WorldWideScience

Sample records for target recognizer technologies

  1. Artificial Intelligence In Automatic Target Recognizers: Technology And Timelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.

    1984-12-01

    The recognition of targets in thermal imagery has been a problem exhaustively analyzed in its current localized dimension. This paper discusses the application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology to automatic target recognition, a concept capable of expanding current ATR efforts into a new globalized dimension. Deficiencies of current automatic target recognition systems are reviewed in terms of system shortcomings. Areas of artificial intelligence which show the most promise in improving ATR performance are analyzed, and a timeline is formed in light of how near (as well as far) term artificial intelligence applications may exist. Current research in the area of high level expert vision systems is reviewed and the possible utilization of artificial intelligence architectures to improve low level image processing functions is also discussed. Additional application areas of relevance to solving the problem of automatic target recognition utilizing both high and low level processing are also explored.

  2. Recognizing Excellence: Turtles and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Susan; Howard, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Participating in the Disney Planet Challenge (DPC) program allowed this author's 22 fourth-grade students an opportunity to be involved in a real-world problem: how to protect a threatened species and become its advocate. Using many different technology tools, the students informed their community about a threatened species--the Blanding's…

  3. Professional Development Recognizing Technology Integration Modeled after the TPACK Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Public school teachers within a Pennsylvania intermediate unit are receiving inadequate job-embedded professional development that recognizes knowledge of content, pedagogy, and technology integration, as outlined by Mishra and Koehler's Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework (2006). A school environment where teachers are…

  4. Macrophages recognize size and shape of their targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishit Doshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognition by macrophages is a key process in generating immune response against invading pathogens. Previous studies have focused on recognition of pathogens through surface receptors present on the macrophage's surface. Here, using polymeric particles of different geometries that represent the size and shape range of a variety of bacteria, the importance of target geometry in recognition was investigated. The studies reported here reveal that attachment of particles of different geometries to macrophages exhibits a strong dependence on size and shape. For all sizes and shapes studied, particles possessing the longest dimension in the range of 2-3 microm exhibited highest attachment. This also happens to be the size range of most commonly found bacteria in nature. The surface features of macrophages, in particular the membrane ruffles, might play an important role in this geometry-based target recognition by macrophages. These findings have significant implications in understanding the pathogenicity of bacteria and in designing drug delivery carriers.

  5. Multi-UAV joint target recognizing based on binocular vision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognizing of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based on image processing take the advantage of 2D information containing in the image for identifying the target. Compare to single UAV with electrical optical tracking system (EOTS, multi-UAV with EOTS is able to take a group of image focused on the suspected target from multiple view point. Benefit from matching each couple of image in this group, points set constituted by matched feature points implicates the depth of each point. Coordinate of target feature points could be computing from depth of feature points. This depth information makes up a cloud of points and reconstructed an exclusive 3D model to recognizing system. Considering the target recognizing do not require precise target model, the cloud of feature points was regrouped into n subsets and reconstructed to a semi-3D model. Casting these subsets in a Cartesian coordinate and applying these projections in convolutional neural networks (CNN respectively, the integrated output of networks is the improved result of recognizing.

  6. Target Glint Suppression Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Rayleigh for either horizontal or vertical polarization). 2.1.2 Spatial Characterization. Before the effects of diversity on target detection can be...ncs) dRCS T If the lower intergration limit is taken as zero for the Rayleigh targct model of interest, then this quantity is unbounded. In...port wing, inner section Trailing edge of starboard .:ing, inner section Leading edge of horizontal stabilizer, inner section, port side TLeal, -g

  7. Development of RI Target Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Taek Soo; Rho, Si Pyo; Park, Hyun Min; Lim, Gwon; Cha, Yong Ho; Han, Jae Min

    2010-04-01

    This project was accomplished with an aim of productive technical development on the 'enriched target' which is used essentially in radioisotope production. The research was advanced systematically with target production pilot system configuration and core technical development. We composed Yb-176 productive pilot system which equip the chemical purification technique of medical treatment level and proved its capability. Possibilities to separate Zn-67 by the method of using the polarizing light in principle and to separate Zn-70 by the method of using the double optical pumping in theory were also proved. RI target production technologies are recognized excessively with monopolistic techniques of part atomic energy advanced nations such as Russia and US and they are come, but we prepared the opportunity will be able to complete a full cycle of like (RI material production -> RI target production -> RI application) with this project accomplishment. When considering only the direct demand of stable isotope which is used in various industrial, we forecast with the fact that RI target markets will become larger with the approximately 5 billion dollars in 2020 and this technology will contribute in the domestic rising industry creation with high value added

  8. Assistant director of intramural sports and technology recognized for innovative contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Kropff, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Rezac, assistant director of intramural sports and technology at Virginia Tech, was recognized at the National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (NIRSA) Annual Conference in Charlotte, N.C., in April for her contributions to the Virginia Tech Recreational Sports department.

  9. Dendrites of cerebellar granule cells correctly recognize their target axons for synaptogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shoko; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2009-08-04

    Neural circuits are generated by precisely ordered synaptic connections among neurons, and this process is thought to rely on the ability of neurons to recognize specific partners. However, it is also known that neurons promiscuously form synapses with nonspecific partners, in particular when cultured in vitro, causing controversies about neural recognition mechanisms. Here we reexamined whether neurons can or cannot select particular partners in vitro. In the cerebellum, granule cell (GC) dendrites form synaptic connections specifically with mossy fibers, but not with climbing fibers. We cocultured GC neurons with pontine or inferior olivary axons, the major sources for mossy and climbing fibers, respectively, as well as with hippocampal axons as a control. The GC neurons formed synapses with pontine axons predominantly at the distal ends of their dendrites, reproducing the characteristic morphology of their synapses observed in vivo, whereas they failed to do so when combined with other axons. In the latter case, synaptic proteins could accumulate between axons and dendrites, but these synapses were randomly distributed throughout the contact sites, and also their synaptic vesicle recycling was anomalous. These observations suggest that GC dendrites can select their authentic partners for synaptogenesis even in vitro, forming the synapses with a GC-specific nature only with them.

  10. T Cells that Recognize HPV Protein Can Target Virus-Infected Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoptive T-cell transfer (ACT) is a promising form of cancer immunotherapy. Treating patients with T cells isolated from a tumor and subsequently expanded in the lab can cause the complete regression of some melanomas and cervical cancers, but the treatment is currently restricted to a few cancer types. An approach that may be applied to a wider array of cancers involves modifying peripheral blood T cells with chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors (TCR) that target specific tumor antigens. Unfortunately, epithelial cancers, which are the vast majority of cancers diagnosed, have proven difficult to treat this way because most identified antigens are shared with healthy tissues and targeting them leads to toxic side effects. However, cancers caused by persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, including cervical, head and neck, anal, vaginal, vulvar, and penile cancers, may be particularly amenable to the latter form of ACT since the E6 and E7 viral proteins are essential for cancer formation but are not produced in normal tissues. To test this idea, Christian Hinrichs, M.D., and his colleagues examined tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from a patient who experienced a prolonged disease-free period after her second surgical removal of metastatic anal cancer in the hopes of identifying a TCR against one of the HPV oncoproteins.

  11. Aggressive treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis: recognizing the window of opportunity and treating to target goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resman-Targoff, Beth H; Cicero, Marco P

    2010-11-01

    Evidence supports the use of aggressive therapy for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Clinical outcomes in patients with early RA can improve with a treat-to-target approach that sets the goal at disease remission. The current selection of antirheumatic therapies, including conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), has made disease remission a realistic target for patients with early RA. The challenge is selecting the optimal antirheumatic drug or combination of drugs for initial and subsequent therapy to balance the clinical benefits, risks, and economic considerations. In some cases, the use of biologic agents as part of the treatment regimen has shown superior results compared with conventional DMARDs alone in halting the progression of disease, especially in reducing radiographic damage. However, the use of biologic agents as initial therapy is challenged by cost-effectiveness analyses, which favor the use of conventional DMARDs. The use of biologic agents may be justified in certain patients with poor prognostic factors or those who experience an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs as a means to slow or halt disease progression and its associated disability. In these cases, the higher cost of treatment with biologic agents may be offset by decreased societal costs, such as lost work productivity, and increased health-related quality of life. Further research is needed to understand optimal strategies for balancing costs, benefits, and risks of antirheumatic drugs. Some key questions are (1) when biologic agents are appropriate for initial therapy, and (2) when to conclude that response to conventional DMARDs is inadequate and biologic agents should be initiated.

  12. Using land to mitigate climate change: hitting the target, recognizing the trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John; Melillo, Jerry; Cai, Yongxia; Kicklighter, David; Gurgel, Angelo; Paltsev, Sergey; Cronin, Timothy; Sokolov, Andrei; Schlosser, Adam

    2012-06-05

    Land can be used in several ways to mitigate climate change, but especially under changing environmental conditions there may be implications for food prices. Using an integrated global system model, we explore the roles that these land-use options can play in a global mitigation strategy to stabilize Earth's average temperature within 2 °C of the preindustrial level and their impacts on agriculture. We show that an ambitious global Energy-Only climate policy that includes biofuels would likely not achieve the 2 °C target. A thought-experiment where the world ideally prices land carbon fluxes combined with biofuels (Energy+Land policy) gets the world much closer. Land could become a large net carbon sink of about 178 Pg C over the 21st century with price incentives in the Energy+Land scenario. With land carbon pricing but without biofuels (a No-Biofuel scenario) the carbon sink is nearly identical to the case with biofuels, but emissions from energy are somewhat higher, thereby results in more warming. Absent such incentives, land is either a much smaller net carbon sink (+37 Pg C - Energy-Only policy) or a net source (-21 Pg C - No-Policy). The significant trade-off with this integrated land-use approach is that prices for agricultural products rise substantially because of mitigation costs borne by the sector and higher land prices. Share of income spent on food for wealthier regions continues to fall, but for the poorest regions, higher food prices lead to a rising share of income spent on food.

  13. T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, Surgery Branch, Tumor Immunology Section, is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize T Cells Attacking Cancer: T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen

  14. THE HYDROGENOSOMAL ENZYME HYDROGENASE FROM THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS NEOCALLIMASTIX SP L2 IS RECOGNIZED BY ANTIBODIES, DIRECTED AGAINST THE C-TERMINAL MICROBODY PROTEIN TARGETING SIGNAL SKL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; KRAAK, MN; VEENHUIS, M; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    The question was addressed whether antibodies directed against the general microbody C-terminal protein targeting signal SKL recognized hydrogenosomal proteins from Neocallimastix sp. L2. Immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting experiments using these antibodies indicated the

  15. TARGETED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO US INDEPENDENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2005-01-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers with timely, informed technology decisions during Fiscal Year 2004 (FY04). PTTC has active grassroots programs through its 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and 2 satellite offices. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, technical publications and other cooperative outreach efforts. PTTC's Headquarters (HQ) staff receives direction from a National Board of Directors predominantly comprised of American natural gas and oil producers to plan and manage the overall technology transfer program. PTTC HQ implements a comprehensive communications program by interconnecting the talents of the National Board, 10 Regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAG) and the RLOs with industry across the U.S. PTTC effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, namely the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil with state and industry contributions to share application of upstream technologies. Ultimately, these efforts factor in to provide a safe, secure and reliable energy supply for American consumers. This integrated resource base, combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff, are achieving notable results regarding domestic production figures. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies by providing direct contact with research, development and demonstration (RD&D) results. A key to the program is demonstrating proven technologies that can be applied broadly and rapidly. This technical progress report summarizes PTTC's accomplishments during

  16. Federal Laboratory Consortium Recognizes Unituxin Collaborators with Excellence in Technology Transfer Awards | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) presented an Excellence in Technology Transfer award to the group that collaborated to bring Unituxin (dinutuximab, also known as ch14.18), an immunotherapy for neuroblastoma, to licensure.

  17. The advanced linked extended reconnaissance and targeting technology demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, James; de Villers, Yves; Maheux, Jean; Edwards, Mark; Gains, David; Rea, Terry; Banbury, Simon; Gauthier, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing key operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. We discuss concepts for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as beyond line-of-sight systems such as a mini-UAV and unattended ground sensors. The authors address technical issues associated with the use of fully digital IR and day video cameras and discuss video-rate image processing developed to assist the operator to recognize poorly visible targets. Automatic target detection and recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images have been investigated to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The machine generated information display requirements are presented with the human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment, with a view to establishing user trust in the automation. The paper concludes with a summary of achievements to date and steps to project completion.

  18. Recognizing nurse stakeholder dissonance as a critical determinant of patient safety in new healthcare information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Elizabeth A; Real, Sara D; Curtis, Amber M; Meunier, Tessa S

    2012-01-01

    Proper identification of all stakeholders and the comprehensive assessment of their evolving and often conflicting Needs, Wants, and Desires (NWDs) is a fundamental principle of human factors science and human-centered systems engineering; it is not yet a consistent element in development and deployment of new health information technologies (HIT). As the single largest group of healthcare professionals, nurses are critical stakeholders for these new technologies. Careful analysis can reveal nurse stakeholder dissonance (NSD) when integrating new technologies into the healthcare environment. Stakeholder dissonance is a term that describes the conflict between the NWDs of different stakeholders which, if left unresolved, can result in dissatisfaction, workarounds, errors, and threats to patient safety. Three case studies drawn from the authors' experience in a variety of acute-care settings where new HITs have been recently deployed are examined to illustrate the concept of NSD. Conflicting NWDs, other stakeholders, and possible root causes of the NSD are analyzed and mapped to threats to patient safety. Lessons learned, practical guidance for anticipating, identifying, and mitigating NSD, future research and implications for HFE and nursing practice are discussed.

  19. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  20. The alpha2-delta protein: an auxiliary subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels as a recognized drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew J; Offord, James

    2010-07-01

    Currently, there are two drugs on the market, gabapentin (Neurontin) and pregabalin (Lyrica), that are proposed to exert their therapeutic effect through binding to the alpha2-delta subunit of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. This activity was unexpected, as the alpha2-delta subunit had previously been considered not to be a pharmacological target. In this review, the role of the alpha2-delta subunits is discussed and the mechanism of action of the alpha2-delta ligands in vitro and in vivo is summarized. Finally, new insights into the mechanism of drugs that bind to this protein are discussed.

  1. Materials technology applied to nuclear accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthell, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The continuing requests for both shaped and flat, very low areal density metal foils have led to the development of metallurgical quality, high strength products. Intent of this paper is to show methods of forming structures on various substrates using periodic vapor interruptions, alternating anodes, and mechanical peening to alter otherwise unacceptable grain morphology which both lowers tensile strength and causes high stresses in thin films. The three technologies, physical vapor deposition, electrochemistry, and chemical vapor deposition and their thin film products can benefit from the use of laminate technology and control of grain structure morphology through the use of materials research and technology

  2. Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2006-09-29

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization to address the increasingly urgent need to improve the technology-transfer process in the U.S. upstream petroleum industry. Coordinated from a Headquarters (HQ) office in Houston, PTTC maintains an active grassroots program executed by 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and two satellite offices (Figure 1). Regional Directors interact with domestic oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, technical publications and cooperative outreach efforts. HQ facilitates inter-regional technology transfer and implements a comprehensive communications program. Active volunteers on the National Board and in Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs) in each of the 10 regions focus effort in areas that will create the most impact for domestic producers. Focused effort by dedicated individuals across the country has enabled PTTC to achieve the milestones outlined in Appendix A.

  3. Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Lance Cole

    2009-09-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers, working in conjunction with the Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and selected universities, in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization. Its goal is to transfer Exploration and Production (E&P) technology to the domestic upstream petroleum industry, in particular to the small independent operators. PTTC connects producers, technology providers and innovators, academia, and university/industry/government research and development (R&D) groups. From inception PTTC has received federal funding through DOE's oil and natural gas program managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). With higher funding available in its early years, PTTC was able to deliver well more than 100 workshops per year, drawing 6,000 or more attendees per year. Facing the reality of little or no federal funding in the 2006-2007 time frame, PTTC and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) worked together for PTTC to become a subsidiary organization of AAPG. This change brings additional organizational and financial resources to bear for PTTC's benefit. PTTC has now been 'powered by AAPG' for two full fiscal years. There is a clear sense that PTTC has stabilized and is strengthening its regional workshop and national technology transfer programs and is becoming more entrepreneurial in exploring technology transfer opportunities beyond its primary DOE contract. Quantitative accomplishments: PTTC has maintained its unique structure of a national organization working through Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) to deliver local, affordable workshops. During the contract period PTTC consolidated from 10 to six regions efficiency and alignment with AAPG sections. The number of workshops delivered by its RLOs during the contract period is shown below. Combined attendance over the

  4. Targeted Research and Technology Within NASA's Living With a Star Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro; Baker, Kile; Bellaire, Paul; Blake, Bern; Crowley, Geoff; Eddy, Jack; Goodrich, Charles; Gopalswamy, Nat; Gosling, Jack; Hesse, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Targeted Research & Technology (TR&T) NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative is a systematic, goal-oriented research program targeting those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect society. The Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) component of LWS provides the theory, modeling, and data analysis necessary to enable an integrated, system-wide picture of Sun-Earth connection science with societal relevance. Recognizing the central and essential role that TR&T would have for the success of the LWS initiative, the LWS Science Architecture Team (SAT) recommended that a Science Definition Team (SDT), with the same status as a flight mission definition team, be formed to design and coordinate a TR&T program having prioritized goals and objectives that focused on practical societal benefits. This report details the SDT recommendations for the TR&T program.

  5. Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musinski, D.L.; Henderson, T.M.; Simms, R.J.; Pattinson, T.R.; Jacobs, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Most current laser-fusion targets consist of hollow spherical glass shells which have been filled with a mixture of gaseous deuterium-tritium fuel. Theoretical considerations suggest that optimum yields can be obtained from these targets if the fuel is condensed as a uniform liquid or solid layer on the inner surface of the glass shell at the time it is irradiated. In principle, this can be accomplished in a straightforward way by cooling the target below the condensation or freezing point of the fuel. In practice, cryogenic targets can appear in routine laser experiments only when the necessary cryogenic technology is reliably integrated into experimental target chambers. Significant progress has been made recently in this field. The authors will discuss the scientific basis and the various technological features of a system which has allowed the successful irradiation of uniform solid-fuel-layer targets

  6. Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzinger, Viola [Petroleum Tech. Transfer Council, Tulsa, OK (United States); Chapman, Kathy [Petroleum Tech. Transfer Council, Tulsa, OK (United States); Lovendahl, Kristi [Petroleum Tech. Transfer Council, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) is a unique not-for-profit network that focuses on transferring Exploration and Production (E&P) technology to the domestic oil and natural gas producing industry. PTTC connects producers, technology providers and innovators, academia, research and development (R&D) consortiums and governments. Local affordable workshops delivered by Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs), which are typically a university or geological survey, are a primary tool. PTTC also maintains a website network, issues a national newsletter, provides a column in a major trade publication, and exhibits at major industry events. It also encourages industry to ask technology-related questions, striving to find relevant answers that will save questioners significant time. Working since late 1993, the PTTC network has a proven track record of providing industry with technology insights they can apply. Volunteers at the regional and national level provide key guidance regarding where to focus technical effort and help connect PTTC with industry. At historical funding levels, PTTC had been able to hold well more than 100 workshops per year, drawing 6,000+ attendees. As funding decreased in the early 2000s, the level of activity decreased and PTTC sought a merger with the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), becoming an AAPG-managed organization at the start of FY08. This relationship with AAPG was terminated by mutual consent in May 2011 and PTTC once again operates independently. Chris Hall, California continued to serve as Chairman of the Board of Directors until December 2013. At the time PTTC reorganized into a RLO led organization with Mary Carr and Jeremy Viscomi as co-Executive Directors. Jerry Anderson became the Chairman of the PTTC Board of Directors and Chris Hall continues to serve on the Board. Workshop activity stabilized at 55-65 workshops per year averaging 3,100 attendees. FY14 represented the fifth year in a multi

  7. Future technological developments to fulfill AG2020 targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne; Borch, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    This report constitute an analysis of selected technologies that are anticipated to underpin the images described in Giaoutzi et al (2008) and it proposes policy measures to promote these technologies. It builds on Borch et al (2008) where a more detailed description of technologies can be found....... as the threats for development of the technology in the respective images. Finally policies for promoting and spreading technologies are proposed.......This report constitute an analysis of selected technologies that are anticipated to underpin the images described in Giaoutzi et al (2008) and it proposes policy measures to promote these technologies. It builds on Borch et al (2008) where a more detailed description of technologies can be found....... Based on the technological narratives and imperatives, we select a set of present available technologies that are able to support the society in reaching the targets set up by AG2020. For each of these technologies, we evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the technology to reach the target as well...

  8. Electroless plating technology of integral hohlraum Cu target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiguang; Fu Qu; Wan Xiaobo; Zhou Lan; Xiao Jiang

    2005-01-01

    The electroless plating method of making integral hohlraum Cu target and corrosion-resistant technology of target's surface were researched. The actual process was as follows, choosing plexiglass (PMMA) as arbor, taking cationic activation and electroless plating Cu on the arbor surface, taking arbor surface passivation and chemical etching by C 6 H 5 N 3 solution. The technology is easy to realize and its cost is lower, so it is of great reference value for fabricating other integral hohlraum metal or alloy targets used for inertial confinement fusion study. (author)

  9. Current status of solid state target technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    In general radioisotopes fall into two basic groups: those that are neutron rich and those that are neutron deficient. Those that are neutron rich are usually made in a nuclear reactor while those that are neutron deficient are produced by bombarding a suitable target with protons, deuterons or helium particles. Particle accelerators and in particular cyclotrons, were very important in the preparation of radioisotopes during the years of 1935 to the end of World War Two. The amount of radioactive material which could be produced in an accelerator was many times greater than the amount which could be produced using the alpha particles from naturally occurring radioactive elements. After World War Two, reactors were used to produce radioactive elements and the use of accelerators for this purpose became less common. However, as the techniques for using radiotracers became more sophisticated, it became clear that reactor produced radionuclides could not satisfy the growing demands and therefore accelerators were needed to produce new radioisotopes which could be used in new ways. There are three major reasons the accelerator produced radioisotopes are used more widely that reactor produced radionuclides. These are: 1) The radioisotopes produced in a reactor may have unfavorable decay characteristics (particle emission, half-life, gamma rays, etc.) for a particular application. 2) The radioisotope cannot be produced in a reactor with high specific activity. 3) Access to a reactor is limited. The number of reactors available has become many fewer than the number of cyclotrons available to the scientific community, or the radioisotope has too short a half-life to be transported to the site where it is needed. There are a wide variety of nuclear reactions which are used in an accelerator to produce the artificial radioactivity. The bombarding particles are usually protons, deuterons, or helium particles. The energies which are used range from a few MeV to hundreds of Me

  10. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro [ 51 Cr]-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs

  11. Reconfiguring global pharmaceutical value networks through targeted technology interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Tomas Seosamh; Phillips, MA; Srai, Jagjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Targeting a series of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) ‘interventions’ provides the potential for significant step changes across the pharmaceutical value chain, from early stage ‘system discovery’ and clinical trials, through to novel service supply models. This research explores future value network configurations which, when aligned with disruptive shifts in technology (process and digital), may enable alternative routes to medicines production and the delivery of additional value t...

  12. Technology strategy for gas technologies; Technology Target Areas; TTA8 Gas Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    TTA8 - Gas technologies points out the various routes Norway can follow to capitalise on the vast resources of natural gas that will be produced in the years to come by developing a strong technology and competence platform. A broad view is taken for the value creation having as basis the continued gas export from NCS to Europe, but also a strong focus on development of gas resources in other parts of the world. The latter can also be seen as part of international positioning for upstream resources and does also include involvements in projects, and export of technology and products. The TTA has structured the analysis into 3 main areas: Gas transport and processing (pipeline, LNG, other); Gas conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials; CO{sub 2} management. In this report, for each of these areas, scenarios based on a gap analysis are presented. One of the key goals has been to identify pacing and emerging technologies for the next 20 years. Based on this, technologies have been mapped according to importance for future competitiveness and technology ambitions. This also includes primary funding responsibilities (public and/or industry). The road map below reflects the key issues in the proposed strategy. The base level of the figure explains areas that will have to be pursued to maintain Norway's role as a key gas and gas technology provider. The second layer represents near term options and possibilities with a reasonable risk profile that could further enhance the Norwegian position given the resources and drive to further develop this industry. As the top layer we have selected some of our 'dreams', what we may achieve if a progressive approach is followed with a strongly innovation based policy. It is acknowledged by the TTA that Norway cannot be a leading technology player in all aspects of the gas value chain. For some technologies we should be an active player and developer, whilst for other technologies we should become a competent buyer and user. This

  13. Technology strategy for gas technologies; Technology Target Areas; TTA8 Gas Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    TTA8 - Gas technologies points out the various routes Norway can follow to capitalise on the vast resources of natural gas that will be produced in the years to come by developing a strong technology and competence platform. A broad view is taken for the value creation having as basis the continued gas export from NCS to Europe, but also a strong focus on development of gas resources in other parts of the world. The latter can also be seen as part of international positioning for upstream resources and does also include involvements in projects, and export of technology and products. The TTA has structured the analysis into 3 main areas: Gas transport and processing (pipeline, LNG, other); Gas conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials; CO{sub 2} management. In this report, for each of these areas, scenarios based on a gap analysis are presented. One of the key goals has been to identify pacing and emerging technologies for the next 20 years. Based on this, technologies have been mapped according to importance for future competitiveness and technology ambitions. This also includes primary funding responsibilities (public and/or industry). The road map below reflects the key issues in the proposed strategy. The base level of the figure explains areas that will have to be pursued to maintain Norway's role as a key gas and gas technology provider. The second layer represents near term options and possibilities with a reasonable risk profile that could further enhance the Norwegian position given the resources and drive to further develop this industry. As the top layer we have selected some of our 'dreams', what we may achieve if a progressive approach is followed with a strongly innovation based policy. It is acknowledged by the TTA that Norway cannot be a leading technology player in all aspects of the gas value chain. For some technologies we should be an active player and developer, whilst for other technologies we should become a competent buyer

  14. Technologies using accelerator-driven targets under development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Recent development work conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory on technologies which use particle accelerator-driven targets is summarized. These efforts include development of the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC) Target for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), the Accelerator-Driven Assembly for Plutonium Transformation (ADAPT) Target for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of excess weapons plutonium. The PHOENIX Concept for the accelerator-driven transmutation of minor actinides and fission products from the waste stream of commercial nuclear power plants, and other potential applications

  15. Gene transfer technology and genetic radioisotope targeting therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaqiong; Wang Zizheng

    2004-01-01

    With deeper cognition about mechanisms of disease at the cellular and molecular level, gene therapy has become one of the most important research fields in medical molecular biology at present. Gene transfer technology plays an important role during the course of gene therapy, and further improvement should be made about vectors carrying target gene sequences. Also, gene survey is needed during gene therapy, and gene imaging is the most effective method. The combination of gene therapy and targeted radiotherapy, that is, 'Genetic Radioisotope Targeting Therapy', will be a novel approach to tumor gene therapy

  16. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Patrick, E-mail: michlp@med.uni-marburg.de; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments.

  17. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michl, Patrick; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments

  18. The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting Technology Demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2008-04-01

    The Advanced Linked Extended Reconnaissance & Targeting (ALERT) Technology Demonstration (TD) project is addressing many operational needs of the future Canadian Army's Surveillance and Reconnaissance forces. Using the surveillance system of the Coyote reconnaissance vehicle as an experimental platform, the ALERT TD project aims to significantly enhance situational awareness by fusing multi-sensor and tactical data, developing automated processes, and integrating beyond line-of-sight sensing. The project is exploiting important advances made in computer processing capability, displays technology, digital communications, and sensor technology since the design of the original surveillance system. As the major research area within the project, concepts are discussed for displaying and fusing multi-sensor and tactical data within an Enhanced Operator Control Station (EOCS). The sensor data can originate from the Coyote's own visible-band and IR cameras, laser rangefinder, and ground-surveillance radar, as well as from beyond line-of-sight systems such as mini-UAVs and unattended ground sensors. Video-rate image processing has been developed to assist the operator to detect poorly visible targets. As a second major area of research, automatic target cueing capabilities have been added to the system. These include scene change detection, automatic target detection and aided target recognition algorithms processing both IR and visible-band images to draw the operator's attention to possible targets. The merits of incorporating scene change detection algorithms are also discussed. In the area of multi-sensor data fusion, up to Joint Defence Labs level 2 has been demonstrated. The human factors engineering aspects of the user interface in this complex environment are presented, drawing upon multiple user group sessions with military surveillance system operators. The paper concludes with Lessons Learned from the project. The ALERT system has been used in a number of C4ISR

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ''Capabilities Activation'' and ''Capabilities Demonstration'' to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ''Small Glass Shell Deliveries'' and ''Composite Polymer Capsules'' for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ''Onsite Support'' at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ''Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats'' and established ''Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities'' at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ''Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.'' We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process

  20. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  1. Physics and technology of inertial fusion energy targets chambers and drivers. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The third IAEA Technical Meeting on Physics and Technology of Inertial Fusion Energy Targets and Chambers took place 11-13 October 2004 in the Yousung Hotel Daejon, Republic of Korea. The first meeting was held in Madrid, Spain, 7-9 June 2000, and the second one in San Diego, California, 17-19 June 2002. Nuclear fusion has the promise of becoming an abundant energy source with good environmental compatibility. Excellent progress has been made in controlled nuclear fusion research on both magnetic and inertial approaches for plasma confinement. The IAEA plays a pro-active role to catalyze innovation and enhance worldwide commitment to fusion. This is done by creating awareness of the different concepts of magnetic as well as inertial confinement. The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) supports the IAEA in the development of strategies to enhance fusion research in Member States. As part of the recommendations, a technical meeting on the physics and technology of inertial fusion energy (IFE) was proposed in one of the council meetings. The objective of the technical meeting was to contribute to advancing the understanding of targets and chambers for all proposed inertial fusion energy power plant designs. The topics to be covered were: Target design and physics, chamber design and physics, target fabrication injection and Tritium handling, assessment of safety, environment and economy aspect of IFE. It was recognized by the International Advisory Committee that the scope of the meeting should also include fusion drivers. The presentations of the meeting included target and chamber physics and technology for all proposed IFE plant concepts (laser driven, heavy-ion driven, Z-pinches, etc.). The final Research Coordination Meeting of the Coordinated Research Project on Elements of Power Plant Design for Inertial Fusion Energy, including further new results and achievements, followed the technical meeting. Twenty-nine participants from 12 countries participated

  2. A Plane Target Detection Algorithm in Remote Sensing Images based on Deep Learning Network Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuxin, Li; Zhilong, Zhang; Biao, Li

    2018-01-01

    Plane is an important target category in remote sensing targets and it is of great value to detect the plane targets automatically. As remote imaging technology developing continuously, the resolution of the remote sensing image has been very high and we can get more detailed information for detecting the remote sensing targets automatically. Deep learning network technology is the most advanced technology in image target detection and recognition, which provided great performance improvement in the field of target detection and recognition in the everyday scenes. We combined the technology with the application in the remote sensing target detection and proposed an algorithm with end to end deep network, which can learn from the remote sensing images to detect the targets in the new images automatically and robustly. Our experiments shows that the algorithm can capture the feature information of the plane target and has better performance in target detection with the old methods.

  3. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse B Ditlev

    Full Text Available Placental malaria is a major health problem for both pregnant women and their fetuses in malaria endemic regions. It is triggered by the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE in the intervillous spaces of the placenta and is associated with foetal growth restriction and maternal anemia. IE accumulation is supported by the binding of the parasite-expressed protein VAR2CSA to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA. Defining specific CSA-binding epitopes of VAR2CSA, against which to target the immune response, is essential for the development of a vaccine aimed at blocking IE adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs are known to target epitopes that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so called Nanobody, which represents the smallest known (15 kDa intact, native antigen-binding fragment. In this study, we have used the Nanobody technology, an approach new to malaria research, to generate small and functional antibody fragments recognizing unique epitopes broadly distributed on VAR2CSA.

  4. Future of brain stimulation: new targets, new indications, new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariz, Marwan; Blomstedt, Patric; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2013-11-01

    In the last quarter of a century, DBS has become an established neurosurgical treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and tremors. Improved understanding of brain circuitries and their involvement in various neurological and psychiatric illnesses, coupled with the safety of DBS and its exquisite role as a tool for ethical study of the human brain, have unlocked new opportunities for this technology, both for future therapies and in research. Serendipitous discoveries and advances in structural and functional imaging are providing abundant "new" brain targets for an ever-increasing number of pathologies, leading to investigations of DBS in diverse neurological, psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive conditions. Trials and "proof of concept" studies of DBS are underway in pain, epilepsy, tinnitus, OCD, depression, and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, as well as in eating disorders, addiction, cognitive decline, consciousness, and autonomic states. In parallel, ongoing technological development will provide pulse generators with longer battery longevity, segmental electrode designs allowing a current steering, and the possibility to deliver "on-demand" stimulation based on closed-loop concepts. The future of brain stimulation is certainly promising, especially for movement disorders-that will remain the main indication for DBS for the foreseeable future-and probably for some psychiatric disorders. However, brain stimulation as a technique may be at risk of gliding down a slippery slope: Some reports indicate a disturbing trend with suggestions that future DBS may be proposed for enhancement of memory in healthy people, or as a tool for "treatment" of "antisocial behavior" and for improving "morality." © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Accelerator and spallation target technologies for ADS applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient and safe management of spent fuel produced during the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is an important issue. Worldwide, more than 250 000 tons of spent fuel from reactors currently operating will require disposal. These numbers account for only high-level radio-active waste generated by present-day power reactors. Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from the long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to only about 1% of its content. This 1% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium (called transuranic elements) and the long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium. When transuranics are removed from discharged fuel destined for disposal, the toxic nature of the spent fuel drops below that of natural uranium ore (that which was originally mined for the nuclear fuel) within a period of several hundred years. This significantly reduces the burden on geological repositories and the problem of addressing the remaining long-term residues can thus be done in controlled environments having timescales of centuries rather than millennia. To address the disposal of transuranics, accelerator-driven systems (ADS), i.e. a sub-critical system driven by an accelerator to sustain the chain reaction, seem to have great potential for transuranic transmutation, though much R and D work is still required in order to demonstrate their desired capability as a whole system. This report describes the current status of accelerator and spallation target technologies and suggests technical issues that need to be resolved for ADS applications. It will be of particular interest to nuclear scientists involved in ADS development and in advanced fuel cycles in general. (author)

  6. Physics and technology of superthin internal targets in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    The new generation of accelerators for coincidence electronuclear investigations is discussed. The luminosity and beam parameters are calculated for an electron storage ring with an internal target operating in the superthin regime. The advantages and disadvantages in comparison with conventional operation using an external beam and target are described. The intermediate results for 2 GeV electron scattering on polarized internal deuterium target are given (joint Novosibirsk-Argonne experiment). 32 refs.; 5 figs

  7. Target technologies for laser inertial confinement fusion: state-of-the-art and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Du Kai

    2013-01-01

    Targets are physical base of the laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) researches. The quality of the targets has extremely important influences on the reliabilities and degree of precision of the ICF experimental results. The characteristics of the ICF targets, such as complexity and microscale, high precision, determine that the target fabrication process must be a system engineering. This paper presents progresses on the fabrication technologies of ICF targets. The existing problem and the future needs of ICF target fabrication technologies are also discussed. (authors)

  8. Integration of intracellular telomerase monitoring by electrochemiluminescence technology and targeted cancer therapy by reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huairong; Li, Binxiao; Sun, Zhaomei; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-12-01

    Cancer therapies based on reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as promising clinical treatments. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology has also attracted considerable attention in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, studies about the integration of ECL diagnosis and ROS cancer therapy are very rare. Here we introduce a novel strategy that employs ECL technology and ROS to fill the above vacancy. Briefly, an ITO electrode was electrodeposited with polyluminol-Pt NPs composite films and modified with aptamer DNA to capture HL-60 cancer cells with high specificity. After that, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) filled with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) were closed by the telomerase primer DNA (T-primer DNA) and aptamer. After aptamer on MSN@PMA recognized and combined with the HL-60 cancer cells with high specificity, T-primer DNA on MSN@PMA could be moved away from the MSN@PMA surface after extension by telomerase in the HL-60 cancer cells and PMA was released to induce the production of ROS by the HL-60 cancer cells. After that, the polyluminol-Pt NPs composite films could react with hydrogen peroxide (a major ROS) and generate an ECL signal. Thus the intracellular telomerase activity of the HL-60 cancer cells could be detected in situ . Besides, ROS could induce apoptosis in the HL-60 cancer cells with high efficacy by causing oxidative damage to the lipids, protein, and DNA. Above all, the designed platform could not only detect intracellular telomerase activity instead of that of extracted telomerase, but could also kill targeted tumors by ECL technology and ROS.

  9. Technology strategy for subsea processing and transport; Technology Target Areas; TTA6 - Subsea processing and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    OG21 (www.OG21.org) Norway's official technology strategy for the petroleum sector issued a revised strategy document in November 2005 (new strategy planned in 2009). In this document 'Subsea processing and transport' was identified as one of the eight new technology target areas (TTAs). The overall OG21 strategy document is on an aggregated level, and therefore the Board of OG21 decided that a sub-strategy for each TTA was needed. This document proposes the sub-strategy for the technology target area 'Subsea processing and transport' which covers the technology and competence necessary to effectively transport well stream to a platform or to onshore facilities. This includes multiphase flow modelling, flow assurance challenges to avoid problems with hydrates, asphaltenes and wax, subsea or downhole fluid conditioning including bulk water removal, and optionally complete water removal, and sand handling. It also covers technologies to increase recovery by pressure boosting from subsea pumping and/or subsea compression. Finally it covers technologies to facilitate subsea processing such as control systems and power supply. The vision of the Subsea processing and transport TTA is: Norway is to be the leading international knowledge- and technology cluster in subsea processing and transport: Sustain increased recovery and accelerated production on the NCS by applying subsea processing and efficient transport solutions; Enable >500 km gas/condensate multiphase well stream transport; Enable >200 km oil-dominated multiphase well stream transport; Enable well stream transport of complex fluids; Enable subsea separation, boosting compression, and water injection; Enable deepwater developments; Enable environmentally friendly and energy efficient field development. Increase the export of subsea processing and transport technology: Optimize technology from the NCS for application worldwide; Develop new technology that can meet the challenges found in

  10. Energy technologies for post Kyoto targets in the medium term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, H.

    2003-09-01

    The Risoe International Energy Conference took place 19 - 21 May 2003 and the aim was to present and discuss new developments and trends in energy technologies which may become main contributors to the energy scene in 15 to 20 years. The conference addressed R and D related to the individual technologies as well as system integration. The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 25 June 2003. (au)

  11. Energy technologies for post Kyoto targets in the medium term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L; Larsen, H [eds.

    2003-09-01

    The Risoe International Energy Conference took place 19 - 21 May 2003 and the aim was to present and discuss new developments and trends in energy technologies which may become main contributors to the energy scene in 15 to 20 years. The conference addressed R&D related to the individual technologies as well as system integration. The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 25 June 2003. (au)

  12. Development of a Novel Targeted RNAi Delivery Technology inTherapies for Metabolic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    report Impact on other disciplines: Nothing to report Impact on technology transfer: Nothing to report Impact on society : Nothing to report 5. CHANGES...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0569 TITLE: Development of a Novel Targeted RNAi Delivery Technology in Therapies for Metabolic Diseases PRINCIPAL...COVERED 30Sep2016 - 29Sep2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of a Novel Targeted RNAi Delivery Technology in Therapies for Metabolic Diseases 5a

  13. Fabrication of laser-target components by semiconductor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a unique silicon substrate with which laser-target components can be mass produced. Different sizes and shapes of gold foils from 50 to 3000 microns in diameter and up to 25 microns thick have been produced with this process since 1976

  14. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  15. Targeted killing with drones? Old arguments, new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisels Tamar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of how to contend with terrorism in keeping with our preexisting moral and legal commitments now challenges Europe as well as Israel and the United States: how do we apply Just War Theory and International Law to asymmetrical warfare, specifically to our counter terrorism measures? What can the classic moral argument in Just and Unjust Wars teach us about contemporary targeted killings with drones? I begin with a defense of targeted killing, arguing for the advantages of pin pointed attacks over any alternative measure available for combatting terrorism. Assuming the legitimacy of killing combatants in wartime, I argue, there is nothing wrong, and in fact much that is right, with targeting particular terrorists selected by name, as long as their assassinations can be reasonably expected to reduce terrorist hostilities rather than increase it. Subsequently, I offer some further thoughts and comments on the use of remotely piloted aircrafts to carry out targeted killings, and address the various sources for discomfort with this practice identified by Michael Walzer and others.

  16. Addressing key science and technology issues for IFE chambers, target fabrication and target injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Goodin, D.T.; Nobile, A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of high repetition rate chambers, target fabrication and injection for inertial fusion energy (IFE) for both heavy ion and laser drivers. Research is being conducted in a coordinated manner by national laboratories, universities and industry. This paper provides an overview of U.S. research activities and discusses how interface considerations (such as beam propagation and target survival during injection) impact design choices. (author)

  17. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  18. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  19. ICF target technology at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselov, A.V.; Drozhin, V.S.; Druzhinin, A.A.; Izgorodin, V.M.; Iiyushechkin, B.N.; Kirillov, G.A.; Komleva, G.V.; Korochkin, A.M.; Medvedev, E.F.; Nikolaev, G.P.; Pikulin, I.V.; Pinegin, A.V.; Punin, V.T.; Romaev, V.N.; Sumatokhin, V.L.; Tarasova, N.N.; Tachaev, G.V.; Cherkesova, I.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main effort of the ICF target fabrication group is support of the experiments performed on the 'ISKRA-4' and 'ISKRA-5' laser systems. The main types of targets used in these experiments are direct drive, inverted corona, and indirect drive. For production of direct drive targets, manufacturing techniques have been developed for both hollow glass and polystyrene microspheres. Hollow glass microspheres are fabricated by free-fall of liquid glass drops or dry gel in a 4 meter vertical kiln. These methods allow us to manufacture glass microspheres with diameters from 50 μm to 1 mm, wall thicknesses from 0.5 to 10 μm, and aspect ratios (radius/ wall) from 20 to 500. The microspheres have a thickness inhomogeneity less than 5% and non-sphericity less than 1%. Polystyrene microspheres are fabricated from polystyrene particles with a blowing agent in a similar vertical kiln. Polystyrene microspheres are fabricated with diameter up to 800 μm and wall thicknesses from 1 to 10 μm. 15 refs., 8 figs

  20. Near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets--economy wide versus technology specific approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, B.A.; Azar, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer suggestions when it comes to near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets based on some insights into the nature of technical change. We make a distinction between economy wide and technology specific policy instruments and put forward two key hypotheses: (i) Near-term carbon targets such as the Kyoto protocol can be met by economy wide price instruments (carbon taxes, or a cap-and-trade system) changing the technologies we pick from the shelf (higher energy efficiency in cars, buildings and industry, wind, biomass for heat and electricity, natural gas instead of coal, solar thermal, etc.). (ii) Technology specific policies are needed to bring new technologies to the shelf. Without these new technologies, stricter emission reduction targets may be considered impossible to meet by the government, industry and the general public, and therefore not adopted. The policies required to bring these more advanced technologies to the shelf are more complex and include increased public research and development, demonstration, niche market creation, support for networks within the new industries, standard settings and infrastructure policies (e.g., when it comes to hydrogen distribution). There is a risk that the society in its quest for cost-efficiency in meeting near-term emissions targets, becomes blindfolded when it comes to the more difficult, but equally important issue of bringing more advanced technologies to the shelf. The paper presents mechanisms that cause technology look in, how these very mechanisms can be used to get out of the current 'carbon lock-in' and the risk with premature lock-ins into new technologies that do not deliver what they currently promise. We then review certain climate policy proposals with regards to their expected technology impact, and finally we present a let-a-hundred-flowers-bloom strategy for the next couple of decades

  1. FY05 Targeted Technology Transfer to US Independents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) was established by domestic crude oil and natural gas producers in 1994 as a national not-for-profit organization to address the increasingly urgent need to improve the technology-transfer process in the U.S. upstream petroleum industry. PTTC's technology-transfer programs enhance U.S. national security. PTTC administers the only nation-wide, comprehensive program dedicated to maximizing America's supplies of domestic oil and gas. PTTC conducts grassroots programs through 10 Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and two satellite offices, leveraging their preexisting connections with industry. This organizational structure helps bring researchers and academia to the table. Nationally and regionally, volunteers within a National Board and Regional Producer Advisory Groups guide efforts. The National Board meets three times per year, an important function being approving the annual plans and budgets developed by the regions and Headquarters (HQ). Between Board meetings, an active Management and Budget Committee guide HQ activity. PTTC itself undergoes a thorough financial audit each year. The PTTC's HQ staff plans and manages all aspects of the PTTC program, conducts nation-wide technology-transfer activities, and implements a comprehensive communications program. Networking, involvement in technical activities, and an active exhibit schedule are increasing PTTC's sphere of influence with both producers and the oilfield service sector. Circulation for ''PTTC Network News'', the quarterly newsletter, has risen to nearly 17,500. About 7,500 people receive an email Technology Alert on an approximate three-week frequency. Case studies in the ''Petroleum Technology Digest in World Oil'' appear monthly, as do ''Tech Connections'' columns in ''The American Oil and Gas Reporter''. As part of its oversight responsibility for the regions

  2. Coping with Atmospheric Turbulence in the Selection of Laser Hardening Technology for FCS Targeting Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchett, Timothy M

    2004-01-01

    ... by frequency-agile battlefield lasers at both long and short range. Evidently, the selection of sensor protection technologies for incorporation into the final targeting system will be based on their optical limiting performance under field conditions...

  3. Report of the consultants' meeting on target and processing technologies for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Cyclotron produced radionuclides are used routinely for the diagnosis of a wide variety of diseases. Recently a number of radionuclides available from cyclotrons have been proposed for use in radiotherapy. In fact Pd-103 has become routinely available in some parts of the world for incorporation into brachytherapy seeds for treating prostate cancer. The consultants meeting reviewed the status of target and processing technologies associated with cyclotron production of radionuclides. The main topics of discussion included the basic nuclear data that is crucial to the production of the desired radionuclides, gas and solid target systems, the automated chemical processing units, the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) required in order to use these radionuclides in human patients in a safe and efficacious manner and a review of possible candidate nuclides that show promise for use in Nuclear Medicine in the near future. Advances in the preparation of solid targets using electroplating technology has created the possibility of preparing targets capable of operating at very high beam currents which would make the production of large quantities of SPECT agents possible at cyclotron facilities throughout the world. Recognising the needs of the developing countries which have established cyclotron facilities, the consultants focussed on how to provide the technology for preparing solid targets that could be used in the existing facilities. While solid target technology can be used for many radionuclides the report concentrated on several key radionuclides, which are of current importance or show potential for use in the near future. Tl-201 is currently used for cardiac profusion studies throughout the world. New target preparation techniques could potentially make many of the member states self sufficient in the production of this nuclide. I-123 has tremendous potential because of the near ideal photon energy for SPECT cameras and its well-understood chemistry. However, it

  4. Technologies for ITER divertor vertical target plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Merola, M.; Fouquet, S.; Bayetti, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Grosman, A.; Missirlian, M.; Tivey, R.; Roedig, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ITER divertor vertical target has to sustain heat fluxes up to 20 MW m -2 . The concept developed for this plasma facing component working at steady state is based on carbon fibre composite armour for the lower straight part and tungsten for the curved upper part. The main challenges involved in the use of such components include the removal of the high heat fluxes deposited and mechanically and thermally joining the armour to the metallic heat sink, despite the mismatch in the thermal expansions. Two solutions based on the use of a CuCrZr hardened copper alloy and an active metal casting (AMC (registered) ) process were investigated during the ITER EDA phase: the first one called 'flat tile geometry' was mainly developed for the Tore Supra pumped limiter, the second one called 'monoblock geometry' was developed by the EU Participating Team for the ITER project. This paper presents a review of these two solutions and analyses their assets and drawbacks: pressure drop, critical heat flux, surface temperature and expected behaviour during operation, risks during the manufacture, control of the armour defects during the manufacture and at the reception, and the possibility of repairing defective tiles

  5. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system.

  6. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Zhaochu; Dong, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of the aged population has caused an immense increase in the demand for healthcare services. Generally, the elderly are more prone to health problems compared to other age groups. With effective monitoring and alarm systems, the adverse effects of unpredictable events such as sudden illnesses, falls, and so on can be ameliorated to some extent. Recently, advances in wearable and sensor technologies have improved the prospects of these service systems for assisting elderly people. In this article, we review state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. These technologies are categorized into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Positioning is the process of accurate localization and is particularly important for elderly people so that they can be found in a timely manner. Activity recognition not only helps ensure that sudden events (e.g., falls) will raise alarms but also functions as a feasible way to guide people’s activities so that they avoid dangerous behaviors. Since most elderly people suffer from age-related problems, some vital signs that can be monitored comfortably and continuously via existing techniques are also summarized. Finally, we discussed a series of considerations and future trends with regard to the construction of “smart clothing” system. PMID:28208620

  7. Burnout: Recognize and Reverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Samantha

    2014-07-01

    Physician burnout may be underrecognized and can cause significant detrimental effects on personal health and job satisfaction. Burnout has been associated with medical errors, alcohol and drug abuse, and neglect and abandonment of career goals. With self-awareness, development of coping mechanisms, and the adoption of a strong social and professional support network, burnout can be combated. This article focuses on recognizing characteristics of burnout and providing strategies to cope to avoid reaching a high degree of burnout. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  8. Evaluation of a novel ultra small target technology supporting on-product overlay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilde, Henk-Jan H.; den Boef, Arie; Kubis, Michael; Jak, Martin; van Schijndel, Mark; Fuchs, Andreas; van der Schaar, Maurits; Meyer, Steffen; Morgan, Stephen; Wu, Jon; Tsai, Vincent; Wang, Cathy; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Ke, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jacky

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the size of metrology targets is essential for in-die overlay metrology in advanced semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper, μ-diffraction-based overlay (μDBO) measurements with a YieldStar metrology tool are presented for target-sizes down to 10 × 10 μm2. The μDBO technology enables selection of only the diffraction efficiency information from the grating by efficiently separating it from product structure reflections. Therefore, μDBO targets -even when located adjacent to product environment- give excellent correlation with 40 × 160 μm2 reference targets. Although significantly smaller than standard scribe-line targets, they can achieve total-measurement-uncertainty values of below 0.5 nm on a wide range of product layers. This shows that the new μDBO technique allows for accurate metrology on ultra small in-die targets, while retaining the excellent TMU performance of diffraction-based overlay metrology.

  9. Recognizing Facial Slivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan

    2018-07-01

    We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.

  10. The value of advanced technology in meeting 2050 greenhouse gas emissions targets in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, Page; Clarke, Leon; Pugh, Graham; Wise, Marshall; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James; Kim, Son

    2009-01-01

    This paper, a contribution to the EMF 22 subgroup on Transition Scenarios, examines the relationship between technology evolution over the next 40 years and the cost, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions consequences of possible U.S. mitigation goals. The paper explores these issues within the context of cumulative emissions targets based on linear reductions in CO 2 -e emissions of 50% and 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Six technology futures were constructed within the MiniCAM integrated assessment model and then applied to the emissions targets. The paper explores the influence of technology availability and expectations of future technology availability on the economic consequences of emissions mitigation, on the time path of emissions mitigation, and on the evolution of the U.S. energy system over time. One of the strongest themes to emerge from the scenarios in this study is that near-term decision-making depends on the availability of technology decades into the future, when deep emissions reductions are required to meet the cumulative emissions goals. In the scenarios in this paper, it is the expectations about future technology that have the most dramatic effect on greenhouse gas emissions prices and emissions reductions in 2020, as opposed to near-term technology availability. Moreover, it is the nature of technology 20, 30, and 40 years out, rather than availability and deployment of technology in the next decade, that will largely determine the character of the mid-century energy system.

  11. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  12. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...... that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH) domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so...

  13. Integration of multidisciplinary technologies for real time target visualization and verification for radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang WC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Chung Chang,1,* Chin-Sheng Chen,2,* Hung-Chi Tai,3 Chia-Yuan Liu,4,5 Yu-Jen Chen3 1Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The current practice of radiotherapy examines target coverage solely from digitally reconstructed beam's eye view (BEV in a way that is indirectly accessible and that is not in real time. We aimed to visualize treatment targets in real time from each BEV. The image data of phantom or patients from ultrasound (US and computed tomography (CT scans were captured to perform image registration. We integrated US, CT, US/CT image registration, robotic manipulation of US, a radiation treatment planning system, and a linear accelerator to constitute an innovative target visualization system. The performance of this algorithm segmented the target organ in CT images, transformed and reconstructed US images to match each orientation, and generated image registration in real time mode with acceptable accuracy. This image transformation allowed physicians to visualize the CT image-reconstructed target via a US probe outside the BEV that was non-coplanar to the beam's plane. It allowed the physicians to remotely control the US probe that was equipped on a robotic arm to dynamically trace and real time monitor the coverage of the target within the BEV during a simulated beam-on situation. This target visualization system may provide a direct remotely accessible and real time way to visualize, verify, and ensure tumor targeting during radiotherapy. Keywords: ultrasound, computerized tomography

  14. Elucidating antimalarial drug targets/mode-of-action by application of system biology technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Becker, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available targets/mode-of-action by application of systems biology technologies J BECKER, L MTWISHA, B CRAMPTON AND D MANCAMA CSIR Biosciences, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: JBecker@csir.co.za – www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Malaria is one... The objective of this study was to use systems biology tools to unravel the drug target/mode-of-action (MoA) of an antimalarial drug (cyclohexylamine) with a known drug target/MoA, by analysing differential expression profiles of drug treated vs untreated...

  15. A novel technology to target adenovirus vectors : application in cells involved in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, Jan Cornelis Emile

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis a novel technology is described to target adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors are powerful tools to modulate gene expression. The use of these vectors however, is hampered by the fact that many for gene therapy interesting cell types do not, or only at low levels express the CAR

  16. Method for Targeted Therapeutic Delivery of Proteins into Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Protein Expression Laboratory at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, MD is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop a platform technology for the targeted intra-cellular delivery of proteins using virus-like particles (VLPs).

  17. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  18. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [de

  19. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  20. Target and (Astro-)WISE technologies Data federations and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn, E. A.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Brinchmann, J.; McFarland, J.; Holties, H.; Kuijken, K. H.; Kleijn, G. Verdoes; Vriend, W.-J.; Williams, O. R.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Schomaker, L. R. B.; Swertz, M. A.; Tsyganov, A.; van Dijk, G. J. W.

    2017-06-01

    After its first implementation in 2003 the Astro-WISE technology has been rolled out in several European countries and is used for the production of the KiDS survey data. In the multi-disciplinary Target initiative this technology, nicknamed WISE technology, has been further applied to a large number of projects. Here, we highlight the data handling of other astronomical applications, such as VLT-MUSE and LOFAR, together with some non-astronomical applications such as the medical projects Lifelines and GLIMPS; the MONK handwritten text recognition system; and business applications, by amongst others, the Target Holding. We describe some of the most important lessons learned and describe the application of the data-centric WISE type of approach to the Science Ground Segment of the Euclid satellite.

  1. OPTICAL correlation identification technology applied in underwater laser imaging target identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guang-tao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Ge, Wei-long

    2012-01-01

    The underwater laser imaging detection is an effective method of detecting short distance target underwater as an important complement of sonar detection. With the development of underwater laser imaging technology and underwater vehicle technology, the underwater automatic target identification has gotten more and more attention, and is a research difficulty in the area of underwater optical imaging information processing. Today, underwater automatic target identification based on optical imaging is usually realized with the method of digital circuit software programming. The algorithm realization and control of this method is very flexible. However, the optical imaging information is 2D image even 3D image, the amount of imaging processing information is abundant, so the electronic hardware with pure digital algorithm will need long identification time and is hard to meet the demands of real-time identification. If adopt computer parallel processing, the identification speed can be improved, but it will increase complexity, size and power consumption. This paper attempts to apply optical correlation identification technology to realize underwater automatic target identification. The optics correlation identification technology utilizes the Fourier transform characteristic of Fourier lens which can accomplish Fourier transform of image information in the level of nanosecond, and optical space interconnection calculation has the features of parallel, high speed, large capacity and high resolution, combines the flexibility of calculation and control of digital circuit method to realize optoelectronic hybrid identification mode. We reduce theoretical formulation of correlation identification and analyze the principle of optical correlation identification, and write MATLAB simulation program. We adopt single frame image obtained in underwater range gating laser imaging to identify, and through identifying and locating the different positions of target, we can improve

  2. Technology Strategy for 'Environmental Technology for the Future'; Technology Target Areas; TTA1 - environmental technology for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The OG21 Technology Target Area 1 (TTA 1) group has produced a strategy for 'Environmental Technology for the Future'. A key aim of this work is to ensure that the operators on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) remain in a leading position with respect to environmental performance, while contributing to optimised resource recovery and value creation. This strategy focuses on environmental technology, which includes hardware, methods, software and knowledge. The TTA 1 group has agreed on a common vision: 'Norwegian oil and gas activities shall be leading in environmental performance, and Norway shall have the world leading knowledge and technology cluster within environmental technologies to support the zero harmful impact goals of the oil and gas industry.' Priorities have been made with emphasis on gaps that are considered most important to close and that will benefit from public research and development funding either for initialisation (primarily via the Petromaks and Climit programs) or acceleration (via Petromaks / Climit and particularly Demo 2000 where demonstration or piloting is required). The priorities aim to avoid technology gaps that are expected to be closed adequately through existing projects / programs or which are covered in other TTA strategies. The priority areas as identified are: Environmental impact and risk identification / quantification for new areas: Make quality assured environmental baseline data available on the web. Develop competence necessary to quantify and monitor the risks and risk reductions to the marine environment in new area ecosystems; Carbon capture and storage: Quantify environmental risks and waste management issues associated with bi-products from carbon capture processes and storage solutions. Develop and demonstrate effective carbon storage risk management, monitoring and mitigation technologies. Develop more cost and energy efficient power-from-shore solutions to reduce / eliminate CO{sub 2

  3. Research on infrared small-target tracking technology under complex background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jilu; Pan, Tao

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target tracking are described. On the foundation of above works, a moving target tracking software base on the OpenCV is developed by the software developing platform MFC. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. These two tracking algorithms are Kalman Filter tracking method and Camshift tracking method. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for tracking targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. This paper is very significant in the application of the infrared target tracking technology.

  4. The Duty to Recognize Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these......On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these...

  5. Chemical Genomics and Emerging DNA Technologies in the Identification of Drug Mechanisms and Drug Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2012-01-01

    and validate therapeutic targets and to discover drug candidates for rapidly and effectively generating new interventions for human diseases. The recent emergence of genomic technologies and their application on genetically tractable model organisms like Drosophila melanogaster,Caenorhabditis elegans...... critical roles in the genomic age of biological research and drug discovery. In the present review we discuss how simple biological model organisms can be used as screening platforms in combination with emerging genomic technologies to advance the identification of potential drugs and their molecular...

  6. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  7. Solar Europe industry initiative: research technology development and demonstration in support of 2020 and long-term targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Fraile Montoro, D.; Despotou, E.; Nowak, S.; Perezagua, E.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has set an ambitious target for the implementation of renewable energy technologies by 2020, i.e. a share of 20% of the total energy consumption. In support of these targets the Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan has been initiated by the European Commission. One of the key

  8. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  9. Tribal Recommendations for Designing Culturally Appropriate Technology-Based Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David

    2012-01-01

    Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues to reach Native youth on sensitive health topics. Project Red Talon, a sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention project that serves the 43 federally recognized tribes in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, used community-based participatory research…

  10. Decision Analysis and Policy Formulation for Technology-Specific Renewable Energy Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okioga, Irene Teshamulwa

    This study establishes a decision making procedure using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for a U.S. national renewable portfolio standard, and proposes technology-specific targets for renewable electricity generation for the country. The study prioritizes renewable energy alternatives based on a multi-perspective view: from the public, policy makers, and investors' points-of-view, and uses multiple criteria for ranking the alternatives to generate a unified prioritization scheme. During this process, it considers a 'quadruple bottom-line' approach (4P), i.e. reflecting technical "progress", social "people", economic 'profits", and environmental "planet" factors. The AHP results indicated that electricity generation from solar PV ranked highest, and biomass energy ranked lowest. A "Benefits/Cost Incentives/Mandates" (BCIM) model was developed to identify where mandates are needed, and where incentives would instead be required to bring down costs for technologies that have potential for profitable deployment. The BCIM model balances the development of less mature renewable energy technologies, without the potential for rising near-term electricity rates for consumers. It also ensures that recommended policies do not lead to growth of just one type of technology--the "highest-benefit, least-cost" technology. The model indicated that mandates would be suited for solar PV, and incentives generally for geothermal and concentrated solar power. Development for biomass energy, as a "low-cost, low-benefits" alternative was recommended at a local rather than national level, mainly due to its low resource potential values. Further, biomass energy generated from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) had the least resource potential compared to other biomass sources. The research developed methodologies and recommendations for biogas electricity targets at WWTPs, to take advantage of the waste-to-energy opportunities.

  11. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Target validation for FCV technology development in Japan from energy competition point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENDO Eiichi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to validate the technical targets in the governmental hydrogen energy road-map of Japan by analyzing market penetration of fuel cell vehicle(FCV)s and effects of fuel price and carbon tax on it from technology competition point of view. In this analysis, an energy system model of Japan based on MARKAL is used. The results of the analysis show that hydrogen FCVs could not have cost-competitiveness until 2030 without carbon tax, including the governmental actual plan of carbon tax. However, as the carbon tax rate increases, instead of conventional vehicles including gasoline hybrid electric vehicle, hydrogen FCVs penetrate to the market earlier and more. By assuming higher fuel price and severer carbon tax rate, market share of hydrogen FCVs approaches to the governmental goal. This suggests that cheaper vehicle cost and/or hydrogen price than those targeted in the road-map is required. At the same time, achievement of the technical targets in the road-map also allows to attain the market penetration target of hydrogen FCVs in some possible conditions. (authors)

  13. Targeted Prostate Biopsy: Lessons Learned Midst the Evolution of a Disruptive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Nima; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J; Marks, Leonard S

    2015-09-01

    Lessons learned during a 6-year experience with more than 1200 patients undergoing targeted prostate biopsy via MRI/ultrasound fusion are reported: (1) the procedure is safe and efficient, requiring some 15-20 minutes in an office setting; (2) MRI is best performed by a radiologist with specialized training, using a transabdominal multiparametric approach and preferably a 3T magnet; (3) grade of MRI suspicion is the most powerful predictor of biopsy results, eg, Grade 5 usually represents cancer; (4) some potentially important cancers (15%-30%) are MRI-invisible; (5) Targeted biopsies provide >80% concordance with whole-organ pathology. Early enthusiasm notwithstanding, cost-effectiveness is yet to be resolved, and the technologies remain in evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 2010 national progress report on R and D on LEU fuel and target technology in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, S.; Blaumann, H.; Cristini, P.; Gonzalez, A.G.; Gonzalez, R.; Hermida, J.D.; Lopez, M.; Mirandou, M.; Taboada, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since last RRFM meeting, CNEA has deployed several related tasks. The RA-6 MTR type reactor, converted its core from HEU to a new LEU silicide one is scaling up the power, according to a protocol requested by the national regulatory body, ARN. CNEA is deploying an intense R and D activity to fabricate both dispersed U-Mo (Al-Si matrix and Al cladding) and monolithic (Zry-4 cladding) miniplates to develop possible solutions to VHD dispersed and monolithic fuels technical problems. Some monolithic 58% enrichment U8%Mo and U10%Mo are being delivered to INL-DoE to be irradiated in ATR reactor core. A conscientious study on compound interphase formation in both cases is being carried out. CNEA, a worldwide leader on LEU technology for fission radioisotope production is providing Brazil with these radiopharmaceutical products and Egypt and Australia with the technology through INVAP SE. CNEA is also committed to improve the diffusion of LEU target and radiochemical technology for radioisotope production and target and process optimization. Future plans include: 1) Fabrication of a LEU dispersed U-Mo fuel prototype following the recommendations of the IAEA's Good Practices document, to be irradiated in a high flux reactor in the frame of the ARG/4/092 IAEA's Technical Cooperation project. 2) Development of LEU very high density monolithic and dispersed U-Mo fuel plates with Zry-4 or Al cladding as a part of the RERTR program. 3) Optimization of LEU target and radiochemical techniques for radioisotope production. (author)

  15. Overview of the IFE chamber and target technologies R and D in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Moir, R.W.; Nobile, A.; Peterson, P.F.; Petti, D.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Tillack, M.; Yoda, M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES) formed the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) to develop the technologies needed to support near term fusion experiments and to provide the basis for future magnetic and inertial fusion energy power plants. The scope of the inertial fusion energy (IFE) element of the VLT includes the fusion chamber, driver/chamber interface, target fabrication and injection, and safety and environmental assessment for IFE. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in conjunction with other laboratories, universities and industry, has written an R and D plan to address the critical issues in these areas over the next 5 years in a coordinated manner. This paper provides an overview of the U.S. research activities addressing these critical issues. (author)

  16. [Overview of patents on targeted genome editing technologies and their implications for innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang-yu; Lin, Yan-ping; Liao, Guo-jian; Xie, Jian-ping

    2015-12-01

    Zinc finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease are important targeted genome editing technologies. They have great significance in scientific research and applications on aspects of functional genomics research, species improvement, disease prevention and gene therapy. There are past or ongoing disputes over ownership of the intellectual property behind every technology. In this review, we summarize the patents on these three targeted genome editing technologies in order to provide some reference for developing genome editing technologies with self-owned intellectual property rights and some implications for current innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities.

  17. Intravenous siRNA of brain cancer with receptor targeting and avidin-biotin technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Yun; Boado, Ruben J; Pardridge, William M

    2007-12-01

    The effective delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) to brain following intravenous administration requires the development of a delivery system for transport of the siRNA across the brain capillary endothelial wall, which forms the blood-brain barrier in vivo. siRNA was delivered to brain in vivo with the combined use of a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody delivery system, and avidin-biotin technology. The siRNA was mono-biotinylated on either terminus of the sense strand, in parallel with the production of a conjugate of the targeting MAb and streptavidin. Rat glial cells (C6 or RG-2) were permanently transfected with the luciferase gene, and implanted in the brain of adult rats. Following the formation of intra-cranial tumors, the rats were treated with a single intravenous injection of 270 microg/kg of biotinylated siRNA attached to a transferrin receptor antibody via a biotin-streptavidin linker. The intravenous administration of the siRNA caused a 69-81% decrease in luciferase gene expression in the intracranial brain cancer in vivo. Brain delivery of siRNA following intravenous administration is possible with siRNAs that are targeted to brain with the combined use of receptor specific antibody delivery systems and avidin-biotin technology.

  18. Transmutation technology development; thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis of the HYPER target beam window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H.; Ju, E. S.; Song, M. K.; Jeon, Y. Z. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    A thermal hydraulic power analysis, a structure analysis and optimization computation for some design factor for the design of spallation target suitable for HYPER with 1000 MW thermal power in this study was performed. Heat generation formula was used which was evaluated recently based on the LAHET code, mainly to find the maximum beam current under given computation conditions. Thermal hydraulic power of HYPER target system was calculated using FLUENT code, structure conducted by inputting the data into ANSYS. On the temp of beam windows and the pressure distribution calculated using FLUENT. Data transformation program was composed apply the data calculated using FLUENT being commercial CFD code and ANSYS being FEM code for CFX structure analysis. A basic study was conducted on various singular target to obtain fundamental data on the shape for optimum target design. A thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis were conducted on the shapes of parabolic, uniform, scanning beams to choose the optimum shape of beam current analysis was done according to some turbulent model to simulate the real flow. To evaluate the reliability of numerical analysis result, benchmarking of FLUENT code reformed at SNU and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and it was compared to CFX in the possession of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and evaluated. Reliable deviation was observed in the results calculated using FLUENT code, but temperature deviation of about 200 .deg. C was observed in the result from CFX analysis at optimum design condition. Several benchmarking were performed on the basis of numerical analysis concerning conventional HYPER. It was possible to allow a beam arrests of 17.3 mA in the case of the {phi} 350 mm parabolic beam suggested to the optimum in nuclear transmutation when stress equivalent to VON-MISES was calculated to be 140 MPa. 29 refs., 109 figs. (Author)

  19. Technology of micro- and macroshells and the problem of reactor targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akunets, A.A.; Dorogotovtsev, V.M.; Merkul'ev, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Technological principles, permitting to produce laser targets of 4.0 - 10 mm diameter are suggested. According to the given technique a particle of initial substance (drop or shell) with additions of a gas-forming agent under conditions similar to free fall, flies in the atmosphere of rarefied heat-exchange gas through a hot area. The process of its heating under conditions of a weak forced convective heat exchange is the main process taking much time. Starting heat treatment of a shell 4.0 mm in diameter with aspect ratio A = 200, i.e. thickness of 10 μm, the treatment can be finished with 10.0 mm diameter at A = 1300, i.e. with wall thickness 1.6 μm. Experimental testing has confirmed the evaluations. Shells of 4.0 mm diameter with A = 2500 are produced

  20. Application of real-time single camera SLAM technology for image-guided targeting in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yau-Zen; Hou, Jung-Fu; Tsao, Yi Hsiang; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an application of augmented reality technology for targeting tumors or anatomical structures inside the skull. The application is a combination of the technologies of MonoSLAM (Single Camera Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) and computer graphics. A stereo vision system is developed to construct geometric data of human face for registration with CT images. Reliability and accuracy of the application is enhanced by the use of fiduciary markers fixed to the skull. The MonoSLAM keeps track of the current location of the camera with respect to an augmented reality (AR) marker using the extended Kalman filter. The fiduciary markers provide reference when the AR marker is invisible to the camera. Relationship between the markers on the face and the augmented reality marker is obtained by a registration procedure by the stereo vision system and is updated on-line. A commercially available Android based tablet PC equipped with a 320×240 front-facing camera was used for implementation. The system is able to provide a live view of the patient overlaid by the solid models of tumors or anatomical structures, as well as the missing part of the tool inside the skull.

  1. Uncertainties in key low carbon power generation technologies - Implication for UK decarbonisation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.

    2009-01-01

    The UK government's economy-wide 60% carbon dioxide reduction target by 2050 requires a paradigm shift in the whole energy system. Numerous analytical studies have concluded that the power sector is a critical contributor to a low carbon energy system, and electricity generation has dominated the policy discussion on UK decarbonisation scenarios. However, range of technical, social and market challenges, combined with alternate market investment strategies mean that large scale deployment of key classes of low carbon electricity technologies is fraught with uncertainty. The UK MARKAL energy systems model has been used to investigate these long-term uncertainties in key electricity generation options. A range of power sector specific parametric sensitivities have been performed under a 'what-if' framework to provide a systematic exploration of least-cost energy system configurations under a broad, integrated set of input assumptions. In this paper results of six sensitivities, via restricted investments in key low carbon technologies to reflect their technical and political uncertainties, and an alternate investment strategies from perceived risk and other barriers, have been presented. (author)

  2. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  3. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  4. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  5. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications particularly for

  6. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  7. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  8. [Optimization study on extraction technology of the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa by orthogonal design with multi-targets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-liang; Zhang, Yu-jie; Chen, Ming-xia; Wang, Ze-feng

    2005-05-01

    To optimize extraction technology of the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa with the targets of the total saponin, total jujuboside A and B and total flavonoids. In the method of one-way and orthogonal tests, ethanol concentration, amount of ethanol, extraction time and extraction times were the factors in orthogonal test, and each factor with three levels. Ethanol concentration and extraction times had significant effect on all the targets, other factors should be selected in accordance with production practice. The best extraction technology is to extract for three times with 8 fold ethanol solution (60%), and 1.5 h each time.

  9. Peptide-Based Vaccinology: Experimental and Computational Approaches to Target Hypervariable Viruses through the Fine Characterization of Protective Epitopes Recognized by Monoclonal Antibodies and the Identification of T-Cell-Activating Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Castelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Defining immunogenic domains of viral proteins capable of eliciting a protective immune response is crucial in the development of novel epitope-based prophylactic strategies. This is particularly important for the selective targeting of conserved regions shared among hypervariable viruses. Studying postinfection and postimmunization sera, as well as cloning and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, still represents the best approach to identify protective epitopes. In particular, a protective mAb directed against conserved regions can play a key role in immunogen design and in human therapy as well. Experimental approaches aiming to characterize protective mAb epitopes or to identify T-cell-activating peptides are often burdened by technical limitations and can require long time to be correctly addressed. Thus, in the last decade many epitope predictive algorithms have been developed. These algorithms are continually evolving, and their use to address the empirical research is widely increasing. Here, we review several strategies based on experimental techniques alone or addressed by in silico analysis that are frequently used to predict immunogens to be included in novel epitope-based vaccine approaches. We will list the main strategies aiming to design a new vaccine preparation conferring the protection of a neutralizing mAb combined with an effective cell-mediated response.

  10. Research on the development of space target detecting system and three-dimensional reconstruction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Wei, Zhen; Song, Dawei; Sun, Wenfeng; Fan, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    With the development of space technology, the number of spacecrafts and debris are increasing year by year. The demand for detecting and identification of spacecraft is growing strongly, which provides support to the cataloguing, crash warning and protection of aerospace vehicles. The majority of existing approaches for three-dimensional reconstruction is scattering centres correlation, which is based on the radar high resolution range profile (HRRP). This paper proposes a novel method to reconstruct the threedimensional scattering centre structure of target from a sequence of radar ISAR images, which mainly consists of three steps. First is the azimuth scaling of consecutive ISAR images based on fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). The later is the extraction of scattering centres and matching between adjacent ISAR images using grid method. Finally, according to the coordinate matrix of scattering centres, the three-dimensional scattering centre structure is reconstructed using improved factorization method. The three-dimensional structure is featured with stable and intuitive characteristic, which provides a new way to improve the identification probability and reduce the complexity of the model matching library. A satellite model is reconstructed using the proposed method from four consecutive ISAR images. The simulation results prove that the method has gotten a satisfied consistency and accuracy.

  11. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  12. Technology strategy for deepwater and subsea production systems 2008 update; Technology Target Areas; TTA7 - Deep water and subsea prodution technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Executive summary 'Deepwater and Subsea Production Systems' has been identified as one of the eight new Technology Target Areas (TTAs) in Norway's technology strategy for the Oil and Gas sector. This TTA covers deepwater floating production systems, subsea systems (except subsea processing technologies which are addressed by TTA6) and arctic development systems (in both shallow and deepwater). The total hydrocarbon reserves worldwide, which are enabled by the technologies under this TTA exceed 400 billion boe which, itself exceeds the proven reserves of Saudi Arabia. For deepwater developments the long term technical challenge is to develop flexible and adaptive systems which are better able to cope with subsurface uncertainties e.g. compartmentalisation and provide required access to the reservoir to enable successful recovery. More specific medium term challenges relate to developing solutions for harsh environmental conditions such as those offshore Norway and to develop cost effective methods of installing subsea hardware in deep and ultra deep water without requiring expensive crane vessels. For subsea systems the challenge is to develop solutions for ultra deepwater without increasing costs, so that Norway's leading export position in this area can be maintained and strengthened. Considering developments in the arctic, Norwegian industry is already well placed through its familiarity with arctic climate, close relationship with Russia and involvement in Sakhalin II. As we move to water depth beyond about 150m use of Gravity Base Structures (GBS) becomes very expensive or non-feasible and we need to consider other solutions. Subsea-to-beach could be an attractive solution but we need to resolve challenges related to long distance tie backs, flow assurance, uneven terrain, etc. There is also a specific need to develop floating systems capable of drilling and production in an arctic environment. To address the above technical challenges the

  13. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1997-02-01

    On December 30, 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. In September 1995 this contract ended and a second contract was issued for us to continue this ICF target support work. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. During this period, GA and our partners WJ Schafer Associates (WJSA) and Soane Technologies, Inc. (STI) were assigned 14 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct open-quotes Onsite Supportclose quotes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). We fabricated and delivered over 800 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. We produced nearly 1,200 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We also delivered over 100 flat foil targets for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and SNLA in FY96. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require capsules containing cryogenic layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. We are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Substantial progress has been made on ways to both create and characterize viable layers. During FY96, significant progress was made in the design of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA

  14. New design targets and new automated technology for the production of radionuclides with high specificity radioactivity in nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.S.; Kiselev, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    Current demands of industry require the application of radionuclides with high specific radioactivity under low consumption of neutrons. To provide this aim staff of ITEP Reactor Department investigated the different type AEs of start targets for the production of the main radionuclides; Co-60, Ir-192 and others. In first turn the targets of Co and Ir without the block-effect of neutron flux (with low absorption of neutrons) were investigated. The following principal results were received for example for Ir-192: block effect is equal 0.086 for diameter of Ir target mm and is equal 0.615 for diameter Ir target 0.5mm. It means average neutron flux for Ir target diameter 0.5mm and therefore the production of Ir-192 will be at 10 times more than for diameter 6.0mm. To provide the automated technology of the manufacture of radioactive sources with radionuclides with high specific radioactivity it was proposed that the compound targets for the irradiation of ones and for the management with the irradiated targets. Different types of compound targets were analyzed. (authors)

  15. Development and evaluation of a targeted orchard sprayer using machine vision technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Asaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In conventional methods of spraying in orchards, the amount of pesticide sprayed, is not targeted. The pesticide consumption data indicates that the application rate of pesticide in greenhouses and orchards is more than required. Less than 30% of pesticide sprayed actually reaches nursery canopies while the rest are lost and wasted. Nowadays, variable rate spray applicators using intelligent control systems can greatly reduce pesticide use and off-target contamination of environment in nurseries and orchards. In this research a prototype orchard sprayer based on machine vision technology was developed and evaluated. This sprayer performs real-time spraying based on the tree canopy structure and its greenness extent which improves the efficiency of spraying operation in orchards. Materials and Methods The equipment used in this study comprised of three main parts generally: 1- Mechanical Equipment 2- Data collection and image processing system 3- Electronic control system Two booms were designed to support the spray nozzles and to provide flexibility in directing the spray nozzles to the target. The boom comprised two parts, the vertical part and inclined part. The vertical part of the boom was used to spray one side of the trees during forward movement of the tractor and inclined part of the boom was designed to spray the upper half of the tree canopy. Three nozzles were considered on each boom. On the vertical part of the boom, two nozzles were placed, whereas one other nozzle was mounted on the inclined part of the boom. To achieve different tree heights, the vertical part of the boom was able to slide up and down. Labview (version 2011 was used for real time image processing. Images were captured through RGB cameras mounted on a horizontal bar attached on top of the tractor to take images separately for each side of the sprayer. Images were captured from the top of the canopies looking downward. The triggering signal for

  16. Technology of solid-fuel-layer targets for laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musinski, D.L.; Henderson, T.M.; Pattinson, T.R.; Tarvin, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus which produces uniform solid-fuel layers in glass-shell targets for laser irradiation is described. A low-power cw laser pulse is used to vaporize the fuel within a previously frozen target which is maintained in a cold-helium environment by a cryogenic shroud. The rapid refreezing that follows the pulse forms a uniform fuel layer on the inner surface of the glass shell. This apparatus and technique meet the restrictions imposed by the experimental target chamber. The method does not perturb the target position; nor does it preclude the usual diagnostic experimets since the shroud is retracted before the main laser pulse arrives. Successful laser irradiation and implosion of solid-fuel-layer targets at KMSF have confirmed the effectiveness and reliability of this system and extended the range of laser-target-interaction studies in the cryogenic regime

  17. Advanced research technology for discovery of new effective compounds from Chinese herbal medicine and their molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Law, Betty Yuen-Kwan; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xi; Xu, Su Wei; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2016-09-01

    Traditional biotechnology has been utilized by human civilization for long in wide aspects of our daily life, such as wine and vinegar production, which can generate new phytochemicals from natural products using micro-organism. Today, with advanced biotechnology, diverse applications and advantages have been exhibited not only in bringing benefits to increase the diversity and composition of herbal phytochemicals, but also helping to elucidate the treatment mechanism and accelerate new drug discovery from Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Applications on phytochemical biotechnologies and microbial biotechnologies have been promoted to enhance phytochemical diversity. Cell labeling and imaging technology and -omics technology have been utilized to elucidate CHM treatment mechanism. Application of computational methods, such as chemoinformatics and bioinformatics provide new insights on direct target of CHM. Overall, these technologies provide efficient ways to overcome the bottleneck of CHM, such as helping to increase the phytochemical diversity, match their molecular targets and elucidate the treatment mechanism. Potentially, new oriented herbal phytochemicals and their corresponding drug targets can be identified. In perspective, tighter integration of multi-disciplinary biotechnology and computational technology will be the cornerstone to accelerate new arena formation, advancement and revolution in the fields of CHM and world pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of plasma targets for interaction experiments at Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Ogawa, M.

    1996-01-01

    A plasma target of z-pinch discharge is developed to obtain a hydrogen plasma of density approaching 10 18 cm -3 . The target plasma has a duration of about 1 μs for an initial gas pressure of 80 Pa. Prior to the gas flow type of target, the z-pinch process of a gas-filled discharge tube was studied by comparison with a computer simulation. The behavior of the z pinch is understood in terms of the dynamics of a shock wave and a current boundary sheet. A laser-induced plasma is also examined as an alternative plasma target free from the plasma lens effect. (orig.)

  19. Continuing investigations for technology assessment of 99Mo production from LEU [low enriched uranium] targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Kwok, J.D.; Marshall, S.L.; Vissers, D.R.; Matos, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Currently much of the world's supply of 99m Tc for medical purposes is produced from 99 Mo derived from the fissioning of high enriched uranium (HEU). This paper presents the results of our continuing studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for HEU in targets for the production of fission product 99 Mo. Improvements in the electrodeposition of thin films of uranium metal continue to increase the appeal for the substitution of LEU metal for HEU oxide films in cylindrical targets. The process is effective for targets fabricated from stainless steel or zircaloy. Included is a cost estimate for setting up the necessary equipment to electrodeposit uranium metal on cylindrical targets. Further investigations on the effect of LEU substitution on processing of these targets are also reported. Substitution of uranium silicides for the uranium-aluminium alloy or uranium aluminide dispersed fuel used in current target designs will allow the substitution of LEU for HEU in these targets with equivalent 99 Mo-yield per target and no change in target geometries. However, this substitution will require modifications in current processing steps due to 1) the insolubility of uranium silicides in alkaline solutions and 2) the presence of significant quantities of silicate in solution. Results to date suggest that substitution of LEU for HEU can be achieved. (Author)

  20. Integration of multidisciplinary technologies for real time target visualization and verification for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chin-Sheng; Tai, Hung-Chi; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The current practice of radiotherapy examines target coverage solely from digitally reconstructed beam's eye view (BEV) in a way that is indirectly accessible and that is not in real time. We aimed to visualize treatment targets in real time from each BEV. The image data of phantom or patients from ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans were captured to perform image registration. We integrated US, CT, US/CT image registration, robotic manipulation of US, a radiation treatment planning system, and a linear accelerator to constitute an innovative target visualization system. The performance of this algorithm segmented the target organ in CT images, transformed and reconstructed US images to match each orientation, and generated image registration in real time mode with acceptable accuracy. This image transformation allowed physicians to visualize the CT image-reconstructed target via a US probe outside the BEV that was non-coplanar to the beam's plane. It allowed the physicians to remotely control the US probe that was equipped on a robotic arm to dynamically trace and real time monitor the coverage of the target within the BEV during a simulated beam-on situation. This target visualization system may provide a direct remotely accessible and real time way to visualize, verify, and ensure tumor targeting during radiotherapy.

  1. Fabrication technology for a series of cylindrical thin-wall cavity targets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng Yong; Sun Zu Oke; Wang Ming Da; Zhou La; Zhou Zhi Yun

    2002-01-01

    Cylindrical thin-wall cavity targets have been fabricated to study the behavior of superthermal electrons and their effects on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Self-supporting cavity targets having adjustable, uniform wall thickness, and low surface roughness were required. This required production of high-quality mandrels, coating them by sputtering or electroplating, developing techniques for measurement of wall thickness and other cavity parameters, improving the uniformity of rotation of the mandrels, and preventing damage to the targets during removal from the mandrels. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Experimental results from the use of these targets are presented. These results, in good agreement with simulations, indicate that the use of thin-wall cavity targets is an effective method for studying superthermal electrons in ICF.

  2. Recognizing limitations in eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, G.; Cecco, V.S.

    1981-11-01

    This paper addresses known limitations and constraints in eddy current nondestructive testing. Incomplete appreciation for eddy current limitations is believed to have contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. Neither situation need arise if known limitations are recognized. Some, such as the skin depth effect, are inherent to electromagnetic test methods and define the role of eddy current testing. Others can be overcome with available technology such as surface probes to find circumferential cracks in tubes and magnetic saturation of ferromagnetic alloys to eliminate permeability effects. The variables responsible for limitations in eddy current testing are discussed and where alternative approaches exist, these are presented. Areas with potential for further research and development are also identified

  3. Continuing investigations for technology assessment of 99Mo production from LEU [low enriched Uranium] targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergrift, G.F.; Kwok, J.D.; Marshall, S.L.; Vissers, D.R.; Matos, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Currently much of the world's supply of /sup 99m/Tc for medical purposes is produced from 99 Mo derived from the fissioning of high enriched uranium (HEU). The need for /sup 99m/Tc is continuing to grow, especially in developing countries, where needs and national priorities call for internal production of 99 Mo. This paper presents the results of our continuing studies on the effects of substituting low enriched Uranium (LEU) for HEU in targets for the production of fission product 99 Mo. Improvements in the electrodeposition of thin films of uranium metal are reported. These improvements continue to increase the appeal for the substitution of LEU metal for HEU oxide films in cylindrical targets. The process is effective for targets fabricated from stainless steel or hastaloy. A cost estimate for setting up the necessary equipment to electrodeposit uranium metal on cylindrical targets is reported. Further investigations on the effect of LEU substitution on processing of these targets are also reported. Substitution of uranium silicides for the uranium-aluminum alloy or uranium aluminide dispersed fuel used in other current target designs will allow the substitution of LEU for HEU in these targets with equivalent 99 Mo-yield per target and no change in target geometries. However, this substitution will require modifications in current processing steps due to (1) the insolubility of uranium silicides in alkaline solutions and (2) the presence of significant quantities of silicate in solution. Results to date suggest that both concerns can be handled and that substitution of LEU for HEU can be achieved

  4. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks

  5. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, M. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1994 through September 30, 1995. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``Onsite Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the OMEGA Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel. The authors are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program to create and demonstrate viable ways to generate and characterize cryogenic layers. Progress has been made on ways to both create viable layers and to characterize them. They continued engineering, assembly and testing of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  6. Effect of performance of Zr-Y alloy target on thin film deposition technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qianfu; Liu Chaohong; Jiang Mingzhong; Yin Changgeng

    2011-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films are synthesized on corrosion resistant plates by pulsed bias arc ion plating. The arc starting performance and the stability of thin film deposition is explored by improving the uniformity and compactibility of Zr-Y alloy target. The property of Zr-Y alloy target and depositional thin films were measured with the optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer. The result shows that the target with hot rolling and annealing has a good arc starting performance and stability of thin film deposition, and the depositional thin films made of Yttria and amorphous zirconia are homogeneous and compact. (authors)

  7. Technology Issues and Benefits of a Fast Ignition Power Plant with Cone Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W J; Meier, W R

    2003-01-01

    The use of cone focus, fast ignition targets, either for direct or indirect drive, promises to lower the required driver size and relax the symmetry requirements in IFE power plants. It may also allow use of chamber concepts previously thought infeasible with a laser driver. These benefits will lower the COE and make IFE plants more competitive at smaller size. Their use also raises unique issues that will impact the design and development of power plant subsystems. Cone targets have a significant mass of high Z material whether or not they have a hohlraum and they are not spherically symmetric. This has implications for target injection, tracking and chamber background gas allowable

  8. Biosocial Spaces and Neurocomputational Governance: Brain-Based and Brain-Targeted Technologies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben; Pykett, Jessica; Nemorin, Selena

    2018-01-01

    Recently, technologies based on neuroscientific insights into brain function and structure have been promoted for application in education. The novel practices and environments produced by these technologies require new forms of "biosocial" analysis to unpack their implications for education, learning and governance. This article…

  9. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  10. Research on Ground Motion Metal Target Based on Rocket Projectile by Using Millimeter Wave Radiometer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How to detect the ground motion metal target effectively is an important guarantee for precision strike in the process of Rocket Projectile flight. Accordingly and in view of the millimeter- wave radiation characteristic of the ground motion metal target, a mathematical model was established based on Rocket Projectile about millimeter-wave detection to the ground motion metal target. Through changing various parameters in the process of Rocket Projectile flight, the detection model was studied by simulation. The parameters variation and effective range of millimeter wave radiometer were obtained in the process of rotation and horizontal flight. So a certain theoretical basis was formed for the precision strike to the ground motion metal target.

  11. A Very High Uranium Density Fission Mo Target Suitable for LEU Using atomization Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. K.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Ryu, H. J.; Woo, Y. M.; Jang, S. J.; Park, J. M.; Choi, S. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Currently HEU minimization efforts in fission Mo production are underway in connection with the global threat reduction policy. In order to convert HEU to LEU for the fission Mo target, higher uranium density material could be applied. The uranium aluminide targets used world widely for commercial {sup 99}Mo production are limited to 3.0 g-U/cc in uranium density of the target meat. A consideration of high uranium density using the uranium metal particles dispersion plate target is taken into account. The irradiation burnup of the fission Mo target are as low as 8 at.% and the irradiation period is shorter than 7 days. Pure uranium material has higher thermal conductivity than uranium compounds or alloys. It is considered that the degradation by irradiation would be almost negligible. In this study, using the computer code of the PLATE developed by ANL the irradiation behavior was estimated. Some considerations were taken into account to improve the irradiation performance further. It has been known that some alloying elements of Si, Cr, Fe, and Mo are beneficial for reducing the swelling by grain refinement. In the RERTR program recently the interaction problem could be solved by adding a small amount of Si to the aluminum matrix phase. The fabrication process and the separation process for the proposed atomized uranium particles dispersion target were reviewed

  12. An Effort to Improve U Foil Fabrication Technology of Roll-casting for Fission Mo Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Woo, Yun Myeong; Kim, Ki Hwan; Oh, Jong Myeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Moon Soo [Chungnam University, Green Energy Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Mo-99 isotope has been produced mainly by extracting fission products of {sup 235}U. The targets for irradiating in reactor have used as stainless tube coated with highly enriched UO{sub 2} at the inside surface and highly enriched UAlx plate cladded with aluminum. In connection with non-proliferation policy the RERTR program developed a new process of Mo-99 using low enriched uranium (LEU) instead of highly enriched uranium (HEU). LEU should be put about five times more quantity than HEU because the {sup 235}U contents of LEU and HEU are 20% and higher than 90%, respectively. Accordingly pure uranium metal foil target was adopted as a promising target material due to high uranium density. ANL and BATAN developed a Cintichem process using uranium metal foil target of 130 {mu}m in thickness jointly and the RERTR program is trying to disseminate the new process world-widely. However, uranium foil is made by lots of times rolling work on uranium plate, which is laborious and tedious. In order to avoid this difficulty KAERI developed a new process of making foil directly from uranium melt by roll casting. This process is very much simple, productive, and cost-effective. But the outside surface of foil is generally very rough. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 65 {mu}m and a maximum thickness of 205 {mu}m. This roughness could affect (1) target fabrication, where the U foil, or the Ni foil might be damaged during drawing, and (2) irradiation behavior, where gaps between the target walls and the U metal might affect cooling of the target

  13. RECOGNIZING MOTIVES: THE DISSENSUAL SELF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten; Christensen, Tine Friis

    2017-01-01

    it as discursive and dialogical, as a historically evolved governmentality, and as constituted in relations of power and recognition. This stream leads back to the river of philosophical discussions around subjectivity, will, freedom and identity that has flowed at least since the 17th century. Yet, current (and...... that reconfigures sense and meaning, can play a part. This chapter aims at suggesting these potentials by rearticulating activities in which people display (represent, avow, reflect, expose, externalize, etc.) their motives. Most contemporary ‘motivational technologies’ stage a pragmatic self-calculation. For some......, these technologies confirm a common-sense, managerial self; others read them as a ‘poetics of practice’ that performs and produces new motives and selves in a liminal space of discursive creativity. These two readings are superseded as we – with art theory from Vygotsky through Brecht to Groys, Bourriaud...

  14. Elemental Technologies for Lead-Bismuth Spallation Target System in J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Saito, S.; Sugawara, T.; Takei, H.; Sasa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been researching and developing an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) as a dedicated system for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides. The ADS proposed by JAEA uses the lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy as a spallation target material and a coolant. In the various R and D for ADS, construction of the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is planned under the framework of the J-PARC project as a preceding step before the construction of demonstrative ADS. In this R and D, TEF is considered for the experimental investigation of the feasibility of the beam window, the structural materials, and to investigate the operation properties of the target system by using 400 MeV-250 kW proton beam. This target system is consisted of various elements and must be able to operate without troubles during an operation period of TEF facility. Furthermore, in the maintenance period after the operation, because the inside of a hot cell storing a target is exposed to strong radiations, all elements must be designed as remote control devices. In this study, the present conditions of the design and the result of performance test of each important elements were confirmed in the realisation of the LBE target system, such as the monitoring system of flow rate by using the ultrasonic method, the heater system with the metallic heat insulator joined to a flow channel of LBE, and the operability of remote handing. (authors)

  15. Design and implement of infrared small target real-time detection system based on pipeline technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihui; Wang, Yongzhong; He, Yongqiang

    2007-01-01

    The detection for motive small target in infrared image sequence has become a hot topic nowadays. Background suppress algorithm based on minim gradient median filter and temporal recursion target detection algorithm are introduced. On the basis of contents previously mentioned, a four stages pipeline structure infrared small target detection process system, which aims at characters of algorithm complexity, large amounts of data to process, high frame frequency and exigent real-time character in this kind of application, is designed and implemented. The logical structure of the system was introduced and the function and signals flows are programmed. The system is composed of two FPGA chips and two DSP chips of TI. According to the function of each part, the system is divided into image preprocess stage, target detection stage, track relation stage and image output stage. The experiment of running algorithms on the system presented in this paper proved that the system could meet acquisition and process of 50Hz 240x320 digital image and the system could real time detect small target with a signal-noise ratio more than 3 reliably. The system achieves the characters of large amount of memory, high real-time processing, excellent extension and favorable interactive interface.

  16. Preliminary investigations for technology assessment of 99Mo production from LEU [low enriched uranium] targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Chaiko, D.J.; Heinrich, R.R.; Kucera, E.T.; Jensen, K.J.; Poa, D.S.; Varma, R.; Vissers, D.R.

    1986-11-01

    This paper presents the results of preliminary studies on the effects of substituting low enriched uranium (LEU) for highly enriched uranium (HEU) in targets for the production of fission product 99 Mo. Issues that were addressed are: (1) purity and yield of the 99 Mo//sup 99m/Tc product, (2) fabrication of LEU targets and related concerns, and (3) radioactive waste. Laboratory experimentation was part of the efforts for issues (1) and (2); thus far, radioactive waste disposal has only been addressed in a paper study. Although the reported results are still preliminary, there is reason to be optimistic about the feasibility of utilizing LEU targets for 99 Mo production. 37 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  17. Monoclonal Antibody Fragments for Targeting Therapeutics to Growth Plate Cartilage | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) have discovered monoclonal antibodies that bind to matrilin-3, a protein specifically expressed in cartilage tissue, that could be used for treating or inhibiting growth plate disorders, such as a skeletal dysplasia or short stature. The monoclonal antibodies can also be used to target therapeutic agents, such as anti-arthritis agents, to cartilage tissue. NICHD seeks statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize treatment of skeletal disorders using targeting antibodies.

  18. The Combinational Use of CRISPR/Cas9 and Targeted Toxin Technology Enables Efficient Isolation of Bi-Allelic Knockout Non-Human Mammalian Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Watanabe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genome editing systems such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9 have facilitated genomic modification in mammalian cells. However, most systems employ transient treatment with selective drugs such as puromycin to obtain the desired genome-edited cells, which often allows some untransfected cells to survive and decreases the efficiency of generating genome-edited cells. Here, we developed a novel targeted toxin-based drug-free selection system for the enrichment of genome-edited cells. Cells were transfected with three expression vectors, each of which carries a guide RNA (gRNA, humanized Cas9 (hCas9 gene, or Clostridium perfringens-derived endo-β-galactosidase C (EndoGalC gene. Once EndoGalC is expressed in a cell, it digests the cell-surface α-Gal epitope, which is specifically recognized by BS-I-B4 lectin (IB4. Three days after transfection, these cells were treated with cytotoxin saporin-conjugated IB4 (IB4SAP for 30 min at 37 °C prior to cultivation in a normal medium. Untransfected cells and those weakly expressing EndoGalC will die due to the internalization of saporin. Cells transiently expressing EndoGalC strongly survive, and some of these surviving clones are expected to be genome-edited bi-allelic knockout (KO clones due to their strong co-expression of gRNA and hCas9. When porcine α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene, which can synthesize the α-Gal epitope, was attempted to be knocked out, 16.7% and 36.7% of the surviving clones were bi-allelic and mono-allelic knockout (KO cells, respectively, which was in contrast to the isolation of clones in the absence of IB4SAP treatment. Namely, 0% and 13.3% of the resulting clones were bi-allelic and mono-allelic KO cells, respectively. A similar tendency was seen when other target genes such as DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 2 and transforming growth factor-β receptor type 1 gene were

  19. Technology of preparation for low density 6Li(H,D) solid micro-target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xisheng; Zeng Jiaquan; Li Qiang

    2002-01-01

    Low density 6 Li(H,D) micro-targets are prepared by loose sintering 6 LiH or 6 LiD powder in a tiny gold cylinder and soaking for 30 min up to 430 degree C at the rate of 10 degree C/h in argon. The dimension of the micro-targets is as tiny as 0.6-1.0 mm for diameter and 1-2 mm for length. Densities of 6 LiH and 6 LiD without Parylene C is (0.283 +- 0.009) g/cm 3 and (0.369 +- 0.009) g/cm 3 , respectively while 6 LiD targets with Parylene C is only (0.301 +- 0.010) g/cm 3 . The Parylene C has no effect on purity, deuterium abundance and 6 Li abundance of the sintered micro-targets. It's effective to keep 6 Li(H,D) purity by strict control of argon atmosphere

  20. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, M. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D{sub 2} or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments.

  1. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, M.

    1995-04-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. During the period, GA was assigned 17 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. This year they achieved full production capabilities for the micromachining, dimensional characterization and gold plating of hohlraums. They fabricated and delivered 726 gold-plated mandrels of 27 different types to LLNL and 48 gold-plated mandrels of two different types to LANL. They achieved full production capabilities in composite capsule production ad delivered in excess of 240 composite capsules. They continuously work to improve performance and capabilities. They were also directed to dismantle, remove, and disposition all equipment at the previous contractor (KMSF) that had radioactive contamination levels low enough that they could be exposed to the general public without radiological constraints. GA was also directed to receive and store the tritium fill equipment. They assisted LANL in the development of techniques for characterization of opaque targets. They developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at NIF and the Omega Upgrade. Both facilities will require capsules containing layered D 2 or D-T fuel. They continued engineering and assembly of equipment for a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments

  2. SWATHtoMRM: Development of High-Coverage Targeted Metabolomics Method Using SWATH Technology for Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Haihong; Cai, Yuping; Yin, Yandong; Wang, Zhuozhong; Li, Kang; Zhu, Zheng-Jiang

    2018-03-20

    The complexity of metabolome presents a great analytical challenge for quantitative metabolite profiling, and restricts the application of metabolomics in biomarker discovery. Targeted metabolomics using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) technique has excellent capability for quantitative analysis, but suffers from the limited metabolite coverage. To address this challenge, we developed a new strategy, namely, SWATHtoMRM, which utilizes the broad coverage of SWATH-MS technology to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method. Specifically, SWATH-MS technique was first utilized to untargeted profile one pooled biological sample and to acquire the MS 2 spectra for all metabolites. Then, SWATHtoMRM was used to extract the large-scale MRM transitions for targeted analysis with coverage as high as 1000-2000 metabolites. Then, we demonstrated the advantages of SWATHtoMRM method in quantitative analysis such as coverage, reproducibility, sensitivity, and dynamic range. Finally, we applied our SWATHtoMRM approach to discover potential metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. A high-coverage targeted metabolomics method with 1303 metabolites in one injection was developed to profile colorectal cancer tissues from CRC patients. A total of 20 potential metabolite biomarkers were discovered and validated for CRC diagnosis. In plasma samples from CRC patients, 17 out of 20 potential biomarkers were further validated to be associated with tumor resection, which may have a great potential in assessing the prognosis of CRC patients after tumor resection. Together, the SWATHtoMRM strategy provides a new way to develop high-coverage targeted metabolomics method, and facilitates the application of targeted metabolomics in disease biomarker discovery. The SWATHtoMRM program is freely available on the Internet ( http://www.zhulab.cn/software.php ).

  3. Precise focusing and diagnosis technology for laser beams in ICF target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qixiang

    1999-01-01

    The precise focusing and diagnosis experimental system for laser beams in ICF target chamber is introduced. The system is controlled by computer. In process of focusing a series data of displacement in axial direction and relative area of focus spots are acquired. According to the functional curvature the accurate position of focal plane is determined. The construction of the system is simple, the system is controlled conveniently and runs quickly

  4. Technological advances and proteomic applications in drug discovery and target deconvolution: identification of the pleiotropic effects of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Cristina; Baetta, Roberta; Gianazza, Erica; Tremoli, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Proteomic-based techniques provide a powerful tool for identifying the full spectrum of protein targets of a drug, elucidating its mechanism(s) of action, and identifying biomarkers of its efficacy and safety. Herein, we outline the technological advancements in the field, and illustrate the contribution of proteomics to the definition of the pharmacological profile of statins, which represent the cornerstone of the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Statins act by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thus reducing cholesterol biosynthesis and consequently enhancing the clearance of low-density lipoproteins from the blood; however, HMG-CoA reductase inhibition can result in a multitude of additional effects beyond lipid lowering, known as 'pleiotropic effects'. The case of statins highlights the unique contribution of proteomics to the target profiling of a drug molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fabrication of advanced targets for laser driven nuclear fusion reactions through standard microelectronics technology approaches.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Picciotto, A.; Crivellari, M.; Bellutti, P.; Barozzi, M.; Kucharik, M.; Krása, Josef; Swidlovsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Velyhan, Andriy; Ullschmied, Jiří; Margarone, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, October (2017), č. článku P10001. ISSN 1748-0221 Grant - others:OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Nuclear instruments and methods for hot plasma diagnostics * Plasma generation (laserproduced, RF, x ray-produced) * Plasma diagnostics - charged-particle spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies; 2.11 Other engineering and technologies (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/10/P10001/meta

  6. Induced mutation and epigenetics modification in plants for crop improvement by targeting CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Hafeez Ullah; Khan, Shahid U; Muhammad, Ali; Hu, Limin; Yang, Yang; Fan, Chuchuan

    2018-06-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats associated protein Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9), originally an adaptive immunity system of prokaryotes, is revolutionizing genome editing technologies with minimal off-targets in the present era. The CRISPR/Cas9 is now highly emergent, advanced, and highly specific tool for genome engineering. The technology is widely used to animal and plant genomes to achieve desirable results. The present review will encompass how CRISPR-Cas9 is revealing its beneficial role in characterizing plant genetic functions, genomic rearrangement, how it advances the site-specific mutagenesis, and epigenetics modification in plants to improve the yield of field crops with minimal side-effects. The possible pitfalls of using and designing CRISPR-Cas9 for plant genome editing are also discussed for its more appropriate applications in plant biology. Therefore, CRISPR/Cas9 system has multiple benefits that mostly scientists select for genome editing in several biological systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  8. The study of metal-alloy targets and excimer laser deposition technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hua; Wu Weidong; Tang Xiaohong; Zhang Jicheng; Tang Yongjian

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technology is described. Design and manufacture of the PLD installation is illustrated in detail. The Cu films and Cu/Fe multi-layers are produced by PLD method. The production of the Mg/Si films using magnetron sputtering method is investigated in detail. The percent of Si on Mg/Si film surface is measured by using conductivity method

  9. Polymeric particulate technologies for oral drug delivery and targeting: A pathophysiological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, A. Christy; Elsom, Jacqueline; Wibroe, Peter Popp

    2012-01-01

    Publication year: 2012 Source:Maturitas, Volume 73, Issue 1 A. Christy Hunter, Jacqueline Elsom, Peter P. Wibroe, S. Moein Moghimi The oral route for delivery of pharmaceuticals is the most widely used and accepted. Nanoparticles and microparticles are increasingly being applied within this arena....... It is the purpose of this review to describe these cutting edge technologies and specifically focus on the interaction and fate of these polymers within the gastrointestinal system....

  10. Targeting Non-Coding RNAs in Plants with the CRISPR-Cas Technology is a Challenge yet Worth Accepting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Jolly; Nithin, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have emerged as versatile master regulator of biological functions in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous ncRNAs of 18-24 nucleotides in length that originates from long self-complementary precursors. Besides their direct involvement in developmental processes, plant miRNAs play key roles in gene regulatory networks and varied biological processes. Alternatively, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse class of transcribed ncRNAs whose length exceed that of 200 nucleotides. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by different RNA polymerases, showing diverse structural features. Plant lncRNAs also are important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological processes. There has been a breakthrough in the technology of genome editing, the CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology, in the last decade. CRISPR loci are transcribed into ncRNA and eventually form a functional complex with Cas9 and further guide the complex to cleave complementary invading DNA. The CRISPR-Cas technology has been successfully applied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco and important crops like wheat, maize, and rice. However, all these studies are focused on protein coding genes. Information about targeting non-coding genes is scarce. Hitherto, the CRISPR-Cas technology has been exclusively used in vertebrate systems to engineer miRNA/lncRNAs, but it is still relatively unexplored in plants. While briefing miRNAs, lncRNAs and applications of the CRISPR-Cas technology in human and animals, this review essentially elaborates several strategies to overcome the challenges of applying the CRISPR-Cas technology in editing ncRNAs in plants and the future perspective of this field.

  11. Targeting non-coding RNAs in Plants with the CRISPR-Cas technology is a challenge yet worth accepting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly eBasak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs have emerged as versatile master regulator of biological functions in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small endogenous ncRNAs of 18-24 nucleotides in length that originates from long self-complementary precursors. Besides their direct involvement in developmental processes, plant miRNAs play key roles in gene regulatory networks and varied biological processes. Alternatively, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs are a large and diverse class of transcribed ncRNAs whose length exceed that of 200 nucleotides. Plant lncRNAs are transcribed by different RNA polymerases, showing diverse structural features. Plant lncRNAs also are important regulators of gene expression in diverse biological processes. There has been a breakthrough in the technology of genome editing, the CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 technology, in the last decade. CRISPR loci are transcribed into ncRNA and eventually form a functional complex with Cas9 and further guide the complex to cleave complementary invading DNA. The CRISPR-Cas technology has been successfully applied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco and important crops like wheat, maize and rice. However, all these studies are focused on protein coding genes. Information about targeting non-coding genes is scarce. Hitherto, the CRISPR-Cas technology has been exclusively used in vertebrate systems to engineer miRNA/lncRNAs, but it is still relatively unexplored in plants. While briefing miRNAs, lncRNAs and applications of the CRISPR-Cas technology in human and animals, this review essentially elaborates several strategies to overcome the challenges of applying the CRISPR-Cas technology in editing ncRNAs in plants and the future perspective of this field.

  12. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoser, Mark J; Mansukoski, Hannu K; Morrical, Scott W; Eboigbodin, Kevin E

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  13. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  14. Use of CRISPR/Cas Genome Editing Technology for Targeted Mutagenesis in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongfang; Wei, Pengcheng; Yang, Jianbo

    2017-01-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system is a newly emerging mutagenesis (gene-editing) tool in genetic engineering. Among the agriculturally important crops, several genes have been successfully mutated by the system, and some agronomic important traits have been rapidly generated, which indicates the potential applications in both scientific research and plant breeding. In this chapter, we describe a standard gene-editing procedure to effectively target rice genes and to make specific rice mutants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system mediated by Agrobacterium transformation.

  15. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 01: New technologies for astatine-211 targeted alpha therapy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Jason; Yang, Hua; Schaffer, Paul; Ruth, Thomas [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The short-range, densely ionizing α-particles emitted by {sup 211}At (t{sub 1/2}=7.2h) are well suited for the treatment of diffuse microscopic disease, using cancer targeting biomolecules. {sup 211}At availability is limited by the rarity of α-cyclotrons required for standard production. Image-based dosimetry is also limited for {sup 211}At, which emits low intensity X-rays. Our goal was to leverage state-of-the-art infrastructure at TRIUMF to produce and evaluate two related isotopes, {sup 211}Rn (t{sub 1/2}=14.6h, 73% decay to {sup 211}At) as a generator for {sup 211}At, and {sup 209}At (t{sub 1/2}=5.4h, X-ray/gamma-ray emitter) as a novel 211At surrogate for preclinical imaging studies. Methods: Produced by spallation of uranium with 480 MeV protons, mass separated ion beams of short-lived francium isotopes were implanted into NaCl targets where {sup 211}Rn or {sup 209}At were produced by radioactive decay, in situ. {sup 211}Rn was transferred to dodecane from which {sup 211}At was efficiently extracted and evaluated for clinical applicability. High energy SPECT/CT was evaluated for measuring {sup 209}At activity distributions in mice and phantoms. Results: Our small scale {sup 211}Rn/{sup 211}At generator system provided high purity {sup 211}At samples. The methods are immediately scalable to the level of radioactivity required for in vivo experiments with {sup 211}At. {sup 209}At-based high energy SPECT imaging was determined suitable for pursuing image-based dosimetry in mouse tumour models. In the future, we will utilize quantitative {sup 209}At-SPECT for image-based dose calculations. Conclusion: These early studies provided a foundation for future endeavours with {sup 211}At-based α-therapy. Canada is now significantly closer to clinical targeted α-therapy of cancer.

  16. Highlights from the 2015 WIN Symposium: novel targets, innovative agents, and advanced technologies-a WINning strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilsky, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide innovative networking (WIN) consortium comprises a global alliance of 28 academic and clinical cancer centres, 11 pharmaceutical and technology companies and five charitable or health payer organisations. Since its inception the consortium has striven to provide a forum for all of its members to network, share information and experience, and perform clinical trials with the overarching goal of advancing the care of patients with cancer through the use of precision medicine. The annual 2-day WIN Symposium is the most visible output of the consortium and provides an opportunity for around 400 experts and other delegates to meet and discuss the latest research and initiatives in personalised cancer medicine. The seventh WIN Symposium, held in Paris, France, 29-30 June 2015, consisted of nine plenary and eight poster sessions that covered the overarching theme of novel targets, innovative agents, and advanced technologies being a winning strategy. Highlights included discussions of immune mechanisms and ways to target the cancer immunome and systems biology approaches to supporting personalised cancer. The latest data from the BATTLE-2 and WINther trials were discussed, and round table discussions were held that focused on how best to design the next generation of clinical trials, which included SPRING, SUMMER, and BOOSTER being initiated by the WIN Consortium.

  17. Development of low enrichment technologies for high density fuels and for isotope production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio; Gonzalez, Alfredo G.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than twenty years ago, CNEA has carried out RERTR activities. Main goals are to convert the RA 6 reactor core from HEU to LEU, to get a comprehensive understanding of U-Mo/Al compounds phase formation in dispersed and monolithic fuels, to develop possible solutions to VHD dispersed and monolithic fuels technical problems, and to optimize techniques to recover U from silicide scrap samples. The future plans include: 1) Completion the RA 6 reactor conversion to LEU; 2) Qualification by irradiation of the promising solutions found for the high density fuels; 3) Irradiation of mini plates and full scale fuel assemblies at the RA 3 reactor and at higher flux and temperature reactors; 4) Optimization of LEU target and radiochemical techniques for radioisotope production. (author) [es

  18. Research on Key Technologies of Network Centric System Distributed Target Track Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize common tactical picture in network-centered system, this paper proposes a layered architecture for distributed information processing and a method for distributed track fusion on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of network-centered systems. Basing on the noncorrelation of three-dimensional measurement of surveillance and reconnaissance sensors under polar coordinates, it also puts forward an algorithm for evaluating track quality (TQ using statistical decision theory. According to simulation results, the TQ value is associated with the measurement accuracy of sensors and the motion state of targets, which is well matched with the convergence process of tracking filters. Besides, the proposed algorithm has good reliability and timeliness in track quality evaluation.

  19. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-01-01

    Background New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Objective Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. Methods We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Results Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and

  20. Technology-Based Innovations to Foster Personalized Healthy Lifestyles and Well-Being: A Targeted Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Emmanouil G; Santana, Silvina; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Marias, Kostas; Sakkalis, Vangelis; Teixeira, António; Janssen, Joris H; de Jong, Henri; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2016-06-24

    New community-based arrangements and novel technologies can empower individuals to be active participants in their health maintenance, enabling people to control and self-regulate their health and wellness and make better health- and lifestyle-related decisions. Mobile sensing technology and health systems responsive to individual profiles combined with cloud computing can expand innovation for new types of interoperable services that are consumer-oriented and community-based. This could fuel a paradigm shift in the way health care can be, or should be, provided and received, while lessening the burden on exhausted health and social care systems. Our goal is to identify and discuss the main scientific and engineering challenges that need to be successfully addressed in delivering state-of-the-art, ubiquitous eHealth and mHealth services, including citizen-centered wellness management services, and reposition their role and potential within a broader context of diverse sociotechnical drivers, agents, and stakeholders. We review the state-of-the-art relevant to the development and implementation of eHealth and mHealth services in critical domains. We identify and discuss scientific, engineering, and implementation-related challenges that need to be overcome to move research, development, and the market forward. Several important advances have been identified in the fields of systems for personalized health monitoring, such as smartphone platforms and intelligent ubiquitous services. Sensors embedded in smartphones and clothes are making the unobtrusive recognition of physical activity, behavior, and lifestyle possible, and thus the deployment of platforms for health assistance and citizen empowerment. Similarly, significant advances are observed in the domain of infrastructure supporting services. Still, many technical problems remain to be solved, combined with no less challenging issues related to security, privacy, trust, and organizational dynamics. Delivering

  1. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  2. MEANING OF TARGET AMBIGUITY FACTOR IN INTELLECTUAL TECHNOLOGIES OF SCIENTIFIC SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Коleshko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main peculiar feature of an intellectual system orientated to formulation of original scientific hypothesis, non-trivial technical solutions is an initial target ambiguity of creative search. Process concerning creation of new knowledge in such system presuppose chaotic steps directed on hypothesis synthesis and their improvement, cancellation of non-productive searching methods and advancement of new scientific theories. Formation of new knowledge which generally has random character at the initial stage gradually becomes more ordered, motivated to obtain a concrete result due to development of searching process. Both components of the intellectual medium (a human being and a machine have so to speak an equilibrium in their actions, actively interacting and supplementing each other in the most creative procedures of hypothesis synthesis. Role difference resides in that a computer provides its formal logical and information resource for solution selection, and a researcher is assigned to carry out an additional task that is to take decisions about correctness of scientific hypothesis

  3. An Effort to Improve Uranium Foil Target Fabrication Technology by Single Roll Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Moon Soo; Lee, Jong Hyeon [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Technetium-99({sup 99m}Tc) is the most commonly used radioisotope in nuclear medicine for diagnostic procedures. It is produced from the decay of its parent Mo-99, which is sent to the hospital or clinic in the form of a generator. Recently, all of the major providers of Mo-99 have used high-enrichment uranium (HEU) as a target material in a research and test reactor. As a part of a nonproliferation effort, the RERTR program has investigated the production of the fission isotope Mo-99 using low-enrichment uranium(LEU) instead of HEU since 1993, a parent nuclide of {sup 99m}Tc , which is a major isotope for a medical diagnosis. As uranium foils have been produced by the conventional method on a laboratory scale by a repetitive hot-rolling method with significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the planar flow casting(PFC) method. In KAERI, many experiments are performed using depleted uranium(DU).

  4. Role of Bioreactor Technology in Tissue Engineering for Clinical Use and Therapeutic Target Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Selden

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro and small bioreactors are well described for use in bioprocess development in pre-production manufacture, using ultra-scale down and microfluidic methodology. However, the use of bioreactors to understand normal and pathophysiology by definition must be very different, and the constraints of the physiological environment influence such bioreactor design. This review considers the key elements necessary to enable bioreactors to address three main areas associated with biological systems. All entail recreation of the in vivo cell niche as faithfully as possible, so that they may be used to study molecular and cellular changes in normal physiology, with a view to creating tissue-engineered grafts for clinical use; understanding the pathophysiology of disease at the molecular level; defining possible therapeutic targets; and enabling appropriate pharmaceutical testing on a truly representative organoid, thus enabling better drug design, and simultaneously creating the potential to reduce the numbers of animals in research. The premise explored is that not only cellular signalling cues, but also mechano-transduction from mechanical cues, play an important role.

  5. Solubility of helium in mercury for bubbling technology of the spallation neutron mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Naoe, T.; Futakawa, M.

    2010-01-01

    The pitting damage of mercury target container that originates in the pressure wave excited by the proton beam incidence becomes a large problem to reach the high-power neutron source in JSNS and SNS. The lifetime of mercury container is decreased remarkably by the pitting damage. As one of solutions, the pressure wave is mitigated by injecting the helium micro bubbles in mercury. In order to inject the helium micro bubbles into mercury, it is important to understand the characteristic of micro bubbles in mercury. The solubility of mercury-helium system is a key factor to decide bubbling conditions, because the disappearance behavior, i.e. the lifetime of micro bubbles, depends on the solubility. In addition, the bubble generation method is affected by it. Moreover, the experimental data related to the solubility of helium in mercury hardly exist. In this work, the solubility was obtained experimentally by measuring precisely the pressure drop of the gas that is facing to mercury surface. The pressure drop was attributed to the helium dissolution into mercury. Based on the measured solubility, the lifetime of micro bubbles and the method of the bubble generation is estimated using the solubility data.

  6. Exploration and reservoir characterization; Technology Target Areas; TTA2 - Exploration and reservoir characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    In future, research within exploration and reservoir characterization will play an even more important role for Norway since resources are decreasing and new challenges like deep sea, harsh environment and last but not least environmental issues have to be considered. There are two major fields which have to be addressed within exploration and reservoir characterization: First, replacement of reserves by new discoveries and ultimate field recoveries in mature basins at the Norwegian Continental shelf, e.g. at the Halten Terrace has to be addressed. A wealth of data exists in the more mature areas. Interdisciplinary integration is a key feature of reservoir characterization, where available data and specialist knowledge need to be combined into a consistent reservoir description. A systematic approach for handling both uncertainties in data sources and uncertainties in basic models is needed. Fast simulation techniques are necessary to generate models spanning the event space, covering both underground based and model-based uncertainties. Second, exploration in frontier areas like the Barents Sea region and the deeper Voering Basin has to be addressed. The scarcity of wells in these frontier areas leads to uncertainties in the geological understanding. Basin- and depositional modelling are essential for predicting where source rocks and reservoir rocks are deposited, and if, when and which hydrocarbons are generated and trapped. Predictive models and improved process understanding is therefore crucial to meet these issues. Especially the challenges related to the salt deposits e.g. sub-salt/sub-basalt reservoir definitions in the Nordkapp Basin demands up-front research and technology developments. TTA2 stresses the need to focus on the development of new talents. We also see a strong need to push cooperation as far as possible in the present competitive environment. Projects that may require a substantial financial commitment have been identified. The following

  7. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2011-01-01

    The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem...... activity classes of data—for building activity models and design a scalable, noise-resistant, Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single- and multi-user activities. We develop a multi-modal, wireless body sensor network for collecting real-world traces in a smart...... home environment, and conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate our system. Results show that epMAR outperforms existing schemes in terms of accuracy, scalability and robustness....

  8. Research on Methods of High Coherent Target Extraction in Urban Area Based on Psinsar Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Wu, J.

    2018-04-01

    PSInSAR technology has been widely applied in ground deformation monitoring. Accurate identification of Persistent Scatterers (PS) is key to the success of PSInSAR data processing. In this paper, the theoretic models and specific algorithms of PS point extraction methods are summarized and the characteristics and applicable conditions of each method, such as Coherence Coefficient Threshold method, Amplitude Threshold method, Dispersion of Amplitude method, Dispersion of Intensity method, are analyzed. Based on the merits and demerits of different methods, an improved method for PS point extraction in urban area is proposed, that uses simultaneously backscattering characteristic, amplitude and phase stability to find PS point in all pixels. Shanghai city is chosen as an example area for checking the improvements of the new method. The results show that the PS points extracted by the new method have high quality, high stability and meet the strong scattering characteristics. Based on these high quality PS points, the deformation rate along the line-of-sight (LOS) in the central urban area of Shanghai is obtained by using 35 COSMO-SkyMed X-band SAR images acquired from 2008 to 2010 and it varies from -14.6 mm/year to 4.9 mm/year. There is a large sedimentation funnel in the cross boundary of Hongkou and Yangpu district with a maximum sedimentation rate of more than 14 mm per year. The obtained ground subsidence rates are also compared with the result of spirit leveling and show good consistent. Our new method for PS point extraction is more reasonable, and can improve the accuracy of the obtained deformation results.

  9. Discovering Activities to Recognize and Track in a Smart Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J; Holder, Lawrence B; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The machine learning and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. Although approaches do exist for recognizing activities, the approaches are applied to activities that have been pre-selected and for which labeled training data is available. In contrast, we introduce an automated approach to activity tracking that identifies frequent activities that naturally occur in an individual's routine. With this capability we can then track the occurrence of regular activities to monitor functional health and to detect changes in an individual's patterns and lifestyle. In this paper we describe our activity mining and tracking approach and validate our algorithms on data collected in physical smart environments.

  10. Young drivers' engagement with social interactive technology on their smartphone: Critical beliefs to target in public education messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni M; White, Katherine M; Watson, Barry

    2016-11-01

    The current study forms part of a larger study based on the Step Approach to Message Design and Testing (SatMDT), a new and innovative framework designed to guide the development and evaluation of health communication messages, including road safety messages. This four step framework is based on several theories, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The current study followed steps one and two of the SatMDT framework and utilised a quantitative survey to validate salient beliefs (behavioural, normative, and control) about initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding to social interactive technology on smartphones by N=114 (88F, 26M) young drivers aged 17-25 years. These beliefs had been elicited in a prior in-depth qualitative study. A subsequent critical beliefs analysis identified seven beliefs as potential targets for public education messages, including, 'slow-moving traffic' (control belief - facilitator) for both monitoring/reading and responding behaviours; 'feeling at ease that you had received an expected communication' (behavioural belief -advantage) for monitoring/reading behaviour; and 'friends/peers more likely to approve' (normative belief) for responding behaviour. Potential message content targeting these seven critical beliefs is discussed in accordance with the SatMDT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Data structures and target classification; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 1, 2, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Vibeke

    1991-08-01

    The present conference discusses topics in multisensor fusion and signal processing, data structures in distributed environments, computational methods and architectures, and automatic target recognition. Attention is given to the adaptive selection of sensors, multisensor imagery fusion based on target motion, multisensor imaging technology for airborne surveillance, optimal topology communications networks, scanning strategies for target detection, VLSI fuzzy-logic controller design, an optical pattern recognizer, radar-based target recognition techniques, and algorithms for radar clutter statistical classification.

  12. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  13. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, FMRP, Recognizes G-Quartets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…

  14. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  15. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  17. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  18. The efficacy of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide obtained by mechanochemical technology and targeted delivery against cestode infection of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, Ivan A; Sadov, Konstantin M; Limova, Yulia V; Sadova, Alexandra K; Varlamova, Anastasiya I; Khalikov, Salavat S; Dushkin, Alexandr V; Chistyachenko, Yulia S

    2017-11-15

    Niclosamide is an anthelmintic that is widely used to treat cestode infection of animals. The efficacy of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide obtained by mechanochemical technology and targeted delivery was studied in hymenolepiosis of mice and monieziosis of sheep. The efficacy of new substances of niclosamide with polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer in different ratios (1:10; 1:5; 1:2) was determined by the results of helminthological necropsy of the small intestine of sheep and mice. Pre-treatment eggs per gram (EPG) were not significantly different (P>0.1) among groups. The controlled test was used to evaluate the efficacy. A high efficacy (>95% efficacy) of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide with PVP (SCoNwPVP) was shown in different ratios (1:10; 1:5 and 1:2) at a dose of 20mg/kg of body weight at oral administration against Hymenolepis nana in mice and Moniezia expansa in sheep. Whereas the basic drug - substance of niclosamide was effective at a dose of 100mg/kg of b/w. No adverse effects of the drugs on animal health were detected during the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feeling validated yet? A scoping review of the use of consumer-targeted wearable and mobile technology to measure and improve sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Kelly Glazer; Duffecy, Jennifer; Berendsen, Mark A; Cheung Mason, Ivy; Lattie, Emily G; Manalo, Natalie C

    2017-12-20

    The objectives of this review were to evaluate the use of consumer-targeted wearable and mobile sleep monitoring technology, identify gaps in the literature and determine the potential for use in behavioral interventions. We undertook a scoping review of studies conducted in adult populations using consumer-targeted wearable technology or mobile devices designed to measure and/or improve sleep. After screening for inclusion/exclusion criteria, data were extracted from the articles by two co-authors. Articles included in the search were using wearable or mobile technology to estimate or evaluate sleep, published in English and conducted in adult populations. Our search returned 3897 articles and 43 met our inclusion criteria. Results indicated that the majority of studies focused on validating technology to measure sleep (n = 23) or were observational studies (n = 10). Few studies were used to identify sleep disorders (n = 2), evaluate response to interventions (n = 3) or deliver interventions (n = 5). In conclusion, the use of consumer-targeted wearable and mobile sleep monitoring technology has largely focused on validation of devices and applications compared with polysomnography (PSG) but opportunities exist for observational research and for delivery of behavioral interventions. Multidisciplinary research is needed to determine the uses of these technologies in interventions as well as the use in more diverse populations including sleep disorders and other patient populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers recognizing fumonisin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xia, Yu; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping; Zhu, Changqing; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We present an improved method for the selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers that can recognize fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ). FB 1 is a carcinogenic mycotoxin mainly found in corn and corn-based food products worldwide, posing a global threat to feed and food safety. Selection was based on the mag-SELEX (magnetic bead systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology modified by adopting free analogs of targets rather than immobilized targets for counter selections. Firstly, aptamer candidates for FB 1 were selected from an 80 nt random DNA library after 13 rounds of selection. Next, binding assays were performed for affinity evaluation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate their conformation. A high-affinity aptamer designated as F10 (with a dissociation constant of 62 ± 5 nM) was identified and tested for its specificity by competitive binding assays. The results demonstrate that this improved mag-SELEX technology facilitates aptamer screening because it avoids the tedious immobilization of counter-selection molecules on magnetic beads. The aptamers obtained by this technique open new possibilities for the detection of FB 1 via aptasensors. (author)

  1. Selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers recognizing fumonisin B{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xia, Yu; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122 (China); Zhu, Changqing; Jiang, Yuan [Animal, Plant and Food Inspection Centre, Jiangsu Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Nanjing, 210001 (China)

    2014-08-01

    We present an improved method for the selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers that can recognize fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}). FB{sub 1} is a carcinogenic mycotoxin mainly found in corn and corn-based food products worldwide, posing a global threat to feed and food safety. Selection was based on the mag-SELEX (magnetic bead systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology modified by adopting free analogs of targets rather than immobilized targets for counter selections. Firstly, aptamer candidates for FB{sub 1} were selected from an 80 nt random DNA library after 13 rounds of selection. Next, binding assays were performed for affinity evaluation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate their conformation. A high-affinity aptamer designated as F10 (with a dissociation constant of 62 ± 5 nM) was identified and tested for its specificity by competitive binding assays. The results demonstrate that this improved mag-SELEX technology facilitates aptamer screening because it avoids the tedious immobilization of counter-selection molecules on magnetic beads. The aptamers obtained by this technique open new possibilities for the detection of FB{sub 1} via aptasensors. (author)

  2. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  3. Clearing the fog of anticancer patents from 1993-2013: through an in-depth technology landscape & target analysis from pioneer research institutes and universities worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Dara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR: India's largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade

  4. Clearing the fog of anticancer patents from 1993-2013: through an in-depth technology landscape & target analysis from pioneer research institutes and universities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2014-01-01

    In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): India's largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade anticancer scenario with respect to top public funded universities worldwide.

  5. Clearing the Fog of Anticancer Patents from 1993–2013: Through an In-Depth Technology Landscape & Target Analysis from Pioneer Research Institutes and Universities Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In a search for an effective anticancer therapy the R&D units from leading universities and institutes reveal numerous technologies in the form of patent documents. The article addressed comparative anticancer patent landscape and technology assessment of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): India’s largest R&D organisation with top twenty international public funded universities and institutes from eight different countries. Methodology/Principal Findings The methodology include quantitative and qualitative assessment based on the bibliometric parameters and manual technology categorisation to understand the changing patent trends and recent novel technologies. The research finding analysed 25,254 patent documents from the year 1993 to 2013 and reported the insights of latest anticancer technologies and targets through categorisation studies at the level of drug discovery, development and treatment & diagnosis. The article has reported the technology correlation matrix of twelve secondary class technologies with 34 tertiary sub-class research area to identify the leading technologies and scope of future research through whitespaces analysis. In addition, the results have also addressed the target analysis, leading inventor, assignee, collaboration network, geographical distribution, patent trend analysis, citation maps and technology assessment with respect to international patent classification systems such as CPC, IPC and CPI codes. Conclusions/Significance The result suggested peptide technology as the dominating research area next to gene therapy, vaccine and medical preparation containing organic compounds. The Indian CSIR has ranked itself at seventh position among the top 20 universities. Globally, the anticancer research was focused in the area of genetics and immunology, whereas Indian CSIR reported more patents related to plant extract and organic preparation. The article provided a glimpse of two decade anticancer scenario

  6. Spallation source neutron target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.; Brown, R.; Collier, M.; Donahue, J.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report for a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to design a next-generation spallation source neutron target system for the Manuel Lujan, Jr., Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos. It has been recognized for some time that new advanced neutron sources are needed in the US if the country is to maintain a competitive position in several important scientific and technological areas. A recent DOE panel concluded that the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (a nuclear reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and a high-power pulsed spallation source are both needed in the near future. One of the most technically challenging designs for a spallation source is the target station itself and, more specifically, the target-moderator-reflector arrangement. Los Alamos has demonstrated capabilities in designing, building, and operating high-power spallation-neutron-source target stations. Most of the new design ideas proposed worldwide for target system design for the next generation pulsed spallation source have either been conceived and implemented at LANSCE or proposed by LANSCE target system designers. These concepts include split targets, flux-trap moderators, back scattering and composite moderators, and composite reflectors

  7. Proctalgia fugax: would you recognize it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, R R

    1996-04-01

    Proctalgia fugax is characterized by sudden and sometimes severe rectal pain that occurs by day or night at irregular intervals. The pain results from dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter. Proctalgia fugax has a uniform clinical picture, and it can be easily diagnosed when recognized. The patient can be assured that nothing serious is wrong. Expensive tests, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, are not required. Treatment may be difficult, but if the attacks of pain are numerous and severe,, a calcium channel blocker such as nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia) should be tried.

  8. Sequence based polymorphic (SBP marker technology for targeted genomic regions: its application in generating a molecular map of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Binod B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers facilitate both genotype identification, essential for modern animal and plant breeding, and the isolation of genes based on their map positions. Advancements in sequencing technology have made possible the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for any genomic regions. Here a sequence based polymorphic (SBP marker technology for generating molecular markers for targeted genomic regions in Arabidopsis is described. Results A ~3X genome coverage sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype, Niederzenz (Nd-0 was obtained by applying Illumina's sequencing by synthesis (Solexa technology. Comparison of the Nd-0 genome sequence with the assembled Columbia-0 (Col-0 genome sequence identified putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs throughout the entire genome. Multiple 75 base pair Nd-0 sequence reads containing SNPs and originating from individual genomic DNA molecules were the basis for developing co-dominant SBP markers. SNPs containing Col-0 sequences, supported by transcript sequences or sequences from multiple BAC clones, were compared to the respective Nd-0 sequences to identify possible restriction endonuclease enzyme site variations. Small amplicons, PCR amplified from both ecotypes, were digested with suitable restriction enzymes and resolved on a gel to reveal the sequence based polymorphisms. By applying this technology, 21 SBP markers for the marker poor regions of the Arabidopsis map representing polymorphisms between Col-0 and Nd-0 ecotypes were generated. Conclusions The SBP marker technology described here allowed the development of molecular markers for targeted genomic regions of Arabidopsis. It should facilitate isolation of co-dominant molecular markers for targeted genomic regions of any animal or plant species, whose genomic sequences have been assembled. This technology will particularly facilitate the development of high density molecular marker maps, essential for

  9. A Bioinformatic Pipeline for Monitoring of the Mutational Stability of Viral Drug Targets with Deep-Sequencing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravatsky, Yuri; Chechetkin, Vladimir; Fedoseeva, Daria; Gorbacheva, Maria; Kravatskaya, Galina; Kretova, Olga; Tchurikov, Nickolai

    2017-11-23

    The efficient development of antiviral drugs, including efficient antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), requires continuous monitoring of the strict correspondence between a drug and the related highly variable viral DNA/RNA target(s). Deep sequencing is able to provide an assessment of both the general target conservation and the frequency of particular mutations in the different target sites. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable bioinformatic pipeline for the analysis of millions of short, deep sequencing reads corresponding to selected highly variable viral sequences that are drug target(s). The suggested bioinformatic pipeline combines the available programs and the ad hoc scripts based on an original algorithm of the search for the conserved targets in the deep sequencing data. We also present the statistical criteria for the threshold of reliable mutation detection and for the assessment of variations between corresponding data sets. These criteria are robust against the possible sequencing errors in the reads. As an example, the bioinformatic pipeline is applied to the study of the conservation of RNA interference (RNAi) targets in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype A. The developed pipeline is freely available to download at the website http://virmut.eimb.ru/. Brief comments and comparisons between VirMut and other pipelines are also presented.

  10. A Bioinformatic Pipeline for Monitoring of the Mutational Stability of Viral Drug Targets with Deep-Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kravatsky

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficient development of antiviral drugs, including efficient antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, requires continuous monitoring of the strict correspondence between a drug and the related highly variable viral DNA/RNA target(s. Deep sequencing is able to provide an assessment of both the general target conservation and the frequency of particular mutations in the different target sites. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable bioinformatic pipeline for the analysis of millions of short, deep sequencing reads corresponding to selected highly variable viral sequences that are drug target(s. The suggested bioinformatic pipeline combines the available programs and the ad hoc scripts based on an original algorithm of the search for the conserved targets in the deep sequencing data. We also present the statistical criteria for the threshold of reliable mutation detection and for the assessment of variations between corresponding data sets. These criteria are robust against the possible sequencing errors in the reads. As an example, the bioinformatic pipeline is applied to the study of the conservation of RNA interference (RNAi targets in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 subtype A. The developed pipeline is freely available to download at the website http://virmut.eimb.ru/. Brief comments and comparisons between VirMut and other pipelines are also presented.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997 - September 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''On-site Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks

  12. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  13. Ants recognize foes and not friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J.; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C. Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating ‘friends’ (nest-mates) from ‘foes’ (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

  14. Health technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Delphine; Dangleant, Caroline; Ganier, Aude; Kaczmarek, Delphine

    2008-01-01

    The CEA is an organization with a primarily technological focus, and one of the key areas in which it carries out research is Health Technology. This field of research was recognized and approved by the French Atomic Energy Committee on July 20, 2004. The expectations of both the public and health care professionals relate to demands for the highest standards of health care, at minimum risk. This implies a need to diagnose illness and disease as accurately and as at early a stage as possible, to target surgery precisely to deal only with damaged organs or tissues, to minimize the risk of side effects, allergies and hospital-acquired infections, to follow-up and, as far as possible, tailor the health delivery system to each individual's needs and his or her lifestyle. The health care sector is subject to rapid changes and embraces a vast range of scientific fields. It now requires technological developments that will serve to gather increasing quantities of useful information, analyze and integrate it to obtain a full understanding of highly complex processes and to be able to treat the human body as un-invasively as possible. All the technologies developed require assessment, especially in the hospital environment. (authors)

  15. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996 - September 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct open-quotes Onsite Supportclose quotes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D 2 or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks

  16. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J. [ed.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997. During this period, GA and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 13 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct {open_quotes}Onsite Support{close_quotes} at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). Over 700 gold-plated hohlraum mandrels were fabricated and delivered to LLNL, LANL and SNLA. More than 1600 glass and plastic target capsules were produced for LLNL, LANL, SNLA and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). Nearly 2000 various target foils and films were delivered for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY97. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. This project is part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. During FY97, significant progress was made in the design and component testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. This included major design changes, reduction in equipment, and process simplifications. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  17. Nuclear cooperation targets global challenges. States back main pillars of the IAEA's work to strengthen nuclear safety, verification and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    States meeting at the 44th IAEA General Conference in Vienna have set a challenging agenda for international nuclear cooperation into the 21st century that targets issues of global safety, security, and sustainable development. They adopted resolutions endorsing the Agency's programmes for strengthening activities under its three main pillars of work - nuclear verification, safety, and technology - that are closely linked to major challenges before the world. The document presents the main actions taken during the conference

  18. Targeting Wnt Pathways in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Zachary F.; Moon, Randall T.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt-mediated signal transduction pathways have long been recognized for their roles in regulating embryonic development, and have more recently been linked to cancer, neurologic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and disorders of endocrine function and bone metabolism in adults. Although therapies targeting Wnt signaling are attractive in theory, in practice it has been difficult to obtain specific therapeutics because many components of Wnt signaling pathways are also involved in other cellular processes, thereby reducing the specificity of candidate therapeutics. New technologies, and advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, have improved our understanding of the nuances of Wnt signaling and are leading to promising new strategies to target Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:23001988

  19. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support. Annual report 10/1/98 through 9/30/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Jane

    1999-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) has served as the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy since December 30, 1990. This report documents the technical activities of the period October 1, 1998 through September 30, 1999. During this period, GA and our partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the ICF program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ''Onsite Support'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). We fabricated and delivered over 1790 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNL. We produced more than 1380 glass and plastic target capsules over a wide range of sizes and designs (plus over 300 near target-quality capsules) for LLNL, LANL, SNL, and University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetic (UR/LLE). We also delivered various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UWLLE in FY99. We fabricated a device to polish NIF-sized beryllium shells and prepared a laboratory for the safe operation of beryllium polishing activities. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY99, the GA/Schafer portion of the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team effort for design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA was completed. All components of the OCTS were procured, fabricated, assembled, tested, and shipped to UR/LLE. Only minor documentation tasks remain to be done in FY00. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D2 or deuterium

  20. Targeted Nanoparticles for Image-guided Treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Technological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Kleinhenz, Jasmine M.; Bozeman, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) with its aggressive tumor biology, highly heterogeneous tumor cells, and poor prognosis requires an integrated therapeutic approach that addresses critical issues in cancer therapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles with the abilities of targeted drug delivery and non-invasive imaging for monitoring drug delivery and responses to therapy, such as theranostic nanoparticles, hold great promise towards the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of TNBC using a single therapeutic platform. The biological and pathological characteristics of TNBC provide insight into several potential molecular targets for current and future nanoparticle based therapeutics. Extensive tumor stroma, highly proliferative cells, and a high rate of drug-resistance are all barriers that must be appropriately addressed in order for these nanotherapeutic platforms to be effective. Utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect coupled with active targeting of cell surface receptors expressed by TNBC cells, and tumor associated endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts and macrophages is likely to overcome such barriers to facilitate more effective drug delivery. An in depth summary of current studies investigating targeted nanoparticles in preclinical TNBC mouse and human xenograft models is presented. This review aims to outline the current status of nanotherapeutic options for TNBC patients, identification of promising molecular targets, challenges associated with the development of targeted nanotherapeutics, the research done by our group as well as others and future perspectives on the nanomedicine field and ways to translate current preclinical studies into the clinic. PMID:25966677

  1. Targeted nanoparticles for image-guided treatment of triple-negative breast cancer: clinical significance and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Kleinhenz, Jasmine M; Bozeman, Erica N; Yang, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with its aggressive tumor biology, highly heterogeneous tumor cells, and poor prognosis requires an integrated therapeutic approach that addresses critical issues in cancer therapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles with the abilities of targeted drug delivery and noninvasive imaging for monitoring drug delivery and responses to therapy, such as theranostic nanoparticles, hold great promise toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of TNBC using a single therapeutic platform. The biological and pathological characteristics of TNBC provide insight into several potential molecular targets for current and future nanoparticle-based therapeutics. Extensive tumor stroma, highly proliferative cells, and a high rate of drug resistance are all barriers that must be appropriately addressed in order for these nanotherapeutic platforms to be effective. Utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention effect coupled with active targeting of cell surface receptors expressed by TNBC cells, and tumor-associated endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts, and macrophages is likely to overcome such barriers to facilitate more effective drug delivery. An in-depth summary of current studies investigating targeted nanoparticles in preclinical TNBC mouse and human xenograft models is presented. This review aims to outline the current status of nanotherapeutic options for TNBC patients, identification of promising molecular targets, challenges associated with the development of targeted nanotherapeutics, the research done by our group as well as by others, and future perspectives on the nanomedicine field and ways to translate current preclinical studies into the clinic. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of fission Mo-99 production technology - A nuclear feasibility study on UN target for Mo-99 production in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun; Kim, Woo Sik [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Nuclear target design satisfying all the constraints for fission moly production in HANARO was proposed in this project. The 'MCNP-ORIGEN' code system which was previously proposed for a design tool, was evaluated by the comparison with through the 'MCNP-Analytic Eq.' system. A characteristics of each chemical processing step were analysed and material balance was set up to evaluate the overall yield ratio of Mo-99 recovery. A parametric study was done for the optimum HEU target design. Tested parameters were target thickness, recoil-loss rate to the fuel thickness, target radius, cladding materials, thickness of irradiation guide tube, and barrier materials. Optimized HEU target design was proposed which satisfying the constraints and having high production yield. For a LEU target design using 19.7 w/o UN powder fuel, a parametric study was also done for the optimization of fuel thickness, powder packing density, mixture material volume ratio. 24 refs., 35 figs., 57 tabs. (Author)

  3. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Primarily United States and Canada. 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. /st> Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features 'systematic data guided activities,' 'designing with local conditions in mind' and 'iterative development and testing' met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as 'CQI.' All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods.

  4. Evaluation of speech recognizers for use in advanced combat helicopter crew station research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army Crew Station Research and Development Facility uses vintage 1984 speech recognizers. An evaluation was performed of newer off-the-shelf speech recognition devices to determine whether newer technology performance and capabilities are substantially better than that of the Army's current speech recognizers. The Phonetic Discrimination (PD-100) Test was used to compare recognizer performance in two ambient noise conditions: quiet office and helicopter noise. Test tokens were spoken by males and females and in isolated-word and connected-work mode. Better overall recognition accuracy was obtained from the newer recognizers. Recognizer capabilities needed to support the development of human factors design requirements for speech command systems in advanced combat helicopters are listed.

  5. Our science matters - and is recognized

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Presidential Task Force on Agriculture and Rural Prosperity listed five key indicators of rural prosperity: e-Connectivity for Rural America, Improving Quality of Life, Supporting a Rural Workforce, Harnessing Technological Innovation, and Economic Development (https://www.usda.gov/sites/default...

  6. Nuclear Security: Target Analysis-rev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Surinder Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bultz, Garl A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand target identification, including roll-up and protracted theft; evaluate target identification in the SNRI; recognize the target characteristics and consequence levels; and understand graded safeguards.

  7. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  9. A potential strategy to treat liver fibrosis : Drug targeting to hepatic stellate cells applying a novel linker technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalo Lázaro, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is the 9th leading cause of death in the world. This chronic disease cannot be treated successfully with conventional antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory drugs currently on the market, because they either lack efficacy or cause too many side-effects. Targeting of antifibrotic agents to

  10. [Effect of image fusion technology of radioactive particles implantation before and after the planning target and dosimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y L; Yu, J P; Sun, H T; Guo, F X; Ji, Z; Fan, J H; Zhang, L J; Li, X; Wang, J J

    2017-08-01

    Objective: To compare the post-implant target volumes and dosimetric evaluation with pre-plan, the gross tumor volume(GTV) by CT image fusion-based and the manual delineation of target volume in CT guided radioactive seeds implantation. Methods: A total of 10 patients treated under CT-guidance (125)I seed implantation during March 2016 to April 2016 were analyzed in Peking University Third Hospital.All patients underwent pre-operative CT simulation, pre-operative planning, implantation seeds, CT scanning after seed implantation and dosimetric evaluation of GTV.In every patient, post-implant target volumes were delineated by both two methods, and were divided into two groups. Group 1: image fusion pre-implantation simulation and post-operative CT image, then the contours of GTV were automatically performed by brachytherapy treatment planning system; Group 2: the contouring of the GTV on post-operative CT image were performed manually by three senior radiation oncologists independently. The average of three data was sets. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 3.2.0. The paired t -test was used to compare the target volumes and D(90) parameters in two modality. Results: In Group 1, average volume of GTV in post-operation group was 12-167(73±56) cm(3). D(90) was 101-153 (142±19)Gy. In Group 2, they were 14-186(80±58)cm(3) and 96-146(122±16) Gy respectively. In both target volumes and D(90), there was no statistical difference between pre-operation and post-operation in Group 1.The D(90) was slightly lower than that of pre-plan group, but there was no statistical difference ( P =0.142); in Group 2, between pre-operation and post-operation group, there was a significant statistical difference in the GTV ( P =0.002). The difference of D(90) was similarly ( P manual delineation of target volume by maximum reduce the interference from artificial factor and metal artifacts. Further work and more cases are required in the future.

  11. Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Tuan Hue; Wang, Li; Ye, Ning; Zhang, Jian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-12

    Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well as numerous similar background actions such as scratching head, cell phone use, eating, drinking and so on. In this paper, we make a first attempt at the challenging problem of recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos. Since there was no related dataset available, we created a new public health dataset for action recognition that includes two major flu-like symptom related actions (sneeze and cough) and a number of background actions. We also developed a suitable novel algorithm by introducing two types of Action Matching Kernels, where both types aim to integrate two aspects of local features, namely the space-time layout and the Bag-of-Words representations. In particular, we show that the Pyramid Match Kernel and Spatial Pyramid Matching are both special cases of our proposed kernels. Besides experimenting on standard testbed, the proposed algorithm is evaluated also on the new sneeze and cough set. Empirically, we observe that our approach achieves competitive performance compared to the state-of-the-arts, while recognition on the new public health dataset is shown to be a non-trivial task even with simple single person unobstructed view. Our sneeze and cough video dataset and newly developed action recognition algorithm is the first of its kind and aims to kick-start the field of action recognition of flu-like symptoms from videos. It will be challenging but necessary in future developments to consider more complex real-life scenario of detecting these actions simultaneously from

  12. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  13. Alternative pathways to the 1.5 °C target reduce the need for negative emission technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Stehfest, Elke; Gernaat, David E. H. J.; van den Berg, Maarten; Bijl, David L.; de Boer, Harmen Sytze; Daioglou, Vassilis; Doelman, Jonathan C.; Edelenbosch, Oreane Y.; Harmsen, Mathijs; Hof, Andries F.; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A. E.

    2018-05-01

    Mitigation scenarios that achieve the ambitious targets included in the Paris Agreement typically rely on greenhouse gas emission reductions combined with net carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the atmosphere, mostly accomplished through large-scale application of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, and afforestation. However, CDR strategies face several difficulties such as reliance on underground CO2 storage and competition for land with food production and biodiversity protection. The question arises whether alternative deep mitigation pathways exist. Here, using an integrated assessment model, we explore the impact of alternative pathways that include lifestyle change, additional reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and more rapid electrification of energy demand based on renewable energy. Although these alternatives also face specific difficulties, they are found to significantly reduce the need for CDR, but not fully eliminate it. The alternatives offer a means to diversify transition pathways to meet the Paris Agreement targets, while simultaneously benefiting other sustainability goals.

  14. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  15. Design of a novel integration-deficient lentivector technology that incorporates genetic and posttranslational elements to target human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareen, Semih U; Kelley-Clarke, Brenna; Nicolai, Christopher J; Cassiano, Linda A; Nelson, Lisa T; Slough, Megan M; Vin, Chintan D; Odegard, Jared M; Sloan, Derek D; Van Hoeven, Neal; Allen, James M; Dubensky, Thomas W; Robbins, Scott H

    2014-03-01

    As sentinels of the immune system, dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in regulating cellular immune responses. One of the main challenges of developing DC-targeted therapies includes the delivery of antigen to DCs in order to promote the activation of antigen-specific effector CD8 T cells. With the goal of creating antigen-directed immunotherapeutics that can be safely administered directly to patients, Immune Design has developed a platform of novel integration-deficient lentiviral vectors that target and deliver antigen-encoding nucleic acids to human DCs. This platform, termed ID-VP02, utilizes a novel genetic variant of a Sindbis virus envelope glycoprotein with posttranslational carbohydrate modifications in combination with Vpx, a SIVmac viral accessory protein, to achieve efficient targeting and transduction of human DCs. In addition, ID-VP02 incorporates safety features in its design that include two redundant mechanisms to render ID-VP02 integration-deficient. Here, we describe the characteristics that allow ID-VP02 to specifically transduce human DCs, and the advances that ID-VP02 brings to conventional third-generation lentiviral vector design as well as demonstrate upstream production yields that will enable manufacturing feasibility studies to be conducted.

  16. A genome-wide analysis of lentivector integration sites using targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustek, Duran; Sirma, Sema; Gumus, Ergun; Arikan, Muzaffer; Cakiris, Aris; Abaci, Neslihan; Mathew, Jaicy; Emrence, Zeliha; Azakli, Hulya; Cosan, Fulya; Cakar, Atilla; Parlak, Mahmut; Kursun, Olcay

    2012-10-01

    One application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) is the targeted resequencing of interested genes which has not been used in viral integration site analysis of gene therapy applications. Here, we combined targeted sequence capture array and next generation sequencing to address the whole genome profiling of viral integration sites. Human 293T and K562 cells were transduced with a HIV-1 derived vector. A custom made DNA probe sets targeted pLVTHM vector used to capture lentiviral vector/human genome junctions. The captured DNA was sequenced using GS FLX platform. Seven thousand four hundred and eighty four human genome sequences flanking the long terminal repeats (LTR) of pLVTHM fragment sequences matched with an identity of at least 98% and minimum 50 bp criteria in both cells. In total, 203 unique integration sites were identified. The integrations in both cell lines were totally distant from the CpG islands and from the transcription start sites and preferentially located in introns. A comparison between the two cell lines showed that the lentiviral-transduced DNA does not have the same preferred regions in the two different cell lines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ANTIBIOTICS IN THE ENVIRONMENTS; LESS RECOGNIZED ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  18. Bangladesh: recognizing adolescents as a great resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    This article presents the initiatives undertaken by the government and other organizations to improve adolescent reproductive health in Bangladesh. The Health and Population Sector Programme under the 5-year Health and Population Sector Strategy (HPSS) of Bangladesh targeted married youth and soon-to-be-married adolescents. It has provided training of field workers so they can provide health services in an adolescent-friendly atmosphere. The Government has also collaborated with nongovernmental organizations and agencies that could help in the formulation of well-planned policy for adolescent health. These agencies include the UN International Children's Emergency Fund, UN Population Fund and WHO. In addition, on-going multisectoral coordination of various sectors, such as education, labor law and justice, youth and social affairs, has been developed and has contributed to the success of the Programme.

  19. Measuring the Impact of a Moving Target: Towards a Dynamic Framework for Evaluating Collaborative Adaptive Interactive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    O?Grady, Laura; Witteman, Holly; Bender, Jacqueline L; Urowitz, Sara; Wiljer, David; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2009-01-01

    Background Website evaluation is a key issue for researchers, organizations, and others responsible for designing, maintaining, endorsing, approving, and/or assessing the use and impact of interventions designed to influence health and health services. Traditionally, these evaluations have included elements such as content credibility, interface usability, and overall design aesthetics. With the emergence of collaborative, adaptive, and interactive ("Web 2.0") technologies such as wikis and o...

  20. Recognizing Psychiatric Comorbidity With Reading Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Hendren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading disorder (RD, a specific learning disorder (SLD of reading that includes impairment in word reading, reading fluency, and/or reading comprehension, is common in the general population but often is not comprehensively understood or assessed in mental health settings. In education settings, comorbid mental and associated disorders may be inadequately integrated into intervention plans. Assessment and intervention for RD may be delayed or absent in children with frequently co-occurring mental disorders not fully responding to treatment in both school and mental health settings. To address this oversight, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding RDs and common comorbid or co-occurring disorders that are important for mental health and school settings. We chose to highlight RD because it is the most common SLD, and connections to other often comorbid disorders have been more thoroughly described in the literature. Much of the literature we describe is on decoding-based RD (or developmental dyslexia as it is the most common form of RD. In addition to risk for academic struggle and social, emotional, and behavioral problems, those with RD often show early evidence of combined or intertwined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition childhood disorders. These include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression, disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and other SLDs. The present review highlights issues and areas of controversy within these comorbidities, as well as directions for future research. An interdisciplinary, integrated approach between mental health professionals and educators can lead to comprehensive and targeted treatments encompassing both academic and mental health interventions. Such targeted treatments may contribute to improved educational and health-related outcomes in vulnerable youth. While there is a growing research literature

  1. Recognizing and managing concussion in school sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vicki

    2014-08-01

    Every country around the world enjoys some sort of sport. The Olympics sees countries from all over the globe participate in elite sport, in both winter and summer competitions. Australia is widely known for cricket and rugby; America is known for baseball and gridiron football (among others). These sports are played at an elite level as well as beginners from early ages as young as 4 years in the backyard. Yet, it is also these sports that can deliver a ball at the speed of 100 km/h (football), 105 km/h (baseball), 112 km/h (rugby), 150 km/h (cricket), and 211 km/h (soccer). This is the same force that a car collision can produce. That force eventually finds a target, and in some cases, unfortunately, it is a head. Damage to the brain is not only from the impact of the ball hitting its target but rather also the shearing forces of acceleration-deceleration injury that can cause extensive injuries. There has been much discussion of late regarding concussion in sport and the accumulative effects of head blows resulting in varying degrees of memory loss and dementia later in life. The media have been saturated with heightened awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This, however, is still being researched. It is true that each concussion compounds the one before, but rather than focus on the injury, managers/coaches and sporting codes should be focusing on the identification and proper management of a suspected concussion and the return-to-play protocols. This is especially important in our schools where growing brains need nurturing. Neuroscience nurses are at the forefront of educating school children, teachers, and coaches through partnering with local schools. This article will focus on concussion recognition and management in school sport.

  2. Revisiting nanoparticle technology for blood-brain barrier transport: Unfolding at the endothelial gate improves the fate of transferrin receptor-targeted liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Moos, Torben

    2016-01-28

    An unmet need exists for therapeutic compounds to traverse the brain capillary endothelial cells that denote the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to deliver effective treatment to the diseased brain. The use of nanoparticle technology for targeted delivery to the brain implies that targeted liposomes encapsulating a drug of interest will undergo receptor-mediated uptake and transport through the BBB with a subsequent unfolding of the liposomal content inside the brain, hence revealing drug release to adjacent drug-demanding neurons. As transferrin receptors (TfRs) are present on brain capillary endothelial, but not on endothelial cells elsewhere in the body, the use of TfR-targeted liposomes - colloidal particulates with a phospholipid bilayer membrane - remains the most relevant strategy to obtain efficient drug delivery to the brain. However, many studies have failed to provide sufficient quantitative data to proof passage of the BBB and significant appearance of drugs inside the brain parenchyma. Here, we critically evaluate the current evidence on the use of TfR-targeted liposomes for brain drug delivery based on a thorough investigation of all available studies within this research field. We focus on issues with respect to experimental design and data analysis that may provide an explanation to conflicting reports, and we discuss possible explanations for the current lack of sufficient transcytosis across the BBB for implementation in the design of TfR-targeted liposomes. We finally provide a list of suggestions for strategies to obtain substantial uptake and transport of drug carriers at the BBB with a concomitant transport of therapeutics into the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-60 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  4. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-35 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  5. Targeted technology applications for infield reserve growth: A synopsis of the Secondary Natural Gas Recovery project, Gulf Coast Basin. Topical report, September 1988--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, R.A.; Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR): Targeted Technology Applications for Infield Reserve Growth is a joint venture research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the State of Texas through the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, with the cofunding and cooperation of the natural gas industry. The SGR project is a field-based program using an integrated multidisciplinary approach that integrates geology, geophysics, engineering, and petrophysics. A major objective of this research project is to develop, test, and verify those technologies and methodologies that have near- to mid-term potential for maximizing recovery of gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Natural gas reservoirs in the Gulf Coast Basin are targeted as data-rich, field-based models for evaluating infield development. The SGR research program focuses on sandstone-dominated reservoirs in fluvial-deltaic plays within the onshore Gulf Coast Basin of Texas. The primary project research objectives are: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities cause, even in reservoirs of conventional permeability, reservoir compartmentalization and hence incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from fluvial and deltaic sandstones of the Texas Gulf Coast Basin as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications. To demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields.

  6. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  7. RESULTS FROM RECENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS TARGETING CHROMIUM IN THE 100D AREA HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; THOMPSON KM; TONKIN MJ

    2009-12-03

    Sodium dichromate was used in Hanford's 100D Area during the reactor operations period of 1950 to 1964 to retard corrosion in the reactor cooling systems. Some of the sodium dichromate was released to the environment by spills and/or leaks from pipelines used to deliver the chemical to water treatment plants in the area. As a result, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has migrated through the vadose zone to the groundwater and contaminated nearly 1 km{sup 2} of groundwater to above the drinking water standard of 48 {micro}g/L. Three technology tests have recently been completed in this area to characterize the source area of the plumes and evaluate alternative methods to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. These are (1) refine the source area of the southern plume; (2) test electrocoagulation as an alternative groundwater treatment technology; and (3) test the ability to repair a permeable reactive barrier by injecting micron or nanometer-size zero-valent iron (ZVI). The projects were funded by the US Department of Energy as part of a program to interject new technologies and accelerate active cleanup. Groundwater monitoring over the past 10 years has shown that Cr(VI) concentrations in the southern plume have not significantly diminished, strongly indicating a continuing source. Eleven groundwater wells were installed in 2007 and 2008 near a suspected source area and monitored for Cr(VI) and groundwater levels. Interpretation of these data has led to refinement of the source area location to an area of less than 1 hectare (ha, 2.5 acres). Vadose zone soil samples collected during drilling did not discover significant concentrations of Cr(VI), indicating the source is localized, with a narrow wetted path from the surface to the water table. Electrocoagulation was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. Over 8 million liters of groundwater were treated to Cr(VI) concentrations of {le}20 {micro}g/L. The test determined that this technology has the potential to

  8. Results From Recent Science And Technology Investigations Targeting Chromium In The 100D Area, Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.; Thompson, K.M.; Tonkin, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium dichromate was used in Hanford's 100D Area during the reactor operations period of 1950 to 1964 to retard corrosion in the reactor cooling systems. Some of the sodium dichromate was released to the environment by spills and/or leaks from pipelines used to deliver the chemical to water treatment plants in the area. As a result, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has migrated through the vadose zone to the groundwater and contaminated nearly 1 km 2 of groundwater to above the drinking water standard of 48 (micro)g/L. Three technology tests have recently been completed in this area to characterize the source area of the plumes and evaluate alternative methods to remove Cr(VI) from groundwater. These are (1) refine the source area of the southern plume; (2) test electrocoagulation as an alternative groundwater treatment technology; and (3) test the ability to repair a permeable reactive barrier by injecting micron or nanometer-size zero-valent iron (ZVI). The projects were funded by the US Department of Energy as part of a program to interject new technologies and accelerate active cleanup. Groundwater monitoring over the past 10 years has shown that Cr(VI) concentrations in the southern plume have not significantly diminished, strongly indicating a continuing source. Eleven groundwater wells were installed in 2007 and 2008 near a suspected source area and monitored for Cr(VI) and groundwater levels. Interpretation of these data has led to refinement of the source area location to an area of less than 1 hectare (ha, 2.5 acres). Vadose zone soil samples collected during drilling did not discover significant concentrations of Cr(VI), indicating the source is localized, with a narrow wetted path from the surface to the water table. Electrocoagulation was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. Over 8 million liters of groundwater were treated to Cr(VI) concentrations of (le)20 (micro)g/L. The test determined that this technology has the potential to treat Cr

  9. The effect of mood state on visual search times for detecting a target in noise: An application of smartphone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Toru; Anderson, Stephen J; de Brecht, Matthew; Yamagishi, Noriko

    2018-01-01

    The study of visual perception has largely been completed without regard to the influence that an individual's emotional status may have on their performance in visual tasks. However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that mood may affect not only creative abilities and interpersonal skills but also the capacity to perform low-level cognitive tasks. Here, we sought to determine whether rudimentary visual search processes are similarly affected by emotion. Specifically, we examined whether an individual's perceived happiness level affects their ability to detect a target in noise. To do so, we employed pop-out and serial visual search paradigms, implemented using a novel smartphone application that allowed search times and self-rated levels of happiness to be recorded throughout each twenty-four-hour period for two weeks. This experience sampling protocol circumvented the need to alter mood artificially with laboratory-based induction methods. Using our smartphone application, we were able to replicate the classic visual search findings, whereby pop-out search times remained largely unaffected by the number of distractors whereas serial search times increased with increasing number of distractors. While pop-out search times were unaffected by happiness level, serial search times with the maximum numbers of distractors (n = 30) were significantly faster for high happiness levels than low happiness levels (p = 0.02). Our results demonstrate the utility of smartphone applications in assessing ecologically valid measures of human visual performance. We discuss the significance of our findings for the assessment of basic visual functions using search time measures, and for our ability to search effectively for targets in real world settings.

  10. Crossing the Resolution Limit in Near-Infrared Imaging of Silicon Chips: Targeting 10-nm Node Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Agarwal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The best reported resolution in optical failure analysis of silicon chips is 120-nm half pitch demonstrated by Semicaps Private Limited, whereas the current and future industry requirement for 10-nm node technology is 100-nm half pitch. We show the first experimental evidence for resolution of features with 100-nm half pitch buried in silicon (λ/10.6, thus fulfilling the industry requirement. These results are obtained using near-infrared reflection-mode imaging using a solid immersion lens. The key novel feature of our approach is the choice of an appropriately sized collection pinhole. Although it is usually understood that, in general, resolution is improved by using the smallest pinhole consistent with an adequate signal level, it is found that in practice for silicon chips there is an optimum pinhole size, determined by the generation of induced currents in the sample. In failure analysis of silicon chips, nondestructive imaging is important to avoid disturbing the functionality of integrated circuits. High-resolution imaging techniques like SEM or TEM require the transistors to be exposed destructively. Optical microscopy techniques may be used, but silicon is opaque in the visible spectrum, mandating the use of near-infrared light and thus poor resolution in conventional optical microscopy. We expect our result to change the way semiconductor failure analysis is performed.

  11. Satisfaction Survey on Information Technology-Based Glucose Monitoring System Targeting Diabetes Mellitus in Private Local Clinics in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Sung Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrivate local clinics in Korea have little experience with information technology (IT-based glucose monitoring (ITGM. Our aim is to examine user satisfaction and the possibility of using ITGM service practically.MethodsPatients sent their blood glucose levels to physicians in local clinics. The physicians reviewed the blood glucose values online and provided personal consultations through text messaging or phone calls. Thereafter, a satisfaction survey on the ITGM service, the modified Morisky scale, and patient assessment of chronic illness care were administered.ResultsOne hundred and seventy patients from seven private local clinics used the ITGM. Overall satisfaction, including that about the ITGM service, the device, and its usefulness, was rated higher than “mostly satisfied” (score 4.2±0.8 out of 5.0 and even higher among the elderly. Satisfaction was positively associated with age, especially in those older than 60 years. The main reason for intent for future use of the service was the time/place flexibility. Highly motivated patients tended to answer positively regarding information satisfaction (P=0.0377.ConclusionOur study is the first to investigate ITGM satisfaction in private local clinics. The feasibility of users utilizing ITGM should be clarified, and future clinical research on the service's clinical effects and cost-benefit analysis is needed.

  12. Structural basis of Zika virus helicase in recognizing its substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn2+ and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn2+. The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication.

  13. Information Extraction and Interpretation Analysis of Mineral Potential Targets Based on ETM+ Data and GIS technology: A Case Study of Copper and Gold Mineralization in Burma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenhui, Du; Yongqing, Chen; Nana, Guo; Yinglong, Hao; Pengfei, Zhao; Gongwen, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization-alteration and structure information extraction plays important roles in mineral resource prospecting and assessment using remote sensing data and the Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. Choosing copper and gold mines in Burma as example, the authors adopt band ratio, threshold segmentation and principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the hydroxyl alteration information using ETM+ remote sensing images. Digital elevation model (DEM) (30m spatial resolution) and ETM+ data was used to extract linear and circular faults that are associated with copper and gold mineralization. Combining geological data and the above information, the weights of evidence method and the C-A fractal model was used to integrate and identify the ore-forming favourable zones in this area. Research results show that the high grade potential targets are located with the known copper and gold deposits, and the integrated information can be used to the next exploration for the mineral resource decision-making

  14. Recognizing Bedside Events Using Thermal and Ultrasonic Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsen Asbjørn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Falls in homes of the elderly, in residential care facilities and in hospitals commonly occur in close proximity to the bed. Most approaches for recognizing falls use cameras, which challenge privacy, or sensor devices attached to the bed or the body to recognize bedside events and bedside falls. We use data collected from a ceiling mounted 80 × 60 thermal array combined with an ultrasonic sensor device. This approach makes it possible to monitor activity while preserving privacy in a non-intrusive manner. We evaluate three different approaches towards recognizing location and posture of an individual. Bedside events are recognized using a 10-second floating image rule/filter-based approach, recognizing bedside falls with 98.62% accuracy. Bed-entry and exit events are recognized with 98.66% and 96.73% accuracy, respectively.

  15. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it

  16. New weather depiction technology for night vision goggle (NVG) training: 3D virtual/augmented reality scene-weather-atmosphere-target simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folaron, Michelle; Deacutis, Martin; Hegarty, Jennifer; Vollmerhausen, Richard; Schroeder, John; Colby, Frank P.

    2007-04-01

    US Navy and Marine Corps pilots receive Night Vision Goggle (NVG) training as part of their overall training to maintain the superiority of our forces. This training must incorporate realistic targets; backgrounds; and representative atmospheric and weather effects they may encounter under operational conditions. An approach for pilot NVG training is to use the Night Imaging and Threat Evaluation Laboratory (NITE Lab) concept. The NITE Labs utilize a 10' by 10' static terrain model equipped with both natural and cultural lighting that are used to demonstrate various illumination conditions, and visual phenomena which might be experienced when utilizing night vision goggles. With this technology, the military can safely, systematically, and reliably expose pilots to the large number of potentially dangerous environmental conditions that will be experienced in their NVG training flights. A previous SPIE presentation described our work for NAVAIR to add realistic atmospheric and weather effects to the NVG NITE Lab training facility using the NVG - WDT(Weather Depiction Technology) system (Colby, et al.). NVG -WDT consist of a high end multiprocessor server with weather simulation software, and several fixed and goggle mounted Heads Up Displays (HUDs). Atmospheric and weather effects are simulated using state-of-the-art computer codes such as the WRF (Weather Research μ Forecasting) model; and the US Air Force Research Laboratory MODTRAN radiative transport model. Imagery for a variety of natural and man-made obscurations (e.g. rain, clouds, snow, dust, smoke, chemical releases) are being calculated and injected into the scene observed through the NVG via the fixed and goggle mounted HUDs. This paper expands on the work described in the previous presentation and will describe the 3D Virtual/Augmented Reality Scene - Weather - Atmosphere - Target Simulation part of the NVG - WDT. The 3D virtual reality software is a complete simulation system to generate realistic

  17. 76 FR 33419 - Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... 232, 240, 249, et al. Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-11] RIN 3235-AL15 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations AGENCY: Securities and... rating organizations (``NRSROs''). In addition, in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, the Commission is...

  18. 46 CFR 188.10-59 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 188.10-59 Section 188... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-59 Recognized classification society. This term means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society...

  19. Shared fine specificity between T-cell receptors and an antibody recognizing a peptide/major histocompatibility class I complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stryhn, A; Andersen, P S; Pedersen, L O

    1996-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells recognize mosaic structures consisting of target peptides embedded within self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This structure has been described in great detail for several peptide-MHC complexes. In contrast, how T-cell receptors recognize peptide...... each other showing that peptide residues 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were exposed on the MHC surface and recognized by the T cells. Thus, the majority, and perhaps all, of the side chains of the non-primary anchor residues may be available for T-cell recognition, and contribute to the stringent specificity of T...... cells. A striking similarity between the specificity of the T cells and that of the pSAN antibody was found and most of the peptide residues, which could be recognized by the T cells, could also be recognized by the antibody....

  20. Science + Technology = Intelligence on Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    that now it includes almost all states in the West except for perhaps California. Th is is caused by a prion. Prion is a protein with no nucleic acid...kind of a dinosaur or a pachyderm, kind of lumbering along that blue shallow curve where we may invest ten years and $10 billion to get a ten percent

  1. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Sultana, Mahbuba Q.; Useinov, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    . This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation

  2. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self...... structures of the type-scene in order to show how Jesus’ true identity can be recognized behind the half-mask of his human appearance....

  3. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2011-04-01

    In this article a cost-effective and simple system (circuit and algorithm) which allows recognizing different kinds of films by their magneto-field conductive properties is demonstrated. The studied signals are generated by a proposed circuit. This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation and experimental results. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Oligonucleotide Aptamers: New Tools for Targeted Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are a class of small nucleic acid ligands that are composed of RNA or single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides and have high specificity and affinity for their targets. Similar to antibodies, aptamers interact with their targets by recognizing a specific three-dimensional structure and are thus termed “chemical antibodies.” In contrast to protein antibodies, aptamers offer unique chemical and biological characteristics based on their oligonucleotide properties. Hence, they are more suitable for the development of novel clinical applications. Aptamer technology has been widely investigated in various biomedical fields for biomarker discovery, in vitro diagnosis, in vivo imaging, and targeted therapy. This review will discuss the potential applications of aptamer technology as a new tool for targeted cancer therapy with emphasis on the development of aptamers that are able to specifically target cell surface biomarkers. Additionally, we will describe several approaches for the use of aptamers in targeted therapeutics, including aptamer-drug conjugation, aptamer-nanoparticle conjugation, aptamer-mediated targeted gene therapy, aptamer-mediated immunotherapy, and aptamer-mediated biotherapy.

  5. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals.

  6. Programmable type III-A CRISPR-Cas DNA targeting modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Travis Ichikawa

    Full Text Available The CRISPR-Cas systems provide invader defense in a wide variety of prokaryotes, as well as technologies for many powerful applications. The Type III-A or Csm CRISPR-Cas system is one of the most widely distributed across prokaryotic phyla, and cleaves targeted DNA and RNA molecules. In this work, we have constructed modules of Csm systems from 3 bacterial species and heterologously expressed the functional modules in E. coli. The modules include a Cas6 protein and a CRISPR locus for crRNA production, and Csm effector complex proteins. The expressed modules from L. lactis, S. epidermidis and S. thermophilus specifically eliminate invading plasmids recognized by the crRNAs of the systems. Characteristically, activation of plasmid targeting activity depends on transcription of the plasmid sequence recognized by the crRNA. Activity was not observed when transcription of the crRNA target sequence was blocked, or when the opposite strand or a non-target sequence was transcribed. Moreover, the Csm module can be programmed to recognize plasmids with novel target sequences by addition of appropriate crRNA coding sequences to the module. These systems provide a platform for investigation of Type III-A CRISPR-Cas systems in E. coli, and for introduction of programmable transcription-activated DNA targeting into novel organisms.

  7. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  8. Should the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognize climate migrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Christine; Ford, James

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to increase migration flows, especially from socially and environmentally vulnerable populations. These ‘climate migrants’ do not have any official protection under international law, which has implications for the human security of migrants. This work argues that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can and should recognize climate migrants, and is the most relevant international framework for doing so. While not legally binding, the acknowledgment of climate displacement, migration and planned relocation issues in the UNFCCC’s Cancun Adaptation Framework indicates a willingness to address the issue through an adaptation lens. Herein, the paper proposes a framework for setting the institutional groundwork for recognizing climate migrants, focusing on the most vulnerable, promoting targeted research and policy agendas, and situating policies within a comprehensive strategy.

  9. Should the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognize climate migrants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, Christine; Ford, James

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase migration flows, especially from socially and environmentally vulnerable populations. These ‘climate migrants’ do not have any official protection under international law, which has implications for the human security of migrants. This work argues that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can and should recognize climate migrants, and is the most relevant international framework for doing so. While not legally binding, the acknowledgment of climate displacement, migration and planned relocation issues in the UNFCCC’s Cancun Adaptation Framework indicates a willingness to address the issue through an adaptation lens. Herein, the paper proposes a framework for setting the institutional groundwork for recognizing climate migrants, focusing on the most vulnerable, promoting targeted research and policy agendas, and situating policies within a comprehensive strategy. (letter)

  10. Fusion target design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Most detailed fusion target design is done by numerical simulation using large computers. Although numerical simulation is briefly discussed, this lecture deals primarily with the way in which basic physical arguments, driver technology considerations and economical power production requirements are used to guide and augment the simulations. Physics topics discussed include target energetics, preheat, stability and symmetry. A specific design example is discussed

  11. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  12. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  13. Lessons from Tiananmen Square: Recognizing Bias in News Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends teaching students to recognize bias in news reports and how personal preferences infringe on objective judgment. Provides two class activities designed to help students understand this concept. Uses the Cinderella story from three cultures and group discussion to illustrate this technique. (NL)

  14. Framework for benchmarking FA-based string recognizers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of suggested algorithms by domain-specific FA-implementers requires prior knowledge of the behaviour (performance-wise) of each algorithm in order to make an informed choice. The authors propose a based string recognizers such that FA-implementers could capture...

  15. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  16. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.

  17. Recognizing Risk-of-Failure in Communication Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joyce; Lievesley, Matthew; Taylor, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pace of commercial graphic design practice presents very few opportunities to conduct user research after a project's launch. This makes the design team's ability to anticipate and address risks during the design development phase even more important, recognized in the astute observation from Tim Brown, CEO of leading international design…

  18. Recognizing and managing sapstreak disease of sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston; David R. Houston

    1993-01-01

    Sapstreak disease, a potentially serious problem of sugarbushes and forest stands, occurs when the causal fungus, Ceratocystis virescens, invades the sapwood of roots and bases of stems through wounds inflicted during logging, saphauling, or other activities. Describes how to recognize the disease, the factors that affect its occurrence and development, and management...

  19. NREL: News - Students Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education Event Golden, Colo., May 13, 2002 Tapping the power of the sun was the theme of the May 11 Solarbrate Education event at the U.S. Department Assistance Foundation, Oakwood Homes, Home Depot, E-Star Colorado, Governor's Office of Energy Management

  20. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships,

  1. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  2. Shady strategic behavior : Recognizing strategic behavior of Dark Triad followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower

  3. Structural elements recognized by abacavir-induced T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yerly, Daniel; Pompeu, Yuri Andreiw; Schutte, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    of autoimmune destruction. The structural elements recognized by drug-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in vivo are poorly defined. Drug-stimulated T cells express TCRs specific for peptide/HLA complexes, but the characteristics of peptides (sequence, or endogenous or exogenous origin) presented in the context...

  4. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  5. QMODULE: CAMAC modules recognized by the QAL compiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Minor, M.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.; Thomas, R.F. Jr.; van der Beken, H.

    1977-10-01

    The compiler for the Q Analyzer Language, QAL, recognizes a certain set of CAMAC modules as having known characteristics. The conventions and procedures used to describe these modules are discussed as well as the tools available to the user for extending this set as required

  6. Target support for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.

    1995-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) plays an important industrial support role for the US Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program in the area of target technology. This includes three major activities: target fabrication support, target handling systems development, and target chamber design. The work includes target fabrication for existing ICF experiments, target and target system development for future experiments, and target research and target chamber design for experiments on future machines, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  7. Recognizing Textual Entailment: Challenges in the Portuguese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing textual entailment comprises the task of determining semantic entailment relations between text fragments. A text fragment entails another text fragment if, from the meaning of the former, one can infer the meaning of the latter. If such relation is bidirectional, then we are in the presence of a paraphrase. Automatically recognizing textual entailment relations captures major semantic inference needs in several natural language processing (NLP applications. As in many NLP tasks, textual entailment corpora for English abound, while the same is not true for more resource-scarce languages such as Portuguese. Exploiting what seems to be the only Portuguese corpus for textual entailment and paraphrases (the ASSIN corpus, in this paper, we address the task of automatically recognizing textual entailment (RTE and paraphrases from text written in the Portuguese language, by employing supervised machine learning techniques. We employ lexical, syntactic and semantic features, and analyze the impact of using semantic-based approaches in the performance of the system. We then try to take advantage of the bi-dialect nature of ASSIN to compensate its limited size. With the same aim, we explore modeling the task of recognizing textual entailment and paraphrases as a binary classification problem by considering the bidirectional nature of paraphrases as entailment relationships. Addressing the task as a multi-class classification problem, we achieve results in line with the winner of the ASSIN Challenge. In addition, we conclude that semantic-based approaches are promising in this task, and that combining data from European and Brazilian Portuguese is less straightforward than it may initially seem. The binary classification modeling of the problem does not seem to bring advantages to the original multi-class model, despite the outstanding results obtained by the binary classifier for recognizing textual entailments.

  8. Assessing for Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    Designing standards-based assessment is a key component of a quality technology education program. For students to become technologically literate, it is important that the teacher understands how to measure student understandings and abilities in the study of technology. This article is written to help teachers and teacher educators recognize the…

  9. Film coated tablets (ColoPulse technology) for targeted delivery in the lower intestinal tract : influence of the core composition on release characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C. A.; Baltink, Jan H.; Woesthuis, Ellen M.; Stellaard, Frans; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    The design of a film coating technology which allows a tablet to deliver the drug in the ileocolonic segment would offer new treatment possibilities. The objective is to develop a platform technology that is suitable for a broad range of drug compounds. We developed a coated tablet with a delayed,

  10. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  11. T cells recognizing a peptide contaminant undetectable by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brezar, Vedran; Culina, Slobodan; Østerbye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are widely used in immunological research as epitopes to stimulate their cognate T cells. These preparations are never completely pure, but trace contaminants are commonly revealed by mass spectrometry quality controls. In an effort to characterize novel major histocompatibility...... complex (MHC) Class I-restricted ß-cell epitopes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we identified islet-infiltrating CD8+ T cells recognizing a contaminating peptide. The amount of this contaminant was so small to be undetectable by direct mass spectrometry. Only after concentration by liquid...... chromatography, we observed a mass peak corresponding to an immunodominant islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)(206-214) epitope described in the literature. Generation of CD8+ T-cell clones recognizing IGRP(206-214) using a novel method confirmed the identity...

  12. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  13. Action of the city of Schweinfurt against Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld recognized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    In the appeal proceedings, the Bavarian Administrative Court with its interim decision of April 9, 1979 - No. 167 VI 74 - has recognized the action of the city of Schweinfurt against the state of Bavaria to set aside the 1st part license for the construction of Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld, although the right for action was limited to the city's legal position concerning planning authority, drinking water supply, and a city-owned lake used for swimming. Appeal was allowed. The city has lodged an appeal. The decision of the Administrative Court of Wuerzburg of March 25, 1977, which was contested by the appeal, had also recognized the city's rights but dismissed the action as being unfounded. Guidelines and reasons for the decision of the Bavarian Administrative Court are given in full wording. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 HIS [de

  14. Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: evidence for universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A; Barrett, H Clark

    2007-08-01

    In all languages studied to date, distinct prosodic contours characterize different intention categories of infant-directed (ID) speech. This vocal behavior likely exists universally as a species-typical trait, but little research has examined whether listeners can accurately recognize intentions in ID speech using only vocal cues, without access to semantic information. We recorded native-English-speaking mothers producing four intention categories of utterances (prohibition, approval, comfort, and attention) as both ID and adult-directed (AD) speech, and we then presented the utterances to Shuar adults (South American hunter-horticulturalists). Shuar subjects were able to reliably distinguish ID from AD speech and were able to reliably recognize the intention categories in both types of speech, although performance was significantly better with ID speech. This is the first demonstration that adult listeners in an indigenous, nonindustrialized, and nonliterate culture can accurately infer intentions from both ID speech and AD speech in a language they do not speak.

  15. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  16. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    represents a video in terms of low-level audiovisual features [16,38,50,35,15,19,37]. In general, these methods first extract from the video various types of...interpretable, but is also reported to outperform the state-of-the-art low-level audiovisual features in recognizing events [31,33]. Rather than training...concept detector accuracy. As a consequence, the vocabulary concepts do not necessarily have a semantic interpreta- tion needed to explain the video content

  17. Craig Reynolds: Recognized for Excellence in Medicine | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Distinguished Alumni Award is one of the most prestigious awards at the University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine. This award recognizes influential alumni who have achieved excellence in the art and science of medicine. One of this year’s recipients is Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., associate director, NCI. When asked how he felt about receiving this

  18. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perce...

  19. Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human’s body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%.

  20. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of ICT to Climate Targets of Cities. Exploring the potential of Information and Communication Technologies in reducing emissions and energy use from buildings and travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramers, Anna

    2012-07-01

    This thesis examines how ICT solutions can assist in lowering energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from buildings and travel in order to help cities meet their climate targets. It also provides an overview of relevant research intended to furnish new knowledge about the issues involved and to find solutions to social problems. The first part of the thesis provides an analysis and compilation of critical system boundaries that need to be used for cities to set targets for energy use and GHG emissions. The climate targets of cities are dependent on setting system boundaries and establishing methods of calculations for monitoring whether the targets have been achieved. Today, there is no official standard for how the system boundaries must be set or what calculation methodologies to apply to evaluate the climate targets. Four main categories of system boundaries were identified: the temporal scope, the object of target setting, the unit of target setting, and the target range (e.g. consumer-producer and lifecycle perspective). Eight European cities were examined in relation to how they set climate targets. The examination showed that awareness of what is included in the targets is limited and that there is a need for standardised and consistent protocols and methods of setting climate targets for cities. In the second part of the thesis, leading Advanced Traveller Information Systems (ATIS) and their functionalities were investigated. The relationship between individual decisions on different travel modes and functionalities of ATIS was investigated through a systematic investigation of the functionality of nine ATIS, mainly from Sweden, Germany, UK and USA. This allowed decisions that could lead to lower energy use and emissions of GHG to be identified. It also resulted in a proposal on requirements for new and improved functionality that could support a reduction in energy use and GHG emissions and a shift to renewable energy sources if implemented in next

  2. Selective tumor cell death induced by irradiated riboflavin through recognizing DNA G-T mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi; Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Lianqi; Wu, Jiasi; Chen, Gangyi; Li, Sheng; Zou, Jiawei; Chen, Rong; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Fan; Tang, Zhuo

    2017-09-06

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been thought to be a promising antitumoral agent in photodynamic therapy, though the further application of the method was limited by the unclear molecular mechanism. Our work reveals that riboflavin was able to recognize G-T mismatch specifically and induce single-strand breaks in duplex DNA targets efficiently under irradiation. In the presence of riboflavin, the photo-irradiation could induce the death of tumor cells that are defective in mismatch repair system selectively, highlighting the G-T mismatch as potential drug target for tumor cells. Moreover, riboflavin is a promising leading compound for further drug design due to its inherent specific recognition of the G-T mismatch. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  4. Cultural targeting and tailoring of shared decision making technology: a theoretical framework for improving the effectiveness of patient decision aids in culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Dana L; Friend, John; Schapira, Marilyn; Stiggelbout, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Patient decision aids are known to positively impact outcomes critical to shared decision making (SDM), such as gist knowledge and decision preparedness. However, research on the potential improvement of these and other important outcomes through cultural targeting and tailoring of decision aids is very limited. This is the case despite extensive evidence supporting use of cultural targeting and tailoring to improve the effectiveness of health communications. Building on prominent psychological theory, we propose a two-stage framework incorporating cultural concepts into the design process for screening and treatment decision aids. The first phase recommends use of cultural constructs, such as collectivism and individualism, to differentially target patients whose cultures are known to vary on these dimensions. Decision aid targeting is operationalized through use of symbols and values that appeal to members of the given culture. Content dimensions within decision aids that appear particularly appropriate for targeting include surface level visual characteristics, language, beliefs, attitudes and values. The second phase of the framework is based on evidence that individuals vary in terms of how strongly cultural norms influence their approach to problem solving and decision making. In particular, the framework hypothesizes that differences in terms of access to cultural mindsets (e.g., access to interdependent versus independent self) can be measured up front and used to tailor decision aids. Thus, the second phase in the framework emphasizes the importance of not only targeting decision aid content, but also tailoring the information to the individual based on measurement of how strongly he/she is connected to dominant cultural mindsets. Overall, the framework provides a theory-based guide for researchers and practitioners who are interested in using cultural targeting and tailoring to develop and test decision aids that move beyond a "one-size fits all" approach

  5. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  6. 26 CFR 1.1374-2 - Net recognized built-in gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net recognized built-in gain. 1.1374-2 Section 1...-in gain. (a) In general. An S corporation's net recognized built-in gain for any taxable year is the... considering only its recognized built-in gain, recognized built-in loss, and recognized built-in gain...

  7. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    radiolabelled regulatory peptides and their metabolically stabilised analogues. Antigen epitopes: Antibodies, as unlabelled biological drugs, are becoming of increasing interest. They exert an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity which leads to lysis of tumour cells. Radiolabelled versions of these (and other) antibodies are being developed worldwide. The disadvantage of the long circulating time of antibodies can be solved by engineering fragments such as diabodies, bivalent single chain variable fragments (scFv), minibodies or by pretargeting approaches. Transmembrane transporters: Other interesting targets are transporters for radiolabelled amino acids and nutrients. Cancer cells require an increased supply of many such nutrients and obtain these by increased expression of some types of amino-acid transporter. A more detailed analysis of the relationship between amino-acid uptake and transporter expression in normal and malignant cells would be very valuable in identifying the clinical therapeutic potential of this class of tracer. Tumour blood supply: Tumours require an efficient blood supply to grow and metastatise and active angiogenesis of new blood vessels is a feature of many tumours. Specific receptors expressed during this process represent a novel class of targets for TRT. Extra-cellular matrix: Recently, another relevant class of target antigens has raised interest. Lectins, or carbohydrate binding proteins, recognize specific oligosaccharide structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids. It is well known that protein and lipid glycosylation are consistently altered in cancer cells for the aberrant activity of specific glycosyltransferase and glycosydases. Experimental evidence demonstrated that tumor growth and progression may depend, at least in part, on the presence of altered glycoproteins on the cell surface, which can mediate aberrant receptor-ligand interactions. (author)

  8. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  9. Passive wireless sensor systems can recognize activites of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Prabitha; Stucki, Reto; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The ability to determine what activity of daily living a person performs is of interest in many application domains. It is possible to determine the physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly by inferring what activities they perform in their houses. Our primary aim was to establish a proof of concept that a wireless sensor system can monitor and record physical activity and these data can be modeled to predict activities of daily living. The secondary aim was to determine the optimal placement of the sensor boxes for detecting activities in a room. A wireless sensor system was set up in a laboratory kitchen. The ten healthy participants were requested to make tea following a defined sequence of tasks. Data were collected from the eight wireless sensor boxes placed in specific places in the test kitchen and analyzed to detect the sequences of tasks performed by the participants. These sequence of tasks were trained and tested using the Markov Model. Data analysis focused on the reliability of the system and the integrity of the collected data. The sequence of tasks were successfully recognized for all subjects and the averaged data pattern of tasks sequences between the subjects had a high correlation. Analysis of the data collected indicates that sensors placed in different locations are capable of recognizing activities, with the movement detection sensor contributing the most to detection of tasks. The central top of the room with no obstruction of view was considered to be the best location to record data for activity detection. Wireless sensor systems show much promise as easily deployable to monitor and recognize activities of daily living.

  10. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  11. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.  Created: 6/9/2010 by Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Emergency Communication System (ECS)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/15/2010.

  12. OHVT Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.A.

    2001-10-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) was created in March 1996 to address the public-interest transportation-energy aspects of a set of customers who at that time had been largely unrecognized, namely, the manufacturers, suppliers, and users of heavy transport vehicles (trucks, buses, rail, and inland marine). Previously, the DOE had focused its attention on meeting the needs of the personal-transport-vehicle customer (automobile manufacturers, suppliers, and users). Those of us who were of driving age at the time of the 1973 oil embargo and the 1979 oil price escalation vividly recall the inconvenience and irritation of having to wait in long lines for gasoline to fuel our cars. However, most of us, other than professional truck owners or drivers, were unaware of the impacts that these disruptions in the fuel supply had on those whose livelihoods depend upon the transport of goods. Recognizing the importance of heavy vehicles to the national economic health, the DOE created OHVT with a mission to conduct, in collaboration with its industry partners and their suppliers, a customer-focused national program to research and develop technologies that will enable trucks and other heavy vehicles to be more energy-efficient and able to use alternative fuels while reducing emissions. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies convened a workshop in April 1996 to elicit input from DOE's heavy vehicle industry customers, including truck and bus manufacturers, diesel-engine manufacturers, fuel producers, suppliers to these industries, and the trucking industry. The preparation of a ''technology roadmap'' was one of the key recommendations by this customer group. Therefore, the OHVT Technology Roadmap* was developed in 1996 as a first step in crafting a common vision for a government research and development (R and D) partnership in this increasingly important transportation sector. The approach used in

  13. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century.

  14. Target laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, D.C.; Pednekar, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A target laboratory to make stripper foils for the accelerator and various targets for use in the experiments is set up in the pelletron accelerator facility. The facilities available in the laboratory are: (1) D.C. glow discharge setup, (2) carbon arc set up, and (3) vacuum evaporation set up (resistance heating), electron beam source, rolling mill - all for target preparation. They are described. Centrifugal deposition technique is used for target preparation. (author). 3 figs

  15. Effects of Facial Expressions on Recognizing Emotions in Dance Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Shikanai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of facial expressions on recognizing emotions expressed in dance movements were investigated. Dancers expressed three emotions: joy, sadness, and anger through dance movements. We used digital video cameras and a 3D motion capturing system to record and capture the movements. We then created full-video displays with an expressive face, full-video displays with an unexpressive face, stick figure displays (no face, or point-light displays (no face from these data using 3D animation software. To make point-light displays, 13 markers were attached to the body of each dancer. We examined how accurately observers were able to identify the expression that the dancers intended to create through their dance movements. Dance experienced and inexperienced observers participated in the experiment. They watched the movements and rated the compatibility of each emotion with each movement on a 5-point Likert scale. The results indicated that both experienced and inexperienced observers could identify all the emotions that dancers intended to express. Identification scores for dance movements with an expressive face were higher than for other expressions. This finding indicates that facial expressions affect the identification of emotions in dance movements, whereas only bodily expressions provide sufficient information to recognize emotions.

  16. Comparison of concept recognizers for building the Open Biomedical Annotator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO is developing a system for automated, ontology-based access to online biomedical resources (Shah NH, et al.: Ontology-driven indexing of public datasets for translational bioinformatics. BMC Bioinformatics 2009, 10(Suppl 2:S1. The system's indexing workflow processes the text metadata of diverse resources such as datasets from GEO and ArrayExpress to annotate and index them with concepts from appropriate ontologies. This indexing requires the use of a concept-recognition tool to identify ontology concepts in the resource's textual metadata. In this paper, we present a comparison of two concept recognizers – NLM's MetaMap and the University of Michigan's Mgrep. We utilize a number of data sources and dictionaries to evaluate the concept recognizers in terms of precision, recall, speed of execution, scalability and customizability. Our evaluations demonstrate that Mgrep has a clear edge over MetaMap for large-scale service oriented applications. Based on our analysis we also suggest areas of potential improvements for Mgrep. We have subsequently used Mgrep to build the Open Biomedical Annotator service. The Annotator service has access to a large dictionary of biomedical terms derived from the United Medical Language System (UMLS and NCBO ontologies. The Annotator also leverages the hierarchical structure of the ontologies and their mappings to expand annotations. The Annotator service is available to the community as a REST Web service for creating ontology-based annotations of their data.

  17. Recognizing Induced Emotions of Happiness and Sadness from Dance Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement. PMID:24587026

  18. Discriminative latent models for recognizing contextual group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mori, Greg

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities.

  19. Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that provides significant improvements to the people with positive changes. But first of all, this branch has a characteristic which requires analysing patients' psychological situation very carefully. Plastic surgeons are often confronted by patients with mental disorders seeking aesthetic surgery. It is imperative for surgeons to recognize possible underlying psychiatric illnesses. Common psychiatric conditions seen in cosmetic surgery patients include body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, narcissistic personality disorder and histrionic personality disorders. BDD is of particular importance to plastic surgeons. Because outrageous dissatisfaction with one's appearance may conceal psychopathologic traits that are not always easily recognizable, and which, if neglected, may result in serious iatrogenic and medicolegal consequences, we hope that this paper will help plastic surgeons in ultimately preventing patient and surgeon dissatisfaction within the population of patients with psychiatric disorders, and should recognize the diagnostic features of body dysmorphic disorder and screen psychologically unstable patients who may never be satisfied with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 109-115

  20. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  1. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, Catherine A; Copeland, Benjamin T; Morath, Volker; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, Arne; Pomper, Martin G; Barinka, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was used to compare the suitability of the mAbs for in vivo applications. All mAbs demonstrate high specificity for PSMA as documented by the lack of cross-reactivity to unrelated human proteins. The 3F11 and 1A11 mAbs bind linear epitopes spanning residues 226-243 and 271-288 of human PSMA, respectively. 3F11 is also suitable for the detection of PSMA orthologs from mouse, pig, dog, and rat in experimental setups where the denatured form of PSMA is used. 5D3 and 5B1 mAbs recognize distinct surface-exposed conformational epitopes and are useful for targeting PSMA in its native conformation. Most importantly, using a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer we show that both the intact 5D3 and its Fab fragment are suitable for in vivo imaging. With apparent affinities of 0.14 and 1.2 nM as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, 5D3 has approximately 10-fold higher affinity for PSMA than the clinically validated mAb J591 and, therefore, is a prime candidate for the development of next-generation theranostics to target PSMA. Prostate 77:749-764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Recognizing biotechnology as a tool for sustainable development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of space science, information technology and biotechnology in ... It is indeed an essential panacea to the pervasive poverty and food security problem ... the nation and its citizens in such a way that the ecosystem is not threatened.

  3. The Technology Acceptance Model for Resource-Limited Settings (TAM-RLS): A Novel Framework for Mobile Health Interventions Targeted to Low-Literacy End-Users in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Aturinda, Isaac; Mwesigwa, Evans; Burns, Bridget; Santorino, Data; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R; Holden, Richard J; Ware, Norma C; Siedner, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    Although mobile health (mHealth) technologies have shown promise in improving clinical care in resource-limited settings (RLS), they are infrequently brought to scale. One limitation to the success of many mHealth interventions is inattention to end-user acceptability, which is an important predictor of technology adoption. We conducted in-depth interviews with 43 people living with HIV in rural Uganda who had participated in a clinical trial of a short messaging system (SMS)-based intervention designed to prompt return to clinic after an abnormal laboratory test. Interviews focused on established features of technology acceptance models, including perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, and included open-ended questions to gain insight into unexplored issues related to the intervention's acceptability. We used conventional (inductive) and direct content analysis to derive categories describing use behaviors and acceptability. Interviews guided development of a proposed conceptual framework, the technology acceptance model for resource-limited settings (TAM-RLS). This framework incorporates both classic technology acceptance model categories as well as novel factors affecting use in this setting. Participants described how SMS message language, phone characteristics, and experience with similar technologies contributed to the system's ease of use. Perceived usefulness was shaped by the perception that the system led to augmented HIV care services and improved access to social support from family and colleagues. Emergent themes specifically related to mHealth acceptance among PLWH in Uganda included (1) the importance of confidentiality, disclosure, and stigma, and (2) the barriers and facilitators downstream from the intervention that impacted achievement of the system's target outcome. The TAM-RLS is a proposed model of mHealth technology acceptance based upon end-user experiences in rural Uganda. Although the proposed model requires validation, the TAM

  4. Analysis of the development of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key

  5. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guihua; Li, Huihui; Huang, Jubing; Li, Danyang; Xun, Eryang

    2017-01-01

    Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN) can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN) method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  7. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  8. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Meira Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for CPFE. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CPFE. Given that most of the published data on CPFE are based on retrospective analysis, more studies are needed in order to address the role of emphysema and its subtypes; the progression of fibrosis/emphysema and its correlation with inflammation; treatment options; and prognosis.

  9. Blue petrels recognize the odor of their egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Bourret, Vincent; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on avian olfactory communication have focused on mate choice, and the importance of olfaction in subsequent nesting stages has been poorly explored. In particular, the role of olfactory cues in egg recognition has received little attention, despite eggs potentially being spread with parental odorous secretions known to elicit individual discrimination. Here, we used behavioral choice tests to determine whether female blue petrels ( Halobaena caerulea ) can discriminate the odor of their own egg from the odor of a conspecific egg. Females preferentially approached the odor of their own egg, suggesting that blue petrels can recognize their own egg using odor cues. This finding raises the question of the adaptive value of this mechanism, and may inspire further research on odor-based egg discrimination in species suffering brood parasitism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. PMab-38 Recognizes Canine Podoplanin of Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Honma, Ryusuke; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Nakamura, Takuro; Saidoh, Noriko; Takagi, Michiaki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-10-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane protein, is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although we previously developed an anticanine podoplanin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that it did not react with canine lymphatic endothelial cells. Here, we determined whether PMab-38 recognizes canine podoplanin of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and clarified its epitope. In IHC, PMab-38 reacted with 83% of SCCs (15/18 cases). Flow cytometry showed that the epitope of PMab-38 was different from that of the platelet aggregation-stimulating domain of the N-terminus, which was detected by almost all antipodoplanin mAbs such as D2-40 or NZ-1. PMab-38 is expected to be useful for investigating the function of podoplanin in canine tumors.

  11. Perceptron Genetic to Recognize Openning Strategy Ruy Lopez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Zulfian; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    The application of Perceptron method is not effective for coding on hardware based systems because it is not real time learning. With Genetic algorithm approach in calculating and searching the best weight (fitness value) system will do learning only one iteration. And the results of this analysis were tested in the case of the introduction of the opening pattern of chess Ruy Lopez. The Analysis with Perceptron Model with Algorithm Approach Genetics from group Artificial Neural Network for open Ruy Lopez. The data is processed with base open chess, with step eight a position white Pion from end open chess. Using perceptron method have many input and one output process many weight and refraction until output equal goal. Data trained and test with software Matlab and system can recognize the chess opening Ruy Lopez or Not open Ruy Lopez with Real time.

  12. Parvovirus B19 VLP recognizes globoside in supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Waqas; Nilsson, Jonas; Olofsson, Sigvard; Bally, Marta; Rydell, Gustaf E

    2014-05-01

    Studies have suggested that the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4Cer) is a receptor for human parvovirus B19. Virus-like particles bind to Gb4Cer on thin-layer chromatograms, but a direct interaction between the virus and lipid membrane-associated Gb4Cer has been debated. Here, we characterized the binding of parvovirus B19 VP1/VP2 virus-like particles to glycosphingolipids (i) on thin-layer chromatograms (TLCs) and (ii) incorporated into supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) acting as cell-membrane mimics. The binding specificities of parvovirus B19 determined in the two systems were in good agreement; the VLP recognized both Gb4Cer and the Forssman glycosphingolipid on TLCs and in SLBs compatible with the role of Gb4Cer as a receptor for this virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of encoded library technology (ELT) to a protein-protein interaction target: discovery of a potent class of integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Christopher S; Bai, Xiaopeng; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Yang, Hongfang; Lind, Kenneth E; Skinner, Steven R; Zhu, Zhengrong; Israel, David I; Cuozzo, John W; Morgan, Barry A; Yuki, Koichi; Xie, Can; Springer, Timothy A; Shimaoka, Motomu; Evindar, Ghotas

    2014-04-01

    The inhibition of protein-protein interactions remains a challenge for traditional small molecule drug discovery. Here we describe the use of DNA-encoded library technology for the discovery of small molecules that are potent inhibitors of the interaction between lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 and its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule 1. A DNA-encoded library with a potential complexity of 4.1 billion compounds was exposed to the I-domain of the target protein and the bound ligands were affinity selected, yielding an enriched small-molecule hit family. Compounds representing this family were synthesized without their DNA encoding moiety and found to inhibit the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interaction with submicromolar potency in both ELISA and cell adhesion assays. Re-synthesized compounds conjugated to DNA or a fluorophore were demonstrated to bind to cells expressing the target protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Standoff Sensing Technology Based on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Advanced Targeting, Surveillance and Reconnaissance in Security and Architectural Heritage Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gaona Fernández, María Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Due to the ability to perform simultaneous, multi-element and real-time analysis without pretreatment and doing from a distance, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in standoff mode is now considered a cutting-edge analytical technology. All these features have allowed its application in various fields such as security, environment, cultural heritage protection and space exploration, among the more outstanding. Nonetheless, the fact of working to long distances involves greater dif...

  15. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVR a gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVR a genes and identified AVR a1 and AVR a13 , encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVR a1 and AVR a13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVR A1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVR A1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVR A1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  16. The Ability of Immunoglobulin Yolk Recognized the Antigen in the Tissue of Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-antibody reaction is an important tool for the analysis of localization of target molecules, including antigenic protein within worm tissues. The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of immunoglobulin yolk (IgY anti-excretory/secretory recognized the antigen in the tissue of Ascaridia galli by mean of immunohistochemistry method. The excretory/secretory protein was procured from A. galli and concentrated by mean of vivaspin 30,000 MWCO. IgY was produced by egg yolks of immunized chickens with excretory/secretory, and purified using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC method. A. galli adult worms were cut in transversal and longitudinal section of the center and anterior region. Slides were incubated with both primary IgY for overnight at 4 oC and secondary antibody rabbit anti-chicken IgY HRP-conjugate for one hour at room temperature. The slides were stained with 3-amino, 9-ethylcarbazole (AEC chromogen, counterstained with Lillie Mayer Haematoxylin, and mounted in glyserin aqueous mount. Antigen-antibody reaction was investigated under a microscope. The result showed that antigen was appeared in the tissues such as cuticle, epicuticle, buccal cavity, and eggs inside the uterine of A. galli. This research concluded that IgY stimulated by the excretory/secretory was able to recognized the antigen scattered in the tissues of A. galli so the IgY could be applied for immunodiagnostic.

  17. Hypoglycemia in Older People - A Less Well Recognized Risk Factor for Frailty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Morley, John E.; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is common in older people with diabetes and is likely to be less recognized and under reported by patients and health care professionals. Hypoglycemia in this age group is associated with significant morbidities leading to both physical and cognitive dysfunction. Repeated hospital admissions due to frequent hypoglycemia are also associated with further deterioration in patients’ general health. This negative impact of hypoglycemia is likely to eventually lead to frailty, disability and poor outcomes. It appears that the relationship between hypoglycemia and frailty is bidirectional and mediated through a series of influences including under nutrition. Therefore, attention should be paid to the management of under nutrition in the general elderly population by improving energy intake and maintaining muscle mass. Increasing physical activity and having a more conservative approach to glycemic targets in frail older people with diabetes may be worthwhile. PMID:25821643

  18. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Silbernagel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis. We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish.

  19. User-interface aspects in recognizing connected-cursive handwriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schomaker, L

    1994-01-01

    There are at least two major stumbling blocks for user acceptance of pen-based computers: the recognition performance is not good enough, especially on cursive handwriting; and the user interface technology has not reached a mature stage. The initial reaction of product reviewers and potential user

  20. Recognizing chaotic states in stadium billiard by calculating gyration radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barezi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nowadays study of chaotic quantum billiards because of their relation to Nano technology. In this paper distribution of zeros of wave function on the boundary of two circular and stadium billiards are investigated. By calculating gyration radius for these points chaotic and non-chaotic states are distinguished.

  1. An own-age bias in recognizing faces with horizontal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schaich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal information, as a result of a selective filtering process, are essential in younger adults’ (YA ability to recognize human faces. Obermeyer, Kolling, Schaich, and Knopf (2012 recently reported impaired recognition of faces with horizontal information in older adults (OA suggesting age-variant processing. Two yet unconsidered factors (stimulus age and exposure duration that may have influenced previous results, were investigated in this study. Forty-seven YA (18-35yrs and 49 OA (62-83yrs were tested in a 2x2x2x2 mixed design with the between-subjects factors age group (YA vs OA and stimulus age (young faces vs older faces and the within-subjects factors filter (filtered (HF faces vs unfiltered faces (UF and exposure duration (0.8s vs 8s. Subjects were presented morph videos between pairs of faces: A starting face gradually merged into either the previously encoded target face or a control face. As expected, results showed an increase in recognition sensitivity (d’ with longer exposure duration in YA with both younger and older HF faces. OA however were unable to recognize filtered young faces not even with increased exposure duration. Furthermore, only elderly participants showed more accurate recognition with faces of their own age relative to other-age faces (own-age bias, OAB. For YA no OAB was observed. Filtered face recognition was significantly correlated with unfiltered recognition in YA but not in OA. It is concluded, that processing of horizontal information changes at a higher age. Presenting filtered or unfiltered faces both targets convergent face-specific processing only in YA but not in OA.

  2. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.

  3. Training a whole-book LSTM-based recognizer with an optimal training set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Kabir, Ehsanollah; Stricker, Didier

    2018-04-01

    Despite the recent progress in OCR technologies, whole-book recognition, is still a challenging task, in particular in case of old and historical books, that the unknown font faces or low quality of paper and print contributes to the challenge. Therefore, pre-trained recognizers and generic methods do not usually perform up to required standards, and usually the performance degrades for larger scale recognition tasks, such as of a book. Such reportedly low error-rate methods turn out to require a great deal of manual correction. Generally, such methodologies do not make effective use of concepts such redundancy in whole-book recognition. In this work, we propose to train Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks on a minimal training set obtained from the book to be recognized. We show that clustering all the sub-words in the book, and using the sub-word cluster centers as the training set for the LSTM network, we can train models that outperform any identical network that is trained with randomly selected pages of the book. In our experiments, we also show that although the sub-word cluster centers are equivalent to about 8 pages of text for a 101- page book, a LSTM network trained on such a set performs competitively compared to an identical network that is trained on a set of 60 randomly selected pages of the book.

  4. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: An agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding – a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound

  5. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: An agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele, E-mail: michele.ceriotti@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Computational Science and Modeling, and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials MARVEL, IMX, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-11-07

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding – a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound.

  6. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: An agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-11-01

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding - a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound.

  7. Pediatric rheumatology: An under-recognized subspecialty in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Kavirayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatrics in India at the levels of both undergraduate and postgraduate training is often viewed upon as an acute disease specialty with little emphasis on chronic medical musculoskeletal diseases. Pediatric rheumatology is an under-recognized subspecialty of pediatrics which deals specifically with childhood arthritis, noninflammatory joint pains, connective tissue diseases, autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, and other rare inflammatory disorders. This article aims to give a bird's eye view of the repertoire of commonly encountered problems seen by a pediatric rheumatologist, via a classical case vignette for each topic followed by discussion. There is also mention of some rare diseases managed within pediatric rheumatology to give a flavor of the spectrum of diseases encountered. This is to raise awareness of the importance of pediatric rheumatology as a subspecialty within India and to prompt readers to seek specialist advice when encountering challenging cases. Pediatric rheumatologists network and work collaboratively with many other specialties such as ophthalmology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedics, nephrology, infectious diseases, immunology, and gastroenterology for combined care of diverse conditions. There is an unmet need in India to develop a training program for pediatric rheumatology so that shared care pathways with sensitized pediatricians and other specialists can be developed nationwide, to serve these children better to achieve optimal outcomes.

  8. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  9. Recognizing genes and other components of genomic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Myers, E. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Stormo, G.D. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (USA). Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology)

    1991-01-01

    The Aspen Center for Physics (ACP) sponsored a three-week workshop, with 26 scientists participating, from 28 May to 15 June, 1990. The workshop, entitled Recognizing Genes and Other Components of Genomic Structure, focussed on discussion of current needs and future strategies for developing the ability to identify and predict the presence of complex functional units on sequenced, but otherwise uncharacterized, genomic DNA. We addressed the need for computationally-based, automatic tools for synthesizing available data about individual consensus sequences and local compositional patterns into the composite objects (e.g., genes) that are -- as composite entities -- the true object of interest when scanning DNA sequences. The workshop was structured to promote sustained informal contact and exchange of expertise between molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians. No participant stayed for less than one week, and most attended for two or three weeks. Computers, software, and databases were available for use as electronic blackboards'' and as the basis for collaborative exploration of ideas being discussed and developed at the workshop. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Recognizing emotions from EEG subbands using wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candra, Henry; Yuwono, Mitchell; Handojoseno, Ardi; Chai, Rifai; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-01-01

    Objectively recognizing emotions is a particularly important task to ensure that patients with emotional symptoms are given the appropriate treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an emotion recognition system using Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to identify four emotions including happy, sad, angry, and relaxed. We approached this objective by firstly investigating the relevant EEG frequency band followed by deciding the appropriate feature extraction method. Two features were considered namely: 1. Wavelet Energy, and 2. Wavelet Entropy. EEG Channels reduction was then implemented to reduce the complexity of the features. The ground truth emotional states of each subject were inferred using Russel's circumplex model of emotion, that is, by mapping the subjectively reported degrees of valence (pleasure) and arousal to the appropriate emotions - for example, an emotion with high valence and high arousal is equivalent to a `happy' emotional state, while low valence and low arousal is equivalent to a `sad' emotional state. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was then used for mapping each feature vector into corresponding discrete emotions. The results presented in this study indicated thatWavelet features extracted from alpha, beta and gamma bands seem to provide the necessary information for describing the aforementioned emotions. Using the DEAP (Dataset for Emotion Analysis using electroencephalogram, Physiological and Video Signals), our proposed method achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 77.4% ± 14.1% and 69.1% ± 12.8%, respectively.

  11. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  12. A deep convolutional neural network for recognizing foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani Heravi, Elnaz; Habibi Aghdam, Hamed; Puig, Domenec

    2015-12-01

    Controlling the food intake is an efficient way that each person can undertake to tackle the obesity problem in countries worldwide. This is achievable by developing a smartphone application that is able to recognize foods and compute their calories. State-of-art methods are chiefly based on hand-crafted feature extraction methods such as HOG and Gabor. Recent advances in large-scale object recognition datasets such as ImageNet have revealed that deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) possess more representation power than the hand-crafted features. The main challenge with CNNs is to find the appropriate architecture for each problem. In this paper, we propose a deep CNN which consists of 769; 988 parameters. Our experiments show that the proposed CNN outperforms the state-of-art methods and improves the best result of traditional methods 17%. Moreover, using an ensemble of two CNNs that have been trained two different times, we are able to improve the classification performance 21:5%.

  13. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    Full Text Available Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  14. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  15. Therapies targeting inflammation after stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Since the introduction of coronary vessel scaffold by metallic stent, percutaneous coronary intervention has become widely performed all over the world. Although drug-eluting stent technology has further decrease the incidence of in-stent restenosis, there still remaining issues related to stent implantation. Vessel inflammation is one of the causes that may be related to stent restenosis as well as stent thrombosis. Therefore, systemic therapies targeting inflammation emerged as adjunctive pharmacological intervention to improve outcome. Statins, corticosteroids, antiplatelets, and immunosuppresive or anti-cancer drugs are reported to favorably impact outcome after bare-metal stent implantation. In type 2 diabetic patients, pioglitazone may be the most promising drug that can lower neointimal proliferation and, as a result, lower incidence of restenosis and target lesion revascularization. On the other hand, several new stent platforms that might decrease inflammatory response after drug-eluting stent implantation have been introduced. Because durable polymer used in the first generation drug-eluting stents are recognized to be responsible for unfavorable vessel response, biocompatible or bioabsorbable polymer has been introduce and already used clinically. Furthermore, polymer-free drug-eluting stent and bioresorbable scaffold are under investigation. Although vessel inflammation may be reduced by using these new drug-eluting stents or scaffold, long-term impact needs to be investigated further.

  16. FINGERPRINT DETECTION AND RECOGNIZATION TECHNIQUES USING GABOR FILTER

    OpenAIRE

    Yogita Verma*, Prof. Bhagwati Charan Patel

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprints are most extensively and effectively appropriate for the proof of identity in present days. Mostly because of their uniqueness among the people, public acceptance, originality, stability through life, and their least risk of invasion. Fingerprint technology, which is basically a biometric system, is utilized to identify an individual based on their physical qualities. Fingerprint matching is the trendiest biometric method appropriate to provide authentication. Fingerprint verific...

  17. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  18. Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Lane, Ilana; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry B; Puleo, Elaine; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-04-29

    eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =-.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate self-monitoring. Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence to IVR self-monitoring was also associated with greater weight change. IVR is an effective and useful tool to promote self-monitoring and has the potential for widespread use and long-term sustainability. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938535; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00938535.

  19. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative  technology for clinicians.

  20. Celiac crisis: a rare or rarely recognized disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, N.; Cheema, H.A.; Suleman, H.; Fayyaz, Z.; Mushtaq, I.

    2017-01-01

    Celiac crisis is a serious life threatening complication of celiac disease characterized by profuse diarrhoea, severe dehydration and metabolic disturbances leading to neuromuscular weakness, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. It has been described as rare condition and not well documented in the literature. To improve awareness and facilitate diagnosis of this condition, we studied risk factors, pattern of presentation and management plans of celiac crisis. Methods: It was a descriptive cross sectional study. Patients presenting in emergency room(ER) with profuse diarrhoea leading to severe dehydration, neuromuscular weakness, and metabolic acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities enrolled in the studies after positive serology and small bowel biopsy suggestive of celiac disease. Results: Total 126 patients out of 350 fulfilled the criteria including 54 (42.8 percent) male and 71 (56.3 percent) female. The mean age at presentation was 5.25+-1.18 years. Risk factors were poor social status (97.60 percent), consanguinity (96.77 percent), early weaning with gluten contained diet (93.54 percent), and Presenting complaints were loose motion (100 percent), loss of neck holding (96.77 percent), dehydration (96.77 percent), polyuria (95.96 percent), inability to walk (67.74 percent), abdominal distension (85.86 percent). Electrolytes imbalances were hypokalaemia (2.4+-0.55), hypocalcaemia (7.29+-0.66), hypomagnesaemia (1.89+-0.50), hypophosphatemia (2.8+-0.68), hypoalbuminemia (3.05+-0.48) and metabolic acidosis (96 percent). One hundred and twenty patients were stabilized with GFD and correction of dehydration, acidosis and electrolyte imbalance. Six patients needed parenteral steroids ant total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Recovery time from crisis was mean 5.4+-2.73 days (range 3-20 days). Conclusion: Celiac crisis is a common but under recognized problem in developing countries. Commonest presenting feature is neuromuscular paralysis and biochemical abnormality is

  1. Earth as an Exoplanet: Lessons in Recognizing Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler; Misra, Amit; Ennico, Kimberly; Sparks, William B.; Claire, Mark; Crisp, David; Schwieterman, Edward; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Earth will always be our best-studied example of a habitable world. While extrasolar planets are unlikely to look exactly like Earth, they may share key characteristics, such as oceans, clouds and surface inhomogeneity. Earth's globally-averaged characteristics can therefore help us to recognize planetary habitability in data-limited exoplanet observations. One of the most straightforward ways to detect habitability will be via detection of 'glint', specular reflectance from an ocean (Robinson et al., 2010). Other methods include undertaking a census of atmospheric greenhouse gases, or attempting to measure planetary surface temperature and pressure, to determine if liquid water would be feasible on the planetary surface. Here we present recent research on detecting planetary habitability, led by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team. This work includes a collaboration with the NASA Lunar Science Institute on the detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Earth observations (Robinson et al., 2014). This data/model comparison provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. We find that the VPL spectral Earth model is in excellent agreement with the LCROSS Earth data, and can be used to reliably predict Earth's appearance at a range of phases relevant to exoplanet observations. Determining atmospheric surface pressure and temperature directly for a potentially habitable planet will be challenging due to the lack of spatial-resolution, presence of clouds, and difficulty in spectrally detecting many bulk constituents of terrestrial atmospheres. Additionally, Rayleigh scattering can be masked by absorbing gases and absorption from the underlying surface. However, new techniques using molecular dimers of oxygen (Misra et al., 2014) and nitrogen

  2. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  3. Target chamber studies for the inertial confinement fusion technology test bed, FIRST STEP. Final report, April 30, 1985-June 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Two issues have been examined that are important to heavy ion beam cavity design: vaporization and condensation of wall material and active pumping of noncondensable cavity gases. These issues have been studied in the context of a particular target chamber design where the first wall is covered with flowing liquid lithium. A computer code, CONRAD, has been written to simulate the vaporization and condensation. Scaling laws have been devised from basic laws of physics and results of computer simulations for the case of liquid lithium protected cavities. These scaling laws can be used to calculate the allowable repetition rate for the cavity based on the dimensions and conditions of the cavity and the allowed gas density. Standard gas pumping formulas are used to estimate the pumping power needed to clear the cavity of noncondensable gases. The area of cryopanels has been determined for a given design of the tube through which the pumping occurs. The contamination of the cryopanels by lithium vapor has been studied and is found to be a potentially serious problem

  4. Study Protocol of MINI SALTEN: a technology-based multi-component intervention in the school environment targeting healthy habits of first grade children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Rausch Herscovici, Cecile; Indart Rougier, Paula; De Gregorio, María José; Zonis, Luciana; Orellana, Liliana

    2017-05-06

    MINI SALTEN is a program developed to increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) and improve eating habits at home and school in first grade children. It aims to assess the effects of a technology family-based and PA school-based intervention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the protocol design and the MINISALTEN intervention. This is cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to run from July 2015 to November 2016 in 12 public schools of the city of Buenos Aires, matched for socio-demographic characteristics. The intervention is based on two main components: (a) "active breaks" (AB): implemented during school breaks by a PA instructor; (b) "virtual" (V): web-based contents delivered to the families via a multiplatform application. Using a computer generated random sequence participants are allocated to one of four intervention conditions: (AB), (V), (AB + V), and control (C). Outcomes are measured at baseline and 12 months post intervention, and will include data collected from the child and her/his mother/father or guardian. Primary outcome measures are: PA and sedentary behaviour (measured with accelerometers). Secondary outcome measures related are: percentage of kilocalories (kcal) from added sugars, and from total and saturated fats; grams of fruits and vegetables; and number of snacks and kcal coming from their added sugars and total and saturated fats. Family socio-economic level, home environment, and school environment will also be assessed. Statistical analysis is on an intention-to-treat principle. Baseline characteristics are described using summary measures and mixed models (with school as random effect). The effect of the two interventions will be estimated using a generalized mixed linear model with link and distribution selected according to the type of outcome. Included random effects are: child (or mother/father or guardian) accounting for repeated measures; school accounting for cluster induced by school. The most

  5. Aptamer-based technology for food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers are short and functional single-stranded oligonucleotide sequences selected from systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, which have the capacity to recognize various classes of target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Various analytical aptamers acquired by SELEX are widely used in many research fields, such as medicine, biology, and chemistry. However, the application of this innovative and emerging technology to food safety is just in infant stage. Food safety plays a very important role in our daily lives because varieties of poisonous and harmful substances in food affect human health. Aptamer technique is promising, which can overcome many disadvantages of existing detection methods in food safety, such as long detection time, low sensitivity, difficult, and expensive antibody preparation. This review provides an overview of various aptamer screening technologies and summarizes the recent applications of aptamers in food safety, and future prospects are also discussed.

  6. The effects of scene characteristics, resolution, and compression on the ability to recognize objects in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Joel; Ford, Carolyn G.; Stange, Irena W.

    2011-03-01

    Public safety practitioners increasingly use video for object recognition tasks. These end users need guidance regarding how to identify the level of video quality necessary for their application. The quality of video used in public safety applications must be evaluated in terms of its usability for specific tasks performed by the end user. The Public Safety Communication Research (PSCR) project performed a subjective test as one of the first in a series to explore visual intelligibility in video-a user's ability to recognize an object in a video stream given various conditions. The test sought to measure the effects on visual intelligibility of three scene parameters (target size, scene motion, scene lighting), several compression rates, and two resolutions (VGA (640x480) and CIF (352x288)). Seven similarly sized objects were used as targets in nine sets of near-identical source scenes, where each set was created using a different combination of the parameters under study. Viewers were asked to identify the objects via multiple choice questions. Objective measurements were performed on each of the scenes, and the ability of the measurement to predict visual intelligibility was studied.

  7. A standard methodology for cost-effectiveness analysis of new environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, S.R.; Trocki, L.K.; Bowling, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology that is being applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of new environmental technologies under development by EM-50, DOE. Performance, total system effects, and life-cycle costs are all considered in the methodology to compare new technologies with existing or base-line technologies. An example of performance characterization is given in the paper. Sources of data for cost estimates and technology characterizations also appear in the paper. The Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a massive clean up effort of waste sites that contain hazardous, radioactive, or mixed materials. DOE has recognized that improvements in environmental restoration and waste management methods can potentially save the taxpayers billions of dollars as older, less-effective technologies are displaced. Consequently, DOE has targeted significant funding to search for new technologies and to test and demonstrate them in rapid and cost-effective manner with the goal of applying them quickly to address environmental problems

  8. Neutron capture therapy (NCT) and in-hospital neutron irradiator (IHNI) a new technology on binary targeting radiation therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongmao

    2009-01-01

    BNCT is finally becoming 'a new option against cancer'. The difficulties for its development progress of that firstly is to improve the performance of boron compounds,secondly, it is the requirements of quantification and accuracy upon radiation dosimetry evaluation in clinical trials. Furthermore, that is long anticipation on hospital base neutron sources. It includes dedicated new NCT reactor, accelerator based neutron sources, and isotope source facilities. In addition to reactors, so far, the technology of other types of sources for clinical trials is not yet completely proven. The In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator specially designed for NCT, based on the MNSR successfully developed by China, can be installed inside or near the hospital and operated directly by doctors. The Irradiator has two neutron beams for respective treatment of the shallow and deep tumors. It is expected to initiate operation in the end of this year. It would provide a safe, low cost, and effective treatment tool for the NCT routine application in near future. (authors)

  9. Depending on scientific and technological progress to prospect for superlarge uranium deposits. Across-century target for uranium resources exploration work in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng

    1995-01-01

    After over 30 years' development, uranium resources exploration work in China has resulted in the discovery of more than 10 economic types of uranium deposits in 23 provinces (regions) of the whole country and large quantities of uranium reserves have been submitted which guarantee the development of nuclear industry in China. However, characteristics such as smaller size of deposits and ore bodies, and lower ore grade of discovered China's uranium deposits have brought about a series of problems on how to economically exploit and utilize these uranium resources. To prospect for superlarge uranium deposits is a guarantee of making uranium resources essentially meet the demand for the long-term development of nuclear industry in China, and is an important way of improving economic benefits in mining China's uranium resources. It is an important mark for uranium geological exploration work to go up a new step as well. China exhibits the geological environment in which various types of superlarge uranium deposits can be formed. Having the financial support from the state to uranium resources exploration work, having professional uranium exploration teams well-experienced in ore prospecting, having modernized uranium exploration techniques and equipment and also having foreign experience in prospecting for superlarge uranium deposits as reference, it is entirely possible to find out superlarge uranium deposits in China at the end of this century and at the beginning of next century. In order to realize the objective, the most important prerequisite is that research work on metallogenetic geological theory and exploration techniques and prospecting methodology for superlarge uranium deposits must be strengthened, and technical quality of the geological teams must be improved. Within this century, prospect targets should be selected and located accurately to carry out the emphatic breakthrough in exploration strategy

  10. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Atrey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the help of a normative framework of ‘intersectional integrity’. The framework insists on considering claimants as a whole by tracing unique and shared patterns of gender violence when it is also based on other identities such as race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, and sexual orientation. I argue that applying the framework allows us to diagnose and address the nature of violence suffered on multiple identities, in a clear and comprehensive way. Este artículo cuestiona el sentido de levantar a todas las mujeres a medida que se asciende la escalera de la igualdad de género y la justicia, reconociendo que la violencia de género afecta a las mujeres de manera diferente. Esto se debe a que la violencia contra las mujeres se comete no sólo sobre la base de su género o sexo, sino también por su raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual, etc. Se pretende explicar esta afirmación con la ayuda de un marco normativo de “integridad interseccional”, a través de referencias a la jurisprudencia del CEDAW y ejemplos de la India. El marco insiste en considerar a las demandantes en su conjunto, trazando patrones únicos y compartidos de violencia de género cuando se basa también en otras identidades como raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual. Se sostiene que la aplicación del marco permite diagnosticar y abordar la naturaleza de la violencia

  11. Recognizing and reducing cognitive bias in clinical and forensic neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya-Murti, Saty; Lockhart, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    In medicine, cognitive errors form the basis of bias in clinical practice. Several types of bias are common and pervasive, and may lead to inaccurate diagnosis or treatment. Forensic and clinical neurology, even when aided by current technologies, are still dependent on cognitive interpretations, and therefore prone to bias. This article discusses 4 common biases that can lead the clinician astray. They are confirmation bias (selective gathering of and neglect of contradictory evidence); base rate bias (ignoring or misusing prevailing base rate data); hindsight bias (oversimplification of past causation); and good old days bias (the tendency for patients to misremember and exaggerate their preinjury functioning). We briefly describe strategies adopted from the field of psychology that could minimize bias. While debiasing is not easy, reducing such errors requires awareness and acknowledgment of our susceptibility to these cognitive distortions.

  12. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    The effort to comprehend innovation across cultures and time highlights the importance of the explicating factors external to technology. It becomes relevant to nuance or differentiate the understanding of social and cultural responses to adopted technologies by recognizing that technology shapes...... culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....

  13. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Martel, Mary K., E-mail: mmartel@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jaffray, David A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Deye, James [Radiation Research Programs, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Jeraj, Robert [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Mankoff, David [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Ollendorf, Daniel [Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology,” which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  14. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, Indrin J.; Martel, Mary K.; Jaffray, David A.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A.; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B.; Ollendorf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology,” which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  16. 75 FR 9953 - Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...] Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... its Regulation on the Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (29...

  17. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States AGENCY: National Marine... international conservation and management measures recognized by the United States. To fulfill this requirement, a list of agreements resulting in international conservation and management measures was first...

  18. 78 FR 7460 - Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...] Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meeting. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to attend an informal stakeholder meeting concerning Nationally Recognized Testing...

  19. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis; Pneumokoniosen erkennen und klassifizieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K. [Klinikum Westfalen, Knappschaftskrankenhaus, Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2012 waren 6 der 10 am haeufigsten anerkannten Berufskrankheiten Pneumokoniosen. Gesundheitspolitisch und oekonomisch stehen dabei die Silikose und asbestassoziierte Erkrankungen im Vordergrund. Insbesondere Letztere treten ubiquitaer auf und sind nicht an grosse Industriestandorte gebunden

  20. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  1. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  2. Recognizing critical mine spoil health characteristics to design ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar can be used as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated mine spoils for improved site phytostabilization. For successful phytostabilization to occur, biochar amendments must improve mine spoil health with respect to plant rooting plus uptake of water and nutrients. An inappropriate biochar may negatively impact plant growth conditions resulting in poor plant establishment and growth. Matching the appropriate biochar for each mine site requires reconnaissance of spoil chemical and physical conditions and then identifying which properties need rectified to promote plant growth. A rectification hierarchy needs to be established with the primary limiting factor being addressed first, then successive limitations addressed simultaneously or thereafter. We posit that spoils at each site will have a unique chemical, physical, and biological signature that will affect plant growth. For example, some spoils may be extremely acidic, possess phytotoxic concentrations of heavy metals, or have physical conditions that limits water storage and root penetration. Quantifying these and other conditions beforehand allows for the production of designer biochar with specific characteristics tailored for specific plant growth deficiencies within each spoil. Additionally, we recommend the use of proximally located, undisturbed soils to establish spoil remediation targets. In our work, we have developed a decision-tree flow-chart that identifies salient chemical,

  3. Non-kinetic capabilities: complementing the kinetic prevalence to targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Ducheine, P.

    2014-01-01

    Targeting is used in military doctrine to describe a military operational way, using (military) means to influence a target (or addressee) in order to achieve designated political and/or military goals. The four factors italicized are used to analyse non-kinetic targeting, complementing our knowledge and understanding of the kinetic prevalence. Paradoxically, non-kinetic targeting is not recognized as a separate concept: kinetic and non-kinetic are intertwined facets of targeting. Kinetic tar...

  4. Specific oligobodies against ERK-2 that recognize both the native and the denatured state of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, M; Radrizzani, M; Brocardo, M G; Reyes, G B; Gonzalez Solveyra, C; Santa-Coloma, T A

    2001-06-01

    Oligonucleotide aptamer(s), obtained by using the SELEX procedure, has been used as reagents to recognize different molecules with high affinity and specificity. However, until recently, it was not possible to obtain oligonucleotide-based reagents able to recognize proteins with high specificity in assays typical of antibodies, such as immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations. Here, we show the results obtained by applying the strategy of "target switching" to obtain specific polyclonal and monoclonal oligobodies against the protein ERK2. We were able to develop highly specific polyclonal oligobodies by using only one selection step with a temporary target and one selection step with the final target (ERK2). Since only two selection steps were required, these results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain specific reagents against a protein without a need for an "in vitro evolution" using many selection steps, or error-prone polymerases. After one additional selection step, the polyclonal oligobodies were cloned to obtain a highly specific monoclonal oligobody.

  5. From chemical graphs in computer-aided drug design to general Markov-Galvez indices of drug-target, proteome, drug-parasitic disease, technological, and social-legal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Fernández, Pablo; Munteanu, Cristian R; Dorado, Julian; Martin-Romalde, Raquel; Duardo-Sanchez, Aliuska; González-Diaz, Humberto

    2011-12-01

    Complex Networks are useful in solving problems in drug research and industry, developing mathematical representations of different systems. These systems move in a wide range from relatively simple graph representations of drug molecular structures to large systems. We can cite for instance, drug-target protein interaction networks, drug policy legislation networks, or drug treatment in large geographical disease spreading networks. In any case, all these networks have essentially the same components: nodes (atoms, drugs, proteins, microorganisms and/or parasites, geographical areas, drug policy legislations, etc.) and edges (chemical bonds, drug-target interactions, drug-parasite treatment, drug use, etc.). Consequently, we can use the same type of numeric parameters called Topological Indices (TIs) to describe the connectivity patterns in all these kinds of Complex Networks despite the nature of the object they represent. The main reason for this success of TIs is the high flexibility of this theory to solve in a fast but rigorous way many apparently unrelated problems in all these disciplines. Another important reason for the success of TIs is that using these parameters as inputs we can find Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) models for different kind of problems in Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD). Taking into account all the above-mentioned aspects, the present work is aimed at offering a common background to all the manuscripts presented in this special issue. In so doing, we make a review of the most common types of complex networks involving drugs or their targets. In addition, we review both classic TIs that have been used to describe the molecular structure of drugs and/or larger complex networks. Next, we use for the first time a Markov chain model to generalize Galvez TIs to higher order analogues coined here as the Markov-Galvez TIs of order k (MGk). Lastly, we illustrate the calculation of MGk values for different classes of

  6. Combinatorial microRNA target predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krek, Azra; Grün, Dominic; Poy, Matthew N.

    2005-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript1, 2, 3. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed...... in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs. Statistical tests using genome-wide alignments of eight vertebrate genomes, PicTar's ability to specifically recover published micro......RNA targets, and experimental validation of seven predicted targets suggest that PicTar has an excellent success rate in predicting targets for single microRNAs and for combinations of microRNAs. We find that vertebrate microRNAs target, on average, roughly 200 transcripts each. Furthermore, our results...

  7. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  8. Oxidation-specific epitopes are danger-associated molecular patterns recognized by pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Yury I; Choi, Soo-Ho; Wiesner, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    are a major target of innate immunity, recognized by a variety of "pattern recognition receptors" (PRRs). By analogy with microbial "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs), we postulate that host-derived, oxidation-specific epitopes can be considered to represent "danger (or damage......)-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs). We also argue that oxidation-specific epitopes present on apoptotic cells and their cellular debris provided the primary evolutionary pressure for the selection of such PRRs. Furthermore, because many PAMPs on microbes share molecular identity and/or mimicry with oxidation...

  9. AFCI Safeguards Enhancement Study: Technology Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Leon E.; Dougan, A.; Tobin, Stephen; Cipiti, B.; Ehinger, Michael H.; Bakel, A. J.; Bean, Robert; Grate, Jay W.; Santi, P.; Bryan, Steven; Kinlaw, M. T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Burr, Tom; Lehn, Scott A.; Tolk, K.; Chichester, David; Menlove, H.; Vo, D.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Merkle, P.; Wang, T. F.; Duran, F.; Nakae, L.; Warren, Glen A.; Friedrich, S.; Rabin, M.

    2008-12-31

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Safeguards Campaign aims to develop safeguards technologies and processes that will significantly reduce the risk of proliferation in the U.S. nuclear fuel cycle of tomorrow. The Safeguards Enhancement Study was chartered with identifying promising research and development (R&D) directions over timescales both near-term and long-term, and under safeguards oversight both domestic and international. This technology development roadmap documents recognized gaps and needs in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles, and outlines corresponding performance targets for each of those needs. Drawing on the collective expertise of technologists and user-representatives, a list of over 30 technologies that have the potential to meet those needs was developed, along with brief summaries of each candidate technology. Each summary describes the potential impact of that technology, key research questions to be addressed, and prospective development milestones that could lead to a definitive viability or performance assessment. Important programmatic linkages between U.S. agencies and offices are also described, reflecting the emergence of several safeguards R&D programs in the U.S. and the reinvigoration of nuclear fuel cycles across the globe.

  10. Critical epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein of SFTS virus recognized by a panel of SFTS patients derived human monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SFTS virus (SFTSV is a newly discovered pathogen to cause severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS in human. Successful control of SFTSV epidemic requires better understanding of the antigen target in humoral immune responses to the new bunyavirus infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated a combinatorial Fab antibody phage library from two SFTS patients recovered from SFTSV infection. To date, 94 unique human antibodies have been generated and characterized from over 1200 Fab antibody clones obtained by screening the library with SFTS purified virions. All those monoclonal antibodies (MAbs recognized the nucleocapsid (N protein of SFTSV while none of them were reactive to the viral glycoproteins Gn or Gc. Furthermore, over screening 1000 mouse monoclonal antibody clones derived from SFTSV virions immunization, 462 clones reacted with N protein, while only 16 clones were reactive to glycoprotein. Furthermore, epitope mapping of SFTSV N protein was performed through molecular simulation, site mutation and competitive ELISA, and we found that at least 4 distinct antigenic epitopes within N protein were recognized by those human and mouse MAbs, in particular mutation of Glu10 to Ala10 abolished or significantly reduced the binding activity of nearly most SFTS patients derived MAbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of human recombinant MAbs derived from SFTS patients recognized the viral N protein indicated the important role of the N protein in humoral responses to SFTSV infection, and the critical epitopes we defined in this study provided molecular basis for detection and diagnosis of SFTSV infection.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs.

  12. The nicotinergic receptor as a target for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia: Barking up the wrong tree?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quisenaerts, C.; Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Timmers, M.; Streffer, J.; Asuncion, J. De la; Dumont, G.J.H.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Cognitive symptoms have increasingly been recognized as an important target in the development of future treatment strategies in schizophrenia. The nicotinergic neurotransmission system has been suggested as a potentially interesting treatment target for these cognitive deficits. However,

  13. Targeted proteomics as a tool for porcine acute phase proteins measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Bassols, Anna; Bislev, Stine Lønnerup

    2013-01-01

    . Selected reaction monitoring (SRM), a targeted quantitative proteomic technique, may be used as an alternative to commercial kits for the measurement and validation of target proteins. Acute phase proteins (APPs) are widely recognized inflammation and infection biomarkers (Eckersall, 2010...

  14. New type of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharov, A.V.; Ankudinov, V.B.; Ogorodnikov, V.P.; Marukhin, Y.A.

    2014-01-01

    Now the technologies based on interaction of high-intensity beams with substance of a target are being intensively developed. As a target it is possible to use the new type of monodisperse metal targets. The principal advantages of new targets type are: target cooling isn't required; there is no induced activity: the target can be used many times; small dispersion on the speed, the size and interaction points with a beam. The basis of a target is the jet of molten metal, following in the vacuum chamber .Under the influence of the special disturbance superimposed on the liquid jet, the jet disintegrated into identical drops. In the vacuum chamber the drops freeze and form into the solid granules. It is possible to receive monodisperse targets from different metals, alloys and salts (diameter of targets is from 30 .m to 1.5 mm). Dispersion by the sizes and speed is less than 1%. The technique allows to receive not only continuous targets, but also hollow targets with dispersion on thickness of wall within 1...2%.

  15. Supporting target orientation and formulation in the development of complex products, illustrated by the example of a new elevator technology; Unterstuetzung der Zielorientierung und -formulierung in der Entwicklung komplexer Produkte - am Beispiel einer neuen Aufzugstechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenser, T.

    2004-07-01

    In a first part, the present work covers the problem of keeping the orientation to the customers in the development of complex systems. The variety of dependencies in such products affects the designer's ability of making well-balanced decisions and verifying them later. In this work, a method of evaluating component variants is elaborated wherein the whole knowledge about the product can be considered. Furthermore, the decision can be revised at every development step. This means a valuable contribution to objective decision-making and to a design with respect to costs and customer value. The method bases on the linking of the evaluation to the 'influence net', a specific mathematical description of the product and its interdependencies. The second part covers the problem of recognizing potential difficulties in market acceptance of the product during the development process. The proposed solution integrates a human cognitive structure model in the 'influence net' of the product, which offers a direct link between human judgement and technical solutions. The core of this model is the element 'basic interest', a theoretical explanation of the cause of acceptance problems. Based on this, the third part contains a proposition of a proceeding model for decision making during system design. Therein, the <> as a description of the relevant product- and market-knowledge is proposed as a basement for all decisions made in the innovation process. This contains decisions about the product idea and component variants as well as about the design steps proceeding. The theoretical approaches are applied to the system development of a new elevator technology. Instead of using one shaft, one cabin combined with rope and counterweight, several cabins shall move autonomously in the same shaft and also might switch the shafts. The goal of this new technology is the reduction of the lift area while maintaining the transport capacity

  16. A conjoint analysis to consumer choice in Brazil: Defining device attributes for recognizing customized foods characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, L P; Barbosa, J; Marodin, G A; Fettermann, D C

    2018-07-01

    the availability of information about food products may be an essential factor in the consumer's value perception in their purchasing decision. As the food product becomes personalized, the customization of this information becomes complex due to the possible combinations of product components. The use of smart technology in devices is one way to provide customers with customized food information. In the following research five attributes were identified in the composition of these devices: (A) portability; (B) precision; (C) diet customization; (D) food quality analysis; and (E) price. This study aims to identify the appropriate combination of possible functionalities or attributes that must be present in a device in order to detect the food composition of customized foods and their relation to market characteristics. One experiment used fractional factorial project to present the attributes in the form of scenarios following the Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis (CBCA) method. The data collection was done using survey methodology, through online questionnaire, with some 303 Brazilian respondents. So, the Logistic Regression was applied to data analysis. The moderating variables-gender, age, gluten restriction, lactose restriction and other restrictions-were also added to verify potential interactions with the primary attributes. From the results obtained, it was possible to observe higher significance for the primary attributes of diet personalization and quality food analyzes function. Our study contributes to the literature by enhancing the understanding about what the attributes should be in a technological device that has the purpose of recognizing food characteristics and is capable of generating information about customized food products. Furthermore, this device can enabler the production of mass customized food with the nutritional labels for each possible combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunological targeting of cytomegalovirus for glioblastoma therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Smita K; Sampson, John H; Mitchell, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is purportedly present in glioblastoma (GBM) while absent from the normal brain, making CMV antigens potentially ideal immunological anti-GBM targets. We recently demonstrated that patient-derived CMV pp65-specific T cells are capable of recognizing and killing autologous GBM tumor cells. This data supports CMV antigen-directed immunotherapies against GBM.

  18. Simulations of effusion from ISOL target/ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the low- and high-conductivity Target/Ion Source systems used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for effusion measurements are performed. Comparisons with the corresponding experimental data for the different geometries are presented and discussed. Independent checks of the simulation using data for simple geometries and using the conductance approach well known in vacuum technology are performed. A simulation-based comparison between the low- and high-conductivity systems is also presented

  19. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  20. A novel approach to the simultaneous extraction and non-targeted analysis of the small molecules metabolome and lipidome using 96-well solid phase extraction plates with column-switching technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubo; Zhang, Zhenzhu; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Aizhu; Hou, Zhiguo; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Yanjun

    2015-08-28

    This study combines solid phase extraction (SPE) using 96-well plates with column-switching technology to construct a rapid and high-throughput method for the simultaneous extraction and non-targeted analysis of small molecules metabolome and lipidome based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This study first investigated the columns and analytical conditions for small molecules metabolome and lipidome, separated by an HSS T3 and BEH C18 columns, respectively. Next, the loading capacity and actuation duration of SPE were further optimized. Subsequently, SPE and column switching were used together to rapidly and comprehensively analyze the biological samples. The experimental results showed that the new analytical procedure had good precision and maintained sample stability (RSDmetabolome and lipidome to test the throughput. The resulting method represents a new analytical approach for biological samples, and a highly useful tool for researches in metabolomics and lipidomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamics and structure of project performers of the «Federal target program for research and development in priority areas of development of the Russian scientific and technological complex for 2014–2020»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Chernova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers socio-demographic issues of research and development of the «Federal Target Program for Research and Development in Priority Areas of Development of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex for 2014–2020». Analysis based on project's documents in the Program from 2014 to 2016. We studied the dynamics in both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of project performers – applied research and experimental development, and defined trends of project R&D personnel changes, including sociodemographic characteristics: age, size and composition of performers, the proportion of researchers with academic degree, and the proportion of women-researchers. In the article it is shown that specialists under 40 years of age are the largest part of project performers. The renewal of project personnel in time of projects is 65 percent. In the article it is also shown a strong correlation between project academic personnel and academic personnel of Russia as a whole. We devised proposals for tracking quantitative and qualitative parameters of project performers and for securing growth the skill level of young specialists in projects.

  2. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  3. Gas target with thin wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenchenko, A.S.; Korenchenko, S.M.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Filippov, A.I.; Fursov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    The technology of targets manufacture with thin wall diameter 100 mm and lengthwise 700 mm from composition kevlar + epoxy resin is described. The test's results on pressure and vacuum are reported. The created targets are supposed to be used on the installation ARES for an investigation of muons and pions interactions with light nuclei and rare pions decay 'on flying'. 5 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Recognizing Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Iben Mundbjerg; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2018-01-01

    narratives; yet during memory testing, patients are not allowed any substitution to clearly expose cognitive shortcomings. In combining works of theorists Ian Hacking and Paul Ricoeur, we argue that the clinical identification of dementia unmakes the knowing subject, a deconstruction that threatens...

  5. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  6. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Signs and Symptoms Overview ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  7. Recognizing Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age-related cataract. They recommend eating plenty of green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and other healthy foods. Also, don’t smoke, because smoking may speed cataract development. To screen for early signs of eye disease, Bishop recommends ...

  8. Recognizing Hypothermia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Hypothermia is a serious medical condition that strikes during very cold weather or when people are chilled from rain, sweat, or cold water.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 12/13/2007.

  9. 17 CFR 240.17g-3 - Annual financial reports to be furnished by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial statements of the nationally recognized statistical rating organization or audited consolidated financial statements of its parent if the nationally recognized statistical rating organization is a...) of this section are consolidated financial statements of the parent of the nationally recognized...

  10. Emerging technologies for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minh Duc; Minh, Cao Duc; Shimizu, Shuji; Antoku, Yasuaki; Torata, Nobuhiro; Kudo, Kuriko; Okamura, Koji; Nakashima, Naoki; Tanaka, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on new technologies that are practically useful for telemedicine. Three representative systems are introduced: a Digital Video Transport System (DVTS), an H.323 compatible videoconferencing system, and Vidyo. Based on some of our experiences, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and point out technologies that are especially targeted at doctors and technicians, so that those interested in using similar technologies can make appropriate choices and achieve their own goals depending on their specific conditions.

  11. Emerging Technologies for Telemedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Cao Duc [National Agency for Science and Technology Information, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Shimizu, Shuji; Antoku, Yasuaki; Torata, Nobuhiro; Kudo, Kuriko; Okamura, Koji; Nakashima, Naoki; Tanaka, Masao [Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    This paper focuses on new technologies that are practically useful for telemedicine. Three representative systems are introduced: a Digital Video Transport System (DVTS), an H.323 compatible videoconferencing system, and Vidyo. Based on some of our experiences, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and point out technologies that are especially targeted at doctors and technicians, so that those interested in using similar technologies can make appropriate choices and achieve their own goals depending on their specific conditions.

  12. Emerging Technologies for Telemedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Cao Duc; Shimizu, Shuji; Antoku, Yasuaki; Torata, Nobuhiro; Kudo, Kuriko; Okamura, Koji; Nakashima, Naoki; Tanaka, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on new technologies that are practically useful for telemedicine. Three representative systems are introduced: a Digital Video Transport System (DVTS), an H.323 compatible videoconferencing system, and Vidyo. Based on some of our experiences, we highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each technology, and point out technologies that are especially targeted at doctors and technicians, so that those interested in using similar technologies can make appropriate choices and achieve their own goals depending on their specific conditions.

  13. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Wearable Sensors in a Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    The advances of wearable sensors and wireless networks oer many opportunities to recognize human activities from sensor readings in pervasive computing. Existing work so far focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user in a home environment. However, there are typically multiple inha...

  14. Can Independent Judges Recognize Different Psychotherapies? An Experience with Manual-Guided Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luborsky, Lester; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested whether independent judges could recognize three different manual-guided psychotherapies, drug counseling, supportive-expressive psychotherapy, and cognitive-behavioral using a special rating form containing scales for the characteristic aspects of each type. Results indicated that manual-guided therapies can be reliably recognized.…

  15. A Safe Education for All: Recognizing and Stemming Harassment in Music Classes and Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bruce Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the pervasiveness of harassment in schools in the United States and presents ways to recognize and stem bullying in music classrooms. Music educators are in a unique position to recognize atypical behaviors in their students. Music educators who teach middle and high school ensembles often retain the same students in their…

  16. Immuno-Oncology-The Translational Runway for Gene Therapy: Gene Therapeutics to Address Multiple Immune Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weß, Ludger; Schnieders, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Cancer therapy is once again experiencing a paradigm shift. This shift is based on extensive clinical experience demonstrating that cancer cannot be successfully fought by addressing only single targets or pathways. Even the combination of several neo-antigens in cancer vaccines is not sufficient for successful, lasting tumor eradication. The focus has therefore shifted to the immune system's role in cancer and the striking abilities of cancer cells to manipulate and/or deactivate the immune system. Researchers and pharma companies have started to target the processes and cells known to support immune surveillance and the elimination of tumor cells. Immune processes, however, require novel concepts beyond the traditional "single-target-single drug" paradigm and need parallel targeting of diverse cells and mechanisms. This review gives a perspective on the role of gene therapy technologies in the evolving immuno-oncology space and identifies gene therapy as a major driver in the development and regulation of effective cancer immunotherapy. Present challenges and breakthroughs ranging from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, gene-modified oncolytic viruses, combination cancer vaccines, to RNA therapeutics are spotlighted. Gene therapy is recognized as the most prominent technology enabling effective immuno-oncology strategies.

  17. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... activity models, and propose an Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single-user and multiuser activities. We conduct our empirical studies by collecting real-world activity traces done by two volunteers over a period of two weeks in a smart home environment...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...

  18. Implementation of an Education Value Unit (EVU System to Recognize Faculty Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph House

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Faculty educational contributions are hard to quantify, but in an era of limited resources it is essential to link funding with effort. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of an educational value unit (EVU system in an academic emergency department and to examine its effect on faculty behavior, particularly on conference attendance and completion of trainee evaluations. Methods: A taskforce representing education, research, and clinical missions was convened to develop a method of incentivizing productivity for an academic emergency medicine faculty. Domains of educational contributions were defined and assigned a value based on time expended. A 30-hour EVU threshold for achievement was aligned with departmental goals. Targets included educational presentations, completion of trainee evaluations and attendance at didactic conferences. We analyzed comparisons of performance during the year preceding and after implementation. Results: Faculty (N=50 attended significantly more didactic conferences (22.7 hours v. 34.5 hours, p<0.005 and completed more trainee evaluations (5.9 v. 8.8 months, p<0.005. During the pre-implementation year, 84% (42/50 met the 30-hour threshold with 94% (47/50 meeting post-implementation (p=0.11. Mean total EVUs increased significantly (94.4 hours v. 109.8 hours, p=0.04 resulting from increased conference attendance and evaluation completion without a change in other categories. Conclusion: In a busy academic department there are many work allocation pressures. An EVU system integrated with an incentive structure to recognize faculty contributions increases the importance of educational responsibilities. We propose an EVU model that could be implemented and adjusted for differing departmental priorities at other academic departments.

  19. Recognizing emotional speech in Persian: a validated database of Persian emotional speech (Persian ESD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtiari, Niloofar; Kuhlmann, Michael; Eslami, Moharram; Klann-Delius, Gisela

    2015-03-01

    Research on emotional speech often requires valid stimuli for assessing perceived emotion through prosody and lexical content. To date, no comprehensive emotional speech database for Persian is officially available. The present article reports the process of designing, compiling, and evaluating a comprehensive emotional speech database for colloquial Persian. The database contains a set of 90 validated novel Persian sentences classified in five basic emotional categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), as well as a neutral category. These sentences were validated in two experiments by a group of 1,126 native Persian speakers. The sentences were articulated by two native Persian speakers (one male, one female) in three conditions: (1) congruent (emotional lexical content articulated in a congruent emotional voice), (2) incongruent (neutral sentences articulated in an emotional voice), and (3) baseline (all emotional and neutral sentences articulated in neutral voice). The speech materials comprise about 470 sentences. The validity of the database was evaluated by a group of 34 native speakers in a perception test. Utterances recognized better than five times chance performance (71.4 %) were regarded as valid portrayals of the target emotions. Acoustic analysis of the valid emotional utterances revealed differences in pitch, intensity, and duration, attributes that may help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotion. The database is designed to be used as a reliable material source (for both text and speech) in future cross-cultural or cross-linguistic studies of emotional speech, and it is available for academic research purposes free of charge. To access the database, please contact the first author.

  20. Use what you can: Storage, abstraction processes and perceptual adjustments help listeners recognize reduced forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja ePoellmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three eye-tracking experiments tested whether native listeners recognized reduced Dutch words better after having heard the same reduced words, or different reduced words of the same reduction type and whether familiarization with one reduction type helps listeners to deal with another reduction type. In the exposure phase, a segmental reduction group was exposed to /b/-reductions (e.g., minderij instead of binderij, 'book binder' and a syllabic reduction group was exposed to full-vowel deletions (e.g., p'raat instead of paraat, 'ready', while a control group did not hear any reductions. In the test phase, all three groups heard the same speaker producing reduced-/b/ and deleted-vowel words that were either repeated (Experiments 1 & 2 or new (Experiment 3, but that now appeared as targets in semantically neutral sentences. Word-specific learning effects were found for vowel-deletions but not for /b/-reductions. Generalization of learning to new words of the same reduction type occurred only if the exposure words showed a phonologically consistent reduction pattern (/b/-reductions. In contrast, generalization of learning to words of another reduction type occurred only if the exposure words showed a phonologically inconsistent reduction pattern (the vowel deletions; learning about them generalized to recognition of the /b/-reductions. In order to deal with reductions, listeners thus use various means. They store reduced variants (e.g., for the inconsistent vowel-deleted words and they abstract over incoming information to build up and apply mapping rules (e.g., for the consistent /b/-reductions. Experience with inconsistent pronunciations leads to greater perceptual flexibility in dealing with other forms of reduction uttered by the same speaker than experience with consistent pronunciations.

  1. LIFE Target Fabrication Research Plan Sept 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S; Montesanti, R; Satcher, J; Spadaccini, C; Rose, K; Wang, M; Hamza, A; Alexander, N; Brown, L; Hund, J; Petzoldt, R; Sweet, W; Goodin, D

    2008-11-10

    The target-system for the baseline LIFE fast-ignition target was analyzed to establish a preliminary estimate for the costs and complexities involved in demonstrating the technologies needed to build a prototype LIFE plant. The baseline fast-ignition target upon which this analysis was developed is shown in Figure 1.0-1 below. The LIFE target-system incorporates requirements for low-cost, high throughput manufacture, high-speed, high accuracy injection of the target into the chamber, production of sufficient energy from implosion and recovery and recycle of the imploded target material residue. None of these functions has been demonstrated to date. Existing target fabrication techniques which lead to current 'hot spot' target costs of {approx}$100,000 per target and at a production rate of 2/day are unacceptable for the LIFE program. Fabrication techniques normally used for low-cost, low accuracy consumer products such as toys must be adapted to the high-accuracy LIFE target. This will be challenge. A research program resulting is the demonstration of the target-cycle technologies needed for a prototype LIFE reactor is expected to cost {approx}$51M over the course of 5 years. The effort will result in targets which will cost an estimated $0.23/target at a rep-rate of 20 Hz or about 1.73M targets/day.

  2. Newer Gene Editing Technologies toward HIV Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Shankar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy.

  3. Nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Makoto; Hamasaki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshide, Akihiko; Katayama, Kimio; Nozawa, H.; Karigome, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent days, energy security is becoming a major global concern and it has been recognized that a major reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions is required to combat climate change. Considerable expansion and new introduction of nuclear power generation are currently being planned and considered for the further in various parts of the world. Nuclear technologies of the latest 10 years in Japan were reviewed with their characteristics, advancement and future perspective. Steady efforts have been made to construct new nuclear power stations with computer-aided engineering system and modular and prefabricated structures, extend the interval of periodic inspections under the new inspection system that should improve both safety and reliability, implement advanced measures against aging and develop the next-generation light water reactors including a medium small reactor. Export of nuclear power plants has been promoted with international business alliance or cooperation. Activities to close nuclear fuel cycle to ensure sustainable nuclear energy utilization have been promoted. Decommissioning technologies for Tokai power station have been developed and accumulated know-how will be utilized in light water reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encheng Sun

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24 were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Duck Plague Virus (DPV and Goose Parvovirus (GPV antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and

  5. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  6. Early Childhood Technology Education: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2005-01-01

    We are living in a fast-changing, technology-driven world, where technology affects the daily lives of every person, directly or indirectly. While the importance of providing young children with technological knowledge and experience has been well-recognized, how the curriculum should be developed deserves greater study. Using early childhood…

  7. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kiniwa

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8(+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4(+ T helper (Th cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4(+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1 as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4(+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4(+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma.

  8. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8(+) T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4(+) T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4(+) Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma.

  9. Educational Uses of Virtual Reality Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youngblut, Christine

    1998-01-01

    The potential of VR technology tor supporting education is widely recognized. It has already seen practical use in an estimated 20 or more public schools and colleges, and many more have been involved in evaluation or research efforts...

  10. Erythrocyte and porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Valis, Erik; Benktander, John; Ångström, Jonas; Breimer, Michael E; Cox, Eric; Teneberg, Susann

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic F4-fimbriated Escherichia coli is associated with diarrheal disease in neonatal and postweaning pigs. The F4 fimbriae mediate attachment of the bacteria to the pig intestinal epithelium, enabling an efficient delivery of diarrhea-inducing enterotoxins to the target epithelial cells. There are three variants of F4 fimbriae designated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, respectively, having different antigenic and adhesive properties. In the present study, the binding of isolated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae, and F4ab/ac/ad-fimbriated E. coli, to glycosphingolipids from erythrocytes and from porcine small intestinal epithelium was examined, in order to get a comprehensive view of the F4-binding glycosphingolipids involved in F4-mediated hemagglutination and adhesion to the epithelial cells of porcine intestine. Specific interactions between the F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae and both acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were obtained, and after isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids and characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, distinct carbohydrate binding patterns were defined for each fimbrial subtype. Two novel glycosphingolipids were isolated from chicken erythrocytes, and characterized as GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer and GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4GlcNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer. These two compounds, and lactosylceramide (Galß4Glcß1Cer) with phytosphingosine and hydroxy fatty acid, were recognized by all three variants of F4 fimbriae. No binding of the F4ad fimbriae or F4ad-fimbriated E. coli to the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids occurred. However, for F4ab and F4ac two distinct binding patterns were observed. The F4ac fimbriae and the F4ac-expressing E. coli selectively bound to galactosylceramide (Galß1Cer) with sphingosine and hydroxy 24:0 fatty acid, while the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4ab fimbriae and the F4ab-fimbriated bacteria were characterized as galactosylceramide, sulfatide (SO(3)-3Galß1Cer), sulf

  11. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...

  12. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löfling, Jonas [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R. [Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Varki, Ajit, E-mail: a1varki@ucsd.edu [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH.

  13. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Löfling, Jonas; Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R.; Varki, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH

  14. Automated Facial Coding Software Outperforms People in Recognizing Neutral Faces as Neutral from Standardized Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eLewinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about people’s accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge – automated facial coding (AFC software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90% was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%. I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e. smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings.

  15. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What To Do When Every Moment Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What ... could prevent many of these deaths. Fast action can also limit permanent damage to the body. Heart ...

  16. Measurement of the ability of science students to recognize business opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827614; Oost, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11394229X; Pilot, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068350880; van Keulen, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138693587

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instrument measuring students’ ability to recognize business opportunities. Recognition of business opportunities where others do not is one of the basic qualities of entrepreneurs, and therefore needs attention in entrepreneurship education. However, only

  17. Literature Review: Is the Emotional Expression of Contempt Recognized Universally or Culturally?

    OpenAIRE

    Phoukhao, Julianna

    2017-01-01

    The universal facial expression of contempt is often described as one lip corner raised and tightened. This literature reviews whether or not this expression is recognized universally. After examining theories and methods, low agreement of this expression recognized as contempt was found across cultures. Evidence so far is not sufficient enough to support the unilateral lip corner as an universal expression for contempt. The expression and recognition of contempt is highly dependent on cultur...

  18. A practical approach for writer-dependent symbol recognition using a writer-independent symbol recognizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J; Zeleznik, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer. Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison. Each classifier consists of a set of weak learners, one of which is based on a writer-independent handwriting recognizer. During online recognition, we also use the n-best list of the writer-independent recognizer to prune the set of possible symbols and thus reduce the number of required binary classifications. In this paper, we describe the geometric and statistical features used in our recognizer and our all-pairs classification algorithm. We also present the results of experiments that quantify the effect incorporating a writer-independent recognition engine into a writer-dependent recognizer has on accuracy, speed, and user training time.

  19. Current progress of targetron technology: development, improvement and application in metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Gu-Zhen; Cui, Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Targetrons are mobile group II introns that can recognize their DNA target sites by base-pairing RNA-DNA interactions with the aid of site-specific binding reverse transcriptases. Targetron technology stands out from recently developed gene targeting methods because of the flexibility, feasibility, and efficiency, and is particularly suitable for the genetic engineering of difficult microorganisms, including cellulolytic bacteria that are considered promising candidates for biomass conversion via consolidated bioprocessing. Along with the development of the thermotargetron method for thermophiles, targetron technology becomes increasingly important for the metabolic engineering of industrial microorganisms aiming at biofuel/chemical production. To summarize the current progress of targetron technology and provide new insights on the use of the technology, this paper reviews the retrohoming mechanisms of both mesophilic and thermophilic targetron methods based on various group II introns, investigates the improvement of targetron tools for high target efficiency and specificity, and discusses the current applications in the metabolic engineering for bacterial producers. Although there are still intellectual property and technical restrictions in targetron applications, we propose that targetron technology will contribute to both biochemistry research and the metabolic engineering for industrial productions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Ultimate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterp......One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However......, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming...... living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound...

  1. Target Detection Using an AOTF Hyperspectral Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L-J.; Mahoney, J.; Reyes, F.; Suiter, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports results of a recent field experiment using a prototype system to evaluate the acousto-optic tunable filter polarimetric hyperspectral imaging technology for target detection applications.

  2. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: koester@ill.fr; Arndt, O. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Franberg, H. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joinet, A. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Jost, C. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kerkines, I.S.K. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Zografou 157 71, GR (Greece); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  3. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Franberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I.S.K.; Kirchner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  4. Targets for high power neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs

  5. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Borer, K.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Con-Sen, N.; de La Taille, C.; Dick, N.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hess, M.; Igersheim, R.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kocher, H.; Krasnoperov, A.; Krumstein, Z.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Moser, U.; Nozdrin, A.; Olchevski, A.; Porokhovoi, S.; Raux, L.; Sadovski, A.; Schuler, J.; Schutz, H.-U.; Schwab, C.; Smolnikov, A.; Van Beek, G.; Vilain, P.; Walchli, T.; Wilquet, G.; Wurtz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength shifting fibres collect the light signal emitted by the scintillator strips and guide it to both ends where it is read by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. All the elements used in the construction of this detector and its main characteristics are described.

  6. The roles of categorical and coordinate spatial relations in recognizing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Categorical spatial information is considered more useful for recognizing objects, and coordinate spatial information for guiding actions--for example, during navigation or grasping. In contrast with this assumption, we hypothesized that buildings, unlike other categories of objects, require both categorical and coordinate spatial information in order to be recognized. This hypothesis arose from evidence that right-brain-damaged patients have deficits in both coordinate judgments and recognition of buildings and from the fact that buildings are very useful for guiding navigation in urban environments. To test this hypothesis, we assessed 210 healthy college students while they performed four different tasks that required categorical and coordinate judgments and the recognition of common objects and buildings. Our results showed that both categorical and coordinate spatial representations are necessary to recognize a building, whereas only categorical representations are necessary to recognize an object. We discuss our data in view of a recent neural framework for visuospatial processing, suggesting that recognizing buildings may specifically activate the parieto-medial-temporal pathway.

  7. Heavy-ion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the characteristics of targets required in heavy-ion accelerator physics experiments. The effects of target parameters on heavy-ion experimental results are reviewed. The target fabrication and characterization techniques used to minimize experimental problems during heavy-ion bombardment are described. Topics considered include target thickness and uniformity, target lifetime, target purity, substrate materials, Doppler shift effects, metal preparations, and target preparation methods

  8. Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodym Oldøich

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Reality in Presentation of the Underground Mine Technological Process focuses on methods of presentation of an underground mine technologies in intranet technology. It shows usage of platform independent VRML client for presentation of static and dynamic information about technological process. Bi-directional interactions between client and process information database are solved.Based on analysis of technological process of underground mine a database structure was designed. It is skeleton for storing all information about any underground mine. This skeleton can be modified in any direction. Data in this "static model" of underground mine can be applied for visualization in VRML environment. In this way it is possible to simplify and unify a user's front-end for all kinds of tasks.All designed scenes can be interactively displayed in full view or in any detail view, so that a user is able to recognize every important part of installed equipment, its stage, technical parameters and other information. If manufacturers of mining equipment will supply VRML model of their real products everybody would be able to place it into VRML scene and learn everything about it.This work explores and tries to enlighten some of the areas and available approaches compliant with VRML 97 specification of modifying static scene by its browser. Concepts of animation pipeline, inside and outside scripting in scene displayed and authoring of VRML targeted geometry are discussed including database connectivity.

  9. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program sp...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model.......As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...

  10. Recognizing the needs – Student teachers´ learning to teach from teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Nilsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an exploration of the ways in which primary science student teachers recognize and learn about issues that shape their own professional learning. The paper discusses different perspectives of “knowledgebase needed for teaching” and Shulman’s concept of pedagogical content knowledge, and explores how elements of knowledge are to be recognized and further developed within primary teacher education. Primary science student teacher participants (n = 25 were stimulated to use portfolios as a tool to reflect upon situations within their six weeks teaching practice in pre- and primary schools in order to facilitate recognizing their knowledge needs. The results give an insight into what situations within the teaching practice that student teachers consider as important for their own learning to teach primary maths and science.

  11. Recognizing Risk and Vulnerability in Research Ethics: Imagining the "What Ifs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth; Friedland, Judith

    2017-04-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) may misunderstand the vulnerability of participants, given their distance from the field. What RECs identify as the vulnerabilities that were not adequately recognized in protocols and how they attempt to protect the perceived vulnerability of participants and mitigate risks were examined using the response letters sent to researchers by three university-based RECs. Using a critical qualitative method informed by feminist ethics, we identified an overarching theme of recognizing and responding to cascading vulnerabilities and four subthemes: identifying vulnerable groups, recognizing potentially risky research, imagining the "what ifs," and mitigating perceived risks. An ethics approach that is up-close, as opposed to distant, is needed to foster closer relationships among participants, researchers, and RECs and to understand participant vulnerability and strength better.

  12. Proteomic profiling of triple-negative breast carcinomas in combination with a three-tier orthogonal technology approach identifies Mage-A4 as potential therapeutic target in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabezón, Teresa; Gromova, Irina; Gromov, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease, encompassing several intrinsic subtypes with various morphological and molecular features, natural history and response to therapy. Currently, molecular targeted therapies are available for estrogen receptor (ER)(-) and human epidermal growth factor ...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  14. Bridges to Excellence--recognizing high-quality care: analysis of physician quality and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; de Brantes, Francois S; Sinaiko, Anna D; Frankel, Matthew; Robbins, Russell D; Young, Sara

    2008-10-01

    To examine whether physicians who sought and received Bridges to Excellence (BTE) recognition performed better than similar physicians on a standardized set of population-based performance measures. Cross-sectional comparison of performance data. Using a claims dataset of all commercially insured members from 6 health plans in Massachusetts, we examined population-based measures of quality and resource use for physicians recognized by the BTE programs Physician Office Link and Diabetes Care Link, compared with nonrecognized physicians in the same specialties. Differences in performance were tested using generalized linear models. Physician Office Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better than their nonrecognized peers on measures of cervical cancer screening, mammography, and glycosylated hemoglobin testing. Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better on all 4 diabetes process measures of quality, with the largest differences observed in microalbumin screening (17.7%). Patients of Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had a significantly greater percentage of their resource use accounted for by evaluation and management services (3.4%), and a smaller percentage accounted for by facility (-1.6%), inpatient ancillary (-0.1%), and nonmanagement outpatient services (-1.0%). After adjustment for patient age and sex, and case mix, Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had significantly fewer episodes per patient (0.13) and lower resource use per episode (dollars 130), but findings were mixed for Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians. Our findings suggest that the BTE approach to ascertaining physician quality identifies physicians who perform better on claims-based quality measures and primary care physicians who use a less resource-intensive practice style.

  15. The assessment of the nutritional value of meals consumed by patients with recognized schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Lech, Magdalena; Wilczyńska, Karolina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zapolska, Joanna; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2018-01-01

    As studies show, changes in diet - so important in the therapy of psychiatric disorders and related to changes in appetite and nutritional preferences, including avoiding of the consumption of specific groups of products and dishes - are much more frequent among patients affected by schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to assess the chosen nutritional habits, including the number and type of meals usually consumed during a day, snacking between meals and the energy value and content of the chosen nutrients in the diets of persons with recognized schizophrenia. The study was carried out in a group of 85 patients with recognized schizophrenia, and 70 healthy volunteers ranging in age from 18-65 years without mental or nutritional disorders. For the purpose of the study, we used a questionnaire containing questions on nutritional habits. A 24-hour diet recall was used in the quantitative nutritional assessment with the use of the computer program Dieta 5.0. Female patients with recognized schizophrenia were having 3 meals a day significantly more frequently as compared to healthy women. They were also having an afternoon snack much more frequently as compared to the control group. The food rations of female patients were characterized by a significantly higher energy value and the content of most of the assessed nutrients as compared to the food rations of healthy women. The food rations of men with recognized schizophrenia were characterized by a much lower energy intake and the content of the majority of assessed nutrients as compared to the food rations of healthy men. In all compared groups, we observed an energetic structure of food rations with the breakdown by specific meals that was inconsistent with the applicable recommendations. Despite of differences between the nutritional value of the meals of patients with recognized schizophrenia and those of healthy subjects, it seems advisable to involve patients with recognized schizophrenia in the education of

  16. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model....

  17. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  18. Targeting α-synuclein oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Diggelen, Femke

    Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a complex disease, characterised by degeneration of neocortical, limbic and nigrostriatal neurons. It is unknown what initiates neurodegeneration, but soluble oligomers of the protein α-synuclein (αSn) seem to be particularly toxic, compared to insoluble fibrils...... unique characteristics, e.g. they were recognized by different conformational antibodies and DHA–αSOs also formed a second elongated species in addition to the dominant spherical species. Although further functional testing is needed, this suggests that each species has its own distinct toxic mechanism......+/K+ ATPase, V-type ATPase, VDAC, CaMKII and Rab-3A. The identification of these targets is a first step towards unravelling the toxic pathways which are activated upon synaptic binding of extracellularly added αSOs, and hopefully will contribute to the discovery of new disease modifying compounds, which can...

  19. Target system materials and engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  20. Target-Centric Network Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    In Target-Centric Network Modeling: Case Studies in Analyzing Complex Intelligence Issues, authors Robert Clark and William Mitchell take an entirely new approach to teaching intelligence analysis. Unlike any other book on the market, it offers case study scenarios using actual intelligence...... reporting formats, along with a tested process that facilitates the production of a wide range of analytical products for civilian, military, and hybrid intelligence environments. Readers will learn how to perform the specific actions of problem definition modeling, target network modeling......, and collaborative sharing in the process of creating a high-quality, actionable intelligence product. The case studies reflect the complexity of twenty-first century intelligence issues by dealing with multi-layered target networks that cut across political, economic, social, technological, and military issues...

  1. Do pediatricians recognize cognitive developmental problems in preterm children at age 5 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondaar, M.; Kessel, B.J.M. van; Kleine, M.J.K. de; Briët, J.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Baar, A. van

    2008-01-01

    Often developmental psychologists see children only after referral from physicians. Do pediatricians recognize which children in a known risk group are in need of a cognitive evaluation? A judgment by pediatricians, based on an assessment using a parent questionnaire, the Denver Developmental

  2. Recognition and Diagnosis. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Fahey, Patrick J.

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The goals of this unit of study are to provide an overview of the problem of of teenage alcoholism and substance abuse and to facilitate the diagnosis of adolescent alcoholism. The…

  3. Modular Bayesian Networks with Low-Power Wearable Sensors for Recognizing Eating Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2017-12-11

    Recently, recognizing a user's daily activity using a smartphone and wearable sensors has become a popular issue. However, in contrast with the ideal definition of an experiment, there could be numerous complex activities in real life with respect to its various background and contexts: time, space, age, culture, and so on. Recognizing these complex activities with limited low-power sensors, considering the power and memory constraints of the wearable environment and the user's obtrusiveness at once is not an easy problem, although it is very crucial for the activity recognizer to be practically useful. In this paper, we recognize activity of eating, which is one of the most typical examples of a complex activity, using only daily low-power mobile and wearable sensors. To organize the related contexts systemically, we have constructed the context model based on activity theory and the "Five W's", and propose a Bayesian network with 88 nodes to predict uncertain contexts probabilistically. The structure of the proposed Bayesian network is designed by a modular and tree-structured approach to reduce the time complexity and increase the scalability. To evaluate the proposed method, we collected the data with 10 different activities from 25 volunteers of various ages, occupations, and jobs, and have obtained 79.71% accuracy, which outperforms other conventional classifiers by 7.54-14.4%. Analyses of the results showed that our probabilistic approach could also give approximate results even when one of contexts or sensor values has a very heterogeneous pattern or is missing.

  4. 46 CFR 159.010-7 - Recognized independent laboratory: Memorandum of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... independent laboratory and the Coast Guard; (7) An agreement to conduct comparison testing with other... for conducting comparison tests with other recognized laboratories. (d) Copies of MOUs signed by the... Understanding. 159.010-7 Section 159.010-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...

  5. Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

  6. Level of Awareness of Biology and Geography Students Related to Recognizing Some Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Caner; Kaya, Bastürk; Dinç, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness of the geography and biology students about recognizing some plants which they see frequently around them in accordance with the information they gained during their education process. The sample of the study consists of 37 biology and 40 geography students studying at the Ahmet Kelesoglu…

  7. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  8. Recognizing Stewardship Practices as Indicators of Social Resilience: In Living Memorials and in a Community Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather McMillen; Lindsay Campbell; Erika Svendsen; Renae Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Resilience theory has received increased attention from researchers across a range of disciplines who have developed frameworks and articulated categories of indicators; however, there has been less discussion of how to recognize, and therefore support, social resilience at the community level, especially in urban areas. The value of urban environmental stewardship for...

  9. Pisotriquetral joint disorders: an under-recognized cause of ulnar side wrist pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraux, A. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France); Lefebvre, G.; Pansini, V.; Aucourt, J.; Vandenbussche, L.; Cotten, A. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Demondion, X. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Pole Recherche Faculte de Medecine de Lille, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Lille (France)

    2014-06-15

    Pisotriquetral joint disorders are often under-recognized in routine clinical practice. They nevertheless represent a significant cause of ulnar side wrist pain. The aim of this article is to present the main disorders of this joint and discuss the different imaging modalities that can be useful for its assessment. (orig.)

  10. Recognizing mid-career productivity: the 2008 Retrovirology Prize, call for nomination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent analysis suggested a narrow age range for productivity of innovative work by researchers. The Retrovirology Prize seeks to recognize the research of a mid-career retrovirologist between the ages of 45 and 60. The 2007 Retrovirology Prize was awarded to Dr. Karen Beemon. Nominations are being solicited for the 2008 prize.

  11. 78 FR 60898 - Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory; Revision of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements... collection requirements specified by its Regulation at 29 CFR 1910.7, ``definition and requirements for a...

  12. 78 FR 68819 - Final NOAA Procedures for Government-to-Government Consultation With Federally Recognized Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... implications'' are defined in section 1 of E.O. 13175. This Handbook provides guidance to Regional Offices and... has defined the term ``policies with tribal implications.'' It is not within the [[Page 68821... Native Corporation and Federally recognized Indian tribe may conflict or coincide. The essence of the...

  13. 48 CFR 1642.1204 - Agreement to recognize a successor in interest (novation agreement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the corporate name of (insert old corporate name) was changed to (insert new corporate name) on... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 1642.1204 Agreement to recognize a... corporate name) (Transferor), a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of (insert State...

  14. Human L-ficolin recognizes phosphocholine moieties of pneumococcal teichoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassal-Stermann, Emilie; Lacroix, Monique; Gout, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    Human L-ficolin is a soluble protein of the innate immune system able to sense pathogens through its fibrinogen (FBG) recognition domains and to trigger activation of the lectin complement pathway through associated serine proteases. L-Ficolin has been previously shown to recognize pneumococcal c...

  15. Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological…

  16. How do GPs recognize needs for palliative care in their patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.; Francke, A.L.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore how GPs in the Netherlands recognize patients’ needs for palliative care. Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with about 25 GPs. These GPs were interviewed about recognition of the needs for palliative care in their patients and how

  17. 21 CFR 570.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), it may be used in food only within such limitation(s) (including the category of food(s), the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 570.30 Section 570.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Do Preschoolers Recognize The Emotional Expressiveness of Colors in Realistic and Abstract Art Paintings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliou, Dimitra; Bonoti, Fotini; Nikonanou, Niki

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine preschoolers' ability to recognize the emotional expressiveness of an art painting, through its colors. To attain this aim 78 children, 3-5 years old were presented with realistic and abstract paintings conveying either happiness or sadness and were asked to choose those which matched the appropriate emotion. In total 16 paintings were used, which varied in color, while their subject matter was held as constant as possible after they had been previously rated by a group of adults to ensure that they conveyed the two emotions under investigation. Results showed that children's ability to recognize the emotional expressiveness of a painting through its colors appears at 3 years old and increases significantly at 4 and 5 years old. It was also found that the mood of happiness was more easily recognized than that of sadness, while the style of art paintings (realistic vs. abstract) did not affect children's ability to recognize emotions.

  19. The SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein is selectively recognized by lung surfactant protein D and activates macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Zhong, Fei; Chow, Vincent T K

    2007-01-01

    Da glycosylated protein. It was not secreted in the presence of tunicamycin and was detected as a 130 kDa protein in the cell lysate. The purified S-protein bound to Vero but not 293T cells and was itself recognized by lung surfactant protein D (SP-D), a collectin found in the lung alveoli. The binding required...

  20. The Physician's Role in Prevention. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph V.; Krol, Ronald A.

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study offer guidelines to help physicians make responsible and informed decisions about their roles with adolescent patients. Materials are presented which…

  1. Computer-aided identification of recognized drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm

    2009-01-01

    R, and a quorum-sensing receptor agonist. Six top-ranking compounds, all recognized drugs, were identified and tested for quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity. Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related...

  2. A Woman with a Plan: Recognizing Competencies for Ascent to Administration in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paaige K.; Norwood, Kristen; Noe, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress, women are still disproportionally underrepresented in leadership positions in higher education. Women must contend with a glass ceiling, which we argue is constituted by discourses of impossibility and femininity. These discourses discourage women from recognizing their qualifications, continuing to develop skills, and making a…

  3. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  4. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  5. 46 CFR 8.230 - Minimum standards for a recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the United States that provides a continuous management and administrative presence; (15) Maintain an... required end-results; (19) Maintain and ensure compliance with a Code of Ethics that recognizes the...) Not have any business interest in, or share of ownership of, any vessel in its classed fleet; and (23...

  6. Disseminating treatment for anxiety disorders: step 1: recognizing the problem as a precursor to seeking help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schubert, Jessica R; Heimberg, Richard G; Weiss, Barry D

    2014-12-01

    Untreated mental illness is a substantial public health issue in the United States, with only approximately 1/3 of the estimated 46 million adults in the US with mental illness receiving treatment. Many of the individuals with mental illness suffer from excessive anxiety, as over 25% of Americans experience an anxiety disorder during their lifetime and most of these individuals remain untreated. Building from the premise that recognizing one's symptoms precedes requests for help, the current paper presents data from 577 adults (50% Caucasian, 50% African American) in the US regarding their ability to recognize anxiety disorders. Findings from a national survey showed that when presented with detailed vignettes portraying symptoms and their impact, 50% of respondents correctly recognized depression, whereas less than 20% correctly recognized the anxiety disorders. Recognition that the symptoms were a cause for concern was much more common, with 75% or more of the sample noting concern. Responses were surprisingly similar across the two races, and few consistent moderators were found. In conclusion, increasing recognition of anxiety disorders may be a useful first step toward increasing service utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The "Finding Physics" Project: Recognizing and Exploring Physics outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judith; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    Students in introductory physics classes often have difficulty recognizing the relevance of physics concepts outside the confines of the physics classroom, lab, and textbook. Even though textbooks and instructors often provide examples of physics applications from a wide array of areas, students have difficulty relating physics to their own lives.…

  8. Tracking Honey Bees Using LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENDER, SUSAN FAE ANN; RODACY, PHILIP J.; SCHMITT, RANDAL L.; HARGIS JR., PHILIP J.; JOHNSON, MARK S.; KLARKOWSKI, JAMES R.; MAGEE, GLEN I.; BENDER, GARY LEE

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has recognized that biological and chemical toxins are a real and growing threat to troops, civilians, and the ecosystem. The Explosives Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working with the University of Montana, the Southwest Research Institute, and other agencies to evaluate the feasibility of directing honeybees to specific targets, and for environmental sampling of biological and chemical ''agents of harm''. Recent work has focused on finding and locating buried landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Tests have demonstrated that honeybees can be trained to efficiently and accurately locate explosive signatures in the environment. However, it is difficult to visually track the bees and determine precisely where the targets are located. Video equipment is not practical due to its limited resolution and range. In addition, it is often unsafe to install such equipment in a field. A technology is needed to provide investigators with the standoff capability to track bees and accurately map the location of the suspected targets. This report documents Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) tests that were performed by SNL. These tests have shown that a LIDAR system can be used to track honeybees. The LIDAR system can provide both the range and coordinates of the target so that the location of buried munitions can be accurately mapped for subsequent removal.

  9. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  10. Epigenetic Editing: targeted rewriting of epigenetic marks to modulate expression of selected target genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groote, M.L.; Verschure, P.J.; Rots, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances made in epigenetic research in recent decades, many questions remain unresolved, especially concerning cause and consequence of epigenetic marks with respect to gene expression modulation (GEM). Technologies allowing the targeting of epigenetic enzymes to predetermined

  11. Epigenetic Editing : targeted rewriting of epigenetic marks to modulate expression of selected target genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groote, Marloes L.; Verschure, Pernette J.; Rots, Marianne G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advances made in epigenetic research in recent decades, many questions remain unresolved, especially concerning cause and consequence of epigenetic marks with respect to gene expression modulation (GEM). Technologies allowing the targeting of epigenetic enzymes to predetermined

  12. Technology survey on video face tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins

    2014-03-01

    With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.

  13. Sandia technology: Engineering and science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydew, M. C.; Parrot, H.; Dale, B. C.; Floyd, H. L.; Leonard, J. A.; Parrot, L.

    1990-12-01

    This report discusses: protecting environment, safety, and health; Sandia's quality initiative; Sandia vigorously pursues technology transfer; scientific and technical education support programs; nuclear weapons development; recognizing battlefield targets with trained artificial neural networks; battlefield robotics: warfare at a distance; a spinning shell sizes up the enemy; thwarting would-be nuclear terrorists; unattended video surveillance system for nuclear facilities; making the skies safer for travelers; onboard instrumentation system to evaluate performance of stockpile bombs; keeping track with lasers; extended-life lithium batteries; a remote digital video link acquires images securely; guiding high-performance missiles with laser gyroscopes; nonvolatile memory chips for space applications; initiating weapon explosives with lasers; next-generation optoelectronics and microelectronics technology developments; chemometrics: new methods for improving chemical analysis; research team focuses ion beam to record-breaking intensities; standardizing the volt to quantum accuracy; new techniques improve robotic software development productivity; a practical laser plasma source for generating soft x-rays; exploring metal grain boundaries; massively parallel computing; modeling the amount of desiccant needed for moisture control; attacking pollution with sunshine; designing fuel-conversion catalysts with computers; extending a nuclear power plant's useful life; plasma-facing components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  14. Nanovectors for Targeting and Delivery of Therapeutics to HER-2 NEU Positive Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serda, Rita E

    2008-01-01

    Nanofabricated devices designed to carry drug and contrast agents to breast cancer cells are surface modified with targeting moieties that recognize unique or abundantly expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells...

  15. Different types of centrally acting antihypertensives and their targets in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.; Chalmers, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The central regulation of blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters may involve the baroreceptor reflex are, including both adrenergic and serotonergic pathways, as well as amino acids, as neurotransmitters. Both adrenergic and serotonergic pathways have been recognized as targets for

  16. Teaching Embedded System Concepts for Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzker, M.; Schwandt, A.

    2011-01-01

    A basic understanding of technology is recognized as important knowledge even for students not connected with engineering and computer science. This paper shows that embedded system concepts can be taught in a technological literacy course. An embedded system teaching block that has been used in an electronics module for non-engineers is…

  17. Technology and Innovation in Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathy P.

    2017-01-01

    "Technology and Innovation in Adult Learning" introduces educators and students to the intersection of adult learning and the growing technological revolution. Written by an internationally recognized expert in the field, this book explores the theory, research, and practice driving innovation in both adult learning and learning…

  18. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  19. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  20. Organelle targeting: third level of drug targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrani NM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Niraj M Sakhrani, Harish PadhDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, BV Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD Centre, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: Drug discovery and drug delivery are two main aspects for treatment of a variety of disorders. However, the real bottleneck associated with systemic drug administration is the lack of target-specific affinity toward a pathological site, resulting in systemic toxicity and innumerable other side effects as well as higher dosage requirement for efficacy. An attractive strategy to increase the therapeutic index of a drug is to specifically deliver the therapeutic molecule in its active form, not only into target tissue, nor even to target cells, but more importantly, into the targeted organelle, ie, to its intracellular therapeutic active site. This would ensure improved efficacy and minimize toxicity. Cancer chemotherapy today faces the major challenge of delivering chemotherapeutic drugs exclusively to tumor cells, while sparing normal proliferating cells. Nanoparticles play a crucial role by acting as a vehicle for delivery of drugs to target sites inside tumor cells. In this review, we spotlight active and passive targeting, followed by discussion of the importance of targeting to specific cell organelles and the potential role of cell-penetrating peptides. Finally, the discussion will address the strategies for drug/DNA targeting to lysosomes, mitochondria, nuclei and Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum.Keywords: intracellular drug delivery, cancer chemotherapy, therapeutic index, cell penetrating peptides

  1. Natural material-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticle container for multifunctional membrane-controlled targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan Hu,1 Lei Ke,2 Hao Chen,1 Ma Zhuo,1 Xinzhou Yang,1 Dan Zhao,1 Suying Zeng,1 Xincai Xiao1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To avoid the side effects caused by nonspecific targeting, premature release, weak selectivity, and poor therapeutic efficacy of current nanoparticle-based systems used for drug delivery, we fabricated natural material-decorated nanoparticles as a multifunctional, membrane-controlled targeted drug delivery system. The nanocomposite material coated with a membrane was biocompatible and integrated both specific tumor targeting and responsiveness to stimulation, which improved transmission efficacy and controlled drug release. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs, which are known for their biocompatibility and high drug-loading capacity, were selected as a model drug container and carrier. The membrane was established by the polyelectrolyte composite method from chitosan (CS which was sensitive to the acidic tumor microenvironment, folic acid-modified CS which recognizes the folate receptor expressed on the tumor cell surface, and a CD44 receptor-targeted polysaccharide hyaluronic acid. We characterized the structure of the nanocomposite as well as the drug release behavior under the control of the pH-sensitive membrane switch and evaluated the antitumor efficacy of the system in vitro. Our results provide a basis for the design and fabrication of novel membrane-controlled nanoparticles with improved tumor-targeting therapy. Keywords: multifunctional, membrane-controlled, natural materials, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, targeted drug delivery

  2. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: A boost from confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Amar R Marathe; Anthony J Ries; Vernon J Lawhern; Vernon J Lawhern; Brent J Lance; Jonathan eTouryan; Kaleb eMcDowell; Hubert eCecotti

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in si...

  3. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: a boost from confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Marathe, Amar R.; Ries, Anthony J.; Lawhern, Vernon J.; Lance, Brent J.; Touryan, Jonathan; McDowell, Kaleb; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in si...

  4. Differences in maintenance of mean blood glucose (BG and their association with response to “recognizing hunger”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini1, Massimiliano Sifone21Preventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Statistics, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Meals begin and end subjectively. We trained healthy subjects to recognize initial hunger as a preprandial target for meal consumption, and to create a “recognizing hunger” or initial hunger meal pattern.Objective: Training subjects to “recognize hunger” lowers blood glucose (BG and improves energy balance, and lowers metabolic risks and bodyweight. A minority may have low BG and low metabolic risks at recruitment, but the others may recover this favorable condition by training.Methods: In a 7-day food diary, subjects reported their preprandial BG measurements; BG and energy availability by blood were assessed at the lowest BG during the day, and diary-mean BG thus characterized the individual meal pattern (daily energy intake. We analyzed the same diaries of a recent paper on a global, randomized comparison of subjects trained in “recognizing hunger” with control subjects. This time, we checked whether subjects who had maintained low BG (LBG subgroup at recruitment were able to decrease mean BG and metabolic risk factors during “hunger recognition” like those who presented high BG (HBG subgroup.Results: At recruitment, the BG means of 120 investigated subjects were within mean confidence limits of ± 3.84 mg/dL, and we could stratify subjects in ten small strata of which each significantly differed by mean BG. Mean BG was stable in each control subject over five months; the mean absolute change being 6.0 ± 4.6 mg/dL. Only three out of 34 trained subjects who had lower mean BG than 81.8 mg/dL significantly decreased mean BG, whereas 41 out of 55 subjects whose mean BG was greater than 81.8 mg/dL significantly decreased mean BG after training (P < 0.0001. At recruitment, the LBG subgroup showed significantly lower

  5. Targeting the Thioredoxin System for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmin; Li, Xinming; Han, Xiao; Liu, Ruijuan; Fang, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) are essential components of the Trx system which plays pivotal roles in regulating multiple cellular redox signaling pathways. In recent years TrxR/Trx have been increasingly recognized as an important modulator of tumor development, and hence targeting TrxR/Trx is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In this review we first discuss the structural details of TrxR, the functions of the Trx system, and the rational of targeting TrxR/Trx for cancer treatment. We also highlight small-molecule TrxR/Trx inhibitors that have potential anticancer activity and review their mechanisms of action. Finally, we examine the challenges of developing TrxR/Trx inhibitors as anticancer agents and perspectives for selectively targeting TrxR/Trx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Azzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo.

  7. Structure-function analysis of the self-recognizing Antigen 43 autotransporter protein from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hjerrild, L.; Gjermansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein and consi......Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein......-clumping variants, we have pinpointed the region of the protein responsible for autoaggregation to be located within the N-terminal one-third of the passenger domain. Our data suggest that ionic interactions between charged residues residing in interacting pairs of Ag43(alpha) domains may be important for the self...

  8. Recognizing and labeling sex-based and sexual harassment in the health care workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, J; Minichiello, V

    2000-01-01

    To explore how registered nurses (RNs) recognized and labeled incidents of sex-based and sexual harassment in the Australian health care workplace. Qualitative, using 16 unstructured interviews with registered nurses in Australia. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed largely by inductive analysis. Key categories were identified as themes or concepts for analysis. RNs reported several indicators of sexual harassment, including the invasion of space, confirmation from others, lack of respect, the deliberate nature of the behavior, perceived power or control, overly friendly behavior, and a sexualized workplace. RNs rarely labeled harassing behaviors as sex-based or sexual harassment. Many forces reduce the likelihood that RNs will correctly recognize and label unwelcome sexualized behavior as sexual harassment. Recognition is associated with a variety of workplace behaviors that sometimes precede harassment. Implications for the health care workplace are discussed.

  9. Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions from Physiological Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasoz Fatma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion elicitation experiment we conducted by collecting, via wearable computers, physiological signals from the autonomic nervous system (galvanic skin response, heart rate, temperature and mapping them to certain emotions (sadness, anger, fear, surprise, frustration, and amusement. We show the results of three different supervised learning algorithms that categorize these collected signals in terms of emotions, and generalize their learning to recognize emotions from new collections of signals. We finally discuss possible broader impact and potential applications of emotion recognition for multimodal intelligent systems.

  10. Expression intensity, gender and facial emotion recognition: Women recognize only subtle facial emotions better than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Kessler, Henrik; Eppel, Tobias; Rukavina, Stefanie; Traue, Harald C

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of expression intensity on gender differences in the recognition of facial emotions. The first experiment compared recognition accuracy between female and male participants when emotional faces were shown with full-blown (100% emotional content) or subtle expressiveness (50%). In a second experiment more finely grained analyses were applied in order to measure recognition accuracy as a function of expression intensity (40%-100%). The results show that although women were more accurate than men in recognizing subtle facial displays of emotion, there was no difference between male and female participants when recognizing highly expressive stimuli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The NA50 segmented target and vertex recognition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellaiche, F.; Cheynis, B.; Contardo, D.; Drapier, O.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guichard, A.; Haroutunian, R.; Jacquin, M.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Pizzi, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The NA50 segmented target and vertex recognition system is described. The segmented target consists of 7 sub-targets of 1-2 mm thickness. The vertex recognition system used to determine the sub-target where an interaction has occured is based upon quartz elements which produce Cerenkov light when traversed by charged particles from the interaction. The geometrical arrangement of the quartz elements has been optimized for vertex recognition in 208 Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon. A simple algorithm provides a vertex recognition efficiency of better than 85% for dimuon trigger events collected with a 1 mm sub-target set-up. A method for recognizing interactions of projectile fragments (nuclei and/or groups of nucleons) is presented. The segmented target allows a large target thickness which together with a high beam intensity (∼10 7 ions/s) enables high statistics measurements. (orig.)

  12. Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults: Evaluating Their Utility for Designing Culturally-Appropriate Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Rushing, Stephanie Nicole

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by high rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancy, heightening their need for sexual health interventions that are aligned to their unique culture and social context. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new…

  13. Production of a germline-humanized cetuximab scFv and evaluation of its activity in recognizing EGFR- overexpressing cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banisadr, Arsham; Safdari, Yaghoub; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Pourafshar, Mahdieh

    2018-04-03

    The aim of this study was to produce a humanized single chain antibody (scFv) as a potential improved product design to target EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) overexpressing cancer cells. To this end, CDR loops of cetuximab (an FDA-approved anti-EGFR antibody) were grafted on framework regions derived from type 3 (VH3 and VL3 kappa) human germline sequences to obtain recombinant VH and VL domainslinked together with a flexible linker [(Gly 4 Ser) 3 ] to form a scFv. Codon optimized synthetic gene encoding the scFv (with NH2-VH-linker-VL-COOH orientation) was expressed in E. coli Origami™ 2(DE3) cells and the resultant scFv purified by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The scFv, called cet.Hum scFv, was evaluated in ELISA and immunoblot to determine whether it can recognize EGFR. The scFv was able to recognize EGFR over-expressing cancer cells (A-431) but failed to detect cancer cells with low levels of EGFR (MCF-7 cells). Although the affinity of the scFv forA-431 cells was 9 fold lower than that of cetuximab, it was strong enough to recognize these cells. Considering its ability to bind EGFR molecules, the scFv may exhibit a potential application for the detection of EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells.

  14. The Use of Neural Network to Recognize the Parts of the Computer Motherboard

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas M. Ali; S. D. Gore; Musaab AL-Sarierah

    2005-01-01

    This study suggests a new approach of learning which utilizes the techniques of computer vision to recognize the parts inside the motherboard. The main thrust is to identify different parts of the motherboard using a Hopfield Neural Network. The outcome of the net is compared with the objects stored in the database. The proposed scheme is implemented using bottom -up approach, where steps like edge detection, spatial filtering, image masking..etc are performed in sequence. the scheme is simul...

  15. Recognized focused practice: Does sub-specialty designation offer value to the neurosurgeon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya A Babu

    Full Text Available Vehicles for life-long assessment such as Maintenance of Certification tend to focus on generalist neurosurgical knowledge. However, as neurosurgeons advance in their careers, they tend to narrow their practice and increase volumes in certain specific types of operations. Failing to test the type of procedures most relevant to the practitioner is a lost opportunity to improve the knowledge and practice of the individual neurosurgeon. In this study, we assess the neurosurgical community's appetite for designations of board-recognized Recognized Focused Practice (RFP. We administered a validated, online, confidential survey to 4,899 neurosurgeons (2,435 American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS Diplomates participating in MOC, 1,440 Diplomates certified prior to 1999 (grandfathered, and 1,024 retired Diplomates. We received 1,449 responses overall (30% response rate. A plurality of respondents were in practice 11-15 years (18.5%, in private practice (40% and participate in MOC (61%. 49% of respondents felt that a RFP designation would not be helpful. For the 30% who felt that RFP would be helpful, 61.3% felt that it would support recognition by their hospital or practice, it would motivate them to stay current on medical knowledge (53.4%, or it would help attract patients (46.4%;. The most popular suggestions for RFP were Spine (56.2%, Cerebrovascular (62.9%, Pediatrics (64.1%, and Functional/Stereotactic (52%. A plurality of neurosurgeons (35.7% felt that RFP should recognize neurosurgeons with accredited and non-accredited fellowship experience and sub-specialty experience. Ultimately, Recognized Focused Practice may provide value to individual neurosurgeons, but the neurosurgical community shows tepid interest for pursuing this designation.

  16. Recognized focused practice: Does sub-specialty designation offer value to the neurosurgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Maya A; Liau, Linda M; Meyer, Fredric B

    2017-01-01

    Vehicles for life-long assessment such as Maintenance of Certification tend to focus on generalist neurosurgical knowledge. However, as neurosurgeons advance in their careers, they tend to narrow their practice and increase volumes in certain specific types of operations. Failing to test the type of procedures most relevant to the practitioner is a lost opportunity to improve the knowledge and practice of the individual neurosurgeon. In this study, we assess the neurosurgical community's appetite for designations of board-recognized Recognized Focused Practice (RFP). We administered a validated, online, confidential survey to 4,899 neurosurgeons (2,435 American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) Diplomates participating in MOC, 1,440 Diplomates certified prior to 1999 (grandfathered), and 1,024 retired Diplomates). We received 1,449 responses overall (30% response rate). A plurality of respondents were in practice 11-15 years (18.5%), in private practice (40%) and participate in MOC (61%). 49% of respondents felt that a RFP designation would not be helpful. For the 30% who felt that RFP would be helpful, 61.3% felt that it would support recognition by their hospital or practice, it would motivate them to stay current on medical knowledge (53.4%), or it would help attract patients (46.4%;). The most popular suggestions for RFP were Spine (56.2%), Cerebrovascular (62.9%), Pediatrics (64.1%), and Functional/Stereotactic (52%). A plurality of neurosurgeons (35.7%) felt that RFP should recognize neurosurgeons with accredited and non-accredited fellowship experience and sub-specialty experience. Ultimately, Recognized Focused Practice may provide value to individual neurosurgeons, but the neurosurgical community shows tepid interest for pursuing this designation.

  17. Excusable neglect in malpractice suits against radiologists: a proposed jury instruction to recognize the human condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Charles; Seamone, Evan R

    2007-01-01

    This article unwraps the nature and source of human errors involved in Radiology, revealing unique elements of the specialty that warrant special consideration in medical malpractice cases. The authors compare these errors to negligent practices in other professions and conclude that a general concept of negligence cannot adequately address the complexities of decision-making in Radiology. After analyzing legal precedent, they develop an innovative jury instruction that recognizes particular situations of error in Radiology that occur in the absence of negligence.

  18. Modular Bayesian Networks with Low-Power Wearable Sensors for Recognizing Eating Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Hoon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, recognizing a user’s daily activity using a smartphone and wearable sensors has become a popular issue. However, in contrast with the ideal definition of an experiment, there could be numerous complex activities in real life with respect to its various background and contexts: time, space, age, culture, and so on. Recognizing these complex activities with limited low-power sensors, considering the power and memory constraints of the wearable environment and the user’s obtrusiveness at once is not an easy problem, although it is very crucial for the activity recognizer to be practically useful. In this paper, we recognize activity of eating, which is one of the most typical examples of a complex activity, using only daily low-power mobile and wearable sensors. To organize the related contexts systemically, we have constructed the context model based on activity theory and the “Five W’s”, and propose a Bayesian network with 88 nodes to predict uncertain contexts probabilistically. The structure of the proposed Bayesian network is designed by a modular and tree-structured approach to reduce the time complexity and increase the scalability. To evaluate the proposed method, we collected the data with 10 different activities from 25 volunteers of various ages, occupations, and jobs, and have obtained 79.71% accuracy, which outperforms other conventional classifiers by 7.54–14.4%. Analyses of the results showed that our probabilistic approach could also give approximate results even when one of contexts or sensor values has a very heterogeneous pattern or is missing.

  19. Modular Bayesian Networks with Low-Power Wearable Sensors for Recognizing Eating Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Recently, recognizing a user’s daily activity using a smartphone and wearable sensors has become a popular issue. However, in contrast with the ideal definition of an experiment, there could be numerous complex activities in real life with respect to its various background and contexts: time, space, age, culture, and so on. Recognizing these complex activities with limited low-power sensors, considering the power and memory constraints of the wearable environment and the user’s obtrusiveness at once is not an easy problem, although it is very crucial for the activity recognizer to be practically useful. In this paper, we recognize activity of eating, which is one of the most typical examples of a complex activity, using only daily low-power mobile and wearable sensors. To organize the related contexts systemically, we have constructed the context model based on activity theory and the “Five W’s”, and propose a Bayesian network with 88 nodes to predict uncertain contexts probabilistically. The structure of the proposed Bayesian network is designed by a modular and tree-structured approach to reduce the time complexity and increase the scalability. To evaluate the proposed method, we collected the data with 10 different activities from 25 volunteers of various ages, occupations, and jobs, and have obtained 79.71% accuracy, which outperforms other conventional classifiers by 7.54–14.4%. Analyses of the results showed that our probabilistic approach could also give approximate results even when one of contexts or sensor values has a very heterogeneous pattern or is missing. PMID:29232937

  20. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Clara G.; Hart, Joy L.; Walker, Kandi L.; Robertson, Rose Marie

    2017-01-01

    Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-v...