface which strives to reduce the perceptual, cognitive and motor load of the human operator for example by incorporating the operator's visual focus of attention. A gaze-enhanced user interface is able to help here. This work extends prior work on automated target recognition, segmentation, and tracking algorithms as well as about the benefits of a gaze-enhanced user interface for interaction with moving targets. We also propose a prototypical system design aiming to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms in order to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. In this contribution, we address two novel issues analyzing gaze-based interaction with target tracking algorithms. The first issue extends the gaze-based triggering of a target tracking process, e.g., investigating how to best relaunch in the case of track loss. The second issue addresses the initialization of tracking algorithms without motion segmentation where the operator has to provide the system with the object's image region in order to start the tracking algorithm.

  8. The impact of targeted Rheumatoid Arthritis pharmacological treatment on mental health: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcham, Faith; Galloway, James; Hotopf, Matthew; Roberts, Emmert; Scott, Ian C; Steer, Sophia; Norton, Sam

    2018-06-06

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) pharmacotherapy may impact mental health (MH) outcomes by improving pain and stiffness; and potentially via targeting inflammatory processes common to RA and depression. The objectives of this review were to i) ascertain the frequency of MH assessment in RA pharmacotherapy trials; ii) quantify the efficacy of RA pharmacotherapy efficacy on MH outcomes; iii) explore the clinical and demographic factors related to MH outcomes. CENTRAL, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Medline, Embase and CINAHL were systematically searched from inception to March 2017 for randomised trials of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in adult RA patients. The primary outcome was MH; self-reported physical health was extracted as a secondary outcome. Pairwise meta-analysis (PMA) created pooled effect sizes and 95%CIs for comparisons of all treatments versus comparators (active or placebo). Network meta-analysis (NMA) provided effect size estimates of targeted biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) versus conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) using indirect comparisons of different treatment modalities. 71 eligible studies were identified. 57 studies were included in the PMA, representing 23,535 patients. bDMARDs showed small effects on MH (standardised mean difference (SMD) versus csDMARDs = 0.19 to 0.30), and moderate effects on self-reported physical health (SMD versus csDMARDs = 0.46 to 0.50), with NMA determining no significant differences in effectiveness between bDMARD mode of action on either outcome. Effective pharmacotherapy alone is unlikely to substantially improve MH outcomes for most RA patients. Integrated MH care provided within routine clinical practice is essential to optimise mental and physical health outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Virtual diplomacy: an analysis of the structure of the target audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Verbytska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the global information society the communication processes, especially at the international level, become more important.  The effectiveness of communication depends primarily on its focus, i.e. on defining clearly the target audience which it should focus on. Virtual diplomacy, as a kind of political communication at the international level, is no exception.  The novelty, rapid development and dissemination of this phenomenon require profound analysis and elaboration of effective utilization strategies, including studying its recipients and target audiences. Purpose: identification, structuring and analysis of the recipients of virtual diplomacy as the audiences of international political communication. The study uses such research methods, as system analysis, structural functionalism, dialectics and synergy, comparison, critical analysis. Main results of the research: 1. The study examined the specifics of political communication in the context of the development of the global information society at the international level. 2. It also analyzed the recipients of virtual diplomacy as a kind of political communication at the international level. 3. The study highlighted the key target groups in the global Internet network based on the tasks performed by virtual diplomacy. 4. It proved the effectiveness of cooperation with each target group in the framework of virtual diplomacy. 5. It described the specifics of the work with each target group in the context of virtual diplomacy. Practical implications: The article may be useful for writing scientific theoretical studies, tests, essays and term papers, for designing special courses in universities in the sphere of international relations and international information. It can also be a guide for the authorities carrying out diplomatic activities and international information cooperation. Findings: In the context of the establishment of the global information society political

  10. System for automatic x-ray-image analysis, measurement, and sorting of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the Automatic X-Ray Image Analysis and Sorting (AXIAS) system which is designed to analyze and measure x-ray images of opaque hollow microspheres used as laser fusion targets. The x-ray images are first recorded on a high resolution film plate. The AXIAS system then digitizes and processes the images to accurately measure the target parameters and defects. The primary goals of the AXIAS system are: to provide extremely accurate and rapid measurements, to engineer a practical system for a routine production environment and to furnish the capability of automatically measuring an array of images for sorting and selection

  11. Sensitivity analysis of effective population size to demographic parameters in house sparrow populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubberud, Marlene Waege; Myhre, Ane Marlene; Holand, Håkon; Kvalnes, Thomas; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Jensen, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N. Using the global variance-based Sobol' method for the sensitivity analyses, we found that Ne/N was most sensitive to demographic variance, especially among older individuals. Furthermore, the individual reproductive values (that determine the demographic variance) were most sensitive to variation in fecundity. Our results draw attention to the applicability of sensitivity analyses in population management and conservation. For population management aiming to reduce the loss of genetic variation, a sensitivity analysis may indicate the demographic parameters towards which resources should be focused. The result of such an analysis may depend on the life history and mating system of the population or species under consideration, because the vital rates and sex-age classes that Ne/N is most sensitive to may change accordingly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Thermodynamic Analysis of Two Competing Mid-Sized Oxyfuel Combustion Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egill Thorbergsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of two mid-sized oxyfuel combustion combined cycles is performed. The two cycles are the semiclosed oxyfuel combustion combined cycle (SCOC-CC and the Graz cycle. In addition, a reference cycle was established as the basis for the analysis of the oxyfuel combustion cycles. A parametric study was conducted where the pressure ratio and the turbine entry temperature were varied. The layout and the design of the SCOC-CC are considerably simpler than the Graz cycle while it achieves the same net efficiency as the Graz cycle. The fact that the efficiencies for the two cycles are close to identical differs from previously reported work. Earlier studies have reported around a 3% points advantage in efficiency for the Graz cycle, which is attributed to the use of a second bottoming cycle. This additional feature is omitted to make the two cycles more comparable in terms of complexity. The Graz cycle has substantially lower pressure ratio at the optimum efficiency and has much higher power density for the gas turbine than both the reference cycle and the SCOC-CC.

  13. An analysis of health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers: Off target and too complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeijinga, Anniek; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José

    2017-01-01

    Despite various health promotion initiatives, unfavorable figures regarding Dutch truck drivers' eating behaviors, exercise behaviors, and absenteeism have not improved. The aim was to obtain a better understanding of the low level of effectiveness of current health interventions for Dutch truck drivers by examining to what extent these are tailored to the target group's particular mindset (focus of content) and health literacy skills (presentation of content). The article analyzes 21 health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers using a two-step approach: (a) an analysis of the materials' focus, guided by the Health Action Process Approach; and (b) an argumentation analysis, guided by pragma-dialectics. The corpus analysis revealed: (a) a predominant focus on the motivation phase; and (b) in line with the aim of motivating the target group, a consistent use of pragmatic arguments, which were typically presented in an implicit way. The results indicate that existing health promotion materials for Dutch truck drivers are not sufficiently tailored to the target group's mindset and health literacy skills. Recommendations are offered to develop more tailored/effective health interventions targeting this high-risk, underserved occupational group.

  14. TargetVue: Visual Analysis of Anomalous User Behaviors in Online Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Shi, Conglei; Lin, Sabrina; Lu, Jie; Lin, Yu-Ru; Lin, Ching-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Users with anomalous behaviors in online communication systems (e.g. email and social medial platforms) are potential threats to society. Automated anomaly detection based on advanced machine learning techniques has been developed to combat this issue; challenges remain, though, due to the difficulty of obtaining proper ground truth for model training and evaluation. Therefore, substantial human judgment on the automated analysis results is often required to better adjust the performance of anomaly detection. Unfortunately, techniques that allow users to understand the analysis results more efficiently, to make a confident judgment about anomalies, and to explore data in their context, are still lacking. In this paper, we propose a novel visual analysis system, TargetVue, which detects anomalous users via an unsupervised learning model and visualizes the behaviors of suspicious users in behavior-rich context through novel visualization designs and multiple coordinated contextual views. Particularly, TargetVue incorporates three new ego-centric glyphs to visually summarize a user's behaviors which effectively present the user's communication activities, features, and social interactions. An efficient layout method is proposed to place these glyphs on a triangle grid, which captures similarities among users and facilitates comparisons of behaviors of different users. We demonstrate the power of TargetVue through its application in a social bot detection challenge using Twitter data, a case study based on email records, and an interview with expert users. Our evaluation shows that TargetVue is beneficial to the detection of users with anomalous communication behaviors.

  15. Hot-spot analysis for drug discovery targeting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Mireia; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Protein-protein interactions are important for biological processes and pathological situations, and are attractive targets for drug discovery. However, rational drug design targeting protein-protein interactions is still highly challenging. Hot-spot residues are seen as the best option to target such interactions, but their identification requires detailed structural and energetic characterization, which is only available for a tiny fraction of protein interactions. Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover a variety of computational methods that have been reported for the energetic analysis of protein-protein interfaces in search of hot-spots, and the structural modeling of protein-protein complexes by docking. This can help to rationalize the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interfaces of therapeutic interest. Computational analysis and docking can help to locate the interface, molecular dynamics can be used to find suitable cavities, and hot-spot predictions can focus the search for inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Expert opinion: A major difficulty for applying rational drug design methods to protein-protein interactions is that in the majority of cases the complex structure is not available. Fortunately, computational docking can complement experimental data. An interesting aspect to explore in the future is the integration of these strategies for targeting PPIs with large-scale mutational analysis.

  16. Size analysis of planktic foraminifera from the Arabian Sea: Marine Micropaleontology,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, F.J.C.; Ivanova, E.; Conan, S.M.H.; Brummer, G.J.A.; Ganssen, G.M.; Troelstra, S.R.; van Weering, T.; van Hinte, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Planktic foraminiferal faunas from different environments in the Arabian Sea were size fractionated using 14 sieves with meshes between 100 and 710 μm, to assess the effect of the sieve mesh size cut off level on the faunal composition and to determine the size frequency distribution of individual

  17. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouda, Amr Ah.; Masoumi, Houshmand E.

    2017-01-01

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  18. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis of kaolins particle size fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaolins are common geological materials and have high concentrations of kaolinite as well as the clay fraction of tropical and subtropical soils of Brazil. The characterization of kaolin is a proxy of assessing the contribution of kaolinite to important soil chemical and mineralogical attributes. This study evaluated four kaolins (commercial kaolin A (CCA, commercial kaolin B (CCB, pink sandy kaolin A (CRA and green sandy kaolin A (CVA in the original form and after particle size separation into: sand (200-53 mm, coarse silt (53-20 m, fine silt (20-2 m, large clay (2-1m, medium clay (1-0.5 m and fine clay (<0.5m fractions. The minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD and evaluated for crystallinity (kaolinite and halloysite through indexes Hughes and Brown, Amigó, Bramão and the dehydroxylation temperature. The physical fractionation was efficient to concentrate minerals in specific size fractions which were not identified in the original material. In CCA kaolin was concentrated one mineral which remains unidentified in fine fractions, in kaolin CRA, zircon was concentrated in the coarse silt and different silicates in the fine fractions, in kaolin CCB were concentrated kaolinite and a silicate in the medium and coarse clay fractions. The estimate by X-ray diffraction overestimated the amount of kaolinite and halloysite underestimated when compared to quantification by thermal gravimetric analysis The crystallinity index exhibit different behaviors depending on the mineralogy of each material, thus the correlation between the crystallinity of kaolinite and / or halloysite and other variables, may be compromised, especially in materials with distinct geological origins.

  19. Sustainable transportation according to certification systems: A viability analysis based on neighborhood size and context relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, Amr Ah., E-mail: amr.gouda@eng.asu.edu.eg [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 1 Sarayat St., Abassia, Cairo (Egypt); Masoumi, Houshmand E. [Center for Technology and Society, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr, 16-18, Berlin 10623 (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Urban sustainability certification (USC) systems comprehensively assess and benchmark the sustainability of neighborhoods, communities, etc. However, it is important to understand what USCs mean by neighborhoods and communities in terms of definition and their certified developments' size. This study focuses on sustainable transportation and its measures in USCs in order to discern: how relevant are these measures to the varied local conditions, especially in developing countries? And whether they can generate palpable benefits vis-à-vis the certified developments' site areas. Taking descriptive analysis methods, this study focuses on four prominent USCs, namely, LEED for Neighborhood Development, BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development, and The Pearl Community Rating System. The four USCs prescribed multiple measures for sustainable transportation, particularly in favor of active transportation and public transportation. However, the relatively small size of their citified developments and the varying transportation conditions among different contexts attenuate the viability and relevance of the advocated measures for both modes. In order to yield more benefits, USCs should underscore the integrative nature of neighborhoods and communities, and transportation within their prescribed criteria and measures. Moreover, sustainable transportation as a theme should be tailored to the local conditions rather than being adopted or adapted from global USCs. - Highlights: • Transportation measures in four prominent certification systems were investigated. • Most certified neighborhoods, communities and developments have small site areas. • Certifications are insensitive to realities of transport in developing countries. • Benefits from advocating active transport only within certified areas are minimal. • Certifications devalue the integrative nature of neighborhoods and transportation.

  20. Grain size and shape analysis of the AD 1226 tephra layer, Reykjanes volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Guðrún; Tumi Guðmunsson, Magnús; Sigurgeirsson, Magnús Á.

    2014-05-01

    Recent explosive eruptions in Iceland have drawn attention to long range tephra transport in the atmosphere. In Iceland tephra forming explosion eruptions are frequent, due to abundance of water. However, the volcanism on the island is principally basaltic. Volcanism along the Reykjanes Peninsula is divided into five distinct volcanic systems. Volcano-tectonic activity within these systems is periodic, with recurrence intervals in the range of 1 ka. Last volcano-tectonic sequence began around AD 940, shortly after settlement of Iceland, and lasted through AD 1340. During this period activity was characterized by basaltic fissure eruptions. Furthermore, this activity period on the Reykjanes peninsula began within the eastern most volcanic system and gradually moved towards the west across the peninsula. The 1226 eruption was a basaltic fissure eruption with in the Reykjanes volcanic system. The eruption began on land and gradually progressed towards the SW until the volcanic fissure extended into the sea. Water-magma interaction changed the eruption from effusive into explosive forming the largest tephra layer on the peninsula. Due to its close proximity to the Keflavik international airport and that of the capital of Iceland it is important to get an insight into, the characteristics, generation and distribution of such tephra deposits. In this eruption the tephra produced had an approximate volume of 0.1 km3 and covered an area of some 3500 km2 within the 0.5 cm isopach. Total grain size distribution of this tephra layer will be presented along with analysis of principal grain shapes of the finer portion of the tephra layer as a function of distance from the source. The tephra grain size is dominated by particles finer than 1 millimeter with an almost complete absence of large grains independent of distance from the source. Comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of tephra generated in this eruption can help us to understand hazards posed by future

  1. Microscopic determination of the PuO2 grain size and pore size distribution of MOX pellets with an image analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandezande, J.

    2000-01-01

    The industrial way to obtain the Pu distribution in a MOX pellet is by Image Analysis. The PuO 2 grains are made visible by alpha-autoradiography. Along with the Pu distribution the pore structure is an item which is examined, the latter is determined on the unetched sample. After the visualization of the sample structure, the sample is evaluated with an Image Analysis System. Each image is enhanced and a distinction is made between the objects to be measured and the matrix. The relevant parameters are then analyzed. When the overall particle distribution is wanted, all identified particles are measured and classified in size groups, based on a logarithmic scale. The possible conversion of two-dimensional diameters to three-dimensional diameters is accomplished by application of the Saltykov algorithm. When a single object is of interest, the object is selected interactively, and the result is reported to the user. (author)

  2. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios (i.e. 10 −5 ). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios. Experimental results obtained for 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios deviated by less than −2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U c (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U, respectively. - Highlights: ► LA-MC-ICP-MS was fully validated for the direct analysis of individual particles. ► Traceability was established by using an IRMM glass particle reference material. ► Measured U isotope ratios were in agreement with the certified range. ► A comprehensive total combined uncertainty evaluation was performed. ► The analysis of 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was improved by using a deceleration filter.

  3. Coordinate based random effect size meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tench, C R; Tanasescu, Radu; Constantinescu, C S; Auer, D P; Cottam, W J

    2017-06-01

    Low power in neuroimaging studies can make them difficult to interpret, and Coordinate based meta-analysis (CBMA) may go some way to mitigating this issue. CBMA has been used in many analyses to detect where published functional MRI or voxel-based morphometry studies testing similar hypotheses report significant summary results (coordinates) consistently. Only the reported coordinates and possibly t statistics are analysed, and statistical significance of clusters is determined by coordinate density. Here a method of performing coordinate based random effect size meta-analysis and meta-regression is introduced. The algorithm (ClusterZ) analyses both coordinates and reported t statistic or Z score, standardised by the number of subjects. Statistical significance is determined not by coordinate density, but by a random effects meta-analyses of reported effects performed cluster-wise using standard statistical methods and taking account of censoring inherent in the published summary results. Type 1 error control is achieved using the false cluster discovery rate (FCDR), which is based on the false discovery rate. This controls both the family wise error rate under the null hypothesis that coordinates are randomly drawn from a standard stereotaxic space, and the proportion of significant clusters that are expected under the null. Such control is necessary to avoid propagating and even amplifying the very issues motivating the meta-analysis in the first place. ClusterZ is demonstrated on both numerically simulated data and on real data from reports of grey matter loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) and syndromes suggestive of MS, and of painful stimulus in healthy controls. The software implementation is available to download and use freely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of combinatorial regulation: scaling of partnerships between regulators with the number of governed targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Bhardwaj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Through combinatorial regulation, regulators partner with each other to control common targets and this allows a small number of regulators to govern many targets. One interesting question is that given this combinatorial regulation, how does the number of regulators scale with the number of targets? Here, we address this question by building and analyzing co-regulation (co-transcription and co-phosphorylation networks that describe partnerships between regulators controlling common genes. We carry out analyses across five diverse species: Escherichia coli to human. These reveal many properties of partnership networks, such as the absence of a classical power-law degree distribution despite the existence of nodes with many partners. We also find that the number of co-regulatory partnerships follows an exponential saturation curve in relation to the number of targets. (For E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, only the beginning linear part of this curve is evident due to arrangement of genes into operons. To gain intuition into the saturation process, we relate the biological regulation to more commonplace social contexts where a small number of individuals can form an intricate web of connections on the internet. Indeed, we find that the size of partnership networks saturates even as the complexity of their output increases. We also present a variety of models to account for the saturation phenomenon. In particular, we develop a simple analytical model to show how new partnerships are acquired with an increasing number of target genes; with certain assumptions, it reproduces the observed saturation. Then, we build a more general simulation of network growth and find agreement with a wide range of real networks. Finally, we perform various down-sampling calculations on the observed data to illustrate the robustness of our conclusions.

  5. CFD Analysis of the Active Part of the HYPER Spallation Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam-il Tak; Chungho Cho; Tae-Yung Song

    2006-01-01

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is developing an accelerator driven system (ADS) named HYPER (HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) for a transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes. One of the challenging tasks for the HYPER system is to design a large spallation target having a beam power of 15∼25 MW. The present paper focuses on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the active part of the HYPER target. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using a commercial code CFX 5.7.1. Several advanced turbulence models with different grid structures were applied. The CFX results show the significant impact of the turbulence model on the window temperature. It is concluded that experimental verifications are very important for the design of the HYPER target. (authors)

  6. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Dongyang; Li, Yuanhao; Hu, Cheng; Tian, Weiming

    2017-12-22

    The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS) in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures.

  7. Detection of Moving Targets Based on Doppler Spectrum Analysis Technique for Passive Coherent Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao-dong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of moving targets detection taking Doppler spectrum analysis technique for Passive Coherent Radar (PCR is provided. After dividing the receiving signals into segments as pulse series, it utilizes the technique of pulse compress and Doppler processing to detect and locate the targets. Based on the algorithm for Pulse-Doppler (PD radar, the equipollence between continuous and pulsed wave in match filtering is proved and details of this method are introduced. To compare it with the traditional method of Cross-Ambiguity Function (CAF calculation, the relationship and mathematical modes of them are analyzed, with some suggestions on parameters choosing. With little influence to the gain of targets, the method can greatly promote the processing efficiency. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by offline processing real collected data sets and simulation results.

  8. Determinants of Profitability of Food Industry in India: A Size-Wise Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Azhagaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Profitability is the profit earning capacity, which is a crucial factorin contributing to the survival of firms. This paper is a maidenattempt at estimating the impact of size on profitability, consideringthe ‘size’ as the control variable. For this purpose, the selectedfirms are classified into three size categories as ‘small,’ ‘medium,’and ‘large’ based on the sales turnover. The results show that volatilityand growth are the major predictors in determining profitabilityin case of small size firms while growth is important in determiningthe profitability of medium size firms. Capital intensityhas a significant positive coefficient with the profitability of largesize firms. The overall result shows that the larger the size of thefirm, the more the investment in long lived assets has helped toincrease the profitability of the firm unlike the trend in cases ofsmall size and medium size firms.

  9. Deterministic and stochastic analysis of alternative climate targets under differentiated cooperation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loulou, Richard; Labriet, Maryse; Kanudia, Amit

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the feasibility of attaining a variety of climate targets during the 21st century, under alternative cooperation regimes by groups of countries. Five climate targets of increasing severity are analyzed, following the EMF-22 experiment. Each target is attempted under two cooperation regimes, a First Best scenario where all countries fully cooperate from 2012 on, and a Second Best scenario where the World is partitioned into three groups, and each group of countries enters the cooperation at a different date, and implement emission abatement actions in a progressive manner, once in the coalition. The resulting ten combinations are simulated via the ETSAP-TIAM technology based, integrated assessment model. In addition to the 10 separate case analyses, the article proposes a probabilistic treatment of three targets under the First Best scenario, and shows that the three forcing targets may in fact be interpreted as a single target on global temperature change, while assuming that the climate sensitivity C s is uncertain. It is shown that such an interpretation is possible only if the probability distribution of C s is carefully chosen. The analysis of the results shows that the lowest forcing level is unattainable unless immediate coordinated action is undertaken by all countries, and even so only at a high global cost. The middle and the high forcing levels are feasible at affordable global costs, even under the Second Best scenario. Another original contribution of this article is to explain why certain combinations of technological choices are made by the model, and in particular why the climate target clearly supersedes the usually accepted objective of improving energy efficiency. The analysis shows that under some climate targets, it is not optimal to improve energy efficiency, but rather to take advantage of certain technologies that help to reach the climate objective, but that happen to be less energy efficient than even the technologies

  10. Seismic analysis of fuel and target assemblies at a production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.I.; Wang, Y.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the unique modeling and analysis considerations used to assess the seismic adequacy of the fuel and target assemblies in a production reactor at Savannah River Site. This confirmatory analysis was necessary to provide assurance that the reactor can operate safely during a seismic event and be brought to a safe shutdown condition. The plant which was originally designed in the 1950's required to be assessed to more current seismic criteria. The design of the reactor internals and the magnitude of the structural responses enabled the use of a linear elastic dynamic analysis. A seismic analysis was performed using a finite element model consisting of the fuel and target assemblies, reactor tank, and a portion of the concrete structure supporting the reactor tank. The effects of submergence of the fuel and target assemblies in the water contained within the reactor tank can have a significant effect on their seismic response. Thus, the model included hydrodynamic fluid coupling effects between the assemblies and the reactor tank. Fluid coupling mass terms were based on formulations for solid bodies immersed in incompressible and frictionless fluids. The potential effects of gap conditions were also assessed in this evaluation. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. A BRDF-BPDF database for the analysis of Earth target reflectances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Francois-Marie; Maignan, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Land surface reflectance is not isotropic. It varies with the observation geometry that is defined by the sun, view zenith angles, and the relative azimuth. In addition, the reflectance is linearly polarized. The reflectance anisotropy is quantified by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), while its polarization properties are defined by the bidirectional polarization distribution function (BPDF). The POLDER radiometer that flew onboard the PARASOL microsatellite remains the only space instrument that measured numerous samples of the BRDF and BPDF of Earth targets. Here, we describe a database of representative BRDFs and BPDFs derived from the POLDER measurements. From the huge number of data acquired by the spaceborne instrument over a period of 7 years, we selected a set of targets with high-quality observations. The selection aimed for a large number of observations, free of significant cloud or aerosol contamination, acquired in diverse observation geometries with a focus on the backscatter direction that shows the specific hot spot signature. The targets are sorted according to the 16-class International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land cover classification system, and the target selection aims at a spatial representativeness within the class. The database thus provides a set of high-quality BRDF and BPDF samples that can be used to assess the typical variability of natural surface reflectances or to evaluate models. It is available freely from the PANGAEA website (PANGAEA.864090" target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.864090). In addition to the database, we provide a visualization and analysis tool based on the Interactive Data Language (IDL). It allows an interactive analysis of the measurements and a comparison against various BRDF and BPDF analytical models. The present paper describes the input data, the selection principles, the database format, and the analysis tool

  12. Towards understanding the lifespan extension by reduced insulin signaling: bioinformatics analysis of DAF-16/FOXO direct targets in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Gai-Gai

    2016-04-12

    DAF-16, the C. elegans FOXO transcription factor, is an important determinant in aging and longevity. In this work, we manually curated FOXODB http://lyh.pkmu.cn/foxodb/, a database of FOXO direct targets. It now covers 208 genes. Bioinformatics analysis on 109 DAF-16 direct targets in C. elegans found interesting results. (i) DAF-16 and transcription factor PQM-1 co-regulate some targets. (ii) Seventeen targets directly regulate lifespan. (iii) Four targets are involved in lifespan extension induced by dietary restriction. And (iv) DAF-16 direct targets might play global roles in lifespan regulation.

  13. Analysis of the thermomechanical behavior of the IFMIF bayonet target assembly under design loading scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, D., E-mail: davide.bernardi@enea.it [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G.; Di Maio, P.A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Frisoni, M. [ENEA Bologna, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, Bologna (Italy); Miccichè, G.; Serra, M. [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    In the framework of the IFMIF Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (IFMIF/EVEDA) phase, ENEA is responsible for the design of the European concept of the IFMIF lithium target system which foresees the possibility to periodically replace only the most irradiated and thus critical component (i.e., the backplate) while continuing to operate the rest of the target for a longer period (the so-called bayonet backplate concept). In this work, the results of the steady state thermomechanical analysis of the IFMIF bayonet target assembly under two different design loading scenarios (a “hot” scenario and a “cold” scenario) are briefly reported highlighting the relevant indications obtained with respect to the fulfillment of the design requirements. In particular, the analyses have shown that in the hot scenario the temperatures reached in the target assembly are within the material acceptable limits while in the cold scenario transition below the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) cannot be excluded. Moreover, results indicate that the contact between backplate and high flux test module is avoided and that the overall structural integrity of the system is assured in both scenarios. However, stress linearization analysis reveals that ITER Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) design rules are not always met along the selected paths at backplate middle plane section in the hot scenario, thus suggesting the need of a revision of the backplate design or a change of the operating conditions.

  14. Thermal analysis of LEU modified Cintichem target irradiated in TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, A; Toma, C.

    2009-01-01

    Actions conceived during last years at international level for conversion of Molybdenum fabrication process from HEU to LEU targets utilization created opportunities for INR to get access to information and participating to international discussions under IAEA auspices. Concrete steps for developing fission Molybdenum technology were facilitated. Institute of Nuclear Research bringing together a number of conditions like suitable irradiation possibilities, direct communication between reactor and hot cell facility, handling capacity of high radioactive sources, and simultaneously the existence of an expanding internal market, decided to undertake the necessary steps in order to produce fission molybdenum. Over the course of last years of efforts in this direction we developed the steps for fission Molybdenum technology development based on modified Cintichem process in accordance with the Argonne National Laboratory proved methodology. Progress made by INR to heat transfer computations of annular target using is presented. An advanced thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed to estimate the heat removal capability for an enriched uranium (LEU) foil annular target irradiated in TRIGA reactor core. As a result, the present analysis provides an upper limit estimate of the LEU-foil and external target surface temperatures during irradiation in TRIGA 14 MW reactor. (authors)

  15. A study on quantitative analysis of field size and dose by using gating system in 4D conformal radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Youn-Sang; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Chang-Bok; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the gating-based 4-D conformal radiation therapy (4D-CT) treatment planning by a comparison with the common 3-D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CT) treatment planning and examined the change in treatment field size and dose to the tumors and adjacent normal tissues because an unnecessary dose is also included in the 3-D treatment planning for the radiation treatment of tumors in the chest and abdomen. The 3D-CT and gating-based 4D-CT images were obtained from patients who had undergone radiation treatment for chest and abdomen tumors in the oncology department. After establishing a treatment plan, the CT treatment and planning system were used to measure the change in field size for analysis. A dose volume histogram (DVH) was used to calculate the appropriate dose to planning target volume (PTV) tumors and adjacent normal tissue. The difference in the treatment volume of the chest was 0.6 and 0.83 cm on the X- and Y-axis, respectively, for the gross tumor volume (GTV). Accordingly, the values in the 4D-CT treatment planning were smaller and the dose was more concentrated by 2.7% and 0.9% on the GTV and clinical target volume (CTV), respectively. The normal tissues in the surrounding normal tissues were reduced by 3.0%, 7.2%, 0.4%, 1.7%, 2.6% and 0.2% in the bronchus, chest wall, esophagus, heart, lung and spinal cord, respectively. The difference in the treatment volume of the abdomen was 0.72 cm on the X-axis and 0.51 cm on the Y-axis for the GTV; and 1.06 cm on the X-axis and 1.85 cm on the Y-axis for the PTV. Therefore, the values in the 4D-CT treatment planning were smaller. The dose was concentrated by 6.8% and 4.3% on the GTV and PTV, respectively, whereas the adjacent normal tissues in the cord, Lt. kidney, Rt. kidney, small bowels and whole liver were reduced by 3.2%, 4.2%, 1.5%, 6.2% and 12.7%, respectively. The treatment field size was smaller in volume in the case of the 4D-CT treatment planning. In the DVH, the 4D-CT treatment

  16. Clinicopathologic Analysis of Microscopic Extension in Lung Adenocarcinoma: Defining Clinical Target Volume for Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grills, Inga S.; Fitch, Dwight L.; Goldstein, Neal S.; Yan Di; Chmielewski, Gary W.; Welsh, Robert J.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the gross tumor volume (GTV) to clinical target volume margin for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment planning. Methods: A total of 35 patients with Stage T1N0 adenocarcinoma underwent wedge resection plus immediate lobectomy. The gross tumor size and microscopic extension distance beyond the gross tumor were measured. The nuclear grade and percentage of bronchoalveolar features were analyzed for association with microscopic extension. The gross tumor dimensions were measured on a computed tomography (CT) scan (lung and mediastinal windows) and compared with the pathologic dimensions. The potential coverage of microscopic extension for two different lung stereotactic radiotherapy regimens was evaluated. Results: The mean microscopic extension distance beyond the gross tumor was 7.2 mm and varied according to grade (10.1, 7.0, and 3.5 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively, p < 0.01). The 90th percentile for microscopic extension was 12.0 mm (13.0, 9.7, and 4.4 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively). The CT lung windows correlated better with the pathologic size than did the mediastinal windows (gross pathologic size overestimated by a mean of 5.8 mm; composite size [gross plus microscopic extension] underestimated by a mean of 1.2 mm). For a GTV contoured on the CT lung windows, the margin required to cover microscopic extension for 90% of the cases would be 9 mm (9, 7, and 4 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively). The potential microscopic extension dosimetric coverage (55 Gy) varied substantially between the stereotactic radiotherapy schedules. Conclusion: For lung adenocarcinomas, the GTV should be contoured using CT lung windows. Although a GTV based on the CT lung windows would underestimate the gross tumor size plus microscopic extension by only 1.2 mm for the average case, the clinical target volume expansion required to cover the microscopic extension in 90% of cases could be as large as 9 mm, although considerably smaller for high-grade tumors

  17. Computational analysis of the atomic size effect in bulk metallic glasses and their liquid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotin, V.; Hermann, H.

    2008-01-01

    The atomic size effect and its consequences for the ability of multicomponent liquid alloys to form bulk metallic glasses are analyzed in terms of the generalized Bernal's model for liquids, following the hypothesis that maximum density in the liquid state improves the glass-forming ability. The maximum density that can be achieved in the liquid state is studied in the 2(N-1) dimensional parameter space of N-component systems. Computer simulations reveal that the size ratio of largest to smallest atoms are most relevant for achieving the maximum packing for N = 3-5, whereas the number of components plays a minor role. At small size ratio, the maximum packing density can be achieved by different atomic size distributions, whereas for medium size ratios the maximum density is always correlated to a concave size distribution. The relationship of the results to Miracle's efficient cluster packing model is also discussed

  18. Integrative Analysis of Desert Dust Size and Abundance Suggests Less Dust Climate Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F.; Ridley, David A.; Zhou, Qing; Miller, Ron L.; Zhao, Chun; Heald, Colette L.; Ward, Daniel S.; Albani, Samuel; Haustein, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Desert dust aerosols affect Earths global energy balance through interactions with radiation, clouds, and ecosystems. But the magnitudes of these effects are so uncertain that it remains unclear whether atmospheric dust has a net warming or cooling effect on global climate. Consequently, it is still uncertain whether large changes in atmospheric dust loading over the past century have slowed or accelerated anthropogenic climate change, and the climate impact of possible future alterations in dust loading is similarly disputed. Here we use an integrative analysis of dust aerosol sizes and abundance to constrain the climatic impact of dust through direct interactions with radiation. Using a combination of observational, experimental, and model data, we find that atmospheric dust is substantially coarser than represented in current climate models. Since coarse dust warms global climate, the dust direct radiative effect (DRE) is likely less cooling than the 0.4 W m superscript 2 estimated by models in a current ensemble. We constrain the dust DRE to -0.20 (-0.48 to +0.20) W m superscript 2, which suggests that the dust DRE produces only about half the cooling that current models estimate, and raises the possibility that dust DRE is actually net warming the planet.

  19. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a 'Nu Plasma HR' multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10-20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios (i.e. 10(-5)). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for (234)U/(238)U and (235)U/(238)U ratios. Experimental results obtained for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios deviated by less than -2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U(c) (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Analysis of femtogram-sized plutonium samples by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Duckworth, D.C.; Bostick, D.T.; Coleman, R.M.; McPherson, R.L.; McKown, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to extend the ability to perform isotopic analysis of plutonium to samples as small as possible. Plutonium ionizes thermally with quite good efficiency (first ionization potential 5.7 eV). Sub-nanogram sized samples can be analyzed on a near-routine basis given the necessary instrumentation. Efforts in this laboratory have been directed at rhenium-carbon systems; solutions of carbon in rhenium provide surfaces with work functions higher than pure rhenium (5.8 vs. ∼ 5.4 eV). Using a single resin bead as a sample loading medium both concentrates the sample nearly to a point and, due to its interaction with rhenium, produces the desired composite surface. Earlier work in this area showed that a layer of rhenium powder slurried in solution containing carbon substantially enhanced precision of isotopic measurements for uranium. Isotopic fractionation was virtually eliminated, and ionization efficiencies 2-5 times better than previously measured were attained for both Pu and U (1.7 and 0.5%, respectively). The other side of this coin should be the ability to analyze smaller samples, which is the subject of this report

  2. Ultrasonographic Findings of Hepatic Hemangioma : Analysis of Echo-Patterns According to Tumor Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Hoon; Lee, Hae Giu; Choi, Byung Gil; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Sung Yong; Yim, Jung Ik; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1995-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of ultrasonographic features of hepatic hemangiomas according to tumor size. After an initial ultrasonographic examination, 5l hepatic hemangiomas in 4l patients were confirmed by one or combined examinations of 99mTc RBC SPECT, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging. angiography or ultrasonographic follow up. Definition of margin, internal echogenicity,peripheral rim and posterior enhancement were evaluated by two radiologists. Forty seven cases(92%) of 51 hemangiomas appeared to be well defined. Of 29 hemangiomas with less than 3cm in diameter. 25 cases (86%)showed homogeneous internal echogenicity. Of 22 hemangiomas with above 3 cm in diameter, 16 cases (73%) showed inhomogeneous echogenicity. Of 12 hemangiomas (24%) with peripheral rim, nine cases revealed hyperechoic rim and two hypoechoic rim. The remaining one case showed hyperechoic rim and hypoechoic rim alternately. Hemangiomas with greater than 3cm in diameter had higher incidence of inhomogeneous echogenicity, peripheral rim and posterior enhancement than those less than 3 cm(P<0.05). The majority of small hepatic hemangiomas are well defined homogeneous hyperechoic masses. On the other hand, large hemangiomas tended to have higher incidence of inhomogeneous internal echogenicity, posterior enhancement and a peripheral hyperechoic rim. A hyperechoic mass with a hypoechoic rim should also be considered as a candidate for hepatic hemangioma

  3. Random sequential adsorption with two components: asymptotic analysis and finite size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, Louise; Wattis, Jonathan A D

    2015-01-01

    We consider the model of random sequential adsorption (RSA) in which two lengths of rod-like polymer compete for binding on a long straight rigid one-dimensional substrate. We take all lengths to be discrete, assume that binding is irreversible, and short or long polymers are chosen at random with some probability. We consider both the cases where the polymers have similar lengths and when the lengths are vastly different. We use a combination of numerical simulations, computation and asymptotic analysis to study the adsorption process, specifically, analysing how competition between the two polymer lengths affects the final coverage, and how the coverage depends on the relative sizes of the two species and their relative binding rates. We find that the final coverage is always higher than in the one-species RSA, and that the highest coverage is achieved when the rate of binding of the longer polymer is higher. We find that for many binding rates and relative lengths of binding species, the coverage due to the shorter species decreases with increasing substrate length, although there is a small region of parameter space in which all coverages increase with substrate length. (paper)

  4. Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Goeteborg, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Annemarie [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: wagnera@chalmers.se; Boman, Johan [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Gatari, Michael J. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Goeteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers.

  5. Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Goeteborg, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Annemarie; Boman, Johan; Gatari, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Goeteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 μm aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers

  6. 14CO2 analysis of soil gas: Evaluation of sample size limits and sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotte, Anja; Wischhöfer, Philipp; Wacker, Lukas; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 respired from soils or sediments is a valuable tool to identify different carbon sources. The collection and processing of the CO2, however, is challenging and prone to contamination. We thus continuously improve our handling procedures and present a refined method for the collection of even small amounts of CO2 in molecular sieve cartridges (MSCs) for accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analysis. Using a modified vacuum rig and an improved desorption procedure, we were able to increase the CO2 recovery from the MSC (95%) as well as the sample throughput compared to our previous study. By processing series of different sample size, we show that our MSCs can be used for CO2 samples of as small as 50 μg C. The contamination by exogenous carbon determined in these laboratory tests, was less than 2.0 μg C from fossil and less than 3.0 μg C from modern sources. Additionally, we tested two sampling devices for the collection of CO2 samples released from soils or sediments, including a respiration chamber and a depth sampler, which are connected to the MSC. We obtained a very promising, low process blank for the entire CO2 sampling and purification procedure of ∼0.004 F14C (equal to 44,000 yrs BP) and ∼0.003 F14C (equal to 47,000 yrs BP). In contrast to previous studies, we observed no isotopic fractionation towards lighter δ13C values during the passive sampling with the depth samplers.

  7. Allocating the Fixed Resources and Setting Targets in Integer Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gholami

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a non-parametric approach to evaluate a set of decision making units (DMUs consuming multiple inputs to produce multiple outputs. Formally, DEA use to estimate the efficiency score into the empirical efficient frontier. Also, DEA can be used to allocate resources and set targets for future forecast. The data are continuous in the standard DEA model whereas there are many problems in the real life that data must be integer such as number of employee, machinery, expert and so on. Thus in this paper we propose an approach to allocate fixed resources and set fixed targets with selective integer assumption that is based on an integer data envelopment analysis (IDEA approach for the first time. The major aim in this approach is preserving the efficiency score of DMUs. We use the concept of benchmarking to reach this aim. The numerical example gets to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  8. Evaluation of instruments used in particle size analysis by using the sedimentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Abdrahman, A.A.M.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study is carried out to evaluate the performance of some instruments in which the sedimentation technique is used for the determination of particle size distribution using Stoke's law. A mathematical formula has been developed to calculate the particle size distribution for different cases and the results were compared to the real ones. The results revealed unsatisfactory agreement between the calculated and the measured values. In addition, illogic results were obtained indicating that the instruments in which the sedimentation technique is used are not the proper ones to provide accurate measurements except for mono particle size cases. More above, the results obtained represent the sedimentation rate but not the particle size distribution.

  9. Analysis and Simulation of Multi-target Echo Signals from a Phased Array Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Zhen; Zhou Rui

    2017-01-01

    The construction of digital radar simulation systems has been a research hotspot of the radar field. This paper focuses on theoretical analysis and simulation of multi-target echo signals produced in a phased array radar system, and constructs an array antenna element and a signal generation environment. The antenna element is able to simulate planar arrays and optimizes these arrays by adding window functions. And the signal environment can model and simulate radar transmission signals, rada...

  10. Methodological Approach to Company Cash Flows Target-Oriented Forecasting Based on Financial Position Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Krylov

    2012-01-01

    The article treats a new methodological approach to the company cash flows target-oriented forecasting based on its financial position analysis. The approach is featured to be universal and presumes application of the following techniques developed by the author: financial ratio values correction techniques and correcting cash flows techniques. The financial ratio values correction technique assumes to analyze and forecast company financial position while the correcting cash flows technique i...

  11. Targeting khat or targeting Somalis? A discourse analysis of project evaluations on khat abuse among Somali immigrants in Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordgren Johan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the use of the psychoactive plant khat is widely seen as a social and health problem exclusively affecting the Somali immigrant population. Several projects by governmental and municipal bodies and agencies have been initiated to reduce khat use and abuse within this target population.

  12. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  13. Analysis of Benthic Foraminiferal Size Change During the Eocene-Oligocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, W.; Keating-Bitonti, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition is a significant global cooling event with the first growth of continental ice on Antarctica. In the geologic record, the size of fossils can be used to indirectly observe how organisms respond to climate change. For example, organisms tend to be larger in cooler environments as a physiological response to temperature. This major global cooling event should influence organism physiology, resulting in significant size trends observed in the fossil record. Benthic foraminifera are protists and those that grow a carbonate shell are both well-preserved and abundant in marine sediments. Here, we used the foraminiferal fossil record to study the relationship between their size and global cooling. We hypothesize that cooler temperatures across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary promoted shell size increase. To test this hypothesis, we studied benthic foraminifera from 10 deep-sea cores drilled at Ocean Drilling Program Site 744, located in the southern Indian Ocean. We washed sediment samples over a 63-micron sieve and picked foraminifera from a 125-micron sieve. We studied the benthic foraminiferal genus Cibicidoides and its size change across this cooling event. Picked specimens were imaged and we measured the diameter of their shells using "imageJ". Overall, we find that Cibicidoides shows a general trend of increasing size during this transition. In particular, both the median and maximum sizes of Cibicidoides increase from the Eocene into the Oligocene. We also analyzed C. pachyderma and C. mundulus for size trends. Although both species increase in median size across the boundary, only C. pachyderma shows a consistent trend of increasing maximum, median, and minimum shell diameter. After the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, we observe that shell diameter decreases following peak cooling and that foraminiferal sizes remain stable into the early Oligocene. Therefore, the Eocene-Oligocene cooling event appears to have strong influence on shell size.

  14. The Class Size Question: A Study at Different Levels of Analysis. ACER Research Monograph No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Anthony I.; Keeves, John P.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the ways in which class size affected other facets of the educational environment of the classroom. The study focused on the commonly found positive relationship between class size and achievement. The most plausible explanation of the evidence seems to involve the effects of grouping more able…

  15. Measurement and analysis of the concentration and size distribution of aerosols in a copper mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehong; Zhuo Weihai; Huang Gang; Su Xu; Sun Quanfu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the general characteristics of the concentration and size distribution of aerosols in a mine. Methods: In different areas of a non-uranium mine, the particle number and mass concentration of aerosols were surveyed with a condensation particle counter and a personal aerosol monitor, respectively, and the size distribution of aerosols larger than 1 μm in size was estimated according to the size- selective measurements of mass concentrations. The size distribution of submicron aerosols was evaluated based on the method of screen diffusion battery (SOB), and the measurements were performed in both inside and outside of a control room. Results: The mass concentration of inhaled particles (PM10) was averaged to be 0.42 mg/m 3 in the whole mine, and it varied with different working areas and significantly affected with human activities. In the mine, particles lager than 1 μm in size widely distributed, while the particles less than 5 nm in size were seldom observed. Conclusions: The characteristics of aerosol significantly change with different working areas, human activities and Antilation condition in mine. The dose contribution from inhaled radioactive particles larger than 1 μm in size should be considered in mine. (authors)

  16. X-ray structural analysis of two-dimensional assembling lead sulfide nanocrystals of different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Elena V.; Golubkov, Valery V.; Litvin, Aleksandr P.; Parfenov, Peter S.; Cherevkov, Sergei A.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Baranov, Alexander V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the structural investigation of self-organized assemblies of PbS nanocrystals (NCs) of different sizes, which were deposited on a glass substrate or embedded in a porous matrix. Regardless of the NC size and the type of the substrate and matrix, the assemblies were ordered in two-dimensional superlattices with densely packed NCs.

  17. Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis of a Severe Downslope Windstorm in Complex Terrain: Implications for Forecast Predictability Scales and Targeted Observing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    observations, linear regression finds the straight line that explains the linear relationship of the sample. This line is given by the equation y = mx + b...SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF A SEVERE DOWNSLOPE WINDSTORM IN COMPLEX TERRAIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR FORECAST PREDICTABILITY SCALES AND TARGETED OBSERVING...SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF A SEVERE DOWNSLOPE WINDSTORM IN COMPLEX TERRAIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR FORECAST PREDICTABILITY SCALES AND TARGETED OBSERVING NETWORKS

  18. Insights into early stage of antibiotic development in small- and medium-sized enterprises: a survey of targets, costs, and durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Baraldi, Enrico; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Outterson, Kevin; Plahte, Jens; Ciabuschi, Francesco; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic innovation has dwindled to dangerously low levels in the past 30 years. Since resistance continues to evolve, this innovation deficit can have perilous consequences on patients. A number of new incentives have been suggested to stimulate greater antibacterial drug innovation. To design effective solutions, a greater understanding is needed of actual antibiotic discovery and development costs and timelines. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) undertake most discovery and early phase development for antibiotics and other drugs. This paper attempts to gather a better understanding of SMEs' targets, costs, and durations related to discovery and early phase development of antibacterial therapies. DRIVE-AB, a project focused on developing new economic incentives to stimulate antibacterial innovation, held a European stakeholder meeting in February 2015. All SMEs invited to this meeting ( n  = 44) were subsequently sent a survey to gather more data regarding their areas of activity, completed and expected development costs and timelines, and business models. Twenty-five companies responded to the survey. Respondents were primarily small companies each focusing on developing 1 to 3 new antibiotics, focused on pathogens of public health importance. Most have not yet completed any clinical trials. They have reported ranges of discovery and development out-of-pocket costs that appear to be less expensive than other studies of general pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) costs. The duration ranges reported for completing each phase of R&D are highly variable when compared to previously published general pharmaceutical innovation average durations. However, our sample population is small and may not be fully representative of all relevant antibiotic SMEs. The data collected by this study provide important insights and estimates about R&D in European SMEs focusing on antibiotics, which can be combined with other data to design incentives to

  19. Fractal analysis of mandibular trabecular bone: optimal tile sizes for the tile counting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Baik, Jee-Seon; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sun-Bok; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2011-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal tile size for the fractal dimension of the mandibular trabecular bone using a tile counting method. Digital intraoral radiographic images were obtained at the mandibular angle, molar, premolar, and incisor regions of 29 human dry mandibles. After preprocessing, the parameters representing morphometric characteristics of the trabecular bone were calculated. The fractal dimensions of the processed images were analyzed in various tile sizes by the tile counting method. The optimal range of tile size was 0.132 mm to 0.396 mm for the fractal dimension using the tile counting method. The sizes were closely related to the morphometric parameters. The fractal dimension of mandibular trabecular bone, as calculated with the tile counting method, can be best characterized with a range of tile sizes from 0.132 to 0.396 mm.

  20. Finite-size analysis of continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Yichen; Zhao, Yijia; Wang, Xiangyu; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2017-10-01

    We study the impact of the finite-size effect on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, mainly considering the finite-size effect on the parameter estimation procedure. The central-limit theorem and maximum likelihood estimation theorem are used to estimate the parameters. We also analyze the relationship between the number of exchanged signals and the optimal modulation variance in the protocol. It is proved that when Charlie's position is close to Bob, the CV-MDI QKD protocol has the farthest transmission distance in the finite-size scenario. Finally, we discuss the impact of finite-size effects related to the practical detection in the CV-MDI QKD protocol. The overall results indicate that the finite-size effect has a great influence on the secret-key rate of the CV-MDI QKD protocol and should not be ignored.

  1. Impact of sample size on principal component analysis ordination of an environmental data set: effects on eigenstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat S. Shahid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used bootstrap simulation of a real data set to investigate the impact of sample size (N = 20, 30, 40 and 50 on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors resulting from principal component analysis (PCA. For each sample size, 100 bootstrap samples were drawn from environmental data matrix pertaining to water quality variables (p = 22 of a small data set comprising of 55 samples (stations from where water samples were collected. Because in ecology and environmental sciences the data sets are invariably small owing to high cost of collection and analysis of samples, we restricted our study to relatively small sample sizes. We focused attention on comparison of first 6 eigenvectors and first 10 eigenvalues. Data sets were compared using agglomerative cluster analysis using Ward’s method that does not require any stringent distributional assumptions.

  2. An analysis of possible off target effects following CAS9/CRISPR targeted deletions of neuropeptide gene enhancers from the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Elizabeth Anne; Khalaf, Abdulla Razak; Marini, Pietro; Brown, Andrew; Heath, Karyn; Sheppard, Darrin; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2017-08-01

    We have successfully used comparative genomics to identify putative regulatory elements within the human genome that contribute to the tissue specific expression of neuropeptides such as galanin and receptors such as CB1. However, a previous inability to rapidly delete these elements from the mouse genome has prevented optimal assessment of their function in-vivo. This has been solved using CAS9/CRISPR genome editing technology which uses a bacterial endonuclease called CAS9 that, in combination with specifically designed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules, cuts specific regions of the mouse genome. However, reports of "off target" effects, whereby the CAS9 endonuclease is able to cut sites other than those targeted, limits the appeal of this technology. We used cytoplasmic microinjection of gRNA and CAS9 mRNA into 1-cell mouse embryos to rapidly generate enhancer knockout mouse lines. The current study describes our analysis of the genomes of these enhancer knockout lines to detect possible off-target effects. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the most likely putative off-target sites and to design PCR primers that would amplify these sequences from genomic DNA of founder enhancer deletion mouse lines. Amplified DNA was then sequenced and blasted against the mouse genome sequence to detect off-target effects. Using this approach we were unable to detect any evidence of off-target effects in the genomes of three founder lines using any of the four gRNAs used in the analysis. This study suggests that the problem of off-target effects in transgenic mice have been exaggerated and that CAS9/CRISPR represents a highly effective and accurate method of deleting putative neuropeptide gene enhancer sequences from the mouse genome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies for metastatic melanoma: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sandro; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Mocellin, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies, two new class of drugs for treatment of metastatic melanoma, have not been compared in randomized controlled trials (RCT). We quantitatively summarized the evidence and compared immune and targeted therapies in terms of both efficacy and toxicity. A comprehensive search for RCTs of immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies was conducted to August 2016. Using a network meta-analysis approach, treatments were compared with each other and ranked based on their effectiveness (as measured by the impact on progression-free survival [PFS]) and acceptability (the inverse of high grade toxicity). Twelve RCTs enrolling 6207 patients were included. Network meta-analysis generated 15 comparisons. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibitors were associated with longer PFS as compared to anti-CTLA4 (HR: 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.41) and anti-PD1 antibodies alone (HR: 0.38; CI: 0.20-0.72). However, anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies were less toxic than anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies (RR: 0.65; CI: 0.40-0.78) and their combination significantly increased toxicity compared to either single agent anti-CTLA4 (RR: 2.06; CI: 1.45-2.93) or anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies (RR: 3.67; CI: 2.27-5.96). Consistently, ranking analysis suggested that the combination of targeted therapies is the most effective strategy, whereas single agent anti-PD1 antibodies have the best acceptability. The GRADE level of evidence quality for these findings was moderate to low. The simultaneous inhibition of BRAF and MEK appears the most effective treatment for melanomas harboring BRAF V600 mutation, although anti-PD1 antibodies appear to be less toxic. Further research is needed to increase the quality of evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Size-based emphysema cluster analysis on low attenuation area in 3D volumetric CT: comparison with pulmonary functional test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minho; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young

    2015-03-01

    To quantify low attenuation area (LAA) of emphysematous regions according to cluster size in 3D volumetric CT data of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and to compare these indices with their pulmonary functional test (PFT). Sixty patients with COPD were scanned by a more than 16-multi detector row CT scanner (Siemens Sensation 16 and 64) within 0.75mm collimation. Based on these LAA masks, a length scale analysis to estimate each emphysema LAA's size was performed as follows. At first, Gaussian low pass filter from 30mm to 1mm kernel size with 1mm interval on the mask was performed from large to small size, iteratively. Centroid voxels resistant to the each filter were selected and dilated by the size of the kernel, which was regarded as the specific size emphysema mask. The slopes of area and number of size based LAA (slope of semi-log plot) were analyzed and compared with PFT. PFT parameters including DLco, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were significantly (all p-value< 0.002) correlated with the slopes (r-values; -0.73, 0.54, 0.69, respectively) and EI (r-values; -0.84, -0.60, -0.68, respectively). In addition, the D independently contributed regression for FEV1 and FEV1/FVC (adjust R sq. of regression study: EI only, 0.70, 0.45; EI and D, 0.71, 0.51, respectively). By the size based LAA segmentation and analysis, we evaluated the Ds of area, number, and distribution of size based LAA, which would be independent factors for predictor of PFT parameters.

  5. Critical analysis of the potential for therapeutic targeting of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inokuchi M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mikito Inokuchi,1 Keiji Kato,1 Kazuyuki Kojima,2 Kenichi Sugihara1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Multidisciplinary treatment including chemotherapy has become the global standard of care for patients with metastatic gastric cancer (mGC; nonetheless, survival remains poor. Although many molecular-targeted therapies have been developed for various cancers, only anti-HER2 treatment has produced promising results in patients with mGC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR plays a key role in cell proliferation, antiapoptosis, and metastasis in signaling pathways from the tyrosine kinase receptor, and its activation has been demonstrated in gastric cancer (GC cells. This review discusses the clinical relevance of mTOR in GC and examines its potential as a therapeutic target in patients with mGC. Preclinical studies in animal models suggest that suppression of the mTOR pathway inhibits the proliferation of GC cells and delays tumor progression. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus has been evaluated as second- or third-line treatment in clinical trials. Adverse events were well tolerated although the effectiveness of everolimus alone was limited. Everolimus is now being evaluated in combination with chemotherapy in Phase III clinical studies in this subgroup of patients. Two Phase III studies include exploratory biomarker research designed to evaluate the predictive value of the expression or mutation of molecules related to the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. These biomarker studies may lead to the realization of targeted therapy for selected patients with mGC in the future. Keywords: gastric cancer, mTOR, everolimus

  6. Sample size calculation while controlling false discovery rate for differential expression analysis with RNA-sequencing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ran; Liu, Peng

    2016-03-31

    RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments have been popularly applied to transcriptome studies in recent years. Such experiments are still relatively costly. As a result, RNA-seq experiments often employ a small number of replicates. Power analysis and sample size calculation are challenging in the context of differential expression analysis with RNA-seq data. One challenge is that there are no closed-form formulae to calculate power for the popularly applied tests for differential expression analysis. In addition, false discovery rate (FDR), instead of family-wise type I error rate, is controlled for the multiple testing error in RNA-seq data analysis. So far, there are very few proposals on sample size calculation for RNA-seq experiments. In this paper, we propose a procedure for sample size calculation while controlling FDR for RNA-seq experimental design. Our procedure is based on the weighted linear model analysis facilitated by the voom method which has been shown to have competitive performance in terms of power and FDR control for RNA-seq differential expression analysis. We derive a method that approximates the average power across the differentially expressed genes, and then calculate the sample size to achieve a desired average power while controlling FDR. Simulation results demonstrate that the actual power of several popularly applied tests for differential expression is achieved and is close to the desired power for RNA-seq data with sample size calculated based on our method. Our proposed method provides an efficient algorithm to calculate sample size while controlling FDR for RNA-seq experimental design. We also provide an R package ssizeRNA that implements our proposed method and can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network ( http://cran.r-project.org ).

  7. In-silico Metabolome Target Analysis Towards PanC-based Antimycobacterial Agent Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkholgh-Sima, Baharak; Sardari, Soroush; Izadi Mobarakeh, Jalal; Khavari-Nejad, Ramezan Ali

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main cause of tuberculosis (TB), has still remained a global health crisis especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis treatment is a laborious and lengthy process with high risk of noncompliance, cytotoxicity adverse events and drug resistance in patient. Recently, there has been an alarming rise of drug resistant in TB. In this regard, it is an unmet need to develop novel antitubercular medicines that target new or more effective biochemical pathways to prevent drug resistant Mycobacterium. Integrated study of metabolic pathways through in-silico approach played a key role in antimycobacterial design process in this study. Our results suggest that pantothenate synthetase (PanC), anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase (TrpD) and 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase (LeuD) might be appropriate drug targets. In the next step, in-silico ligand analysis was used for more detailed study of chemical tractability of targets. This was helpful to identify pantothenate synthetase (PanC, Rv3602c) as the best target for antimycobacterial design procedure. Virtual library screening on the best ligand of PanC was then performed for inhibitory ligand design. At the end, five chemical intermediates showed significant inhibition of Mycobacterium bovis with good selectivity indices (SI) ≥10 according to Tuberculosis Antimicrobial Acquisition & Coordinating Facility of US criteria for antimycobacterial screening programs.

  8. Identification of Cell Surface Targets through Meta-analysis of Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Haeberle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution image guidance for resection of residual tumor cells would enable more precise and complete excision for more effective treatment of cancers, such as medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain cancer. Numerous studies have shown that brain tumor patient outcomes correlate with the precision of resection. To enable guided resection with molecular specificity and cellular resolution, molecular probes that effectively delineate brain tumor boundaries are essential. Therefore, we developed a bioinformatics approach to analyze micro-array datasets for the identification of transcripts that encode candidate cell surface biomarkers that are highly enriched in medulloblastoma. The results identified 380 genes with greater than a two-fold increase in the expression in the medulloblastoma compared with that in the normal cerebellum. To enrich for targets with accessibility for extracellular molecular probes, we further refined this list by filtering it with gene ontology to identify genes with protein localization on, or within, the plasma membrane. To validate this meta-analysis, the top 10 candidates were evaluated with immunohistochemistry. We identified two targets, fibrillin 2 and EphA3, which specifically stain medulloblastoma. These results demonstrate a novel bioinformatics approach that successfully identified cell surface and extracellular candidate markers enriched in medulloblastoma versus adjacent cerebellum. These two proteins are high-value targets for the development of tumor-specific probes in medulloblastoma. This bioinformatics method has broad utility for the identification of accessible molecular targets in a variety of cancers and will enable probe development for guided resection.

  9. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive bistatic radar (PBR system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR. The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system’s capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  10. Analysis on Target Detection and Classification in LTE Based Passive Forward Scattering Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Abdullah, Raja Syamsul Azmir; Abdul Aziz, Noor Hafizah; Abdul Rashid, Nur Emileen; Ahmad Salah, Asem; Hashim, Fazirulhisyam

    2016-09-29

    The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results. The signal source is coming from the latest technology of 4G Long-Term Evolution (LTE) base station. A detailed explanation on the passive FSR receiver circuit, the detection scheme and the classification algorithm are given. In addition, the proposed passive FSR circuit employs the self-mixing technique at the receiver; hence the synchronization signal from the transmitter is not required. The experimental results confirm the passive FSR system's capability for ground target detection and classification. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the first classification result in the passive FSR system. The great potential in the passive FSR system provides a new research area in passive radar that can be used for diverse remote monitoring applications.

  11. Expression analysis of miRNA and target mRNAs in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, X.R. [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Lu, P. [Gastrointestinal Surgery Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Mei, J.Z.; Liu, G.J. [Medical Oncology Department, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou (China); Fan, Q.X. [Oncology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to investigate miRNAs and related mRNAs through a network-based approach in order to learn the crucial role that they play in the biological processes of esophageal cancer. Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC)-related miRNA and gene expression data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and differentially expressed miRNAs and genes were selected. Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted and their regulatory networks were constructed. Differentially expressed miRNA analysis selected four miRNAs associated with EAC and ESCC, among which hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-202 were shared by both diseases. hsa-miR-202 was reported for the first time to be associated with esophageal cancer in the present study. Differentially expressed miRNA target genes were mainly involved in cancer-related and signal-transduction pathways. Functional categories of these target genes were related to transcriptional regulation. The results may indicate potential target miRNAs and genes for future investigations of esophageal cancer.

  12. Analysis and Visualization Tool for Targeted Amplicon Bisulfite Sequencing on Ion Torrent Sequencers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Pabinger

    Full Text Available Targeted sequencing of PCR amplicons generated from bisulfite deaminated DNA is a flexible, cost-effective way to study methylation of a sample at single CpG resolution and perform subsequent multi-target, multi-sample comparisons. Currently, no platform specific protocol, support, or analysis solution is provided to perform targeted bisulfite sequencing on a Personal Genome Machine (PGM. Here, we present a novel tool, called TABSAT, for analyzing targeted bisulfite sequencing data generated on Ion Torrent sequencers. The workflow starts with raw sequencing data, performs quality assessment, and uses a tailored version of Bismark to map the reads to a reference genome. The pipeline visualizes results as lollipop plots and is able to deduce specific methylation-patterns present in a sample. The obtained profiles are then summarized and compared between samples. In order to assess the performance of the targeted bisulfite sequencing workflow, 48 samples were used to generate 53 different Bisulfite-Sequencing PCR amplicons from each sample, resulting in 2,544 amplicon targets. We obtained a mean coverage of 282X using 1,196,822 aligned reads. Next, we compared the sequencing results of these targets to the methylation level of the corresponding sites on an Illumina 450k methylation chip. The calculated average Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.91 confirms the sequencing results with one of the industry-leading CpG methylation platforms and shows that targeted amplicon bisulfite sequencing provides an accurate and cost-efficient method for DNA methylation studies, e.g., to provide platform-independent confirmation of Illumina Infinium 450k methylation data. TABSAT offers a novel way to analyze data generated by Ion Torrent instruments and can also be used with data from the Illumina MiSeq platform. It can be easily accessed via the Platomics platform, which offers a web-based graphical user interface along with sample and parameter storage

  13. Critical analysis of consecutive unilateral cleft lip repairs: determining ideal sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B

    2013-03-01

    Objective : Cleft surgeons often show 10 consecutive lip repairs to reduce presentation bias, however the validity remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the number of consecutive cases that represent average outcomes. Secondary objectives are to determine if outcomes correlate with cleft severity and to calculate interrater reliability. Design : Consecutive preoperative and 2-year postoperative photographs of the unilateral cleft lip-nose complex were randomized and evaluated by cleft surgeons. Parametric analysis was performed according to chronologic, consecutive order. The mean standard deviation over all raters enabled calculation of expected 95% confidence intervals around a mean tested for various sample sizes. Setting : Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association in 2009. Patients, Participants : Ten senior cleft surgeons evaluated 39 consecutive lip repairs. Main Outcome Measures : Preoperative severity and postoperative outcomes were evaluated using descriptive and quantitative scales. Results : Intraclass correlation coefficients for cleft severity and postoperative evaluations were 0.65 and 0.21, respectively. Outcomes did not correlate with cleft severity (P  =  .28). Calculations for 10 consecutive cases demonstrated wide 95% confidence intervals, spanning two points on both postoperative grading scales. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals narrowed within one qualitative grade (±0.30) and one point (±0.50) on the 10-point scale for 27 consecutive cases. Conclusions : Larger numbers of consecutive cases (n > 27) are increasingly representative of average results, but less practical in presentation format. Ten consecutive cases lack statistical support. Cleft surgeons showed low interrater reliability for postoperative assessments, which may reflect personal bias when evaluating another surgeon's results.

  14. Saccades to remembered target locations: an analysis of systematic and variable errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J M; Sparks, D L; Stanford, T R

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effects of varying delay interval on the accuracy and velocity of saccades to the remembered locations of visual targets. Remembered saccades were less accurate than control saccades. Both systematic and variable errors contributed to the loss of accuracy. Systematic errors were similar in size for delay intervals ranging from 400 msec to 5.6 sec, but variable errors increased monotonically as delay intervals were lengthened. Compared to control saccades, remembered saccades were slower and the peak velocities were more variable. However, neither peak velocity nor variability in peak velocity was related to the duration of the delay interval. Our findings indicate that a memory-related process is not the major source of the systematic errors observed on memory trials.

  15. Reproductive biology and its impact on body size: comparative analysis of mammalian, avian and dinosaurian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    Janis and Carrano (1992) suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis). First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number) of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as "dinosaur analogs") and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992) existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size) than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time.

  16. Reproductive Biology and Its Impact on Body Size: Comparative Analysis of Mammalian, Avian and Dinosaurian Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    Janis and Carrano (1992) suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis). First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number) of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as “dinosaur analogs”) and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992) existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size) than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time. PMID:22194835

  17. Reproductive biology and its impact on body size: comparative analysis of mammalian, avian and dinosaurian reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available Janis and Carrano (1992 suggested that large dinosaurs might have faced a lower risk of extinction under ecological changes than similar-sized mammals because large dinosaurs had a higher potential reproductive output than similar-sized mammals (JC hypothesis. First, we tested the assumption underlying the JC hypothesis. We therefore analysed the potential reproductive output (reflected in clutch/litter size and annual offspring number of extant terrestrial mammals and birds (as "dinosaur analogs" and of extinct dinosaurs. With the exception of rodents, the differences in the reproductive output of similar-sized birds and mammals proposed by Janis and Carrano (1992 existed even at the level of single orders. Fossil dinosaur clutches were larger than litters of similar-sized mammals, and dinosaur clutch sizes were comparable to those of similar-sized birds. Because the extinction risk of extant species often correlates with a low reproductive output, the latter difference suggests a lower risk of population extinction in dinosaurs than in mammals. Second, we present a very simple, mathematical model that demonstrates the advantage of a high reproductive output underlying the JC hypothesis. It predicts that a species with a high reproductive output that usually faces very high juvenile mortalities will benefit more strongly in terms of population size from reduced juvenile mortalities (e.g., resulting from a stochastic reduction in population size than a species with a low reproductive output that usually comprises low juvenile mortalities. Based on our results, we suggest that reproductive strategy could have contributed to the evolution of the exceptional gigantism seen in dinosaurs that does not exist in extant terrestrial mammals. Large dinosaurs, e.g., the sauropods, may have easily sustained populations of very large-bodied species over evolutionary time.

  18. Sizing Optimization and Strength Analysis for Spread-type Gear Reducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hsuan Hsu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A reducer is now developed towards the trend of customization service and cost-saving. In this study, a sizing program for the reducer has been developed in order to replace the manual sizing process. We aim at the total center distance of the gear reducer for optimization to reduce gear volume and weight. Also, we checked constrains such as, tooth root bending, tooth contact strength, gear shaft endangered cross-section, bearing life, gear shaft deflection, and torsion angle deformation, etc., to obtain reliable drive strength. Comparisons of sizes and weights before and after optimization confirm that the purpose for reducing production cost is achieved.

  19. Growth, characterization and estimation of lattice strain and size in CdS nanoparticles: X-ray peak profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Rekha Garg; Rajaram, Poolla; Bajpai, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    This work is based on the growth, characterization and estimation of lattice strain and crystallite size in CdS nanoparticles by X-ray peak profile analysis. The CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by a non-aqueous solvothermal method and were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD confirms that the CdS nanoparticles have the hexagonal structure. The Williamson-Hall (W-H) method was used to study the X-ray peak profile analysis. The strain-size plot (SSP) was used to study the individual contributions of crystallite size and lattice strain from the X-rays peaks. The physical parameters such as strain, stress and energy density values were calculated using various models namely, isotropic strain model, anisotropic strain model and uniform deformation energy density model. The particle size was estimated from the TEM images to be in the range of 20-40 nm. The Raman spectrum shows the characteristic optical 1LO and 2LO vibrational modes of CdS. UV-visible absorption studies show that the band gap of the CdS nanoparticles is 2.48 eV. The results show that the crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's formula, W-H plots, SSP and the particle size calculated by TEM images are approximately similar.

  20. THE EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS FOR POSTFLOTATION SEDIMENTS ON ASSESSMENT OF THEIR APPLICABILITY IN EARTH STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Walczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of the results of laboratory tests of postflotation sediments grain size distributions, originating from the copper ore flotation process. The paper also presents the results of statistical analysis conducted on grain size parameters. Statistically significant differences were shown in the assessment of grain size distribution, which result from the selection of the research procedure. A comparison of results recorded for wet and dry sieving methods was conducted within a group of the same samples of postflotation deposits. The selection of an appropriate research method and procedure should also be preceded by a thorough analysis and preliminary determination of the soil medium. A correctly determined grain size distribution is essential for its further classification and then, through grain size criteria, for the assessment of suitability of the analysed material in earth structure construction. This problem is of even greater importance in the case of anthropogenic soils, which are used to construct dams or seal hydroengineering structures. In practical terms knowledge on the limitations resulting from the application of a given method prevents erroneous conclusions on research results. This problem may be perfectly illustrated based on the selection of a method assessing parameters and soil grain size distributions.

  1. A novel graphical technique for Pinch Analysis applications: Energy Targets and grassroots design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new HEN graphical design. - Highlights: • A new graphical technique for heat exchanger networks design. • Pinch Analysis principles and design rules are better interpreted. • Graphical guidelines for optimum heat integration. • New temperature-based graphs provide user-interactive features. - Abstract: Pinch Analysis is for decades a leading tool to energy integration for retrofit and design. This paper presents a new graphical technique, based on Pinch Analysis, for the grassroots design of heat exchanger networks. In the new graph, the temperatures of hot streams are plotted versus those of the cold streams. The temperature–temperature based graph is constructed to include temperatures of hot and cold streams as straight lines, horizontal lines for hot streams, and vertical lines for cold streams. The graph is applied to determine the pinch temperatures and Energy Targets. It is then used to synthesise graphically a complete exchanger network, achieving the Energy Targets. Within the new graph, exchangers are represented by inclined straight lines, whose slopes are proportional to the ratio of heat capacities and flows. Pinch Analysis principles for design are easily interpreted using this new graphical technique to design a complete exchanger network. Network designs achieved by the new technique can guarantee maximum heat recovery. The new technique can also be employed to simulate basic designs of heat exchanger networks. The strengths of the new tool are that it is simply applied using computers, requires no commercial software, and can be used for academic purposes/engineering education

  2. Online Stable Isotope Analysis of Dissolved Organic Carbon Size Classes Using Size Exclusion Chromatography Coupled to an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Malik, A.; Scheibe, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Gleixner, G.

    size classes by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) - size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to online isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). This represents a significant methodological contribution to DOC research. The interface...

  3. Particle size analysis on density, surface morphology and specific capacitance of carbon electrode from rubber wood sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, E.; Kurniasih, B.; Sari, F. P.; Zulkifli, Taslim, R.; Sugianto, Purnama, A.; Apriwandi, Susanti, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The particle size analysis for supercapacitor carbon electrodes from rubber wood sawdust (SGKK) has been done successfully. The electrode particle size was reviewed against the properties such as density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology and specific capacitance. The variations in particle size were made by different treatment on the grinding and sieving process. The sample particle size was distinguished as 53-100 µm for 20 h (SA), 38-53 µm for 20 h (SB) and < 38 µm with variations of grinding time for 40 h (SC) and 80 h (SD) respectively. All of the samples were activated by 0.4 M KOH solution. Carbon electrodes were carbonized at temperature of 600oC in N2 gas environment and then followed by CO2 gas activation at a temperature of 900oC for 2 h. The densities for each variation in the particle size were 1.034 g cm-3, 0.849 g cm-3, 0.892 g cm-3 and 0.982 g cm-3 respectively. The morphological study identified the distance between the particles more closely at 38-53 µm (SB) particle size. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor cells have been investigated using electrochemical methods such as impedance spectroscopy and charge-discharge at constant current using Solatron 1280 tools. Electrochemical properties testing results have shown SB samples with a particle size of 38-53 µm produce supercapacitor cells with optimum capacitive performance.

  4. Mechanism of microRNA-target interaction: molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously produced approximately 21-nt riboregulators that associate with Argonaute (Ago proteins to direct mRNA cleavage or repress the translation of complementary RNAs. Capturing the molecular mechanisms of miRNA interacting with its target will not only reinforce the understanding of underlying RNA interference but also fuel the design of more effective small-interfering RNA strands. To address this, in the present work the RNA-bound (Ago-miRNA, Ago-miRNA-target and RNA-free Ago forms were analyzed by performing both molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Based on the principal component analysis results of the simulation trajectories as well as the correlation analysis in fluctuations of residues, we discover that: 1 three important (PAZ, Mid and PIWI domains exist in Argonaute which define the global dynamics of the protein; 2 the interdomain correlated movements are so crucial for the interaction of Ago-RNAs that they not only facilitate the relaxation of the interactions between residues surrounding the RNA binding channel but also induce certain conformational changes; and 3 it is just these conformational changes that expand the cavity of the active site and open putative pathways for both the substrate uptake and product release. In addition, by thermodynamic analysis we also discover that for both the guide RNA 5'-end recognition and the facilitated site-specific cleavage of the target, the presence of two metal ions (of Mg(2+ plays a predominant role, and this conclusion is consistent with the observed enzyme catalytic cleavage activity in the ternary complex (Ago-miRNA-mRNA. Our results find that it is the set of arginine amino acids concentrated in the nucleotide-binding channel in Ago, instead of the conventionally-deemed seed base-paring, that makes greater contributions in stabilizing the binding of the nucleic acids to Ago.

  5. Mechanism of microRNA-target interaction: molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghua; Li, Yan; Ma, Zhi; Yang, Wei; Ai, Chunzhi

    2010-07-29

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously produced approximately 21-nt riboregulators that associate with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to direct mRNA cleavage or repress the translation of complementary RNAs. Capturing the molecular mechanisms of miRNA interacting with its target will not only reinforce the understanding of underlying RNA interference but also fuel the design of more effective small-interfering RNA strands. To address this, in the present work the RNA-bound (Ago-miRNA, Ago-miRNA-target) and RNA-free Ago forms were analyzed by performing both molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Based on the principal component analysis results of the simulation trajectories as well as the correlation analysis in fluctuations of residues, we discover that: 1) three important (PAZ, Mid and PIWI) domains exist in Argonaute which define the global dynamics of the protein; 2) the interdomain correlated movements are so crucial for the interaction of Ago-RNAs that they not only facilitate the relaxation of the interactions between residues surrounding the RNA binding channel but also induce certain conformational changes; and 3) it is just these conformational changes that expand the cavity of the active site and open putative pathways for both the substrate uptake and product release. In addition, by thermodynamic analysis we also discover that for both the guide RNA 5'-end recognition and the facilitated site-specific cleavage of the target, the presence of two metal ions (of Mg(2+)) plays a predominant role, and this conclusion is consistent with the observed enzyme catalytic cleavage activity in the ternary complex (Ago-miRNA-mRNA). Our results find that it is the set of arginine amino acids concentrated in the nucleotide-binding channel in Ago, instead of the conventionally-deemed seed base-paring, that makes greater contributions in stabilizing the binding of the nucleic acids to Ago.

  6. A step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy and minimization of gate fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, Efstathios; Psomopoulos, Constantinos; Kokkotis, Panagiotis; Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-23

    This study attempts the development of an algorithm in order to present a step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy, also considering the basic obstacle which is in many cases, the gate fee. Various parameters identified and evaluated in order to formulate the proposed decision making method in the form of an algorithm. The principle simulation input is the amount of municipal solid wastes (MSW) available for incineration and along with its net calorific value are the most important factors for the feasibility of the plant. Moreover, the research is focused both on the parameters that could increase the energy production and those that affect the R1 energy efficiency factor. Estimation of the final gate fee is achieved through the economic analysis of the entire project by investigating both expenses and revenues which are expected according to the selected site and outputs of the facility. In this point, a number of commonly revenue methods were included in the algorithm. The developed algorithm has been validated using three case studies in Greece-Athens, Thessaloniki, and Central Greece, where the cities of Larisa and Volos have been selected for the application of the proposed decision making tool. These case studies were selected based on a previous publication made by two of the authors, in which these areas where examined. Results reveal that the development of a «solid» methodological approach in selecting the site and the size of waste-to-energy (WtE) facility can be feasible. However, the maximization of the energy efficiency factor R1 requires high utilization factors while the minimization of the final gate fee requires high R1 and high metals recovery from the bottom ash as well as economic exploitation of recovered raw materials if any.

  7. Non-regularized inversion method from light scattering applied to ferrofluid magnetization curves for magnetic size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijssel, Jos van; Kuipers, Bonny W.M.; Erné, Ben H.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical inversion method known from the analysis of light scattering by colloidal dispersions is now applied to magnetization curves of ferrofluids. The distribution of magnetic particle sizes or dipole moments is determined without assuming that the distribution is unimodal or of a particular shape. The inversion method enforces positive number densities via a non-negative least squares procedure. It is tested successfully on experimental and simulated data for ferrofluid samples with known multimodal size distributions. The created computer program MINORIM is made available on the web. - Highlights: • A method from light scattering is applied to analyze ferrofluid magnetization curves. • A magnetic size distribution is obtained without prior assumption of its shape. • The method is tested successfully on ferrofluids with a known size distribution. • The practical limits of the method are explored with simulated data including noise. • This method is implemented in the program MINORIM, freely available online

  8. Void analysis of target residues at SPS energy -evidence of correlation with fractal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Das, Rupa . E-mail : dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the target residues in 32 S -AgBr and 16 0 -AgBr interactions at 200 AGeV and 60AGeV respectively in terms of fractal moment by Takagi method and void probability scaling. The study reveals an interesting feature of the production process. In 16 O- AgBr interactions multifractal behaviour is present in both hemispheres and void probability does not show a scaling behaviour, but at high energy the situation changes. In 32 S -AgBr interactions for both hemisphere monofractal behaviour is indicated by that data and void probability also shows good scaling behaviour. This suggests that a possible correlation of void probability with fractal behaviour of target residues. (author)

  9. Maneuver Analysis and Targeting Strategy for the Stardust Re-Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Cliff; Bhat, Ramachand S.; Kangas, Julie A.; Wilson, Roby S.; Wong, Mau C.; Potts, Christopher L.; Williams, Kenneth E.

    2006-01-01

    The Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) returned to Earth on January 15, 2006 after seven years of collecting interstellar and comet particles over three heliocentric revolutions, as shown in Figure 1. The SRC was carried on board the Stardust spacecraft, as shown in Figure 2. Because the spacecraft was built with unbalanced thrusters, turns and attitude control maintenance resulted in undesirable delta-v being imparted to the trajectory. As a result, a carefully planned maneuver strategy was devised to accurately target the Stardust capsule to the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). This paper provides an overview of the Stardust spacecraft and mission and describes the maneuver strategy that was employed to achieve the stringent targeting requirements for landing in Utah. In addition, an overview of Stardust maneuver analysis tools and techniques will also be presented.

  10. grain size analysis of beach sediment along the barrier bar lagoon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    sediment are medium grain and deposited in a moderate energy condition hence more stable to ... The grain size and amount of sand on a beach depends on wave energy and geological ..... Recent and Pleistocene history of Southeast.

  11. Quantitative analysis of lattice disorder and crystallite size in organic semiconductor thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Noriega, Rodrigo; Kline, R. Joseph; Salleo, Alberto; Toney, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    and qualitatively assess the amount and type of disorder present in a sample. While applied directly to organic systems, this methodology is general for the accurate deconvolution of crystalline size and lattice disorder for any material investigated

  12. Stereometrical analysis of number and size of prolamellar bodies during pea chloroplast development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mostowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The plastid prolamelar bodies in dark-grown pea seedlings undergo gradual transformation and decay after illumination with low intensity light. Random micrographs do not give direct information concerning the sizes and average numbers of prolamellar bodies in a plastid. These values were obtained after evaluation by a stereometrical method from the ratio of polamellar bodies sizes to the plastid size and from the frequency of prolamellar body sections of a given diameter. Plastids of dark-grown seedlings contained on the average at least one prolamellar body. After illumination the size of the bodies decreased rapidly owing to dispersion into primary thylakoids and split into much smaller numerous prolamellar bodies.

  13. Ranking of microRNA target prediction scores by Pareto front analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sudhakar; Albrecht, Andreas A

    2010-12-01

    Over the past ten years, a variety of microRNA target prediction methods has been developed, and many of the methods are constantly improved and adapted to recent insights into miRNA-mRNA interactions. In a typical scenario, different methods return different rankings of putative targets, even if the ranking is reduced to selected mRNAs that are related to a specific disease or cell type. For the experimental validation it is then difficult to decide in which order to process the predicted miRNA-mRNA bindings, since each validation is a laborious task and therefore only a limited number of mRNAs can be analysed. We propose a new ranking scheme that combines ranked predictions from several methods and - unlike standard thresholding methods - utilises the concept of Pareto fronts as defined in multi-objective optimisation. In the present study, we attempt a proof of concept by applying the new ranking scheme to hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-125b, and hsa-miR-373 and prediction scores supplied by PITA and RNAhybrid. The scores are interpreted as a two-objective optimisation problem, and the elements of the Pareto front are ranked by the STarMir score with a subsequent re-calculation of the Pareto front after removal of the top-ranked mRNA from the basic set of prediction scores. The method is evaluated on validated targets of the three miRNA, and the ranking is compared to scores from DIANA-microT and TargetScan. We observed that the new ranking method performs well and consistent, and the first validated targets are elements of Pareto fronts at a relatively early stage of the recurrent procedure, which encourages further research towards a higher-dimensional analysis of Pareto fronts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation and analysis of the soot particle size distribution in a turbulent nonpremixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Lucchesi, Marco

    2017-02-05

    A modeling framework based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is employed to simulate the evolution of the soot particle size distribution in turbulent sooting flames. The stochastic reactor describes the evolution of soot in fluid parcels following Lagrangian trajectories in a turbulent flow field. The trajectories are sampled from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a n-heptane turbulent nonpremixed flame. The DSMC method is validated against experimentally measured size distributions in laminar premixed flames and found to reproduce quantitatively the experimental results, including the appearance of the second mode at large aggregate sizes and the presence of a trough at mobility diameters in the range 3–8 nm. The model is then applied to the simulation of soot formation and growth in simplified configurations featuring a constant concentration of soot precursors and the evolution of the size distribution in time is found to depend on the intensity of the nucleation rate. Higher nucleation rates lead to a higher peak in number density and to the size distribution attaining its second mode sooner. The ensemble-averaged PSDF in the turbulent flame is computed from individual samples of the PSDF from large sets of Lagrangian trajectories. This statistical measure is equivalent to time-averaged, scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements in turbulent flames. Although individual trajectories display strong bimodality as in laminar flames, the ensemble-average PSDF possesses only one mode and a long, broad tail, which implies significant polydispersity induced by turbulence. Our results agree very well with SMPS measurements available in the literature. Conditioning on key features of the trajectory, such as mixture fraction or radial locations does not reduce the scatter in the size distributions and the ensemble-averaged PSDF remains broad. The results highlight and explain the important role of turbulence in broadening the size distribution of

  15. Modeling of an once through helical coil steam generator of a superheated cycle for sizing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Sik; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Eui Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A thermal sizing code, named as HSGSA (Helical coil Steam Generator Sizing Analyzer), for a sodium heated helical coil steam generator is developed for KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) design. The theoretical modeling of the shell and tube sides is described and relevant correlations are presented. For assessment of HSGSA, a reference plant design case is compared to the calculational outputs from HSGSA simulation. 9 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  16. Modeling of an once through helical coil steam generator of a superheated cycle for sizing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Sik; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Eui Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A thermal sizing code, named as HSGSA (Helical coil Steam Generator Sizing Analyzer), for a sodium heated helical coil steam generator is developed for KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) design. The theoretical modeling of the shell and tube sides is described and relevant correlations are presented. For assessment of HSGSA, a reference plant design case is compared to the calculational outputs from HSGSA simulation. 9 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  17. Impact of grain sizes on the quantitative concrete analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, C.; Günther, T.; Wilsch, G.

    2018-04-01

    In civil engineering concrete is the most used building material for making infrastructures like bridges and parking decks worldwide. It is as a porous and multiphase material made of aggregates with a defined grain size distribution, cement and water as well as different additives and admixtures depending on the application. Different grain sizes are important to ensure the needed density and compressive strength. The resulting porous cement matrix contains a mixture of flour grains (aggregates with a grain size below 125 μm) and cement particles (particle size ≈ 50μm). Harmful species like chlorides may penetrate together with water through the capillary pore space and may trigger different damage processes. The damage assessment of concrete structures in Germany is estimated due to the quantification of harmful elements regarding to the cement content only. In the evaluation of concrete using LIBS a two-dimensional scanning is necessary to consider the heterogeneity caused by the aggregates. Therefore, a LIBS system operating with a low energy NdCr:YAG laser, a pulse energy of 3 mJ, a wavelength of 1064 nm, a pulse width of 1.5 ns and a repetition rate of 100 Hz has been used. Different Czerny-Turner spectrometers with CCD detectors in the UV and NIR range have been used for the detection. Large aggregates (macro-heterogeneity) can be excluded from the evaluation, whereas small aggregates in the range of the laser spot size (flour grains) cannot be spatially resolved. In this work the micro heterogeneity caused by flour grains and their impact on the quantification with LIBS will be discussed. To analyze the effect of changing grain sizes and ratios, the ablation behavior has been determined and compared. Samples with defined grain sizes were made and analyzed using LIBS. The grain size distributions were analyzed with laser diffraction (LDA).

  18. X-ray diffraction microstructural analysis of bimodal size distribution MgO nano powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suminar Pratapa; Budi Hartono

    2009-01-01

    Investigation on the characteristics of x-ray diffraction data for MgO powdered mixture of nano and sub-nano particles has been carried out to reveal the crystallite-size-related microstructural information. The MgO powders were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by heat treatment at 500 degree Celsius and 1200 degree Celsius for 1 hour, being the difference in the temperature was to obtain two powders with distinct crystallite size and size-distribution. The powders were then blended in air to give the presumably bimodal-size- distribution MgO nano powder. High-quality laboratory X-ray diffraction data for the powders were collected and then analysed using Rietveld-based MAUD software using the lognormal size distribution. Results show that the single-mode powders exhibit spherical crystallite size (R) of 20(1) nm and 160(1) nm for the 500 degree Celsius and 1200 degree Celsius data respectively with the nano metric powder displays narrower crystallite size distribution character, indicated by lognormal dispersion parameter of 0.21 as compared to 0.01 for the sub-nano metric powder. The mixture exhibits relatively more asymmetric peak broadening. Analysing the x-ray diffraction data for the latter specimen using single phase approach give unrealistic results. Introducing two phase models for the double-phase mixture to accommodate the bimodal-size-distribution characteristics give R = 100(6) and σ = 0.62 for the nano metric phase and R = 170(5) and σ= 0.12 for the σ sub-nano metric phase. (author)

  19. Non-targeted analysis of unexpected food contaminants using LC-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzelmann, Marco; Winter, Martin; Åberg, Magnus; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Rosén, Johan

    2018-03-29

    A non-target analysis method for unexpected contaminants in food is described. Many current methods referred to as "non-target" are capable of detecting hundreds or even thousands of contaminants. However, they will typically still miss all other possible contaminants. Instead, a metabolomics approach might be used to obtain "true non-target" analysis. In the present work, such a method was optimized for improved detection capability at low concentrations. The method was evaluated using 19 chemically diverse model compounds spiked into milk samples to mimic unknown contamination. Other milk samples were used as reference samples. All samples were analyzed with UHPLC-TOF-MS (ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry), using reversed-phase chromatography and electrospray ionization in positive mode. Data evaluation was performed by the software TracMass 2. No target lists of specific compounds were used to search for the contaminants. Instead, the software was used to sort out all features only occurring in the spiked sample data, i.e., the workflow resembled a metabolomics approach. Procedures for chemical identification of peaks were outside the scope of the study. Method, study design, and settings in the software were optimized to minimize manual evaluation and faulty or irrelevant hits and to maximize hit rate of the spiked compounds. A practical detection limit was established at 25 μg/kg. At this concentration, most compounds (17 out of 19) were detected as intact precursor ions, as fragments or as adducts. Only 2 irrelevant hits, probably natural compounds, were obtained. Limitations and possible practical use of the approach are discussed.

  20. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  1. Method for rapid particle size analysis by hydrosizing and nuclear sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daellenbach, C.B.; Mahan, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus to practice the method for rapidly determining the size and mass distribution of a sample of randomly sized particles of a known total mass are described. A series of substantially identical hydrocyclones are connected by conduits to each other and to a temperature controlled water feed. By restricting the cross-sectional areas of these conduits to progressively smaller values, the slurry containing the sample particles is caused to increase its velocity as it moves from hydrocyclone to hydrocyclone. As described by the Stokesian theory which relates particle diameter and settling velocity, the largest sized particles are suspended in the closed apex of the first hydrocyclone with smaller sized particles, in given size ranges, being suspended in the next succeeding hydrocyclone's apexes. In this manner, the particles are separated into discrete fractional sizes with a residual slurry of the very smallest particles being discharged. Before the discrete fractions of particles are suspended in their hydrocyclone apexes, a combined photon source, like a gamma ray source, and detector are calibrated with the water temperature kept constant. When the suspension of particles takes place, an attenuation of the radiation from the source is observed at the detector. This attenuation can be related to the mass or weight of the discrete fractions of suspended particles. Electronic circuitry is used to indicate what this fractional mass or weight is as it relates to the total weight of the sample. 6 claims, 4 figs

  2. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  3. A Multimodal Data Analysis Approach for Targeted Drug Discovery Involving Topological Data Analysis (TDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagappan, Muthuraman; Jiang, Dadi; Denko, Nicholas; Koong, Albert C

    In silico drug discovery refers to a combination of computational techniques that augment our ability to discover drug compounds from compound libraries. Many such techniques exist, including virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS), high-throughput screening (HTS), and mechanisms for data storage and querying. However, presently these tools are often used independent of one another. In this chapter, we describe a new multimodal in silico technique for the hit identification and lead generation phases of traditional drug discovery. Our technique leverages the benefits of three independent methods-virtual high-throughput screening, high-throughput screening, and structural fingerprint analysis-by using a fourth technique called topological data analysis (TDA). We describe how a compound library can be independently tested with vHTS, HTS, and fingerprint analysis, and how the results can be transformed into a topological data analysis network to identify compounds from a diverse group of structural families. This process of using TDA or similar clustering methods to identify drug leads is advantageous because it provides a mechanism for choosing structurally diverse compounds while maintaining the unique advantages of already established techniques such as vHTS and HTS.

  4. Comparison of layer grain size analysis with pipette and sieve analysis: a solution for the underestimation of the clay fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konert, M.; Vandenberghe, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Classically, the grain size of soil and sediment samples is determined by the sieve method for the coarse fractions and by the pipette method, based on the 'Stokes' sedimentation rates, for the fine fractions. Results from the two methods are compared with results from laser diffraction size

  5. Particle size distribution of mainstream tobacco and marijuana smoke. Analysis using the electrical aerosol analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P J; Wilson, J D; Hiller, F C

    1989-07-01

    Accurate measurement of cigarette smoke particle size distribution is important for estimation of lung deposition. Most prior investigators have reported a mass median diameter (MMD) in the size range of 0.3 to 0.5 micron, with a small geometric standard deviation (GSD), indicating few ultrafine (less than 0.1 micron) particles. A few studies, however, have suggested the presence of ultrafine particles by reporting a smaller count median diameter (CMD). Part of this disparity may be due tot he inefficiency to previous sizing methods in measuring ultrafine size range, to evaluate size distribution of smoke from standard research cigarettes, commercial filter cigarettes, and from marijuana cigarettes with different delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol contents. Four 35-cm3, 2-s puffs were generated at 60-s intervals, rapidly diluted, and passed through a charge neutralizer and into a 240-L chamber. Size distribution for six cigarettes of each type was measured, CMD and GSD were determined from a computer-generated log probability plot, and MMD was calculated. The size distribution parameters obtained were similar for all cigarettes tested, with an average CMD of 0.1 micron, a MMD of 0.38 micron, and a GSD of 2.0. The MMD found using the EAA is similar to that previously reported, but the CMD is distinctly smaller and the GSD larger, indicating the presence of many more ultrafine particles. These results may explain the disparity of CMD values found in existing data. Ultrafine particles are of toxicologic importance because their respiratory tract deposition is significantly higher than for particles 0.3 to 0.5 micron and because their large surface area facilitates adsorption and delivery of potentially toxic gases to the lung.

  6. Interosseous membrane window size for tibialis posterior tendon transfer-Geometrical and MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Pablo; Ortiz, Cristian; Vela, Omar; Arias, Paul; Zanolli, Diego; Wagner, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    Tibialis posterior (TP) tendon transfer through the interosseous membrane is commonly performed in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In order to avoid entrapment of this tendon, no clear recommendation relative to the interosseous membrane (IOM) incision size has been made. Analyze the TP size at the transfer level and therefore determine the most adequate IOM window size to avoid muscle entrapment. Eleven lower extremity magnetic resonances were analyzed. TP muscle measurements were made in axial views, obtaining the medial-lateral and antero-posterior diameter at various distances from the medial malleolus tip. The distance from the posterior to anterior compartment was also measured. These measurements were applied to a mathematical model to predict the IOM window size necessary to allow an ample TP passage in an oblique direction. The average tendon diameter (confidence-interval) at 15cm proximal to the medial malleolus tip was 19.47mm (17.47-21.48). The deep posterior compartment to anterior compartment distance was 10.97mm (9.03-12.90). Using a mathematical model, the estimated IOM window size ranges from 4.2 to 4.9cm. The IOM window size is of utmost importance in trans-membrane TP transfers, given that if equal or smaller than the transposed tendon oblique diameter, a high entrapment risk exists. A membrane window of 5cm or 2.5 times the size of the tendon diameter should be performed in order to theoretically diminish this complication. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new database sub-system for grain-size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Detailed grain-size analyses of large depth profiles for palaeoclimate studies create large amounts of data. For instance (Novothny et al., 2011) presented a depth profile of grain-size analyses with 2 cm resolution and a total depth of more than 15 m, where each sample was measured with 5 repetitions on a Beckman Coulter LS13320 with 116 channels. This adds up to a total of more than four million numbers. Such amounts of data are not easily post-processed by spreadsheets or standard software; also MS Access databases would face serious performance problems. The poster describes a database sub-system dedicated to grain-size analyses. It expands the LabData database and laboratory management system published by Suckow and Dumke (2001). This compatibility with a very flexible database system provides ease to import the grain-size data, as well as the overall infrastructure of also storing geographic context and the ability to organize content like comprising several samples into one set or project. It also allows easy export and direct plot generation of final data in MS Excel. The sub-system allows automated import of raw data from the Beckman Coulter LS13320 Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer. During post processing MS Excel is used as a data display, but no number crunching is implemented in Excel. Raw grain size spectra can be exported and controlled as Number- Surface- and Volume-fractions, while single spectra can be locked for further post-processing. From the spectra the usual statistical values (i.e. mean, median) can be computed as well as fractions larger than a grain size, smaller than a grain size, fractions between any two grain sizes or any ratio of such values. These deduced values can be easily exported into Excel for one or more depth profiles. However, such a reprocessing for large amounts of data also allows new display possibilities: normally depth profiles of grain-size data are displayed only with summarized parameters like the clay

  8. Next-to leading order analysis of target mass corrections to structure functions and asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.T.; Accardi, A.; Hobbs, T.J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of target mass corrections (TMCs) to spin-averaged structure functions and asymmetries at next-to-leading order. Several different prescriptions for TMCs are considered, including the operator product expansion, and various approximations to it, collinear factorization, and xi-scaling. We assess the impact of each of these on a number of observables, such as the neutron to proton F 2 structure function ratio, and parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries for protons and deuterons which are sensitive to gamma-Z interference effects. The corrections from higher order radiative and nuclear effects on the parity-violating deuteron asymmetry are also quantified.

  9. Theory of error for target factor analysis with applications to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Based on the theory of error for abstract factor analysis described earlier, a theory of error for target factor analysis is developed. The theory shows how the error in the data matrix mixes with the error in the target test vector. The apparent error in a target test is found to be a vector sum of the real error in the target vector and the real error in the predicted vector. The theory predicts the magnitudes of these errors without requiring any a priori knowledge of the error in the data matrix or the target vector. A reliability function and a spoil function are developed for the purpose of assessing the validity and the worthiness of a target vector. Examples from model data, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry are presented. (Auth.)

  10. Extending in silico mechanism-of-action analysis by annotating targets with pathways: application to cellular cytotoxicity readouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggi, Sonia; Drakakis, Georgios; Koutsoukas, Alexios; Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; Martínez-Alonso, Patricia; Malliavin, Thérèse E; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Brewerton, Suzanne C; Bodkin, Michael J; Evans, David A; Glen, Robert C; Carrodeguas, José Alberto; Bender, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    An in silico mechanism-of-action analysis protocol was developed, comprising molecule bioactivity profiling, annotation of predicted targets with pathways and calculation of enrichment factors to highlight targets and pathways more likely to be implicated in the studied phenotype. The method was applied to a cytotoxicity phenotypic endpoint, with enriched targets/pathways found to be statistically significant when compared with 100 random datasets. Application on a smaller apoptotic set (10 molecules) did not allowed to obtain statistically relevant results, suggesting that the protocol requires modification such as analysis of the most frequently predicted targets/annotated pathways. Pathway annotations improved the mechanism-of-action information gained by target prediction alone, allowing a better interpretation of the predictions and providing better mapping of targets onto pathways.

  11. Antimalarial drug targets in Plasmodium falciparum predicted by stage-specific metabolic network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huthmacher Carola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite enormous efforts to combat malaria the disease still afflicts up to half a billion people each year of which more than one million die. Currently no approved vaccine is available and resistances to antimalarials are widely spread. Hence, new antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. Results Here, we present a computational analysis of the metabolism of Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria pathogen. We assembled a compartmentalized metabolic model and predicted life cycle stage specific metabolism with the help of a flux balance approach that integrates gene expression data. Predicted metabolite exchanges between parasite and host were found to be in good accordance with experimental findings when the parasite's metabolic network was embedded into that of its host (erythrocyte. Knock-out simulations identified 307 indispensable metabolic reactions within the parasite. 35 out of 57 experimentally demonstrated essential enzymes were recovered and another 16 enzymes, if additionally the assumption was made that nutrient uptake from the host cell is limited and all reactions catalyzed by the inhibited enzyme are blocked. This predicted set of putative drug targets, shown to be enriched with true targets by a factor of at least 2.75, was further analyzed with respect to homology to human enzymes, functional similarity to therapeutic targets in other organisms and their predicted potency for prophylaxis and disease treatment. Conclusions The results suggest that the set of essential enzymes predicted by our flux balance approach represents a promising starting point for further drug development.

  12. Analysis of the Chirplet Transform-Based Algorithm for Radar Detection of Accelerated Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galushko, V. G.; Vavriv, D. M.

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Efficiency analysis of an optimal algorithm of chirp signal processing based on the chirplet transform as applied to detection of radar targets in uniformly accelerated motion. Design/methodology/approach: Standard methods of the optimal filtration theory are used to investigate the ambiguity function of chirp signals. Findings: An analytical expression has been derived for the ambiguity function of chirp signals that is analyzed with respect to detection of radar targets moving at a constant acceleration. Sidelobe level and characteristic width of the ambiguity function with respect to the coordinates frequency and rate of its change have been estimated. The gain in the signal-to-noise ratio has been assessed that is provided by the algorithm under consideration as compared with application of the standard Fourier transform to detection of chirp signals against a “white” noise background. It is shown that already with a comparatively small (processing channels (elementary filters with respect to the frequency change rate) the gain in the signal-tonoise ratio exceeds 10 dB. A block diagram of implementation of the algorithm under consideration is suggested on the basis of a multichannel weighted Fourier transform. Recommendations as for selection of the detection algorithm parameters have been developed. Conclusions: The obtained results testify to efficiency of application of the algorithm under consideration to detection of radar targets moving at a constant acceleration. Nevertheless, it seems expedient to perform computer simulations of its operability with account for the noise impact along with trial measurements in real conditions.

  13. Theoretical analysis of recirculation zone and buffer zone in the ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Pan, Chang-zhao; Tong, Jian-fei; Lu, Wen-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Height of recirculation zone is very important in windowless target design. • A theoretical formula for the height is derived based on the Bernoulli equation. • Numerical simulation for the LBE is performed and the height of recirculation zone is also obtained. • The theoretically-derived simulation-predicted recirculation zone heights agree with each other very well and the theoretical derivation is proved to be correct. - Abstract: The thermo-hydraulic analysis including reduction of the height of recirculation zone and stability of the free surface is very important in the design and optimization of ADS windowless spallation targets. In the present study, the Bernoulli equation is used to analyze the entire flow process in the target. Formulae for the height of the recirculation zone and the buffer zone are both obtained explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the heavy metal lead–bismuth eutectic liquid and vapor with cavitation phase change is also performed, and a novel method to calculate the height of the recirculation zone is put forward. By comparison of the theoretical formulae and numerical results, it is clearly shown that they agree with each other very well, and the heights predicted by the two methods are both determined by their own upstream flow parameters

  14. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyang Ao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures.

  15. Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Dongyang; Hu, Cheng; Tian, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS) in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures. PMID:29271917

  16. Resolving nanoparticle growth mechanisms from size- and time-dependent growth rate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichelstorfer, Lukas; Stolzenburg, Dominik; Ortega, John; Karl, Thomas; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.; Winkler, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation occurs frequently in the global atmosphere and may play a crucial role in climate by affecting cloud properties. The relevance of newly formed nanoparticles depends largely on the dynamics governing their initial formation and growth to sizes where they become important for cloud microphysics. One key to the proper understanding of nanoparticle effects on climate is therefore hidden in the growth mechanisms. In this study we have developed and successfully tested two independent methods based on the aerosol general dynamics equation, allowing detailed retrieval of time- and size-dependent nanoparticle growth rates. Both methods were used to analyze particle formation from two different biogenic precursor vapors in controlled chamber experiments. Our results suggest that growth rates below 10 nm show much more variation than is currently thought and pin down the decisive size range of growth at around 5 nm where in-depth studies of physical and chemical particle properties are needed.

  17. Canonical correlation analysis of infant's size at birth and maternal factors: a study in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Klemn, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P; Nasser, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences) as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n = 14,506) while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001), demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity). A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X = 0.131). Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.

  18. Canonical correlation analysis of infant's size at birth and maternal factors: a study in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Kabir

    Full Text Available This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA. CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n = 14,506 while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001, demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity. A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X = 0.131. Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.

  19. Overestimation of test performance by ROC analysis: Effect of small sample size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, G.W.; Borgstrom, M.C.; Patton, D.D.; Myers, K.J.; Barrett, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    New imaging systems are often observer-rated by ROC techniques. For practical reasons the number of different images, or sample size (SS), is kept small. Any systematic bias due to small SS would bias system evaluation. The authors set about to determine whether the area under the ROC curve (AUC) would be systematically biased by small SS. Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate observer performance in distinguishing signal (SN) from noise (N) on a 6-point scale; P(SN) = P(N) = .5. Four sample sizes (15, 25, 50 and 100 each of SN and N), three ROC slopes (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25), and three intercepts (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25) were considered. In each of the 36 combinations of SS, slope and intercept, 2000 runs were simulated. Results showed a systematic bias: the observed AUC exceeded the expected AUC in every one of the 36 combinations for all sample sizes, with the smallest sample sizes having the largest bias. This suggests that evaluations of imaging systems using ROC curves based on small sample size systematically overestimate system performance. The effect is consistent but subtle (maximum 10% of AUC standard deviation), and is probably masked by the s.d. in most practical settings. Although there is a statistically significant effect (F = 33.34, P<0.0001) due to sample size, none was found for either the ROC curve slope or intercept. Overestimation of test performance by small SS seems to be an inherent characteristic of the ROC technique that has not previously been described

  20. Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated picoplankton in a marine oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Sangita; Parris, Darren J; DeLong, Edward F; Stewart, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) support diverse microbial communities with roles in major elemental cycles. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used amplicon (16S rRNA gene) and shotgun metagenome sequencing to compare microbial communities from large (>1.6 μm) and small (0.2-1.6 μm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox gradients, size fraction was a significantly stronger predictor of community composition compared to depth. Phylogenetic diversity showed contrasting patterns, decreasing towards the anoxic OMZ core in the small size fraction, but exhibiting maximal values at these depths within the larger size fraction. Fraction-specific distributions were evident for key OMZ taxa, including anammox planctomycetes, whose coding sequences were enriched up to threefold in the 0.2-1.6 μm community. Functional gene composition also differed between fractions, with the >1.6 μm community significantly enriched in genes mediating social interactions, including motility, adhesion, cell-to-cell transfer, antibiotic resistance and mobile element activity. Prokaryotic transposase genes were three to six fold more abundant in this fraction, comprising up to 2% of protein-coding sequences, suggesting that particle surfaces may act as hotbeds for transposition-based genome changes in marine microbes. Genes for nitric and nitrous oxide reduction were also more abundant (three to seven fold) in the larger size fraction, suggesting microniche partitioning of key denitrification steps. These results highlight an important role for surface attachment in shaping community metabolic potential and genome content in OMZ microorganisms.

  1. An Analysis of the Correlation between Size and Performance of Private Pension Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile ROBU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using present performance measures, we find that inflation rate is barely covered by Romanian private pension funds strategies. The paper looks at effects of scale on performance. This issue is investigated empirically using data from Romanian private pension funds. We find results consistent with prior literature in that size, measured as total net assets, erodes performance. The highly regulated Romanian private pension environment gives rise to various interpretations for size detracting performance that do not sprout from the “asymmetric information” theory. We explain the empirical results as an effect of “perfect scaling”.

  2. Simplified analysis of passive residual heat removal systems for small size PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    The function and general objectives of a passive residual heat removal system for small size PWR's are defined. The characteristic configuration, the components and the operation modes of this system are concisely described. A preliminary conceptual specification of this system, for a small size PWR of 400 MW thermal, is made analogous to the decay heat removal system of the AP-600 reactor. It is shown by analytic models that such passive systems can dissipate 2% of nominal power within the thermal limits allowed to the reactor fuel elements. (author)

  3. Metagenomic analysis of size-fractionated picoplankton in a marine oxygen minimum zone

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh, Sangita; Parris, Darren J; DeLong, Edward F; Stewart, Frank J

    2013-01-01

    Marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) support diverse microbial communities with roles in major elemental cycles. It is unclear how the taxonomic composition and metabolism of OMZ microorganisms vary between particle-associated and free-living size fractions. We used amplicon (16S rRNA gene) and shotgun metagenome sequencing to compare microbial communities from large (>1.6 μm) and small (0.2–1.6 μm) filter size fractions along a depth gradient in the OMZ off Chile. Despite steep vertical redox ...

  4. The Strength and Drivers of Bird-Mediated Selection on Fruit Crop Size: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo X. Palacio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In seed-dispersal mutualisms, the number of fruit a plant displays is a key trait, as it acts as a signal for seed dispersers that entails fruit removal and exportation of reproductive units (fruit crop size hypothesis. Although this hypothesis has gained general acceptance, forces driving the shape and strength of natural selection exerted by birds on fruit crop size remains an unresolved matter. Here, we propose that ecological filters promoting high functional equivalence of interacting partners (similar functional roles translate into similar selection pressures on fruit crop size, enhancing selection strength on this trait. We performed a meta-analysis on 50 seed-dispersal systems to test the hypothesis that frugivorous birds exert positive selection pressure on fruit crop size, and to assess whether different factors expected to act as filters (fruit diameter, fruit type, fruiting season length, bird functional groups, and latitude influence phenotypic selection regimes on this trait. Birds promote larger fruit crop sizes as a general pattern in nature. Short fruiting seasons and a high proportion of species belonging to the same functional group showed higher selection strength on fruit crop size. Also, selection strength on fruit crop size increased for large-fruited species and toward the tropics. Our results support the hypothesis that fruit crop size represents a conspicuous signal advertising the amount of reward to visually driven interacting partners, and that both plant and bird traits, as well as environmental factors, drive selection strength on fruit display traits. Furthermore, our results suggest that the relationship among forces impinged by phenology and frugivore functional roles may be key to understand their evolutionary stability.

  5. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  6. Human microRNA target analysis and gene ontology clustering by GOmir, a novel stand-alone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubelakis, Maria G; Zotos, Pantelis; Papachristoudis, Georgios; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-06-16

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of about 20-23 nucleotides length found in a wide variety of organisms. miRNAs regulate gene expression, by interacting with target mRNAs at specific sites in order to induce cleavage of the message or inhibit translation. Predicting or verifying mRNA targets of specific miRNAs is a difficult process of great importance. GOmir is a novel stand-alone application consisting of two separate tools: JTarget and TAGGO. JTarget integrates miRNA target prediction and functional analysis by combining the predicted target genes from TargetScan, miRanda, RNAhybrid and PicTar computational tools as well as the experimentally supported targets from TarBase and also providing a full gene description and functional analysis for each target gene. On the other hand, TAGGO application is designed to automatically group gene ontology annotations, taking advantage of the Gene Ontology (GO), in order to extract the main attributes of sets of proteins. GOmir represents a new tool incorporating two separate Java applications integrated into one stand-alone Java application. GOmir (by using up to five different databases) introduces miRNA predicted targets accompanied by (a) full gene description, (b) functional analysis and (c) detailed gene ontology clustering. Additionally, a reverse search initiated by a potential target can also be conducted. GOmir can freely be downloaded BRFAA.

  7. A meta-analysis of development aid allocation:  The effects of income level and population size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta-analysis of the......The effect on aid allocation of the income level and population size in the recipient country is  analyzed. The data show that both variables have a significant and robust negative effect, but  they explain only a small part of the variation. The main thrust of the paper is a meta...

  8. Size-based estimation of the status of fish stocks: simulation analysis and comparison with age-based estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkalis, Alexandros; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Nielsen, Anders

    , were investigated and our estimations were compared to the ICES advice. Only size-specific catch data were used, in order to emulate data limited situations. The simulation analysis reveals that the status of the stock, i.e. F/Fmsy, is estimated more accurately than the fishing mortality F itself....... Specific knowledge of the natural mortality improves the estimation more than having information about all other life history parameters. Our approach gives, at least qualitatively, an estimated stock status which is similar to the results of an age-based assessment. Since our approach only uses size...

  9. Small UAS Analysis of Laser Designation and Search and Target Acquisition Capabilities in an Urban Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harclerode, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: -Small UAS has extreme difficulty lasing moving targets in high density urban environments -Lasing moving targets in medium density terrain is possible but not certain -Lasing of stationary targets...

  10. Comparative analysis of cells and proteins of pumpkin plants for the control of fruit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Go; Takazaki, Shinya; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-09-01

    Common pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima) produce fruits of 1-2 kg size on the average, while special varieties of the same species called Atlantic Giant are known to produce a huge fruit up to several hundred kilograms. As an approach to determine the factors controlling the fruit size in C. maxima, we cultivated both AG and control common plants, and found that both the cell number and cell sizes were increased in a large fruit while DNA content of the cell did not change significantly. We also compared protein patterns in the leaves, stems, ripe and young fruits by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and identified those differentially expressed between them with mass spectroscopy. Based on these results, we suggest that factors in photosynthesis such as ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, glycolysis pathway enzymes, heat-shock proteins and ATP synthase play positive or negative roles in the growth of a pumpkin fruit. These results provide a step toward the development of plant biotechnology to control fruit size in the future. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical analysis of the sizes and velocities of laser hot spots of smoothed beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.; Videau, L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a precise description of the characteristics of the hot spots of a partially coherent laser pulse. The average values of the sizes and velocities of the hot spots are computed, as well as the corresponding probability density functions. Applications to the speckle patterns generated by optical smoothing techniques for uniform irradiation in plasma physics are discussed

  12. Analysis of costs and returns in rice farming by farm size in Ebonyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to analyze the costs and returns of rice farming by farm size in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. Data were collected through the cost-route approach with pre-tested structured questionnaire from 40 randomly selected small scale and 40 purposively selected large-scale rice farmers, Data were analyzed by ...

  13. An Analysis of Business Intelligence Maturity, Enterprise Size, and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) maturity for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is significantly behind larger companies that utilize BI solutions. Successful data oriented business environments require knowledge and insight to understand organizational capabilities. This quantitative correlational study assessed the relationship between…

  14. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  15. Genotype by environment interaction for litter size in pigs as quantified by reaction norms analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, P W; Su, G

    2008-01-01

    A Bayesian procedure was used to estimate linear reaction norms (i.e. individual G × E plots) on 297 518 litter size records of 121 104 sows, daughters of 2040 sires, recorded on 144 farms in North and Latin America, Europe, Asia and Australia. The method allowed for simultaneous estimation of al...

  16. Simulation and analysis of the soot particle size distribution in a turbulent nonpremixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Lucchesi, Marco; Abdelgadir, Ahmed Gamaleldin; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    to the simulation of soot formation and growth in simplified configurations featuring a constant concentration of soot precursors and the evolution of the size distribution in time is found to depend on the intensity of the nucleation rate. Higher nucleation rates

  17. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  18. Wavefront-sensor-induced beam size error: physical mechanism, sensitivity-analysis and correction method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Zwet, E.J. van

    2015-01-01

    When using a commonly-used quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometer wavefront sensor (QWLSI WFS) for beam size measurements on a high power CO2 laser, artefacts have been observed in the measured irradiance distribution. The grating in the QWLSI WFS not only generates the diffracted first orders

  19. Sensitivity analysis of intracellular signaling pathway kinetics predicts targets for stem cell fate control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Mahdavi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Directing stem cell fate requires knowledge of how signaling networks integrate temporally and spatially segregated stimuli. We developed and validated a computational model of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3 pathway kinetics, a signaling network involved in embryonic stem cell (ESC self-renewal. Our analysis identified novel pathway responses; for example, overexpression of the receptor glycoprotein-130 results in reduced pathway activation and increased ESC differentiation. We used a systematic in silico screen to identify novel targets and protein interactions involved in Stat3 activation. Our analysis demonstrates that signaling activation and desensitization (the inability to respond to ligand restimulation is regulated by balancing the activation state of a distributed set of parameters including nuclear export of Stat3, nuclear phosphatase activity, inhibition by suppressor of cytokine signaling, and receptor trafficking. This knowledge was used to devise a temporally modulated ligand delivery strategy that maximizes signaling activation and leads to enhanced ESC self-renewal.

  20. One size does not fit all: how the tobacco industry has altered cigarette design to target consumer groups with specific psychological and psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Keithly, Lois; Connolly, Gregory

    2003-11-01

    To identify whether the tobacco industry has targeted cigarette product design towards individuals with varying psychological/psychosocial needs. Internal industry documents were identified through searches of an online archival document research tool database using relevancy criteria of consumer segmentation and needs assessment. The industry segmented consumer markets based on psychological needs (stress relief, behavioral arousal, performance enhancement, obesity reduction) and psychosocial needs (social acceptance, personal image). Associations between these segments and smoking behaviors, brand and design preferences were used to create cigarette brands targeting individuals with these needs. Cigarette brands created to address the psychological/psychosocial needs of smokers may increase the likelihood of smoking initiation and addiction. Awareness of targeted product development will improve smoking cessation and prevention efforts.

  1. A new robustness analysis for climate policy evaluations: A CGE application for the EU 2020 targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermeling, Claudia; Löschel, Andreas; Mennel, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for stochastic sensitivity analysis for computable general equilibrium (CGE) model based on Gauss Quadrature and applies it to check the robustness of a large-scale climate policy evaluation. The revised version of the Gauss-quadrature approach to sensitivity analysis reduces computations considerably vis-à-vis the commonly applied Monte-Carlo methods; this allows for a stochastic sensitivity analysis also for large scale models and multi-dimensional changes of parameters. In the application, an impact assessment of EU2020 climate policy, we focus on sectoral elasticities that are part of the basic parameters of the model and have been recently determined by econometric estimation, alongside with standard errors. The impact assessment is based on the large scale CGE model PACE. We show the applicability of the Gauss-quadrature approach and confirm the robustness of the impact assessment with the PACE model. The variance of the central model outcomes is smaller than their mean by order four to eight, depending on the aggregation level (i.e. aggregate variables such as GDP show a smaller variance than sectoral output). - Highlights: ► New, simplified method for stochastic sensitivity analysis for CGE analysis. ► Gauss quadrature with orthogonal polynomials. ► Application to climate policy—the case of the EU 2020 targets