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Sample records for target nouveaux diagnostics

  1. Novel diagnostics for warm dense matter: application to shock compressed target; Nouveaux diagnostics pour l'etude de la matiere dense et chaude: application aux cibles comprimees par choc laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravasio, A

    2007-03-15

    In this work, we present 3 novel diagnostics for warm dense plasma (WDM) investigations: hard X-ray radiography, proton radiography and X-ray Thomson scattering. Each of these techniques is applied in shock compression experiments. The main objective consists in accessing a new parameter, in addition to shock and particle velocity, for EOS (Equation of State) measurements. In the first chapter we give a deep description of WDM states as strongly coupled and Fermi degenerate states. Then, we introduce how we have generated a WDM state in our experiment: the shock wave. We, in particular, illustrate its formation in the classical laser-matter interaction regime. In the second chapter the principles of standard probing techniques are presented. We see that energetic probe sources are necessary to investigate high Z dense plasmas. The third chapter is dedicated to X-ray radiography results. We report on a first direct density measurement of a shock compressed high Z target using K{alpha} hard X-ray radiation. These results are of great interests as they allow an in-situ characterization of high Z material, impossible with standard techniques. We show that probing a well known material as Al will allow the comparison between our data and the results from already validated simulations. In the fourth chapter, we present the results obtained from proton radiography on low density carbon foam. The data analysis will require the development of a specific Monte-Carlo code to simulate the proton propagation through the shocked target. The comparison of the simulations with the experimental data show a low dependency on density. The fifth chapter is devoted to X-ray Thomson scattering results. For the first time, we have performed collective x-ray Thomson scattering measurement from a shock compressed target, accessing to electron density and temperature. The obtained results are compared with simulated x-ray scattered spectra. The novel technique is then used in the

  2. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  3. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  4. Nova target diagnostics control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severyn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the Nova target diagnostics control system was finished and put in service. The diagnostics loft constructed to the north of the target room provides the environmental conditions required to collect reliable target diagnostic data. These improvements include equipment cooling and isolation of the power source with strict control of instrumentation grounds to eliminate data corruption due to electromagnetic pulses from the laser power-conditioning system or from target implosion effects

  5. Flame diagnostics: new sensors for domestic and industrial burners; Diagnostic de flammes. Nouveaux capteurs pour les bruleurs domestiques et industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, J.-B.

    2004-07-01

    This article presents an overview on low-cost techniques for flame diagnostics, especially the measurement of excess air. This parameter is useful for monitoring and controlling flames in both the domestic and industrial area. The classical sensors for oxygen like the Lambda probe and the wet chemical cells are based on electrochemical concentration cells. The measurement of carbon monoxide may also be used and a number of sensors are available (e.g. wet chemical cells, thin film sensors based on ZrO{sub 2} or Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The main emphasis of the present article lies on the 'Neuroflame' sensor developed in the authors laboratory yielding the so-called 'flame signature'. A correlation exists between 'flame signature' and excess air. The signal of an optical sensor (in the ultraviolet or infrared) is recorded as a function of time and frequency. After an adequate treatment of this signal, a single parameter is obtained that allows to control the quality of combustion. The sensor has been tested in field tests on various boilers with powers ranging from 100 kW to 18 MW.

  6. Les nouveaux verres

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, J.

    1986-01-01

    Le développement de nouveaux verres est principalement guidé par la recherche de matériaux ayant un large domaine de transmission, particulièrement dans le domaine infrarouge, et par la potentialité d'ultratransparence. Les matériaux candidats pour la fabrication de fibres optiques à très faibles pertes et de guide d'onde ayant une large fenêtre optique sont les verres de chalcogénures et les verres halogénés, en particulier les verres fluorés à base de métaux lourds dont les pertes minimales...

  7. Radiation effects in IFMIF Li target diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, J.; Vila, R.; Shikama, T.; Horiike, H.; Simakov, S.; Ciotti, M.; Ibarra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostics for the lithium target will be crucial for the operation of IFMIF. Several parameters as the lithium temperature, target thickness or wave pattern must be monitored during operation. Radiation effects may produce malfunctioning in any of these diagnostics due to the exposure to high radiation fields. The main diagnostic systems proposed for the operation of IFMIF are reviewed in this paper from the point of view of radiation damage. The main tools for the assessment of the performance of these diagnostics are the neutronics calculations by using specialised codes and the information accumulated during the last decades on the radiation effects in functional materials, components and diagnostics for ITER. This analysis allows to conclude that the design of some of the diagnostic systems must be revised to assure the high availability required for the target system.

  8. Implementation of Targeted Next Generation Sequencing in Clinical Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Jakob; Burton, Mark; Thomassen, Mads

    advantage of targeted NGS is that multiple disease-specific genes can easily be sequenced simultaneously, which is favorable in genetic heterogeneous diseases. Prior to implementation in our diagnostic setting, we aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of targeted NGS by sequencing a collection......, respectively. For diagnostics, the sequencing coverage is essential, wherefore a minimum coverage of 30x per nucleotide in the coding regions was used as our primary quality criterion. For the majority of the included genes, we obtained adequate gene coverage, in which we were able to detect 100% of the known......Accurate mutation detection is essential in clinical genetic diagnostics of monogenic hereditary diseases. Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) provides a promising and cost-effective alternative to Sanger sequencing and MLPA analysis currently used in most diagnostic laboratories. One...

  9. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R T; Kamperschroer, J H; Lagin, L J; Nelson, J R; O' Brien, D W

    2010-05-12

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  10. Target Diagnostic Control System Implementation for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R.T.; Kamperschroer, J.H.; Lagin, L.J.; Nelson, J.R.; O'Brien, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics. Many diagnostics are being developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. DCS instruments are reusable by replication with reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and high reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing DCS instruments. This talk discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the DCS architecture and framework.

  11. Nanoparticle functionalization for brain targeting drug delivery and diagnostic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Maria João; Mendes, Bárbara; Martins, Susana

    2016-01-01

    carriers to cross the BBB and achieve brain, and their functionalization strategies are described; and finally the delivery of nanoparticles to the target moiety, as diagnostics or therapeutics. Therefore, this chapter is focused on how the nanoparticle surface may be functionalized for drug delivery......-mediated drug transport across the BBB, where nanoparticles take advantage of physiological receptor-mediated transport processes....

  12. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target diagnostics subsystem SSDR 1.8.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    This SSDR establishes the performance, design, development and test requirements for the Target Experimental System's Diagnostic, WBS 1.8. 3. This includes the individual diagnostic components, the Target Diagnostic Data Acquisition System (Target DAS), the diagnostic vacuum system, the timing/fiducial system, and the EMI protection system

  13. Targeting SR-BI for cancer diagnostics, imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Amrita Rajora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI plays an important role in trafficking cholesteryl esters between the core of high density lipoprotein and the liver. Interestingly, this integral membrane protein receptor is also implicated in the metabolism of cholesterol by cancer cells, whereby overexpression of SR-BI has been observed in a number of tumours and cancer cell lines, including breast and prostate cancers. Consequently, SR-BI has recently gained attention as a cancer biomarker and exciting target for the direct cytosolic delivery of therapeutic agents. This brief review highlights these key developments in SR-BI-targeted cancer therapies and imaging probes. Special attention is given to the exploration of high density lipoprotein nanomimetic platforms that take advantage of upregulated SR-BI expression to facilitate targeted drug-delivery and cancer diagnostics, and promising future directions in the development of these agents.

  14. High repetition rate laser systems: targets, diagnostics and radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, Leonida A.; Clark, Eugene; Neely, David; Roso, Luis; Tolley, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Accessing the high repetition regime of ultra intense laser-target interactions at small or moderate laser energies is now possible at a large number of facilities worldwide. New projects such as HiPER and ELI promise to extend this regime to the high energy realm at the multi-kJ level. This opportunity raises several issues on how best to approach this new regime of operation in a safe and efficient way. At the same time, a new class of experiments or a new generation of secondary sources of particles and radiation may become accessible, provided that target fabrication and diagnostics are capable of handling this rep-rated regime. In this paper, we explore this scenario and analyse existing and perspective techniques that promise to address some of the above issues.

  15. Biomedical nanotechnology for molecular imaging, diagnostics, and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuming

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical nanotechnology is a cross-disciplinary area of research in science, engineering and medicine with broad applications for molecular imaging, molecular diagnosis, and targeted therapy. The basic rationale is that nanometer-sized particles such as semiconductor quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals have optical, magnetic or structural properties that are not available from either molecules or bulk solids. When linked with biotargeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides or small molecules, these nanoparticles can be used to target diseased cells and organs (such as malignant tumors and cardiovascular plaques) with high affinity and specificity. In the "mesoscopic" size range of 5-100 nm diameter, nanoparticles also have large surface areas and functional groups for conjugating to multiple diagnostic (e.g., optical, radioisotopic, or magnetic) and therapeutic (e.g., anticancer) agents.

  16. A novel diagnostic target in the hepatitis C virus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Felix Drexler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detection and quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA is integral to diagnostic and therapeutic regimens. All molecular assays target the viral 5'-noncoding region (5'-NCR, and all show genotype-dependent variation of sensitivities and viral load results. Non-western HCV genotypes have been under-represented in evaluation studies. An alternative diagnostic target region within the HCV genome could facilitate a new generation of assays. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study we determined by de novo sequencing that the 3'-X-tail element, characterized significantly later than the rest of the genome, is highly conserved across genotypes. To prove its clinical utility as a molecular diagnostic target, a prototype qualitative and quantitative test was developed and evaluated multicentrically on a large and complete panel of 725 clinical plasma samples, covering HCV genotypes 1-6, from four continents (Germany, UK, Brazil, South Africa, Singapore. To our knowledge, this is the most diversified and comprehensive panel of clinical and genotype specimens used in HCV nucleic acid testing (NAT validation to date. The lower limit of detection (LOD was 18.4 IU/ml (95% confidence interval, 15.3-24.1 IU/ml, suggesting applicability in donor blood screening. The upper LOD exceeded 10(-9 IU/ml, facilitating viral load monitoring within a wide dynamic range. In 598 genotyped samples, quantified by Bayer VERSANT 3.0 branched DNA (bDNA, X-tail-based viral loads were highly concordant with bDNA for all genotypes. Correlation coefficients between bDNA and X-tail NAT, for genotypes 1-6, were: 0.92, 0.85, 0.95, 0.91, 0.95, and 0.96, respectively; X-tail-based viral loads deviated by more than 0.5 log10 from 5'-NCR-based viral loads in only 12% of samples (maximum deviation, 0.85 log10. The successful introduction of X-tail NAT in a Brazilian laboratory confirmed the practical stability and robustness of the X-tail-based protocol. The assay was

  17. Optical diagnostics of mercury jet for an intense proton target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H; Tsang, T; Kirk, H G; Ladeinde, F; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; Carroll, A J; Titus, P H; McDonald, K T

    2008-04-01

    An optical diagnostic system is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interacting with a high intensity proton beam in a pulsed high-field solenoid magnet. The optical imaging system employs a backilluminated, laser shadow photography technique. Object illumination and image capture are transmitted through radiation-hard multimode optical fibers and flexible coherent imaging fibers. A retroreflected illumination design allows the entire passive imaging system to fit inside the bore of the solenoid magnet. A sequence of synchronized short laser light pulses are used to freeze the transient events, and the images are recorded by several high speed charge coupled devices. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis using image processing based on probability approach is described. The characteristics of free mercury jet as a high power target for beam-jet interaction at various levels of the magnetic induction field is reported in this paper.

  18. Pathophysiological rationale and diagnostic targets for diastolic stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Tamás; Aakhus, Svend; Marino, Paolo; Paulus, Walter J; Smiseth, Otto A; Fraser, Alan G

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary functional reserve measured as peak oxygen uptake is predicted better at rest by measures of cardiac diastolic function than by systolic function. Normal adaptations in the trained heart include resting bradycardia, increased LV end-diastolic volume and augmented early diastolic suction on exercise. In normal populations early diastolic relaxation declines with age and end-diastolic stiffness increases, but in healthy older subjects who have exercised throughout their lives diastolic function can be well preserved. The mechanisms by which LV diastolic filling and pressures can be impaired during exercise include reduced early diastolic recoil and suction (which can be exacerbated by increased late systolic loading), increased preload and reduced compliance. Abnormal ventricular-arterial coupling and enhanced ventricular interaction may contribute in particular circumstances. One common final pathway that causes breathlessness is an increase in LV filling pressure and left atrial pressure. Testing elderly subjects with breathlessness of unknown aetiology in order to detect worsening diastolic function during stress is proposed to diagnose heart failure with preserved EF. In invasive studies, the most prominent abnormality is an early and rapid rise in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. A systematic non-invasive diagnostic strategy would use validated methods to assess different mechanisms of inducible diastolic dysfunction and not just single parameters that offer imprecise estimates of mean LV filling pressure. Protocols should assess early diastolic relaxation and filling as well as late diastolic filling and compliance, as these may be affected separately. Better refined diagnostic targets may translate to more focused treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Molecular diagnostic tools targeting different taxonomic levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective plant disease management requires quick, accurate and specific diagnostic techniques, which in turn help in disease surveillance, regulation of material movement and ensure good quality planting material. When investigating emerging diseases with no existing specific diagnostic protocols, it can be useful to ...

  20. GPCR-targeting nanobodies: attractive research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujić-Delić, A.; de Wit, R.H.; Verkaar, F.; Smit, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a major therapeutic target class. A large proportion of marketed drugs exert their effect through modulation of GPCR function, and GPCRs have been successfully targeted with small molecules. Yet, the number of small new molecular entities targeting GPCRs

  1. Targeted next-generation sequencing can replace Sanger sequencing in clinical diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Johansson, L.F.; de Boer, E.N.; Almomani, R.; Boven, L.G.; van den Berg, M.P.; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, K.Y.; van Tintelen, J.P.; Sijmons, R.H.; Jongbloed, J.D.H.; Sinke, R.J.

    Mutation detection through exome sequencing allows simultaneous analysis of all coding sequences of genes. However, it cannot yet replace Sanger sequencing (SS) in diagnostics because of incomplete representation and coverage of exons leading to missing clinically relevant mutations. Targeted

  2. Gold-manganese nanoparticles for targeted diagnostic and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, Simona Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-10

    Imagine the possibility of non-invasive, non-radiation based Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combating cardiac disease. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are developing a process that would use nanotechnology in a novel, targeted approach that would allow MRIs to be more descriptive and brighter, and to target specific organs. Researchers at SRNL have discovered a way to use multifunctional metallic gold-manganese nanoparticles to create a unique, targeted positive contrast agent. SRNL Senior Scientist Dr. Simona Hunyadi Murph says she first thought of using the nanoparticles for cardiac disease applications after learning that people who survive an infarct exhibit up to 15 times higher rate of developing chronic heart failure, arrhythmias and/or sudden death compared to the general population. Without question, nanotechnology will revolutionize the future of technology. The development of functional nanomaterials with multi-detection modalities opens up new avenues for creating multi-purpose technologies for biomedical applications.

  3. comportement des nouveaux riz africains face a la pyriculariose

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Key words : Riz, NERICA variety, blast, inoculation, resistance, Côte d'Ivoire. INTRODUCTION. Les nouveaux riz africains ou NERICA (New Rice for Africa) sont des hybrides interspécifiques. (Oryza glaberrima X O. sativa) mises au point par l'ADRAO (actuellement dénommé Centre. Africain pour le Riz) dans les années 90.

  4. De nouveaux vaccins pour animaux pourraient aider davantage d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juil. 2013 ... Marie-Danielle Smith. Des scientifiques canadiens et africains mettent au point de nouveaux vaccins pour lutter contre les maladies animales et limiter les pertes économiques en Afrique subsaharienne. Certains de ces vaccins pourraient permettre de lutter contre des maladies semblables au Canada.

  5. De nouveaux vaccins pour animaux pourraient aider davantage d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juil. 2013 ... Des scientifiques canadiens et africains mettent au point de nouveaux vaccins pour lutter contre les maladies animales et limiter les pertes économiques en Afrique subsaharienne. Certains de ces vaccins pourraient permettre de lutter contre des maladies semblables au Canada.

  6. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R; O'Brien, D; Nelson, J; Kamperschroer, J

    2007-01-01

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the deployed

  7. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R; O' Brien, D; Nelson, J; Kamperschroer, J

    2007-05-07

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the

  8. Glyco-Immune Diagnostic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets of Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    experiments using rat model of human Mesothelioma should also provide leads into the immuno-preventive and immuno- therapeutic approaches to treatments ...experiments involving injection of rat Mesothelioma cells and treatments of the resulting tumors. These experiments will begin as soon as we have...Targets of Mesothelioma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harvey Pass, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: New York University School of Medicine

  9. Target area and diagnostic interface issues on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Perry; Lee, Dean; Wootton, Alan; Mascio, Bill; Kimbrough, Joe; Sewall, Noel; Hibbard, Wilthea; Dohoney, Pat; Landon, Mark; Christianson, George; Celeste, John; Chael, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Program. It will be used for experiments for inertial confinement fusion ignition, high energy density science, and basic science. Many interface issues confront the experimentalist who wishes to design, fabricate, and install diagnostics, and to help this process, a set of standards and guideline documents is being prepared. Compliance with these will be part of a formal diagnostic design review process. In this article we provide a short description of each, with reference to more complete documentation. The complete documentation will also be available through the NIF Diagnostics web page. Target area interface issues are grouped into three categories. First are the layout and utility interface issues which include the safety analysis report, target area facility layout; target chamber port locations; diagnostic interferences and envelopes; utilities and cable tray distribution; and timing and fiducial systems. Second are the environment interface issues which include radiation electromagnetic interference/electromagnetic pulse effects and mitigation; electrical grounding, shielding, and isolation; and cleanliness and vacuum guidelines. Third are the operational interface issues which include manipulator based target diagnostics, diagnostic alignment, shot life cycle and setup, diagnostic controllers; integrated computer control system; shot data archival; classified operations; and remote operations.

  10. Lipoprotein nanoplatform for targeted delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, Jerry D; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Zhou, Rong; Choi, Hoon; Chen, I-Wei; Li, Hui; Corbin, Ian; Popov, Anatoliy V; Cao, Weiguo; Song, Liping; Qi, Chenze; Marotta, Diane; Nelson, David S; Chen, Juan; Chance, Britton; Zheng, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of optical and MRI contrast agents, photodynamic therapy agents and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that over express LDL receptors (LDLR). Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from approximately 5-10 nm (high density lipoprotein, HDL) to over a micron (chilomicrons) is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents has been achieved by covalent attachment to protein side chains, intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer and extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Covalent attachment of folate to the lysine side chain amino groups was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR) to folate receptors and could be utilized to target other receptors. A semi-synthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs) with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer ofphospholipid to which Apo A1, Apo E or synthetic amphoteric alpha-helical polypeptides were adsorbed for targeting HDL, LDL or folate receptors, respectively. These particles can be utilized for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI monitored cell tracking or gene therapy.

  11. Radiolabeled Cetuximab Conjugates for EGFR Targeted Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Sihver

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has evolved over years into a main molecular target for the treatment of different cancer entities. In this regard, the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has been approved alone or in combination with: (a chemotherapy for treatment of colorectal and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and (b with external radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The conjugation of radionuclides to cetuximab in combination with the specific targeting properties of this antibody might increase its therapeutic efficiency. This review article gives an overview of the preclinical studies that have been performed with radiolabeled cetuximab for imaging and/or treatment of different tumor models. A particularly promising approach seems to be the treatment with therapeutic radionuclide-labeled cetuximab in combination with external radiotherapy. Present data support an important impact of the tumor micromilieu on treatment response that needs to be further validated in patients. Another important challenge is the reduction of nonspecific uptake of the radioactive substance in metabolic organs like liver and radiosensitive organs like bone marrow and kidneys. Overall, the integration of diagnosis, treatment and monitoring as a theranostic approach appears to be a promising strategy for improvement of individualized cancer treatment.

  12. Lipoprotein Nanoplatform for Targeted Delivery of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Glickson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-density lipoprotein (LDL provides a highly versatile natural nanoplatform for delivery of visible or near-infrared fluorescent optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and photodynamic therapy and chemotherapeutic agents to normal and neoplastic cells that overexpress low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs. Extension to other lipoproteins ranging in diameter from about 10 nm (high-density lipoprotein [HDL] to over a micron (chylomicrons is feasible. Loading of contrast or therapeutic agents onto or into these particles has been achieved by protein loading (covalent attachment to protein side chains, surface loading (intercalation into the phospholipid monolayer, and core loading (extraction and reconstitution of the triglyceride/cholesterol ester core. Core and surface loading of LDL have been used for delivery of optical imaging agents to tumor cells in vivo and in culture. Surface loading was used for delivery of gadolinium-bis-stearylamide contrast agents for in vivo MRI detection in tumor-bearing mice. Chlorin and phthalocyanine near-infrared photodynamic therapy agents (≤ 400/LDL have been attached by core loading. Protein loading was used to reroute the LDL from its natural receptor (LDLR to folate receptors and could be used to target other receptors. A semisynthetic nanoparticle has been constructed by coating magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxylated cholesterol and overlaying a monolayer of phospholipid to which apolipoprotein A1 or E was adsorbed for targeting HDL or adsorbing synthetic amphipathic helical peptides ltargeting LDL or folate receptors. These particles can be used for in situ loading of magnetite into cells for MRI-monitored cell tracking or gene expression.

  13. Complete fabrication of target experimental chamber and implement initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dickinson, M.R.; Henestroza, E.; Katayanagi, T.; Jung, J.Y.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.

    2008-06-09

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for future Warm Dense Matter (WDM) experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. This achievement provides to the HIFS-VNL unique and state-of-the-art experimental capabilities in preparation for the planned target heating experiments using intense heavy ion beams.

  14. Complete fabrication of target experimental chamber and implement initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Dickinson, M.R.; Henestroza, E.; Katayanagi, T.; Jung, J.Y.; Lee, C.W.; Leitner, M.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.; Waldron, W.; Welch, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) has completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for future Warm Dense Matter (WDM) experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. This achievement provides to the HIFS-VNL unique and state-of-the-art experimental capabilities in preparation for the planned target heating experiments using intense heavy ion beams

  15. Butyrylcholinesterase as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvesh, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    The serine hydrolase butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), like the related enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), co-regulates metabolism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the human brain BChE is mainly expressed in white matter and glia and in distinct populations of neurons in regions that are important in cognition and behavior, functions compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia with no cure nor means for definitive diagnosis during life. In AD, BChE is found in association with pathology, such as β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, particularly in the cerebral cortex where BChE is not normally found in quantity. Up to 30% of cognitively normal older adults have abundant Aβ deposition in the brain. We have designed an imaging agent that can detect, through autoradiography, BChE-associated Aβ plaques in the cerebral cortex of AD brains, but does not visualize Aβ plaques in brains of cognitively normal individuals. Furthermore, in an AD mouse model with BChE gene knocked out, there are up to 70% fewer fibrillar Aβ brain plaques, suggesting diminished BChE activity could prove beneficial as a curative approach to AD. To that end, we have examined numerous N-10-carbonyl phenothiazines that are specific inhibitors of human BChE, revealing important details of the enzyme's active site gorge. These phenothiazines can be designed without potential side effects caused by neurotransmitter receptor interactions. In conclusion, BChE is potentially an important target for diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  16. Los Alamos contribution to target diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.M.; Baker, D.A.; Caldwell, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will have a large suite of sophisticated target diagnostics. This will allow thoroughly diagnosed experiments to be performed both at the ignition and pre-ignition levels. As part of the national effort Los Alamos National Laboratory will design, construct and implement a number of diagnostics for the NIF. This paper describes Los Alamos contributions to the ''phase I diagnostics.'' Phase I represents the most fundamental and basic measurement systems that will form the core for most work on the NIF. The Los Alamos effort falls into four categories: moderate to hard X-ray (time resolved imaging neutron spectroscopy- primarily with neutron time of flight devices; burn diagnostics utilizing gamma ray measurements; testing measurement concepts on the TRIDENT laser system at Los Alamos. Because of the high blast, debris and radiation environment, the design of high resolution X-ray imaging systems present significant challenges. Systems with close target proximity require special protection and methods for such protection is described. The system design specifications based on expected target performance parameters is also described. Diagnosis of nuclear yield and burn will be crucial to the NIF operation. Nuclear reaction diagnosis utilizing both neutron and gamma ray detection is discussed. The Los Alamos TRIDENT laser system will be used extensively for the development of new measurement concepts and diagnostic instrumentation. Some its potential roles in the development of diagnostics for NIF are given

  17. Los Alamos contribution to target diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, J.M.; Baker, D.A.; Caldwell, S.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will have a large suite of sophisticated target diagnostics. This will allow thoroughly diagnosed experiments to be performed both at the ignition and pre-ignition levels. As part of the national effort Los Alamos National Laboratory will design, construct and implement a number of diagnostics for the NIF. This paper describes Los Alamos contributions to the ``phase I diagnostics.`` Phase I represents the most fundamental and basic measurement systems that will form the core for most work on the NIF. The Los Alamos effort falls into four categories: moderate to hard X-ray (time resolved imaging neutron spectroscopy- primarily with neutron time of flight devices; burn diagnostics utilizing gamma ray measurements; testing measurement concepts on the TRIDENT laser system at Los Alamos. Because of the high blast, debris and radiation environment, the design of high resolution X-ray imaging systems present significant challenges. Systems with close target proximity require special protection and methods for such protection is described. The system design specifications based on expected target performance parameters is also described. Diagnosis of nuclear yield and burn will be crucial to the NIF operation. Nuclear reaction diagnosis utilizing both neutron and gamma ray detection is discussed. The Los Alamos TRIDENT laser system will be used extensively for the development of new measurement concepts and diagnostic instrumentation. Some its potential roles in the development of diagnostics for NIF are given.

  18. Diagnostic yield of molecular autopsy in patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome using targeted exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunn, Laurence M; Lopes, Luis R; Syrris, Petros

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The targeted genetic screening of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS) probands in a molecular autopsy has a diagnostic yield of up to 35%. Exome sequencing has the potential to improve this yield. The primary aim of this study is to examine the feasibility and diagnostic utility...... previously published rare (0.02-0.5%) candidate mutations-a total yield of 29%. Co-segregation fully confirmed two private SCN5A Na channel mutations. Variants of unknown significance were detected in a further 34% of probands. CONCLUSION: Molecular autopsy using targeted exome sequencing has a relatively...

  19. Acteurs et strategies face aux nouveaux defis securitaires au Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De même, de nouveaux acteurs dont la communauté des chasseurs au centre et au nord du Bénin, les adeptes du ''Zangbéto'' au sud, les ONG et autres sont nés avec leurs stratégies. Mots clés: acteurs, stratégies, sécurité, développement. English Abstract. Although the security constitute the essential condition for all ...

  20. Use of the target diagnostic control system in the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, R.; Lagin, L.; Nelson, J.

    2011-01-01

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics including optical backscatter, time-integrated, time resolved and gated X-ray sensors, laser velocity interferometry, and neutron time of flight. Diagnostics to diagnose fusion ignition implosion and neutron emissions have been developed. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Window XP processor and Java application. Instruments are aggregated as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. During the past several years, over thirty-six diagnostics have been deployed using this architecture in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The DCS architecture facilitates the expected additions and upgrades to diagnostics as more experiments are performed. This paper presents the DCS architecture, framework and our experiences in using it during the NIC to operate, upgrade and maintain a large set of diagnostic instruments.

  1. Use of the target diagnostic control system in the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, R; Lagin, L; Nelson, J

    2011-07-25

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics including optical backscatter, time-integrated, time resolved and gated X-ray sensors, laser velocity interferometry, and neutron time of flight. Diagnostics to diagnose fusion ignition implosion and neutron emissions have been developed. A Diagnostic Control System (DCS) for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the DCS architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Window XP processor and Java application. Instruments are aggregated as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. During the past several years, over thirty-six diagnostics have been deployed using this architecture in support of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The DCS architecture facilitates the expected additions and upgrades to diagnostics as more experiments are performed. This paper presents the DCS architecture, framework and our experiences in using it during the NIC to operate, upgrade and maintain a large set of diagnostic instruments.

  2. Diagnostic yield of molecular autopsy in patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome using targeted exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Laurence M; Lopes, Luis R; Syrris, Petros; Murphy, Cian; Plagnol, Vincent; Firman, Eileen; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Zorio, Esther; Domingo, Diana; Murday, Victoria; Findlay, Iain; Duncan, Alexis; Carr-White, Gerry; Robert, Leema; Bueser, Teofila; Langman, Caroline; Fynn, Simon P; Goddard, Martin; White, Anne; Bundgaard, Henning; Ferrero-Miliani, Laura; Wheeldon, Nigel; Suvarna, Simon K; O'Beirne, Aliceson; Lowe, Martin D; McKenna, William J; Elliott, Perry M; Lambiase, Pier D

    2016-06-01

    The targeted genetic screening of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS) probands in a molecular autopsy has a diagnostic yield of up to 35%. Exome sequencing has the potential to improve this yield. The primary aim of this study is to examine the feasibility and diagnostic utility of targeted exome screening in SADS victims, utilizing familial clinical screening whenever possible. To determine the feasibility and diagnostic yield of targeted exome sequencing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 59 SADS victims (mean age 25 years, range 1-51 years). Targeted exome sequencing of 135 genes associated with cardiomyopathies and ion channelopathies was performed on the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Non-synonymous, loss-of-function, and splice-site variants with a minor allele frequency autopsy using targeted exome sequencing has a relatively low diagnostic yield of very rare potentially disease causing mutations. Candidate pathogenic variants with a higher frequency in control populations are relatively common and should be interpreted with caution. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Attention attraction in an ophthalmic diagnostic device using sound-modulated fixation targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I; Rangarajan, Shreya; Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L

    2016-08-01

    This study relates to eye fixation systems with combined optical and audio systems. Many devices for eye diagnostics and some devices for eye therapeutics require the patient to fixate on a small target for a certain period of time, during which the eyes do not move and data from substructures of one or both eyes are acquired and analyzed. With young pediatric patients, a monotonously blinking target is not sufficient to retain attention steadily. We developed a method for modulating the intensity of a point fixation target using sounds appropriate to the child's age and preference. The method was realized as a subsystem of a Pediatric Vision Screener which employs retinal birefringence scanning for detection of central fixation. Twenty-one children, age 2-18, were studied. Modulation of the fixation target using sounds ensured the eye fixated on the target, and with appropriate choice of sounds, performed significantly better than a monotonously blinking target accompanied by a plain beep. The method was particularly effective with children of ages up to 10, after which its benefit disappeared. Typical applications of target modulation would be as supplemental subsystems in pediatric ophthalmic diagnostic devices, such as scanning laser ophthalmoscopes, optical coherence tomography units, retinal birefringence scanners, fundus cameras, and perimeters. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gaseous laser targets and optical diagnostics for studying compressible hydrodynamic instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J M; Robey, H; Mackinnon, A

    2001-01-01

    Explore the combination of optical diagnostics and gaseous targets to obtain important information about compressible turbulent flows that cannot be derived from traditional laser experiments for the purposes of V and V of hydrodynamics models and understanding scaling. First year objectives: Develop and characterize blast wave-gas jet test bed; Perform single pulse shadowgraphy of blast wave interaction with turbulent gas jet as a function of blast wave Mach number; Explore double pulse shadowgraphy and image correlation for extracting velocity spectra in the shock-turbulent flow interaction; and Explore the use/adaptation of advanced diagnostics

  5. Cancer-associated fibroblasts as target and tool in cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieghere, Elly; Verset, Laurine; Demetter, Pieter; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are drivers of tumour progression and are considered as a target and a tool in cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An increased abundance of CAFs or CAF signatures are recognized as a bad prognostic marker in several cancer types. Tumour-environment biomimetics strongly improve our understanding of the communication between CAFs, cancer cells and other host cells. Several experimental drugs targeting CAFs are in clinical trials for multiple tumour entities; alternatively, CAFs can be exploited as a tool to characterize the functionality of circulating tumour cells or to capture them as a tool to prevent metastasis. The continuous interaction between tissue engineers, biomaterial experts and cancer researchers creates the possibility to biomimic the tumour-environment and provides new opportunities in cancer diagnostics and management.

  6. A novel charged-particle diagnostic for compression in inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, P. B.; Skupsky, S.; Petrasso, R. D.; Soures, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    A new technique for diagnosing compression in multiple regions of inertial confinement fusion targets is discussed. This diagnostic uses knock-on deuterons and protons that have been elastically scattered by 14.1 MeV deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion neutrons. The target is composed of three different materials: DT gas contained in a plastic shell overcoated by deuterated plastic. The effect on the knock-on deuteron spectrum of mixing of these layers from hydrodynamic instabilities is also discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. Modeling companion diagnostics in economic evaluations of targeted oncology therapies: systematic review and methodological checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Brett; Tan, Marcus; Harris, Anthony; Lorgelly, Paula

    2015-02-01

    The successful use of a targeted therapy is intrinsically linked to the ability of a companion diagnostic to correctly identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment. The aim of this study was to review the characteristics of companion diagnostics that are of importance for inclusion in an economic evaluation. Approaches for including these characteristics in model-based economic evaluations are compared with the intent to describe best practice methods. Five databases and government agency websites were searched to identify model-based economic evaluations comparing a companion diagnostic and subsequent treatment strategy to another alternative treatment strategy with model parameters for the sensitivity and specificity of the companion diagnostic (primary synthesis). Economic evaluations that limited model parameters for the companion diagnostic to only its cost were also identified (secondary synthesis). Quality was assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument. 30 studies were included in the review (primary synthesis n = 12; secondary synthesis n = 18). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios may be lower when the only parameter for the companion diagnostic included in a model is the cost of testing. Incorporating the test's accuracy in addition to its cost may be a more appropriate methodological approach. Altering the prevalence of the genetic biomarker, specific population tested, type of test, test accuracy and timing/sequence of multiple tests can all impact overall model results. The impact of altering a test's threshold for positivity is unknown as it was not addressed in any of the included studies. Additional quality criteria as outlined in our methodological checklist should be considered due to the shortcomings of standard quality assessment tools in differentiating studies that incorporate important test-related characteristics and those that do not. There is a need to refine methods for incorporating the characteristics

  8. Mitochondria-Targeted Triphenylphosphonium-Based Compounds: Syntheses, Mechanisms of Action, and Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jacek; Joseph, Joy; Sikora, Adam; Hardy, Micael; Ouari, Olivier; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Cheng, Gang; Lopez, Marcos; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2017-08-09

    Mitochondria are recognized as one of the most important targets for new drug design in cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Currently, the most effective way to deliver drugs specifically to mitochondria is by covalent linking a lipophilic cation such as an alkyltriphenylphosphonium moiety to a pharmacophore of interest. Other delocalized lipophilic cations, such as rhodamine, natural and synthetic mitochondria-targeting peptides, and nanoparticle vehicles, have also been used for mitochondrial delivery of small molecules. Depending on the approach used, and the cell and mitochondrial membrane potentials, more than 1000-fold higher mitochondrial concentration can be achieved. Mitochondrial targeting has been developed to study mitochondrial physiology and dysfunction and the interaction between mitochondria and other subcellular organelles and for treatment of a variety of diseases such as neurodegeneration and cancer. In this Review, we discuss efforts to target small-molecule compounds to mitochondria for probing mitochondria function, as diagnostic tools and potential therapeutics. We describe the physicochemical basis for mitochondrial accumulation of lipophilic cations, synthetic chemistry strategies to target compounds to mitochondria, mitochondrial probes, and sensors, and examples of mitochondrial targeting of bioactive compounds. Finally, we review published attempts to apply mitochondria-targeted agents for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Monocyte-Targeting Supramolecular Micellar Assemblies: A Molecular Diagnostic Tool for Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, E. J.; Nord, K.; Sugimoto, M. J.; Wonder, E.; Tirrell, M.; Mlinar, L. B.; Alenghat, F. J.; Fang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that can progress silently for decades and result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Diagnostic imaging technologies have made great strides to define the degree of atherosclerotic plaque burden through the severity of arterial stenosis. However, current technologies cannot differentiate more lethal “vulnerable plaques,” and are not sensitive enough for preventive medicine. Imaging early molecular markers and quantifying the extent of disease progression continues to be a major challenge in the field. To this end, monocyte-targeting, peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs) are engineered through the incorporation of the chemokine receptor CCR2-binding motif of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and MCP-1 PAMs are evaluated preclinically as diagnostic tools for atherosclerosis. Monocyte-targeting is desirable as the influx of monocytes is a marker of early lesions, accumulation of monocytes is linked to atherosclerosis progression, and rupture-prone plaques have higher numbers of monocytes. MCP-1 PAMs bind to monocytes in vitro, and MCP-1 PAMs detect and discriminate between early- and late-stage atherosclerotic aortas. Moreover, MCP-1 PAMs are found to be eliminated via renal clearance and the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) without adverse side effects. Thus, MCP-1 PAMs are a promising new class of diagnostic agents capable of monitoring the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25156590

  10. Target diagnostics for commissioning the AWE HELEN Laser Facility 100 TW chirped pulse amplification beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, R. T.; Clark, E. L.; Davies, H. M.; Edwards, R. D.; Gales, S.; Girling, M. T.; Hoarty, D. J.; Hopps, N. W.; James, S. F.; Kopec, M. F.; Nolan, J. R.; Ryder, K.

    2006-10-01

    The capability of the HELEN laser at the Atomic Weapons Establishment Aldermaston has been enhanced by the addition of a short-pulse laser beam to augment the twin opposing nanosecond time scale beams. The short-pulse beam utilizes the chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique and is capable of delivering up to 60J on target in a 500fs pulse, around 100TW, at the fundamental laser wavelength of 1.054μm. During the commissioning phase a number of diagnostic systems have been fielded, these include: x-ray pinhole imaging of the laser heated spot, charged particle time of flight, thermoluminescent dosimeter array, calibrated radiochromic film, and CR39 nuclear track detector. These diagnostic systems have been used to verify the performance of the CPA beam to achieve a focused intensity of around 1019Wcm-2 and to underwrite the facility radiological safety system.

  11. Development of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Caltech jet-target experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byong Hoon; Greig, Amelia; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for studying the Caltech jet-target impact experiment. This experiment has a high-speed MHD-driven jet impact a dense, high-mass target cloud. The compression of the jet upon impact simulates the compression of an imploding liner. A preliminary bench top system consisting of a low power laser, lenses, a beam rotator, a monochromator, and a PMT is being used for measuring the Rayleigh and eventually Raman scattering signals from atmospheric pressure N2 and O2. The laser is modulated at 500 Hz to 1 kHz and lock-in techniques are used to recover the low-amplitude signal. For the actual pulsed plasma experiment, the low-power laser will be replaced by a high power Nd:YAG laser. The detector will consist of a double monochromator consisting of two single monochromators separated by a mask in the focal plane to block Rayleigh scattered light; detection will be by an intensified, gated camera. The diagnostic will be used to study the compression and heating that occurs when the jet plasma collides with a dense, high mass target cloud. Supported by USDOE Grant DE-AR0000565.

  12. Aptamer-based radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of epithelial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missailidis, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences]. E-mail: s.missailidis@open.ac.uk; Perkins, Alan [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2008-12-15

    In the continuous search for earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic modalities against cancer, based on our constantly increasing knowledge of cancer biology, aptamers hold the promise to expand on current antibody success, but overcoming some of the problems faced with antibodies as therapeutic or delivery agents in cancer. However, as the first aptamer reached the market as an inhibitor against angiogenesis for the treatment of macular degeneration, aptamers have found only limited applications or interest in oncology, and even less as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of tumours. Yet, the chemistry for the labelling of aptamers and the options to alter their pharmacokinetic properties, to make them suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals is now available and recent advances in their development can demonstrate that these molecules would make them ideal delivery vehicles for the development of targeted radiopharmaceuticals that could deliver their radiation load with accuracy to the tumour site, offering improved therapeutic properties and reduced side effects. (author)

  13. Aptamer-based radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of epithelial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missailidis, Sotiris; Perkins, Alan; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2008-01-01

    In the continuous search for earlier diagnosis and improved therapeutic modalities against cancer, based on our constantly increasing knowledge of cancer biology, aptamers hold the promise to expand on current antibody success, but overcoming some of the problems faced with antibodies as therapeutic or delivery agents in cancer. However, as the first aptamer reached the market as an inhibitor against angiogenesis for the treatment of macular degeneration, aptamers have found only limited applications or interest in oncology, and even less as radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy of tumours. Yet, the chemistry for the labelling of aptamers and the options to alter their pharmacokinetic properties, to make them suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals is now available and recent advances in their development can demonstrate that these molecules would make them ideal delivery vehicles for the development of targeted radiopharmaceuticals that could deliver their radiation load with accuracy to the tumour site, offering improved therapeutic properties and reduced side effects. (author)

  14. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    In order to support the operation of ITER and the planned experimental programme an extensive set of plasma and first wall measurements will be required. The number and type of required measurements will be similar to those made on the present-day large tokamaks while the specification...... of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  15. The inextricable axis of targeted diagnostic imaging and therapy: An immunological natural history approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, Frederick O.; Abbruzzese, Bonnie; Sanders, James; Metz, Wendy; Sturms, Kristyn; Ralph, David; Blue, Michael; Zhang, Jane; Bracci, Paige; Bshara, Wiam; Behr, Spencer; Maurer, Toby; Williams, Kenneth; Walker, Joshua; Beverly, Allison; Blay, Brooke; Damughatla, Anirudh; Larsen, Mark; Mountain, Courtney; Neylon, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In considering the challenges of approaches to clinical imaging, we are faced with choices that sometimes are impacted by rather dogmatic notions about what is a better or worse technology to achieve the most useful diagnostic image for the patient. For example, is PET or SPECT most useful in imaging any particular disease dissemination? The dictatorial approach would be to choose PET, all other matters being equal. But is such a totalitarian attitude toward imaging selection still valid? In the face of new receptor targeted SPECT agents one must consider the remarkable specificity and sensitivity of these agents. 99m Tc-Tilmanocept is one of the newest of these agents, now approved for guiding sentinel node biopsy (SLNB) in several solid tumors. Tilmanocept has a K d of 3 × 10 −11 M, and it specificity for the CD206 receptor is unlike any other agent to date. This coupled with a number of facts, that specific disease-associated macrophages express this receptor (100 to 150 thousand receptors), that the receptor has multiple binding sites for tilmanocept (> 2 sites per receptor) and that these receptors are recycled every 15 min to bind more tilmanocept (acting as intracellular “drug compilers” of tilmanocept into non-degraded vesicles), gives serious pause as to how we select our approaches to diagnostic imaging. Clinically, the size of SLNs varies greatly, some, anatomically, below the machine resolution of SPECT. Yet, with tilmanocept targeting, the SLNs are highly visible with macrophages stably accruing adequate 99m Tc-tilmanocept counting statistics, as high target-to-background ratios can compensate for spatial resolution blurring. Importantly, it may be targeted imaging agents per se, again such as tilmanocept, which may significantly shrink any perceived chasm between the imaging technologies and anchor the diagnostic considerations in the targeting and specificity of the agent rather than any lingering dogma about the hardware as the basis

  16. The inextricable axis of targeted diagnostic imaging and therapy: An immunological natural history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Frederick O; Abbruzzese, Bonnie; Sanders, James; Metz, Wendy; Sturms, Kristyn; Ralph, David; Blue, Michael; Zhang, Jane; Bracci, Paige; Bshara, Wiam; Behr, Spencer; Maurer, Toby; Williams, Kenneth; Walker, Joshua; Beverly, Allison; Blay, Brooke; Damughatla, Anirudh; Larsen, Mark; Mountain, Courtney; Neylon, Erin; Parcel, Kaeli; Raghuraman, Kapil; Ricks, Kevin; Rose, Lucas; Sivakumar, Akhilesh; Streck, Nicholas; Wang, Bryan; Wasco, Christopher; Williams, Amifred; McGrath, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In considering the challenges of approaches to clinical imaging, we are faced with choices that sometimes are impacted by rather dogmatic notions about what is a better or worse technology to achieve the most useful diagnostic image for the patient. For example, is PET or SPECT most useful in imaging any particular disease dissemination? The dictatorial approach would be to choose PET, all other matters being equal. But is such a totalitarian attitude toward imaging selection still valid? In the face of new receptor targeted SPECT agents one must consider the remarkable specificity and sensitivity of these agents. (99m)Tc-Tilmanocept is one of the newest of these agents, now approved for guiding sentinel node biopsy (SLNB) in several solid tumors. Tilmanocept has a Kd of 3×10(-11)M, and it specificity for the CD206 receptor is unlike any other agent to date. This coupled with a number of facts, that specific disease-associated macrophages express this receptor (100 to 150 thousand receptors), that the receptor has multiple binding sites for tilmanocept (>2 sites per receptor) and that these receptors are recycled every 15 min to bind more tilmanocept (acting as intracellular "drug compilers" of tilmanocept into non-degraded vesicles), gives serious pause as to how we select our approaches to diagnostic imaging. Clinically, the size of SLNs varies greatly, some, anatomically, below the machine resolution of SPECT. Yet, with tilmanocept targeting, the SLNs are highly visible with macrophages stably accruing adequate (99m)Tc-tilmanocept counting statistics, as high target-to-background ratios can compensate for spatial resolution blurring. Importantly, it may be targeted imaging agents per se, again such as tilmanocept, which may significantly shrink any perceived chasm between the imaging technologies and anchor the diagnostic considerations in the targeting and specificity of the agent rather than any lingering dogma about the hardware as the basis for imaging

  17. Predictive Diagnostic Pathology in the Target Therapy Era in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchio, Caterina; Balmativola, Davide; Castiglione, Roberta; Annaratone, Laura; Sapino, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Treatment strategies in oncology are nowadays largely based on the "target therapy model", which allows to personalize the cure of each patient depending on distinctive host and disease features. As a general concept "targeted drugs" are effective only when the tumor exhibits the "target", which in breast cancer pathology may correspond to the expression of estrogen receptors and/or of HER2. These biomarkers are evaluated on breast cancer tissues by companion diagnostic tests, however, evidence suggests that the first step in breast cancer predictive pathology is still represented by morphology. For instance, histological types, such as tubular and cribriform carcinomas, define patients who may not need any treatments other than surgical excision. Neoadjuvant studies have shown that patients affected by lobular carcinomas are not likely to have any beneficial effects from chemotherapy. The second step in prediction is represented by immunophenotyping. If the immunohistochemical evaluation of four markers (estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER2 and Ki67) remains the best practice for breast cancer predictive pathology, molecular pathology has certainly reshaped the way we approach breast cancer diagnosis. The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge in predictive pathology for the management of breast cancer patients, focusing on the benefits and drawbacks of traditional tools and of novel improvements of molecular biology.

  18. G-quadruplex-based aptamers against protein targets in therapy and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platella, Chiara; Riccardi, Claudia; Montesarchio, Daniela; Roviello, Giovanni N; Musumeci, Domenica

    2017-05-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules identified to recognize with high affinity specific targets including proteins, small molecules, ions, whole cells and even entire organisms, such as viruses or bacteria. They can be identified from combinatorial libraries of DNA or RNA oligonucleotides by SELEX technology, an in vitro iterative selection procedure consisting of binding (capture), partitioning and amplification steps. Remarkably, many of the aptamers selected against biologically relevant protein targets are G-rich sequences that can fold into stable G-quadruplex (G4) structures. Aiming at disseminating novel inspiring ideas within the scientific community in the field of G4-structures, the emphasis of this review is placed on: 1) recent advancements in SELEX technology for the efficient and rapid identification of new candidate aptamers (introduction of microfluidic systems and next generation sequencing); 2) recurrence of G4 structures in aptamers selected by SELEX against biologically relevant protein targets; 3) discovery of several G4-forming motifs in important regulatory regions of the human or viral genome bound by endogenous proteins, which per se can result into potential aptamers; 4) an updated overview of G4-based aptamers with therapeutic potential and 5) a discussion on the most attractive G4-based aptamers for diagnostic applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid targets and irradiation facilities for production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides at the Debrecen cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Ando, L.; Szucs, Z.; Mahunka, I.; Kovacs, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The MGC-20E (NIIEFA, Leningrad, USSR) variable energy compact cyclotron (k=20) was installed in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) in 1985. Protons, deuterons, 3 He- and α-particles can be accelerated with currents up to 300 μA for internal irradiation and up to 50 μA for external beams. The establishment of the Cyclotron Laboratory was partly supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The application of the cyclotron is multipurpose: basic nuclear research, application of activation technique for analytical and wear studies, application of intense fast neutron source for agro-biological, bio-medical application and for radiation damage test of electronic components, and finally radioisotope production for medical diagnostics and for other scientific and applied fields. The cyclotron laboratory has six target rooms, a radiochemistry laboratory and a medical unit equipped with PET

  20. Rapid molecular diagnostics of severe primary immunodeficiency determined by using targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Zhang, Victor Wei; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Hanson, Imelda Celine; Forbes, Lisa R; de la Morena, M Teresa; Chinn, Ivan K; Gorman, Elizabeth; Mendelsohn, Nancy J; Pozos, Tamara; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Nicholas, Sarah K; Yates, Anne B; Moore, Lindsey E; Berge, Knut Erik; Sorte, Hanne; Bayer, Diana K; ALZahrani, Daifulah; Geha, Raif S; Feng, Yanming; Wang, Guoli; Orange, Jordan S; Lupski, James R; Wang, Jing; Wong, Lee-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are inherited disorders of the immune system. The most severe form, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), presents with profound deficiencies of T cells, B cells, or both at birth. If not treated promptly, affected patients usually do not live beyond infancy because of infections. Genetic heterogeneity of SCID frequently delays the diagnosis; a specific diagnosis is crucial for life-saving treatment and optimal management. We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based multigene-targeted panel for SCID and other severe PIDDs requiring rapid therapeutic actions in a clinical laboratory setting. The target gene capture/NGS assay provides an average read depth of approximately 1000×. The deep coverage facilitates simultaneous detection of single nucleotide variants and exonic copy number variants in one comprehensive assessment. Exons with insufficient coverage (diagnostic yield of severe primary immunodeficiency. Establishing a molecular diagnosis enables early immune reconstitution through prompt therapeutic intervention and guides management for improved long-term quality of life. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MicroRNAs as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury. MicroRNAs control a range of physiological and pathological functions such as development, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism, and may serve as potential targets for progress assessment and intervention against TBI to mitigate secondary damage to the brain. This has implications regarding improving the diagnostic accuracy of brain impairment and long-term outcomes as well as potential novel treatments. Recent human studies have identified specific microRNAs in serum/plasma (miR-425-p, -21, -93, -191 and -499 and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF (miR-328, -362-3p, -451, -486a as possible indicators of the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of TBI. Experimental animal studies have examined specific microRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for moderate and mild TBI (e.g., miR-21, miR-23b. MicroRNA profiling was altered by voluntary exercise. Differences in basal microRNA expression in the brain of adult and aged animals and alterations in response to TBI (e.g., miR-21 have also been reported. Further large-scale studies with TBI patients are needed to provide more information on the changes in microRNA profiles in different age groups (children, adults, and elderly.

  2. Cognitive Function as a Trans-Diagnostic Treatment Target in Stimulant Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; DeVito, Elise E.; Waters, Andrew J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulant use disorder is an important public health problem, with an estimated 2.1 million current users in the United States alone. No pharmacological treatments are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stimulant use disorder and behavioral treatments have variable efficacy and limited availability. Most individuals with stimulant use disorder have other comorbidities, most with overlapping symptoms and cognitive impairments. The goal of this article is to present a rationale for cognition as a treatment target in stimulant use disorder, and to outline potential treatment approaches. Rates of lifetime comorbid psychiatric disorders among people with stimulant use disorders are estimated at 65% - 73%, with the most common being mood disorders (13% - 64%) and anxiety disorders (21% - 50%), as well as non-substance induced psychotic disorders (under 10%). There are several models of addictive behavior, but the dual process model particularly highlights the relevance of cognitive impairments and biases to the development and maintenance of addiction. This model explains addictive behavior as a balance between automatic processes and executive control, which in turn are related to individual (genetics, comorbid disorders, psychosocial factors) and other (craving, triggers, drug use) factors. Certain cognitive impairments, such as attentional bias and approach bias, are most relevant to automatic processes, while sustained attention, response inhibition, and working memory are primarily related to executive control. These cognitive impairments and biases are also common in disorders frequently comorbid with stimulant use disorder, and predict poor treatment retention and clinical outcomes. As such, they may serve as feasible trans-diagnostic treatment targets. There are promising pharmacological, cognitive, and behavioral approaches that aim to enhance cognitive function. Pharmacotherapies target cognitive impairments associated with executive

  3. Genomic analysis of Campylobacter fetus subspecies: identification of candidate virulence determinants and diagnostic assay targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Daniel O

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, asymptomatic in bulls the disease is spread to female cattle causing extensive reproductive loss. The microbiological and molecular differentiation of C. fetus subsp. venerealis from C. fetus subsp. fetus is extremely difficult. This study describes the analysis of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain genome (~75–80% to identify elements exclusively found in C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains as potential diagnostic targets and the characterisation of subspecies virulence genes. Results Eighty Kb of genomic sequence (22 contigs was identified as unique to C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 and consisted of type IV secretory pathway components, putative plasmid genes and hypothetical proteins. Of the 9 PCR assays developed to target C. fetus subsp. venerealis type IV secretion system genes, 4 of these were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis and did not detect C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius. Two assays were specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL-94 strain, with a further single assay specific for the AZUL-94 strain and C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius (and not the remaining C. fetus subsp. venerealis biovar venerealis strains tested. C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were found to share most common Campylobacter virulence factors such as SAP, chemotaxis, flagellar biosynthesis, 2-component systems and cytolethal distending toxin subunits (A, B, C. We did not however, identify in C. fetus the full complement of bacterial adherence candidates commonly found in other Campylobacter spp. Conclusion The comparison of the available C. fetus subsp. venerealis genome sequence with the C. fetus subsp. fetus genome identified 80 kb of unique C. fetus subsp. venerealis AZUL94 sequence, with subsequent PCR confirmation demonstrating

  4. Nouveaux et anciens espaces de circulation internationale au Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alioua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Si la migration transnationale des africains subsahariens vers l’Europe débute de manière hétéroclite, en terme de lieux, de raisons et de situations, une fois partis de chez eux avec un projet migratoire personnel, ces acteurs se réorganisent collectivement durant les étapes qui rythment leur périple. Durant ces étapes, ces individus se « reconnaissent » entre eux et coopèrent, créant peu à peu une histoire commune, une « aventure » : leur projet migratoire et leur mode migratoire se ressemblent et les rassemblent. Une fois le Sahara franchi, les trans-migrants subsahariens s’ancrent dans les sociétés maghrébines en greffant leurs propres circulations sur celles des populations locales. Au Maroc, ce sont les populations vivant dans les lieux de relégation socioéconomique (populations ayant elles aussi une relation étroite avec la migration, notamment celles des quartiers populaires périphériques de Rabat, Casablanca ou Tanger, qui traitent et intègrent les phénomènes du passage et de l’installation plus ou moins temporaire de ces nouveaux venus. Dans ces quartiers, qui sont le produit de l’arrivée de migrants de l’intérieur, se superposent alors des formes de mobilités et des logiques et stratégies migratoires hétéroclites. Ces dynamiques migratoires montrent combien cette altérité introduite « par le bas » au Maghreb, par des populations en constantes mobilité, agit sur les sociétés locales et sur la ville.

  5. Potential Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Tsai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human gastric cancer (GC is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, largely because it is normally not identified until a relatively advanced stage owing to a lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Gastroscopy with biopsy is the routine method for screening, and gastrectomy is the major therapeutic strategy for GC. However, in more than 30% of GC surgical patients, cancer has progressed too far for effective medical resection. Thus, useful biomarkers for early screening or detection of GC are essential for improving patients’ survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in tumorigenesis. They contribute to gastric carcinogenesis by altering the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Because of their stability in tissues, serum/plasma and other body fluids, miRNAs have been suggested as novel tumor biomarkers with suitable clinical potential. Recently, aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been identified and tested for clinical application in the management of GC. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles determined with miRNA microarrays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing approaches could be used to establish sample specificity and to identify tumor type. Here, we provide an up-to-date summary of tissue-based GC-associated miRNAs, describing their involvement and that of their downstream targets in tumorigenic and biological processes. We examine correlations among significant clinical parameters and prognostic indicators, and discuss recurrence monitoring and therapeutic options in GC. We also review plasma/serum-based, GC-associated, circulating miRNAs and their clinical applications, focusing especially on early diagnosis. By providing insights into the mechanisms of miRNA-related tumor progression, this review will hopefully aid in the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets.

  6. Integration of three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectrometry to the irradiation treatment plan for glioblastomas: definition of new target volumes; Integration de la spectrometrie par resonance magnetique tridimensionnelle au plan de traitement par irradiation des glioblastomes: definition de nouveaux volumes cibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken, S.; Vieillevigne, L.; Cohen-Jonathan, E.M.; Laprie, A. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Ken, S.; Franceries, X.; Lotterie, J.A.; Lubrano, V.; Catalaa, I.; Celsis, P.; Berry, I.; Laprie, A. [Inserm UMR 825 Imagerie cerebrale et handicaps neurologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lotterie, J.A.; Lubrano, V.; Berry, I. [Departement de biophysique, centre hospitalier universitaire de Rangueil, 31 - Toulouse (France); Catalaa, I. [Departement de radiologie, centre hospitalier universitaire de Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2010-10-15

    Based on a clinic trial, the authors report the definition of a new reliable and reproducible method to delimit and integrate targets to the treatment plan which are specific to magnetic resonance spectrometry imagery for the radiotherapy of glioblastomas, in order to perform a treatment by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT). A weighted conventional MRI has been performed before radiotherapy. The importation of anatomic-metabolic images into the dose planning system comprises two steps: normalization on the whole volume of magnetic resonance spectrometry imagery, and segmentation of target volumes specific to spectrometry anomalies. This integration of target volumes is thus facilitated. Short communication

  7. First meeting on the CRP 'standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, P. van den

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron Department of the VUB has three groups performing research in the field of target development, production of radionuclides and their application in nuclear medicine. 1. The Physics Group is busy on the optimization of beam parameters, on the determination of cross sections and on neutron spectrometry. 2. The Inorganic Radiochemistry Group performs research on solid target electroplating (Tl, Zn, Cd, Rh ... ), on optimisation of target carrier geometry and cooling and on automated PC-controlled radiochemistry (Tl-201, Ga-67, In-111) and recovery systems and the associated software written in Modula-2 and Visual Basic. 3. The Organic Radiochemistry Group develops new techniques for radiolabelling of organic molecules (fatty acids, neuroleptics, synthetic polypeptides...) useful in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. All three groups take part in bulk productions of radionuclides

  8. A search for Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense diagnostic antigens by proteomic screening and targeted cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Manful

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The only available diagnostic method for East African trypanosomiasis is light microscopy of blood samples. A simple immunodiagnostic would greatly aid trypanosomiasis control. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To find trypanosome proteins that are specifically recognised by sera from human sleeping sickness patients, we have screened the Trypanosoma brucei brucei proteome by Western blotting. Using cytosolic, cytoskeletal and glycosomal fractions, we found that the vast majority of abundant trypanosome proteins is not specifically recognised by patient sera. We identified phosphoglycerate kinase (PGKC, heat shock protein (HSP70, and histones H2B and H3 as possible candidate diagnostic antigens. These proteins, plus paraflagellar rod protein 1, rhodesain (a cysteine protease, and an extracellular fragment of the Trypanosoma brucei nucleoside transporter TbNT10, were expressed in E. coli and tested for reactivity with patient and control sera. Only TbHSP70 was preferentially recognized by patient sera, but the sensitivity and specificity were insufficient for use of TbHSP70 alone as a diagnostic. Immunoprecipitation using a native protein extract revealed no specifically reacting proteins. CONCLUSIONS: No abundant T. brucei soluble, glycosomal or cytoskeletal protein is likely to be useful in diagnosis. To find useful diagnostic antigens it will therefore be necessary to use more sophisticated proteomic methods, or to test a very large panel of candidate proteins.

  9. Definitions and outlook targeting x-ray exposure of patients in diagnostic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulla, Dieter F.

    2011-03-01

    Computer tomography (CT) is vital and currently irreplaceable in diagnostic radiology. But CT operates with ionizing radiation which may cause cancer or non-cancer diseases in humans. The degree of radiation impact depends on the dose administered by an investigation. And this is the core issue: Even CT exams executed lege artis, administer doses to patients which by magnitude are far beyond the level of hitherto known doses of conventional film-screen techniques. Patients undergoing one or multiple CT examinations, digital angiographies or interventions will be exposed to effective doses between roughly several mSv and several 100 mSv depending on type and frequency of the diagnostic investigations. From the radiation protection point of view, there is therefore the worldwide problem of formulating firm rules for the control of these high-dose investigations, as dose limits can not be established for reasons of the medical benefit. This makes the difference compared with radiation protection for occupationally exposed persons. What remains is "software", namely "justification" and "optimization". Justification requires balancing the interests between the health benefit and the potential harm of an exam which has to be responsibly executed by the physician himself; therefore the radiologists' associations are in the duty to prepare practicable rules for justification. Optimization again needs a cooperative solution, and that is the establishment of reference doses for diagnostic examinations, to be checked by the technical service of the producers' companies. Experts and authorities have been aware of the high-dose dilemma in diagnostic imaging since long. It is time for the reflection of active solutions and their implementation into practice.

  10. De nouveaux mécanismes de résilience : rapport interactif au sujet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 nov. 2012 ... On y trouve de nombreux liens vers des ressources relatives au programme et aux projets, ainsi que des pistes pour explorer plus en profondeur les résultats des recherches scientifiques. Lire le rapport De nouveaux mécanismes de résilience (PDF, 2,98 Mo). Une version récente d'Adobe Reader est ...

  11. Synthèse et caractérisation de nouveaux complexes dicarboxylato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trois nouveaux complexes dicarboxylato du triméthylétain (IV) ont été synthétisés et caractérisés. L'étude de leurs spectres infrarouge, Mössbauer et de diffraction des rayons X, a permis de mettre en évidence des structures tridimensionnelles avec des ligands dicarboxylato polydentates. © 2009 International Formulae ...

  12. OPS : élaborer de nouveaux partenariats et consolider ceux qui ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 mai 2011 ... L'Organisation panaméricaine de la santé (OPS) a collaboré avec ses, partenaires, anciens et nouveaux, à l'organisation du Forum international écosanté 2008 (FIE 2008). La participation de l'Organisation panaméricaine de la santé était naturelle, « puisqu'elle travaille depuis très longtemps avec ...

  13. Co-development of diagnostic vectors to support targeted therapies and theranostics: Essential tools in Personalized Cancer Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C Nicolaides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel technologies are being developed to improve patient therapy through the identification of targets and surrogate molecular signatures that can help direct appropriate treatment regimens for efficacy and drug safety. This is particularly the case in oncology whereby patient tumor and biofluids are routinely isolated and analyzed for genetic, immunohistochemical and/or soluble markers to determine if a predictive biomarker signature exists as a means for selecting optimal treatment. Improvements in diagnostics that can prescreen predictive response biomarker profiles will continue to optimize the ability to enhance patient therapy via molecularly defined disease-specific treatment. A goal for drug developers is to identify and implement new strategies that can rapidly enable the development of beneficial disease-specific therapies for broad, patient-specific targeting without the need of tedious predictive biomarker discovery and validation efforts, currently a bottleneck for development timelines. Here we discuss the use of co-developing diagnostic-targeting vectors to identify patients whose malignant tissue can specifically uptake a drug linked vector prior to treatment. Using this system, a patient can be predetermined in real time as to whether or not their tumor(s can uptake a drug-linked diagnostic vector, thus inferring the uptake of a similar vector linked to an anti-cancer agent. If tumor-specific uptake is observed, then the patient may be suitable for drug-linked vector therapy and have a higher likelihood of clinical benefit while patients with no tumor uptake should consider other therapeutic options. This approach offers complementary opportunities to rapidly develop broad tumor-specific agents for use in personalized medicine.

  14. Les nouveaux acteurs de la coopération en Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le contexte de la mondialisation et, aujourd’hui, de la crise financière mondiale, de nouveaux acteurs de la coopération émergent en Afrique. Ces partenaires desserrent la contrainte financière et les conditionnalités, augmentent les marges de manœuvre et dopent le marché des matières premières, mais ils accroissent aussi les risques de réendettement et de faiblesse de la coordination des politiques d’aide. Ces partenariats remettent-ils en question les nouvelles pratiques de la coopération des pays de l’OCDE ? Justifient-ils le retour à une realpolitik ou reproduisent-ils les anciennes erreurs des puissances industrielles ? Ces erreurs peuvent-elles être corrigées ? La question se pose également de savoir si la crise mondiale qui touche profondément l’Afrique conduira à un retrait ou à un relais des nouvelles puissances émergentes. Ce chapitre distingue les nouveaux enjeux géopolitiques de l’Afrique dans un monde multipolaire puis les nouveaux acteurs de la coopération en Afrique, avant d’explorer les perspectives qui s’ouvrent pour la coopération en Afrique, notamment eu égard à la crise mondiale.

  15. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for localization in target tissues exhibiting a regional pH shift relative to surrounding tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Kung, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiopharmaceutical compounds are provided which are capable of entering a target tissue or a target organ by passive diffusion through cell walls and which are effectively accumulated and retained within the target tissue or organ due to a regional pH shift. Such compounds are desirably readily accessible synthetically using readily available radionuclides. The compound comprises a radioactive isotope of an element in chemical combination with at least one amine group and preferably with at least two secondary or tertiary amine groups. The radioactive element is an element other than iodine emitting gamma ray, x-ray or positron radiation. When the element is a gamma ray emitting isotope, at least 75 percent of the number of emissions is emitted at energies of between 80 and 400 keV. The half-life of the isotope is usually between two minutes and 15 days. The compound has acid-base characteristics such that the state of ionization of the compound at the pH of the body is significantly different and usually less than its state of ionization at the intracellular pH of the target tissue. The compound has such lipid solubility characteristics that it is capable of ready penetration through cell walls, but within cells its lipid solubility is substantially decreased, whereby the ability of the compound to leave the target tissue is substantially diminished. Specific data relevant to di-beta-(piperidinoethyl)-selenide and di-beta-(morpholinoethyl)-selenide in rat brains are presented

  16. MFP scanner diagnostics using a self-printed target to measure the modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weibao; Bauer, Peter; Wagner, Jerry; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    In the current market, reduction of warranty costs is an important avenue for improving profitability by manufacturers of printer products. Our goal is to develop an autonomous capability for diagnosis of printer and scanner caused defects with mid-range laser multifunction printers (MFPs), so as to reduce warranty costs. If the scanner unit of the MFP is not performing according to specification, this issue needs to be diagnosed. If there is a print quality issue, this can be diagnosed by printing a special test page that is resident in the firmware of the MFP unit, and then scanning it. However, the reliability of this process will be compromised if the scanner unit is defective. Thus, for both scanner and printer image quality issues, it is important to be able to properly evaluate the scanner performance. In this paper, we consider evaluation of the scanner performance by measuring its modulation transfer function (MTF). The MTF is a fundamental tool for assessing the performance of imaging systems. Several ways have been proposed to measure the MTF, all of which require a special target, for example a slanted-edge target. It is unacceptably expensive to ship every MFP with such a standard target, and to expect that the customer can keep track of it. To reduce this cost, in this paper, we develop new approach to this task. It is based on a self-printed slanted-edge target. Then, we propose algorithms to improve the results using a self-printed slanted-edge target. Finally, we present experimental results for MTF measurement using self-printed targets and compare them to the results obtained with standard targets.

  17. Using targeted active-learning exercises and diagnostic question clusters to improve students' understanding of carbon cycling in ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non-biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal.

  18. Imaging Diagnostic and Therapeutic Targets : Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhart, Geraldine; Flamen, Patrick; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; Jhaveri, Komal; Wimana, Zena

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), 3 other HER2-targeting agents have gained regulatory approval: lapatinib, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab-emtansine. These agents have revolutionized

  19. PheoSeq : A Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Assay for Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currás-Freixes, Maria; Piñeiro-Yañez, Elena; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Apellániz-Ruiz, María; Calsina, Bruna; Mancikova, Veronika; Remacha, Laura; Richter, Susan; Ercolino, Tonino; Rogowski-Lehmann, Natalie; Deutschbein, Timo; Calatayud, María; Guadalix, Sonsoles; Álvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Lamas, Cristina; Aller, Javier; Sastre-Marcos, Julia; Lázaro, Conxi; Galofré, Juan C.; Patiño-García, Ana; Meoro-Avilés, Amparo; Balmaña-Gelpi, Judith; De Miguel-Novoa, Paz; Balbín, Milagros; Matías-Guiu, Xavier; Letón, Rocío; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Roldán-Romero, Juan M.; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Fliedner, Stephanie M J; Opocher, Giuseppe; Pacak, Karel; Korpershoek, Esther; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Vroonen, Laurent; Mannelli, Massimo; Fassnacht, Martin; Beuschlein, Felix; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Cascón, Alberto; Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Robledo, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Genetic diagnosis is recommended for all pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) cases, as driver mutations are identified in approximately 80% of the cases. As the list of related genes expands, genetic diagnosis becomes more time-consuming, and targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) has

  20. Conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species indicate potential diagnostic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus species 1-4 (HBoV1-4 have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated HBoV1-3 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptides--P1 (¹MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT²⁰, and P2 (¹⁶²EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL¹⁸⁰--that are conserved among HBoV1-4. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 1-4 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4. Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools.

  1. Target detection in diagnostic ultrasound: Evaluation of a method based on the CLEAN algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoom, Hassan; Adve, Raviraj S; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2013-02-01

    A technique is proposed for the detection of abnormalities (targets) in ultrasound images using little or no a priori information and requiring little operator intervention. The scheme is a combination of the CLEAN algorithm, originally proposed for radio astronomy, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processing, as developed for use in radar systems. The CLEAN algorithm identifies areas in the ultrasound image that stand out above a threshold in relation to the background; CFAR techniques allow for an adaptive, semi-automated, selection of the threshold. Neither appears to have been previously used for target detection in ultrasound images and never together in any context. As a first step towards assessing the potential of this method we used a widely used method of simulating B-mode images (Field II). We assumed the use of a 256 element linear array operating at 3.0MHz into a water-like medium containing a density of point scatterers sufficient to simulate a background of fully developed speckle. Spherical targets with diameters ranging from 0.25 to 6.0mm and contrasts ranging from 0 to 12dB relative to the background were used as test objects. Using a contrast-detail analysis, the probability of detection curves indicate these targets can be consistently detected within a speckle background. Our results indicate that the method has considerable promise for the semi-automated detection of abnormalities with diameters greater than a few millimeters, depending on the contrast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future

  3. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  4. Radiolabeled Cetuximab Conjugates for EGFR Targeted Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihver, Wiebke; Pietzsch, Jens; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Steinbach, Jörg; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has evolved over years into a main molecular target for the treatment of different cancer entities. In this regard, the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has been approved alone or in combination with: (a) chemotherapy for treatment of colorectal and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and (b) with external radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The conjugation of radionuclides to cetuximab in combination with the specific targeting properties of this antibody might increase its therapeutic efficiency. This review article gives an overview of the preclinical studies that have been performed with radiolabeled cetuximab for imaging and/or treatment of different tumor models. A particularly promising approach seems to be the treatment with therapeutic radionuclide-labeled cetuximab in combination with external radiotherapy. Present data support an important impact of the tumor micromilieu on treatment response that needs to be further validated in patients. Another important challenge is the reduction of nonspecific uptake of the radioactive substance in metabolic organs like liver and radiosensitive organs like bone marrow and kidneys. Overall, the integration of diagnosis, treatment and monitoring as a theranostic approach appears to be a promising strategy for improvement of individualized cancer treatment. PMID:24603603

  5. High diagnostic yield of syndromic intellectual disability by targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisco; Caro-Llopis, Alfonso; Roselló, Mónica; Oltra, Silvestre; Mayo, Sonia; Monfort, Sandra; Orellana, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Intellectual disability is a very complex condition where more than 600 genes have been reported. Due to this extraordinary heterogeneity, a large proportion of patients remain without a specific diagnosis and genetic counselling. The need for new methodological strategies in order to detect a greater number of mutations in multiple genes is therefore crucial. In this work, we screened a large panel of 1256 genes (646 pathogenic, 610 candidate) by next-generation sequencing to determine the molecular aetiology of syndromic intellectual disability. A total of 92 patients, negative for previous genetic analyses, were studied together with their parents. Clinically relevant variants were validated by conventional sequencing. A definitive diagnosis was achieved in 29 families by testing the 646 known pathogenic genes. Mutations were found in 25 different genes, where only the genes KMT2D, KMT2A and MED13L were found mutated in more than one patient. A preponderance of de novo mutations was noted even among the X linked conditions. Additionally, seven de novo probably pathogenic mutations were found in the candidate genes AGO1, JARID2, SIN3B, FBXO11, MAP3K7, HDAC2 and SMARCC2. Altogether, this means a diagnostic yield of 39% of the cases (95% CI 30% to 49%). The developed panel proved to be efficient and suitable for the genetic diagnosis of syndromic intellectual disability in a clinical setting. Next-generation sequencing has the potential for high-throughput identification of genetic variations, although the challenges of an adequate clinical interpretation of these variants and the knowledge on further unknown genes causing intellectual disability remain to be solved. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Schlieren diagnostics of the Los Alamos hypersonic gas target neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasz, A.A.; Lever, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The gasdynamic behaviour of a planar model of the Los Alamos geometry hypersonic gas target neutron generator (GTNG) was investigated using Schlieren flow visualization photographs, static and total pressure and spill flow measurements. The model consisted of two symmetrical expansion nozzles with 220 μm throats producing a combined flow of about Mach 4 in the GTNG channel. Stagnation pressures of 100-800 kPa were used. Two basic flow configurations, spill line closed and spill line open, were studied in order to gain insight into the complex boundary layer development near the nozzle exit planes. Both flow configurations are discussed qualitatively, making use of the pressure measurements and theoretical analysis. (orig.)

  7. Translocator Protein (18 kDa: A Promising Therapeutic Target and Diagnostic Tool for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The translocator protein (18 kDa (TSPO is a five transmembrane domain protein in mitochondria, abundantly expressed in a variety of organs and tissues. TSPO contributes to a wide range of biological processes, including cholesterol transportation, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory chain regulation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that TSPO might also be involved in the physiological regulation of cardiac chronotropy and inotropy. Accordingly, TSPO ligands play significant roles in protecting the cardiovascular systems under pathological conditions through cardiac electrical activity retention, intracellular calcium maintenance, mitochondrial energy provision, mitochondrial membrane potential equilibrium, and reactive oxygen species inhibition. This paper focuses on the physiological and pathological characteristics of TSPO in the cardiovascular systems and also summarizes the properties of TSPO ligands. TSPO represents a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic tool for cardiovascular diseases including arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, myocarditis, and large vessel vasculitis.

  8. Multifunctional Nanocarriers for diagnostics, drug delivery and targeted treatment across blood-brain barrier: perspectives on tracking and neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada Giovani

    2010-03-01

    and hybrid contrast, such as fluorescent protein tomography and multispectral optoacoustic tomography. Overall, great potential is foreseen for nanocarriers in medical diagnostics, therapeutics and molecular targeting. A proposed roadmap for ongoing and future research directions is therefore discussed in detail with emphasis on the development of novel approaches for functionalization, targeting and imaging of nano-based drug delivery systems, a cutting-edge technology poised to change the ways medicine is administered.

  9. Open data & Big data ; Nouveaux défis pour la vie privée

    OpenAIRE

    Nantel, Lyne

    2017-01-01

    Cette note de lecture porte sur l’ouvrage Open data & Big data ; Nouveaux défis pour la vie privée, codirigé par D. Bourcier et P. De Filippi. L’objectif de l’ouvrage, réunissant des collaborateurs issus de disciplines variées couvrant le droit, la sociologie, la politique et l’éthique, est de dresser un portrait des nouveaux enjeux du numérique et de la massification des données sur la vie privée. The present review focuses on the book Open data & Big data; Nouveaux défis pour la vie priv...

  10. Investigation of the possibility of gamma-ray diagnostic imaging of target compression at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Daniel A; Baudet, Camille; Grim, Gary P; Barber, H Bradford; Miller, Brian W; Fasje, David; Furenlid, Lars R

    2011-09-23

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's leading facility to study the physics of igniting plasmas. Plasmas of hot deuterium and tritium, undergo d(t,n)α reactions that produce a 14.1 MeV neutron and 3.5 MeV a particle, in the center of mass. As these neutrons pass through the materials surrounding the hot core, they may undergo subsequent (n,x) reactions. For example, (12)C(n,n'γ)(12)C reactions occur in remnant debris from the polymer ablator resulting in a significant fluence of 4.44 MeV gamma-rays. Imaging of these gammas will enable the determination of the volumetric size and symmetry of the ablation; large size and high asymmetry is expected to correlate with poor compression and lower fusion yield. Results from a gamma-ray imaging system are expected to be complimentary to a neutron imaging diagnostic system already in place at the NIF. This paper describes initial efforts to design a gamma-ray imaging system for the NIF using the existing neutron imaging system as a baseline for study. Due to the cross-section and expected range of ablator areal densities, the gamma flux should be approximately 10(-3) of the neutron flux. For this reason, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the gamma-ray imaging system because it will be gamma starved. As with the neutron imager, use of pinholes and/or coded apertures are anticipated. Along with aperture and detector design, the selection of an appropriate scintillator is discussed. The volume of energy deposition of the interacting 4.44 MeV gamma-rays is a critical parameter limiting the imaging system spatial resolution. The volume of energy deposition is simulated with GEANT4, and plans to measure the volume of energy deposition experimentally are described. Results of tests on a pixellated LYSO scintillator are also presented.

  11. Nouveaux instruments de paiement: une analyse du point de vue de la banque centrale

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Chun Yuan

    2003-01-01

    Les évolutions technologiques apportent des solutions de paiement de détail innovantes (paiements par téléphone mobile par exemple). Ce cahier d'études aborde le sujet de la qualification des nouveaux instruments de paiement. Il contient une analyse basée sur la définition des différentes formes de monnaie (dont la monnaie électronique) et des instruments de paiement, dans le cadre général des paiements et des systèmes de paiement, ainsi que dans leur contexte réglementaire national et europé...

  12. Novel Phakopsora pachyrhizi extracellular proteins are ideal targets for immunological diagnostic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Douglas G; McMahon, Michael B; Edwards, H Herb; Boerma, Britney L; Lewis Ivey, Melanie L; Miller, Sally A; Dorrance, Anne E

    2012-06-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust (ASR), continues to spread across the southeast and midsouth regions of the United States, necessitating the use of fungicides by producers. Our objective in this research was to identify ASR proteins expressed early during infection for the development of immunodiagnostic assays. We have identified and partially characterized a small gene family encoding extracellular proteins in the P. pachyrhizi urediniospore wall, termed PHEPs (for Phakopsora extracellular protein). Two highly expressed protein family members, PHEP 107 and PHEP 369, were selected as ideal immunodiagnostic targets for antibody development, after we detected PHEPs in plants as early as 3 days postinfection (dpi). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs; 2E8E5-1 and 3G6H7-3) generated against recombinant PHEP 369 were tested for sensitivity against the recombinant protein and extracts from ASR-infected plants and for specificity against a set of common soybean pathogens. These antibodies should prove applicable in immunodiagnostic assays to detect infected soybeans and to identify ASR spores from sentinel surveillance plots.

  13. Targeted treatment of mutated EGFR-expressing non-small-cell lung cancer: focus on erlotinib with companion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachaliou, Niki; Rosell, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Deeper understanding of the pathobiology of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the development of small molecules that target genetic mutations known to play critical roles in the progression to metastatic disease. The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in 15%–20% of lung adenocarcinomas and the associated response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors have provided a successful avenue of attack in late-stage adenocarcinomas. Use of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib is limited to patients who have adenocarcinomas with known activating EGFR mutations. However, the EGFR mutation testing landscape is varied and includes many screening and targeted methods, each with its own benefits and limitations. These tests can simplify the drug discovery process, make clinical trials more efficient and informative, and individualize cancer therapy. In practice, the choice of method should be determined by the nature of the sample to be tested, the testing laboratory’s expertise and access to equipment, and whether the detection of only known activating EGFR mutations, or of all possible mutations, is required. Development of companion diagnostic tests for this identification is advancing; nevertheless, the use of such tests merits greater attention. PMID:28210145

  14. Diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility and preliminary tests on laser interaction with light-atom clusters and p+{sup 11}B targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.consoli@enea.it [Associazione Euratom - ENEA sulla Fusione, via E. Fermi 45, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); De Angelis, Riccardo; Andreoli, Pierluigi; Cristofari, Giuseppe; Di Giorgio, Giorgio [Associazione Euratom - ENEA sulla Fusione, via E. Fermi 45, CP 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bonasera, Aldo [INFN - LNS, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Barbui, Marina [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Mazzocco, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Università degli Studi di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bang, Woosuk; Dyer, Gilliss; Quevedo, Hernan [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712, TX (United States); Hagel, Kris; Schmidt, Katarzyna [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Gaul, Erhard; Borger, Ted; Bernstein, Aaron; Martinez, Mikael; Donovan, Michael [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin 78712, TX (United States); Barbarino, Matteo [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843 (United States); Kimura, Sachie [INFN - LNS, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); and others

    2013-08-21

    The diagnostics of particle flows in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments is a delicate issue, due to the fast timescales and to the strong radiative electromagnetic contributions. This makes the discrimination of the different particles produced by the laser–plasma interaction not trivial, and requires the use of several diagnostic techniques. We describe here the diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility. They will provide more detailed analysis of microwave fields and particles originating from the interaction of laser with targets foreseen for future experiments.

  15. Diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility and preliminary tests on laser interaction with light-atom clusters and p+11B targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, Fabrizio; De Angelis, Riccardo; Andreoli, Pierluigi; Cristofari, Giuseppe; Di Giorgio, Giorgio; Bonasera, Aldo; Barbui, Marina; Mazzocco, Marco; Bang, Woosuk; Dyer, Gilliss; Quevedo, Hernan; Hagel, Kris; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Gaul, Erhard; Borger, Ted; Bernstein, Aaron; Martinez, Mikael; Donovan, Michael; Barbarino, Matteo; Kimura, Sachie

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostics of particle flows in Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments is a delicate issue, due to the fast timescales and to the strong radiative electromagnetic contributions. This makes the discrimination of the different particles produced by the laser–plasma interaction not trivial, and requires the use of several diagnostic techniques. We describe here the diagnostics improvement in the ABC facility. They will provide more detailed analysis of microwave fields and particles originating from the interaction of laser with targets foreseen for future experiments

  16. Comparative proteomic approach identifies PKM2 and cofilin-1 as potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-chen Peng

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Non-small cell lung carcinomas (Non-SCLC account for almost 80% of lung cancers, of which 40% were adenocarcinomas. For a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the development and progression of lung cancer, particularly lung adenocarcinoma, we have used proteomics technology to search for candidate prognostic and therapeutic targets in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. The protein profile changes between human pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue and paired surrounding normal tissue were analyzed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE based approach. Differentially expressed protein-spots were identified with ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS instruments. As a result, thirty two differentially expressed proteins (over 2-fold, p<0.05 were identified in pulmonary adenocarcinoma compared to normal tissues. Among them, two proteins (PKM2 and cofilin-1, significantly up-regulated in adenocarcinoma, were selected for detailed analysis. Immunohistochemical examination indicated that enhanced expression of PKM2 and cofilin-1 were correlated with the severity of epithelial dysplasia, as well as a relatively poor prognosis. Knockdown of PKM2 expression by RNA interference led to a significant suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in pulmonary adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cells in vitro, and tumor growth inhibition in vivo xenograft model (P<0.05. In addition, the shRNA expressing plasmid targeting cofilin-1 significantly inhibited tumor metastases and prolonged survival in LL/2 metastatic model. While additional works are needed to elucidate the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these altered proteins identified in this study, PKM2 and cofilin-1 may serve as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets for pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  17. Development of a questionnaire weighted scoring system to target diagnostic examinations for asthma in adults: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazell Michelle L

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification and treatment of unrecognised asthmatics in the community is important for improving the health of the individual and minimising cost and quality of life burden. It is not practical to offer clinical diagnostic assessment to whole communities, and a simple tool such as a questionnaire is required to identify a smaller target group. Conventional questionnaire screening methods which separate individuals into positive and negative categories have resulted in large numbers of individuals requiring clinical assessment. This study has therefore developed and tested a weighted scoring system that prioritises those most urgently in need, based on their questionnaire responses. Methods A stratified random sample of adult respondents to a general practice postal questionnaire survey were categorised 'asthmatic' or 'non-asthmatic' according to three expert physicians' opinions. Based on this categorisation, logistic regression was used to derive weights reflecting the relative importance of each question in predicting asthma, allowing calculation of weighted scores reflecting likelihood of asthma. Respondents scoring higher than a chosen threshold would be offered diagnostic examination. Results Age and presence of wheeze were most influential (weight 3 and overall weighted scores ranged from -1 to 13. Positive predictive values (PPV were estimated. For example, setting the threshold score at nine gave an estimated PPV for asthma diagnosis of 93.5%, a threshold score of seven corresponded to PPV 78.8%. PPV estimates were supported by examining 145 individuals from a new survey. Conclusion Weighted scoring of questionnaire responses provides a method for evaluating the priority level of an individual 'at a glance', minimising the resource wastage of examining false positives.

  18. Manual versus target-controlled infusion of balanced propofol during diagnostic colonoscopy: A prospective randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučićević Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing interest in balanced propofol sedation (BPS for colonoscopy in outpatient settings. Propofol is a potent anesthetic agent for this purpose and has a narrow therapeutic range, which increases a risk of cardiovascular and respiratory complications in case of improper administration. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare patients’ safety and comfort of endoscopists in two methods of BPS targeting deep sedation - propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI and manual intravenous titration technique (MT - during colonoscopy. Methods. This prospective randomized controlled trial included 90 patients (class I or II of the American Society of Anesthesiologists deeply sedated with propofol, coadministered with small doses of midazolam and fentanyl. Propofol was given by MT technique (45 patients or by TCI (45 patients. The following adverse effects were recorded: hypotension, hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypoxemia, bradypnea, apnea, hiccupping, and coughing, as well as endoscopist’s comfort during colonoscopy by means of a questionnaire. Results. The MT group compared to the TCI group had a lower mean arterial pressure in the 10th minute after the beginning (p = 0.017, and at the end of colonoscopy (p = 0.006, higher oxygen saturation in the fifth minute (p = 0.033, and in the 15th minute (p = 0.008 after the beginning of colonoscopy, and lower heart rate at the beginning of the procedure (p = 0.001. There were no statistically significant differences in adverse events. Endoscopist’s comfort during colonoscopy was high 95.6% in the TCI group vs. 88.9% in the MT group (p = 0.069. Conclusion. MT is clinically as stable as TCI of propofol for deep sedation during colonoscopy, and endoscopists experienced the same comfort during colonoscopy in both groups. Thus, both combinations are suitable for deep sedation during diagnostic colonoscopy.

  19. Building a diagnostic algorithm on localized neuropathic pain (LNP and targeted topical treatment: focus on 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casale R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Casale,1,2 Consalvo Mattia31Department of Clinical Neurophysiology and Pain Rehabilitation Unit, Foundation “Salvatore Maugeri”, Research and Care Institute, IRCCS, Pavia, Italy; 2EFIC Montescano Pain School, Montescano, Italy; 3Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences, Section of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Sapienza University of Rome, ItalyAbstract: Within the broad definition of neuropathic pain, the refinement of clinical diagnostic procedures has led to the introduction of the concept of localized neuropathic pain (LNP. It is characterized by consistent and circumscribed area(s of maximum pain, which are associated with negative or positive sensory signs and/or spontaneous symptoms typical of neuropathic pain. This description outlines the clinical features (currently lacking in guidelines and treatment recommendations in patients for whom topical targeted treatment with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster is suggested as first-line therapy. Few epidemiologic data are present in the literature but it is generally estimated that about 60% of neuropathic pain conditions are localized, and therefore identifiable as LNP. A mandatory clinical criterion for the diagnosis of LNP is that signs and symptoms must be present in a clearly identified and defined area(s. Cartographic recordings can help to define each area and to assess variations. The diagnosis of LNP relies on careful neurological examination more than on pain questionnaires, but it is recognized that they can be extremely useful for recording the symptom profiles and establishing a more targeted treatment. The most widely studied frequent/relevant clinical presentations of LNP are postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and neuropathic postoperative pain. They successfully respond to treatment with 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster with equal if not better pain control but with fewer side effects versus conventional systemic

  20. Comprehensive target capture/next-generation sequencing as a second-tier diagnostic approach for congenital muscular dystrophy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Tian, Xia; Yuo, Chung-Yee; Chen, Wan-Zi; Kan, Tsu-Min; Su, Yi-Ning; Nishino, Ichizo; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2017-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a heterogeneous disease entity. The detailed clinical manifestation and causative gene for each subgroup of CMD are quite variable. This study aims to analyze the phenotypes and genotypes of Taiwanese patients with CMD as the epidemiology of CMD varies among populations and has been scantly described in Asia. A total of 48 patients suspected to have CMD were screened and categorized by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry studies. Different genetic analyses, including next-generation sequencing (NGS), were selected, based on the clinical and pathological findings. We identified 17 patients with sarcolemma-specific collagen VI deficiency (SSCD), 6 patients with merosin deficiency, two with reduced alpha-dystroglycan staining, and two with striking lymphocyte infiltration in addition to dystrophic change on muscle pathology. Fourteen in 15 patients with SSCD, were shown to have COL6A1, COL6A2 or COL6A3 mutations by NGS analysis; all showed marked distal hyperlaxity and normal intelligence but the overall severity was less than in previously reported patients from other populations. All six patients with merosin deficiency had mutations in LAMA2. They showed relatively uniform phenotype that were compatible with previous studies, except for higher proportion of mental retardation with epilepsy. With reduced alpha-dystroglycan staining, one patient was found to carry mutations in POMT1 while another patient carried mutations in TRAPPC11. LMNA mutations were found in the two patients with inflammatory change on muscle pathology. They were clinically characterized by neck flexion limitation and early joint contracture, but no cardiac problem had developed yet. Muscle pathology remains helpful in guiding further molecular analyses by direct sequencing of certain genes or by target capture/NGS as a second-tier diagnostic tool, and is crucial for establishing the genotype-phenotype correlation. We also determined the frequencies of

  1. In-Bore 3-T MR-guided Transrectal Targeted Prostate Biopsy: Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2-based Diagnostic Performance for Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nelly; Lin, Wei-Chan; Khoshnoodi, Pooria; Asvadi, Nazanin H; Yoshida, Jeffrey; Margolis, Daniel J A; Lu, David S K; Wu, Holden; Sung, Kyung Hyun; Lu, David Y; Huang, Jaioti; Raman, Steven S

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To determine the diagnostic yield of in-bore 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided prostate biopsy and stratify performance according to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) versions 1 and 2. Materials and Methods This study was HIPAA compliant and institution review board approved. In-bore 3-T MR-guided prostate biopsy was performed in 134 targets in 106 men who (a) had not previously undergone prostate biopsy, (b) had prior negative biopsy findings with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, or (c) had a prior history of prostate cancer with increasing PSA level. Clinical, diagnostic 3-T MR imaging was performed with in-bore guided prostate biopsy, and pathology data were collected. The diagnostic yields of MR-guided biopsy per patient and target were analyzed, and differences between biopsy targets with negative and positive findings were determined. Results of logistic regression and areas under the curve were compared between PI-RADS versions 1 and 2. Results Prostate cancer was detected in 63 of 106 patients (59.4%) and in 72 of 134 targets (53.7%) with 3-T MR imaging. Forty-nine of 72 targets (68.0%) had clinically significant cancer (Gleason score ≥ 7). One complication occurred (urosepsis, 0.9%). Patients who had positive target findings had lower apparent diffusion coefficient values (875 × 10 -6 mm 2 /sec vs 1111 × 10 -6 mm 2 /sec, respectively; P PSA density (0.16 vs 0.10, respectively; P PI-RADS version 2 category 3-5 scores when compared with patients with negative target findings. MR targets with PI-RADS version 2 category 2, 3, 4, and 5 scores had a positive diagnostic yield of three of 23 (13.0%), six of 31 (19.4%), 39 of 50 (78.0%), and 24 of 29 (82.8%) targets, respectively. No differences were detected in areas under the curve for PI-RADS version 2 versus 1. Conclusion In-bore 3-T MR-guided biopsy is safe and effective for prostate cancer diagnosis when stratified according to PI-RADS versions 1 and 2

  2. Validation and Application of a Custom-Designed Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Panel for the Diagnostic Mutational Profiling of Solid Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Froyen

    Full Text Available The inevitable switch from standard molecular methods to next-generation sequencing for the molecular profiling of tumors is challenging for most diagnostic laboratories. However, fixed validation criteria for diagnostic accreditation are not in place because of the great variability in methods and aims. Here, we describe the validation of a custom panel of hotspots in 24 genes for the detection of somatic mutations in non-small cell lung carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and malignant melanoma starting from FFPE sections, using 14, 36 and 5 cases, respectively. The targeted hotspots were selected for their present or future clinical relevance in solid tumor types. The target regions were enriched with the TruSeq approach starting from limited amounts of DNA. Cost effective sequencing of 12 pooled libraries was done using a micro flow cell on the MiSeq and subsequent data analysis with MiSeqReporter and VariantStudio. The entire workflow was diagnostically validated showing a robust performance with maximal sensitivity and specificity using as thresholds a variant allele frequency >5% and a minimal amplicon coverage of 300. We implemented this method through the analysis of 150 routine diagnostic samples and identified clinically relevant mutations in 16 genes including KRAS (32%, TP53 (32%, BRAF (12%, APC (11%, EGFR (8% and NRAS (5%. Importantly, the highest success rate was obtained when using also the low quality DNA samples. In conclusion, we provide a workflow for the validation of targeted NGS by a custom-designed pan-solid tumor panel in a molecular diagnostic lab and demonstrate its robustness in a clinical setting.

  3. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children therapy (ACT), vs. presumptive treatment. METHODS: Cluster...

  4. Comprehensive target capture/next-generation sequencing as a second-tier diagnostic approach for congenital muscular dystrophy in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Liang

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD is a heterogeneous disease entity. The detailed clinical manifestation and causative gene for each subgroup of CMD are quite variable. This study aims to analyze the phenotypes and genotypes of Taiwanese patients with CMD as the epidemiology of CMD varies among populations and has been scantly described in Asia.A total of 48 patients suspected to have CMD were screened and categorized by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry studies. Different genetic analyses, including next-generation sequencing (NGS, were selected, based on the clinical and pathological findings.We identified 17 patients with sarcolemma-specific collagen VI deficiency (SSCD, 6 patients with merosin deficiency, two with reduced alpha-dystroglycan staining, and two with striking lymphocyte infiltration in addition to dystrophic change on muscle pathology. Fourteen in 15 patients with SSCD, were shown to have COL6A1, COL6A2 or COL6A3 mutations by NGS analysis; all showed marked distal hyperlaxity and normal intelligence but the overall severity was less than in previously reported patients from other populations. All six patients with merosin deficiency had mutations in LAMA2. They showed relatively uniform phenotype that were compatible with previous studies, except for higher proportion of mental retardation with epilepsy. With reduced alpha-dystroglycan staining, one patient was found to carry mutations in POMT1 while another patient carried mutations in TRAPPC11. LMNA mutations were found in the two patients with inflammatory change on muscle pathology. They were clinically characterized by neck flexion limitation and early joint contracture, but no cardiac problem had developed yet.Muscle pathology remains helpful in guiding further molecular analyses by direct sequencing of certain genes or by target capture/NGS as a second-tier diagnostic tool, and is crucial for establishing the genotype-phenotype correlation. We also determined the

  5. Spatial genomic heterogeneity in diffuse intrinsic pontine and midline high-grade glioma: implications for diagnostic biopsy and targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lindsey M; DeWire, Mariko; Ryall, Scott; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Leach, James; Miles, Lili; Ramani, Arun; Brudno, Michael; Kumar, Shiva Senthil; Drissi, Rachid; Dexheimer, Phillip; Salloum, Ralph; Chow, Lionel; Hummel, Trent; Stevenson, Charles; Lu, Q Richard; Jones, Blaise; Witte, David; Aronow, Bruce; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Fouladi, Maryam

    2016-01-04

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and midline high-grade glioma (mHGG) are lethal childhood brain tumors. Spatial genomic heterogeneity has been well-described in adult HGG but has not been comprehensively characterized in pediatric HGG. We performed whole exome sequencing on 38-matched primary, contiguous, and metastatic tumor sites from eight children with DIPG (n = 7) or mHGG (n = 1) collected using a unique MRI-guided autopsy protocol. Validation was performed using Sanger sequencing, Droplet Digital polymerase-chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescent in-situ hybridization. Median age at diagnosis was 6.1 years (range: 2.9-23.3 years). Median overall survival was 13.2 months (range: 11.2-32.2 months). Contiguous tumor infiltration and distant metastases were observed in seven and six patients, respectively, including leptomeningeal dissemination in three DIPGs. Histopathological heterogeneity was evident in seven patients, including intra-pontine heterogeneity in two DIPGs, ranging from World Health Organization grade II to IV astrocytoma. We found conservation of heterozygous K27M mutations in H3F3A (n = 4) or HIST1H3B (n = 3) across all primary, contiguous, and metastatic tumor sites in all DIPGs. ACVR1 (n = 2), PIK3CA (n = 2), FGFR1 (n = 2), and MET (n = 1) were also intra-tumorally conserved. ACVR1 was co-mutated with HIST1H3B (n = 2). In contrast, PDGFRA amplification and mutation were spatially heterogeneous, as were mutations in BCOR (n = 1), ATRX (n = 2), and MYC (n = 1). TP53 aberrations (n = 3 patients) varied by type and location between primary and metastatic tumors sites but were intra-tumorally conserved. Spatial conservation of prognostically-relevant and therapeutically-targetable somatic mutations in DIPG and mHGG contrasts the significant heterogeneity of driver mutations seen in adult HGG and supports uniform implementation of diagnostic biopsy in DIPG and mHGG to

  6. Incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion versus 14-fragments prostatic biopsy. A prospective controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, Guilherme C.; Falsarella, Priscila M.; Garcia, Rodrigo G.; Queiroz, Marcos R.G. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Interventional Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lemos, Gustavo C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Urology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo H. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2018-01-15

    To compare the incremental diagnostic value of targeted biopsy using real-time multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound (mpMRI-TRUS) fusion to conventional 14-cores biopsy. Uni-institutional, institutional review board (IRB) approved prospective blinded study comparing TRUS-guided random and targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion, in 100 consecutive men. We included men with clinical-laboratorial suspicious for prostate cancer and Likert score ≥ 3 mp-MRI. Patients previously diagnosed with prostate cancer were excluded. All patients were submitted to 14-cores TRUS-guided biopsy (mpMRI data operator-blinded), followed by targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion. There was an overall increase in cancer detection rate, from 56% with random technique to 62% combining targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion; incremental diagnosis was even more relevant for clinically significant lesions (Gleason ≥ 7), diagnosing 10% more clinically significant lesions with fusion biopsy technique. Diagnosis upgrade occurred in 5 patients that would have negative results in random biopsies and had clinically significant tumours with the combined technique, and in 5 patients who had the diagnosis of significant tumours after fusion biopsy and clinically insignificant tumours in random biopsies(p=0.0010). Targeted biopsy using mpMRI-TRUS fusion has incremental diagnostic value in comparison to conventional random biopsy, better detecting clinically significant prostate cancers. (orig.)

  7. De nouveaux produits à base de haricots pour améliorer la sécurité ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... De nouveaux produits à base de haricots qui cuisent facilement devraient améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle des ménages à faible et à ... commercialisation et consommation des fèves précuites afin de produire des revenus et d'accroître la sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle au Kenya et en ...

  8. Target Product Profile for a Diagnostic Assay to Differentiate between Bacterial and Non-Bacterial Infections and Reduce Antimicrobial Overuse in Resource-Limited Settings: An Expert Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Sabine; Tadesse, Birkneh Tilahun; Moussy, Francis; Chua, Arlene; Zorzet, Anna; Tängdén, Thomas; Dolinger, David L; Page, Anne-Laure; Crump, John A; D'Acremont, Valerie; Bassat, Quique; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Heinrich, Norbert; Rodwell, Timothy J; González, Iveth J

    2016-01-01

    Acute fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms globally. In order to reduce the empiric use of antimicrobial drugs and improve outcomes, it is essential to improve diagnostic capabilities. In the absence of microbiology facilities in low-income settings, an assay to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial causes would be a critical first step. To ensure that patient and market needs are met, the requirements of such a test should be specified in a target product profile (TPP). To identify minimal/optimal characteristics for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial fever test, experts from academia and international organizations with expertise in infectious diseases, diagnostic test development, laboratory medicine, global health, and health economics were convened. Proposed TPPs were reviewed by this working group, and consensus characteristics were defined. The working group defined non-severely ill, non-malaria infected children as the target population for the desired assay. To provide access to the most patients, the test should be deployable to community health centers and informal health settings, and staff should require 90% and >80% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Other key characteristics, to account for the challenging environment at which the test is targeted, included: i) time-to-result targeted and timely efforts by industry partners and academic institutions.

  9. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and development of an 18S ribosomal DNA-targeted diagnostic PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelck, Ulrike E; Bialek, Ralf; Weiss, Michael

    2011-04-01

    We genetically characterized pinworms obtained from 37 children from different regions of Germany and established new species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. No ribosomal DNA diversity was found; the phylogenetic position of Enterobius vermicularis within the Oxyurida order and its close relationship to the Ascaridida and Spirurida orders was confirmed.

  10. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and Development of an 18S Ribosomal DNA-Targeted Diagnostic PCR▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelck, Ulrike E.; Bialek, Ralf; Weiß, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We genetically characterized pinworms obtained from 37 children from different regions of Germany and established new species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. No ribosomal DNA diversity was found; the phylogenetic position of Enterobius vermicularis within the Oxyurida order and its close relationship to the Ascaridida and Spirurida orders was confirmed. PMID:21248085

  11. Traité des nouveaux risques précaution, crise, assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Godard, Olivier; Lagadec, Patrick; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann

    2002-01-01

    Au-delà des dénonciations de la technologie prométhéenne, s'appuyant sur les acquis de la recherche économique et d'autres disciplines des sciences sociales, cet ouvrage pionnier rassemble les pièces d'un puzzle dispersé. Le motif en est clair: dégager les axes d'une gouvernance des nouveaux risques. Celle-ci repose sur trois piliers qui organisent le panorama offert : la précaution - de la théorie du risque à celle des régimes politiques dans un univers à la fois non probabiliste et controversé; la prévention et la gestion de crises - dont les traits saillants sont montrés à partir de trois cas exemplaires : la contamination criminelle d'un produit pharmaceutique ; la destruction du réseau électrique québécois en 1998 ; l'épidémie de la vache folle au Royaume-Uni ; l'assurance des risques à grande échelle (désastres naturels, catastrophes technologiques et terrorisme de masse) qui, avérés ou potentiels, bouleversent l'économie de l'assurance. Pourquoi un Traité ? La raison en es...

  12. Les TIC sont-ils les nouveaux territoires de la diaspora chinoise ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Raynaud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation croissante des TIC modifie le rapport de l’homme à l’espace géographique. Permettant un accès instantané à une infinité d’informations, Internet, la téléphonie et la télévision sont des technologies qui produisent de nouvelles perceptions et actions sur les territoires. Cette étude met en évidence l’existence de nouvelles interactions entre les acteurs (communauté étudiante chinoise de Montpellier, les territoires (chinois et français et les réseaux (TIC. Les TIC modifient les pratiques spatiales en facilitant l’installation et l’organisation de la vie quotidienne des immigrants dans le pays d’accueil. Ils bouleversent également les perceptions en créant un sentiment de proximité avec leur pays natal et de réconfort. Entre adaptation à l’échelle locale et affirmation d’une identité culturelle chinoise, les TIC favorisent l’émergence d’une double culture et semblent devenir les nouveaux territoires de la diaspora chinoise.

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Fusion Guided Targeted Biopsy Evaluated by Transperineal Template Saturation Prostate Biopsy for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezavi, Ashkan; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Donati, Olivio F; Rizzi, Gianluca; Rupp, Niels J; Wettstein, Marian S; Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hermanns, Thomas; Eberli, Daniel

    2018-02-21

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasound fusion guided targeted biopsy against that of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy to detect prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 415 men who consecutively presented for prostate biopsy between November 2014 and September 2016 at our tertiary care center. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 3 Tesla device without an endorectal coil, followed by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy with the BiopSee® fusion system. Additional fusion guided targeted biopsy was done in men with a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, defined as Likert score 3 to 5. Any Gleason pattern 4 was defined as clinically significant prostate cancer. The detection rates of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion guided targeted biopsy were compared with the detection rate of transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy using the McNemar test. We obtained a median of 40 (range 30 to 55) and 3 (range 2 to 4) transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and fusion guided targeted biopsy cores, respectively. Of the 124 patients (29.9%) without a suspicious lesion on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging 32 (25.8%) were found to have clinically significant prostate cancer on transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy. Of the 291 patients (70.1%) with a Likert score of 3 to 5 clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 129 (44.3%) by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging fusion guided targeted biopsy, in 176 (60.5%) by transperineal template saturation prostate biopsy and in 187 (64.3%) by the combined approach. Overall 58 cases (19.9%) of clinically significant prostate cancer would have been missed if fusion guided targeted biopsy had been performed exclusively. The sensitivity of

  14. Identification of the Mycobacterium ulcerans protein MUL_3720 as a promising target for the development of a diagnostic test for Buruli ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Anita; Röltgen, Katharina; Dangy, Jean Pierre; Ruf, Marie Thérèse; Scherr, Nicole; Bolz, Miriam; Tobias, Nicholas Jay; Moes, Charles; Vettiger, Andrea; Stinear, Timothy Paul; Pluschke, Gerd

    2015-02-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is a devastating skin disease, occurring mainly in remote West African communities with poor access to health care. Early case detection and subsequent antibiotic treatment are essential to counteract the progression of the characteristic chronic ulcerative lesions. Since the accuracy of clinical BU diagnosis is limited, laboratory reconfirmation is crucial. However, currently available diagnostic techniques with sufficient sensitivity and specificity require infrastructure and resources only accessible at a few reference centres in the African endemic countries. Hence, the development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific point-of-care diagnostic tool is one of the major research priorities for BU. In this study, we have identified a previously unknown M. ulcerans protein, MUL_3720, as a promising target for antigen capture-based detection assays. We show that MUL_3720 is highly expressed by M. ulcerans and has no orthologs in other prevalent pathogenic mycobacteria. We generated a panel of anti-MUL_3720 antibodies and used them to confirm a cell wall location for MUL_3720. These antibodies could also specifically detect M. ulcerans in infected human tissue samples as well as in lysates of infected mouse footpads. A bacterial 2-hybrid screen suggested a potential role for MUL_3720 in cell wall biosynthesis pathways. Finally, we demonstrate that a combination of MUL_3720 specific antibody reagents in a sandwich-ELISA format has sufficient sensitivity to make them suitable for the development of antigen capture-based diagnostic tests for BU.

  15. Identification of the Mycobacterium ulcerans protein MUL_3720 as a promising target for the development of a diagnostic test for Buruli ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Dreyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is a devastating skin disease, occurring mainly in remote West African communities with poor access to health care. Early case detection and subsequent antibiotic treatment are essential to counteract the progression of the characteristic chronic ulcerative lesions. Since the accuracy of clinical BU diagnosis is limited, laboratory reconfirmation is crucial. However, currently available diagnostic techniques with sufficient sensitivity and specificity require infrastructure and resources only accessible at a few reference centres in the African endemic countries. Hence, the development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific point-of-care diagnostic tool is one of the major research priorities for BU. In this study, we have identified a previously unknown M. ulcerans protein, MUL_3720, as a promising target for antigen capture-based detection assays. We show that MUL_3720 is highly expressed by M. ulcerans and has no orthologs in other prevalent pathogenic mycobacteria. We generated a panel of anti-MUL_3720 antibodies and used them to confirm a cell wall location for MUL_3720. These antibodies could also specifically detect M. ulcerans in infected human tissue samples as well as in lysates of infected mouse footpads. A bacterial 2-hybrid screen suggested a potential role for MUL_3720 in cell wall biosynthesis pathways. Finally, we demonstrate that a combination of MUL_3720 specific antibody reagents in a sandwich-ELISA format has sufficient sensitivity to make them suitable for the development of antigen capture-based diagnostic tests for BU.

  16. MAGEA4 expression in bone and soft tissue tumors: its utility as a target for immunotherapy and diagnostic marker combined with NY-ESO-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2017-07-26

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens have promise as targets for immunotherapy, because of their restricted expression in tumor or testis tissue. MAGEA4 is both a MAGE family member and a CT antigen, and has attracted attention as a potential immunotherapeutic target. We investigated MAGEA4 expression by immunohistochemistry in bone and soft tissue tumor specimens that consisted of 35 malignant or intermediate and 24 benign histological subtypes, in order to evaluate its possible utility as an immunotherapy target and its potential use as a diagnostic marker when combined with another CT antigen, NY-ESO-1. Among these tumors, MAGEA4 was detected in 82.2% of synovial sarcomas, 67.7% of myxoid liposarcomas, 43.8% of osteosarcomas, 41.4% of angiosarcomas, 24.6% of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), and 21.4% of chondrosarcomas. NY-ESO-1 expression was found in 88.2% of myxoid liposarcomas, 61.1% of synovial sarcomas, 31.3% of osteosarcomas, 21.4% of pleomorphic liposarcomas, 16.7% of desmoplastic small round cell tumors, and 14.3% of chondrosarcomas. Benign tumors and non-tumorous tissue, except for testis tissue, did not express MAGEA4 or NY-ESO-1. Combined use of MAGEA4 and NY-ESO-1 increased the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values for distinguishing synovial sarcoma from spindle cell tumors and other mimicking tumors, compared to individual use of MAGEA4 or NY-ESO-1. Our results support the immunotherapy targeting MAGEA4 or NY-ESO-1 can be an ancillary therapy in the above-mentioned tumors, and the potential utility of MAGEA4 as an ancillary diagnostic marker for synovial sarcoma combined with NY-ESO-1.

  17. Target Product Profile for a Diagnostic Assay to Differentiate between Bacterial and Non-Bacterial Infections and Reduce Antimicrobial Overuse in Resource-Limited Settings: An Expert Consensus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dittrich

    Full Text Available Acute fever is one of the most common presenting symptoms globally. In order to reduce the empiric use of antimicrobial drugs and improve outcomes, it is essential to improve diagnostic capabilities. In the absence of microbiology facilities in low-income settings, an assay to distinguish bacterial from non-bacterial causes would be a critical first step. To ensure that patient and market needs are met, the requirements of such a test should be specified in a target product profile (TPP. To identify minimal/optimal characteristics for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial fever test, experts from academia and international organizations with expertise in infectious diseases, diagnostic test development, laboratory medicine, global health, and health economics were convened. Proposed TPPs were reviewed by this working group, and consensus characteristics were defined. The working group defined non-severely ill, non-malaria infected children as the target population for the desired assay. To provide access to the most patients, the test should be deployable to community health centers and informal health settings, and staff should require 90% and >80% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Other key characteristics, to account for the challenging environment at which the test is targeted, included: i time-to-result <10 min (but maximally <2 hrs; ii storage conditions at 0-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity with a minimal shelf life of 12 months; iii operational conditions of 5-40°C, ≤90% non-condensing humidity; and iv minimal sample collection needs (50-100μL, capillary blood. This expert approach to define assay requirements for a bacterial vs. non-bacterial assay should guide product development, and enable targeted and timely efforts by industry partners and academic institutions.

  18. Specific isolation of disseminated cancer cells: a new method permitting sensitive detection of target molecules of diagnostic and therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, Siri; Maelandsmo, Gunhild M; Hoifodt, Hanne K; Rasmussen, Heidi; Fodstad, Oystein

    2007-01-01

    Molecular studies of rare cells, such as circulating cancer cells, require efficient pre-enrichment steps to obtain a pure population of target cells for further characterization. We have developed a two-step approach, starting with immunomagnetic enrichment, followed by specific isolation of individual, easily identifiable bead-rosetted target cells using a new semi-automated CellPick system. With this procedure, 1-50 live target cells can now be isolated. As a model system, we spiked a small number of tumor cells into millions of normal mononuclear cells (MNCs). Efficient isolation of pure target cells was obtained by use of the CellPick system, and the nature of isolated, bead-rosetted cells was verified by use of FISH. Single breast cancer cells were picked directly into an RNA preserving lysis buffer, reverse transcribed, and PCR amplified with two cDNA specific primer sets. With the isolated cells we consistently obtained both ubiquitously expressed and tumor cell specific PCR products. We also performed a successful mutation analysis of single cells using PCR and cycling temperature capillary electrophoresis (CTCE). This may have significant clinical implications in cancer and in other diseases, e.g. in characterizing micrometastatic cancer cells in blood and lymph nodes to help identifying patients who most likely will respond to therapies like tyrosine kinase inhibitors and compounds targeting specific mutations. By use of the CellPick system it is possible to specifically isolate bead-rosetted or otherwise labelled target cells from a heterogeneous cell population for further molecular characterization.

  19. Companion diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-01-01

    . Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding...... of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic...... co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently...

  20. Targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 for anticancer therapy: clinical impact from diagnostics to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Eon; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Hong, Soon-Sun

    2015-01-01

    L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is one of the amino acid transporters. It is overexpressed in various types of cancer cells, while it is produced restrictedly in normal tissues. We discuss its characteristics in cancer cells compared with normal cells. We also mention the current applications to target LAT1 for anticancer therapy focusing on prognostic biomarkers, radio-labeled tumor imaging reagents, amino acid-stapled prodrugs, LAT1-mediated enhanced transport of anticancer drugs and LAT1 inhibitors. LAT1 can be a versatile target to promisingly develop transporter-based drugs with enhanced drug delivery potential for anticancer therapy.

  1. Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mouse Model Using Macrophage-Targeted Gadolinium-Containing Synthetic Lipopeptide Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu T Shen

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Western cultures. The vast majority of cardiovascular events, including stroke and myocardial infarction, result from the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by high and active macrophage content. Current imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI aim to characterize anatomic and structural features of plaques rather than their content. Previously, we reported that macrophage-targeted delivery of gadolinium (Gd-based contrast agent (GBCA-HDL using high density lipoproteins (HDL-like particles significantly enhances the detection of plaques in an apolipoprotein (apo E knockout (KO mouse model, with an atherosclerotic wall/muscle normalized enhancement ratio (NER of 120% achieved. These particles are comprised of lipids and synthetic peptide fragments of the major protein of HDL, apo A-I, that contain a naturally occurring modification which targets the particles to macrophages. Targeted delivery minimizes the Gd dose and thus reduces the adverse effects of Gd. The aims of the current study were to test whether varying the GBCA-HDL particle shape and composition can further enhance atherosclerotic plaque MRI and control organ clearance of these agents. We show that the optimized GBCA-HDL particles are efficiently delivered intracellularly to and uptaken by both J774 macrophages in vitro and more importantly, by intraplaque macrophages in vivo, as evidenced by NER up to 160% and higher. This suggests high diagnostic power of our GBCA-HDL particles in the detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Further, in contrast to discoidal, spherical GBCA-HDL exhibit hepatic clearance, which could further diminish adverse renal effects of Gd. Finally, activated macrophages are reliable indicators of any inflamed tissues and are implicated in other areas of unmet clinical need such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis and cancer, suggesting the

  2. New Therapeutic and Diagnostic Opportunities for Injured Tissue-Specific Targeting of Complement Inhibitors and Imaging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holers, V. Michael; Tomlinson, Stephen; Kulik, Liudmila; Atkinson, Carl; Rohrer, Bärbel; Banda, Nirmal; Thurman, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial opportunity and commercial interest in developing drugs that modulate the complement system in a broad range of non-orphan indications, several obstacles remain to be overcome. Among these issues is the biophysical nature of complement proteins, whose circulating levels are typically very high and whose turnover rates are relatively rapid, especially in the setting of chronic inflammatory conditions. This situation necessitates the use of very high levels of therapeutic compounds in order to achieve both multi-pathway and multiple effector mechanism inhibition. In addition, one must avoid infectious complications or the systemic impairment of the other important physiological functions of complement. Herein we focus on the development of a novel therapeutic strategy based on injured tissue-specific targeting of complement inhibitors using the antigen-combining domains of a small subset of natural IgM antibodies, which as endogenous antibodies specifically recognize sites of local damage across a broad range of tissues and locally activate complement C3, resulting in C3 fragment covalent fixation. Because the use of such recombinant tissue-targeting inhibitors precludes the utility of measuring systemic levels of complement biomarkers or function, since a goal of this targeting strategy is to leave those processes intact and unimpeded, we also briefly describe a new method designed to quantitatively measure using imaging modalities the inhibition of generation of fixed C3 fragments at sites of inflammation/injury. In addition to the ability to determine whether complement activation is locally constrained with the use of inhibitors, there is also a broader application of this imaging approach to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases characterized by local complement activation. PMID:27282113

  3. Use of diagnostic dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for targeting of soft tissue tumour biopsies at 3T: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie; Amann, Gabriele; Krssak, Martin; Panotopoulos, Joannis; Funovics, Philipp; Windhager, Reinhard; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Nemec, Stefan; Breitenseher, Martin; Grabner, Guenther; Bogner, Wolfgang; Dominkus, Martin; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    To test the feasibility and accuracy of MR-guided soft tissue tumour biopsy at 3T, using the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) information from staging MRI for intralesional targeting. After obtaining written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 53 patients with suspected soft tissue tumours prospectively underwent preoperative staging MRI at 3T, including DCE, and subsequent MR-guided core needle biopsy. In 44/53 cases, DCE was heterogeneous and was used for intralesional biopsy targeting. Surgical, whole-specimen histology was used as the gold standard in 43/44 patients and revealed 42 soft tissue tumours (24 men; 18 women; mean age, 52 years; range, 19 - 84). Final surgical histology revealed eight benign lesions, six tumours of intermediate dignity, and 28 malignancies. All malignancies had shown heterogeneous DCE. The diagnostic yield of the biopsies was 100 % (42/42). Histological accuracy rates of biopsy were 100 % in predicting the dignity (42/42; 95 % CI [0.916 - 1.000]), 95.2 % for the tissue-specific entity (40/42; 95 % CI [0.847 - 0.987]), and 90.5 % for the tumour grade (38/42; 95 % CI [0.779 - 0.962]). Our preliminary study indicates that biopsy of soft tissue tumours can be performed accurately and safely with DCE targeted MR-guidance at 3T, using a combined staging/biopsy MRI protocol. (orig.)

  4. Use of diagnostic dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for targeting of soft tissue tumour biopsies at 3T: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna/Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Amann, Gabriele [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute for Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Krssak, Martin [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Internal Medicine III, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vienna (Austria); Panotopoulos, Joannis; Funovics, Philipp; Windhager, Reinhard [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Orthopaedics, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, Pavol [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Nemec, Stefan [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Breitenseher, Martin [Landesklinikum Waldviertel Horn, Horn (Austria); Grabner, Guenther; Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Dominkus, Martin [Orthopaedics Hospital Speising, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-15

    To test the feasibility and accuracy of MR-guided soft tissue tumour biopsy at 3T, using the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) information from staging MRI for intralesional targeting. After obtaining written informed consent for this institutional review board-approved study, 53 patients with suspected soft tissue tumours prospectively underwent preoperative staging MRI at 3T, including DCE, and subsequent MR-guided core needle biopsy. In 44/53 cases, DCE was heterogeneous and was used for intralesional biopsy targeting. Surgical, whole-specimen histology was used as the gold standard in 43/44 patients and revealed 42 soft tissue tumours (24 men; 18 women; mean age, 52 years; range, 19 - 84). Final surgical histology revealed eight benign lesions, six tumours of intermediate dignity, and 28 malignancies. All malignancies had shown heterogeneous DCE. The diagnostic yield of the biopsies was 100 % (42/42). Histological accuracy rates of biopsy were 100 % in predicting the dignity (42/42; 95 % CI [0.916 - 1.000]), 95.2 % for the tissue-specific entity (40/42; 95 % CI [0.847 - 0.987]), and 90.5 % for the tumour grade (38/42; 95 % CI [0.779 - 0.962]). Our preliminary study indicates that biopsy of soft tissue tumours can be performed accurately and safely with DCE targeted MR-guidance at 3T, using a combined staging/biopsy MRI protocol. (orig.)

  5. Molecular diagnostics of a single drug-resistant multiple myeloma case using targeted next-generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikeda H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Ikeda,1 Kazuya Ishiguro,1 Tetsuyuki Igarashi,1 Yuka Aoki,1 Toshiaki Hayashi,1 Tadao Ishida,1 Yasushi Sasaki,1,2 Takashi Tokino,2 Yasuhisa Shinomura1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, 2Medical Genome Sciences, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: A 69-year-old man was diagnosed with IgG λ-type multiple myeloma (MM, Stage II in October 2010. He was treated with one cycle of high-dose dexamethasone. After three cycles of bortezomib, the patient exhibited slow elevations in the free light-chain levels and developed a significant new increase of serum M protein. Bone marrow cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype characteristic of malignant plasma cells. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of this patient, we sequenced for mutations in the entire coding regions of 409 cancer-related genes using a semiconductor-based sequencing platform. Sequencing analysis revealed eight nonsynonymous somatic mutations in addition to several copy number variants, including CCND1 and RB1. These alterations may play roles in the pathobiology of this disease. This targeted next-generation sequencing can allow for the prediction of drug resistance and facilitate improvements in the treatment of MM patients. Keywords: multiple myeloma, drug resistance, genome-wide sequencing, semiconductor sequencer, target therapy

  6. Media Smart-Targeted: Diagnostic outcomes from a two-country pragmatic online eating disorder risk reduction trial for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilksch, Simon M; O'Shea, Anne; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-03-01

    Diagnostic outcomes in eating disorder (ED) risk reduction trials are important but rarely reported. An online pragmatic randomized-controlled trial was conducted with young-adult women in Australia and New Zealand seeking to improve their body image. Media Smart-Targeted (MS-T) was a 9-module program released weekly while control participants received tips for positive body image. Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) scores from baseline and 12-month follow-up were used to investigate two outcomes: ED onset in those who were asymptomatic at baseline (prevention effects); and, ED remission in those who met diagnosis at baseline (treatment effects). MS-T participants were 66% less likely than controls to develop an ED by 12-month follow-up (nonsignificant). MS-T participants who met ED criteria at baseline were 75% less likely than controls to still meet diagnostic criteria at follow-up. This effect was significant and remained so for both those who did and who did not access external face-to-face ED treatment during the trial. While further investigations are necessary, MS-T has fully automated procedures, low implementation costs, the potential to be delivered at-scale to assist those assist those where face-to-face services are limited or not available (e.g., remote areas). © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. X-rays diagnostics of the hot electron energy distribution in the intense laser interaction with metal targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, O. F.; Andreev, N. E.; Rosmej, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    A two-temperature hot electron energy distribution has been revealed by modeling of bremsstrahlung emission, measured by the radiation attenuation and half-shade methods, and Kα emission from a massive silver cylinder irradiated by a subpicosecond s-polarized laser pulse with a peak intensity of about 2 × 1019 W/cm2. To deduce parameters of the hot electron spectrum, we have developed semi-analytical models of generation and measurements of the x-rays. The models are based on analytical expressions and tabulated data on electron stopping power as well as cross-sections of generation and absorption of the x-rays. The Kα emission from thin silver foils deposited on low-Z substrates, both conducting and nonconducting, has been used to verify the developed models and obtained hot electron spectrum. The obtained temperatures of the colder and hotter electron components are in agreement with the values predicted by kinetic simulations of the cone-guided approach to fast ignition [Chrisman et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 056309 (2008)]. The temperature of the low-energy component of the accelerated electron spectrum is well below the ponderomotive scaling and Beg's law. We have obtained relatively low conversion efficiency of laser energy into the energy of hot electrons propagating through the solid target of about 2%. It is demonstrated that the assumption about a single-temperature hot electron energy distribution with the slope temperature described by the ponderomotive scaling relationship, without detailed analysis of the hot electron spectrum, can lead to strong overestimation of the laser-to-electron energy-conversion efficiency, in particular, the conversion efficiency of laser energy into the high-temperature component of the hot electron distribution.

  8. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les caractéristiques principales des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO), soit le dabigatran, le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban, et répondre aux questions qui font surface lors de la comparaison de ces agents. Qualité des données Une recherche dans PubMed a été effectuée afin de relever les études cliniques récentes (de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire (FA) et pour le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Message principal Selon 3 essais d’envergure, tous les NACO sont au moins aussi efficaces que la warfarine dans la prévention des AVC chez les patients atteints d’une FA non valvulaire, et au moins aussi sûrs pour ce qui est du risque de saignement. Des méta-analyses de ces essais ont montré que, comparativement au traitement par la warfarine, les NACO avaient réduit la mortalité totale, la mortalité d’origine cardiovasculaire et les saignements intracrâniens, et était aussi ressortie une tendance vers la réduction des saignements généraux. Du côté pratique, les avantages des NACO par rapport à la warfarine sont : posologie orale fixe uniquotidienne ou biquotidienne sans devoir surveiller la coagulation et peu d’interactions connues ou définies avec d’autres médicaments ou des aliments. Les désavantages potentiels des NACO sont notamment un risque de saignement qui serait accru chez les patients de plus de 75 ans, une hausse des saignements gastro-intestinaux majeurs avec des doses élevées de dabigatran, une hausse des cas de dyspepsie avec le dabigatran, l’absence d’un test de laboratoire de routine visant à mesurer de façon fiable l’effet anticoagulant et l’absence d’antidote pour renverser l’effet anticoagulant. Aucun essai randomisé contrôlé n’a effectué de comparaison directe des NACO, et le choix d’un NACO est influencé par les caract

  9. Defining a new diagnostic assessment parameter for wound care: Elevated protease activity, an indicator of nonhealing, for targeted protease-modulating treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Thomas E; Cullen, Breda M; Bayliff, Simon W; Gibson, Molly C; Carter, Marissa J; Chen, Lingyun; Yaakov, Raphael A; Samies, John; Sabo, Matthew; DeMarco, Daniel; Le, Namchi; Galbraith, James

    2016-05-01

    It is widely accepted that elevated protease activity (EPA) in chronic wounds impedes healing. However, little progress has occurred in quantifying the level of protease activity that is detrimental for healing. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between inflammatory protease activity and wound healing status, and to establish the level of EPA above which human neutrophil-derived elastase (HNE) and matrix metalloproteases (MMP) activities correlate with nonhealing wounds. Chronic wound swab samples (n = 290) were collected from four wound centers across the USA to measure HNE and MMP activity. Healing status was determined according to percentage reduction in wound area over the previous 2-4 weeks; this was available for 211 wounds. Association between protease activity and nonhealing wounds was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC), a statistical technique used for visualizing and analyzing the performance of diagnostic tests. ROC analysis showed that area under the curve (AUC) for HNE were 0.69 for all wounds and 0.78 for wounds with the most reliable wound trajectory information, respectively. For MMP, the corresponding AUC values were 0.70 and 0.82. Analysis suggested that chronic wounds having values of HNE >5 and/or MMP ≥13, should be considered wound healing impaired. EPA is indicative of nonhealing wounds. Use of a diagnostic test to detect EPA in clinical practice could enable clinicians to identify wounds that are nonhealing, thus enabling targeted treatment with protease modulating therapies. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  10. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of PCR Targeting the 47-Kilodalton Protein Membrane Gene of Treponema pallidum and PCR Targeting the DNA Polymerase I Gene: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Combescure, Christophe; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Ninet, Béatrice; Perneger, Thomas V

    2015-11-01

    Treponema pallidum PCR (Tp-PCR) testing now is recommended as a valid tool for the diagnosis of primary or secondary syphilis. The objectives were to systematically review and determine the optimal specific target gene to be used for Tp-PCR. Comparisons of the performance of the two main targets are tpp47 and polA genes were done using meta-analysis. Three electronic bibliographic databases, representing abstract books from five conferences specialized in infectious diseases from January 1990 to March 2015, were searched. Search keywords included ("syphilis" OR "Treponema pallidum" OR "neurosyphilis") AND ("PCR" OR "PCR" OR "molecular amplification"). We included diagnostic studies assessing the performance of Tp-PCR targeting tpp47 (tpp47-Tp-PCR) or the polA gene (polA-Tp-PCR) in ulcers from early syphilis. All studies were assessed against quality criteria using the QUADAS-2 tool. Of 37 studies identified, 62.2% were judged at low risk of bias or applicability. Most used the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definitions for primary or secondary (early) syphilis (89.2%; n = 33); 15 (40.5%) used darkfield microscopy (DFM). We did not find differences in sensitivity and specificity between the two Tp-PCR methods in the subgroup of studies using adequate reference tests. Among studies using DFM as the reference test, sensitivities were 79.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 72.7 to 85.4%) and 71.4% (46.0 to 88.0%) for tpp47-Tp-PCR and polA-Tp-PCR (P = 0.217), respectively; respective specificities were 95.3% (93.5 to 96.6%) and 93.7% (91.8 to 95.2%) (P = 0.304). Our findings suggest that the two Tp-PCR methods have similar accuracy and could be used interchangeably. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. PCR based diagnostic assay targeting the beta tubulin gene for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in vaginal swab samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Dwivedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an in-house PCR based diagnostic assay for identification of strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects of India, targeting the 毬 -tubulin gene using specific primers. Methods: In the present study a primer set is designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis. All strains of T. vaginalis were tested and successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 198 bp in gel electrophoresis, while there was negative response with DNA from Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. The sensitivity and specificity for a single T. vaginalis cell per PCR was achieved. Axenic Culture, performed with long term axenized T. vaginalis culture system, was routinely examined to identify T. vaginalis. Results: The PCR based investigations with 498 vaginal swab samples from women attending OPD clinics of Halberg Hospital Moradabad and Queen Mary ’s Hospital, Lucknow, India and 17 long term axenic cultures maintained at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India using primer set BTUB 1 & BTUB 2 showed sensitivity and specificity response of 98% and 100%, respectively, while wet preparation in clinically isolated samples responded up to 62.5%. The PCR product sequencing result of symptomatic strains (SS1 of T. vaginalis (744 bp long was submitted to NCBI (Accession No: JF513200. It shows maximum identity 98 % with XM_001284521 Trichomonas vaginalis G-3 beta-tubulin (btub putative partial mRNA. Conclusions: The data gathered in the present study entail that the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR may be established as a sensitive and specific protocol, to be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by employing molecular amplification technique. The merits and precautions of the protocol have been discussed.

  12. Le poin: Mondialisation, Agro-industries, Globalisation des Modes alimentaires et Nouveaux Enjeux Sanitaires : L’Agriculture Biologique, peut-elle être, une solution du problème [Globalization, Agri-industries, food globalization and sanitary new challenges : Organic agriculture, can it be a solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassini TSAKI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Les nutritionnistes, épidémiologistes, chercheurs de biologie, médecins, agrobiologistes et autres compétences de vocations connexes demeurent, aujourd’hui et pour une plus juste définition et diagnostic de ces phénomènes liés à la nutrition et santé publique, dans la nécessité pour une meilleure approche d’intégration des informations, de privilégier l’établissement d’une synthèse collégiale sur les différents aspects d’incidences de nos nouveaux modes alimentaires en relation avec les nombreuses et nouvelles maladies chroniques en développement dans nos sociétés modernes (obésité, maladies cardio-vasculaires, diabète, hypertension artérielle, cancers, etc.….

  13. Role of alpha-crystallin, early-secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein and culture filtrate protein 10 as novel diagnostic markers in osteoarticular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Rizvi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarticular tuberculosis constitutes about 3% of all tuberculosis cases. Early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is a challenging problem especially in the case of osteoarticular tuberculosis owing to the lower number of bacilli. However, an accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease results in an improved efficacy of the given treatment. Besides the limitations of conventional methods, nowadays molecular diagnostic techniques have emerged as a major breakthrough for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Alpha-crystallin is a dominantly expressed protein responsible for the long viability of the pathogen during the latent phase under certain stress conditions such as hypoxia and nitric oxide stress. Two other proteins—early secreted antigenic target-6 and culture filtrate protein-10—show high expression in the active infective phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this article, we focus on the different proteins expressed dominantly in latent/active tuberculosis, and which may be further used as prognostic biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculosis, both in latent and active phases.

  14. Cancer/testis antigens: A prospective reagent as diagnostic and immunotherapeutic targets for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Domae

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous tumor antigens have so far been identified from various tumors using the serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning (SEREX method. Among them, cancer/testis (CT antigens are considered promising target molecules for immunotherapy for patients with various cancers. We performed several SEREX analyses of various cancers to identify CT antigens, including gastric adenocarcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and colon cancer, and consequently identified additional CT antigens, such as XAGE-1, CCDC62-2, GKAP1, and TEKT5. However, although SEREX analysis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC has been performed several times, only a few CT or HNSCC specific antigens have yet been isolated. Compared with other tumors, a small number of studies have been reported on the antigen proteins specific to HNSCC. We here reported the expression of selected CT antigens and their immunogenicity in patients with HNSCC. The results obtained suggested that CCDC62-2, GKAP1, and TEKT5 are immunogenic in HNSCC and also demonstrated their potencies as diagnostic markers for patients with HNSCC in combination with other CT antigens such as NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A3, and MAGE-A4.

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 4th Quarter 2009 Milestone Report: Measure and simulate target temperature and dynamic response in optimized NDCX-I configurations with initial diagnostics suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Henestroza, E.; Logan, B.G.; Lidia, S.; More, R.M.; Ni, P.A.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Grote, D.; Friedman, A.

    2009-01-01

    This milestone has been met. The effort contains two main components: (1) Experimental results of warm dense matter target experiments on optimized NDCX-I configurations that include measurements of target temperature and transient target behavior. (2) A theoretical model of the target response to beam heating that includes an equilibrium heating model of the target foil and a model for droplet formation in the target for comparison with experimental results. The experiments on ion-beam target heating use a 300-350-keV K + pulsed beam from the Neutralized Compression Drift Experiment (NDCX-I) accelerator at LBNL. The NDCX-I accelerator delivers an uncompressed pulse beam of several microseconds with a typical power density of >100 kW/cm 2 over a final focus spot size of about 1 mm. An induction bunching module the NDCX-I compresses a portion of the beam pulse to reach a much higher power density over 2 nanoseconds. Under these conditions the free-standing foil targets are rapidly heated to temperatures to over 4000 K. We model the target thermal dynamics using the equation of heat conduction for the temperature T(x,t) as a function of time (t) and spatial dimension along the beam direction (x). The competing cooling processes release energy from the surface of the foil due to evaporation, radiation, and thermionic (Richardson) emission. A description of the experimental configuration of the target chamber and results from initial beam-target experiments are reported in our FY08 4th Quarter and FY09 2nd Quarter Milestone Reports. The WDM target diagnostics include a high-speed multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. The fast optical pyrometer is a unique and significant new diagnostic which provides valuable information on the temperature evolution of the heated target.

  16. O. Godard, C. Henry, P. Lagadec, E. Michel-Kerjan, 2002, Traité des nouveaux risques, éditions Gallimard, collection folio-actuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Zuindeau

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Si le risque est inhérent à la condition humaine elle-même, ces dernières décennies ont néanmoins permis de faire apparaître des types de risques inconnus jusqu’alors. Les risques consécutifs au réchauffement climatique, les risques supposés liés aux OGM, de possibles nouveaux vecteurs de transmission pathologique (maladie de la vache folle ne sont que quelques exemples de ces nouveaux risques, dont la première caractéristique évidente est l’origine anthropique, mais qui ont surtout pour dén...

  17. Laser fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution optical diagnostics of laser performance, energy balance, and applicable plasma probing techniques are reviewed. A variety of spatially, temporally and spectrally resolved x-ray diagnostics techniques and instruments as discussed. Particular emphasis is on high spatial resolution imaging techniques and applications and on high temporal resolution x-ray streak camera applications to exploding pusher target experiments. Finally, particle diagnostics and systems designed to diagnose target performance via yield and temperature measurements and techniques designed to determine the characteristics of compressed targets are discussed

  18. An Ecological Diagnostic Classification Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, James C.; McKinley, Donna L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the value of diagnostic classification systems to counseling professionals. Describes the Ecological Diagnostic Classification Plan, an approach to diagnosis that includes the environment as a possible cause of pathology and target of intervention. (Author/KS)

  19. The "don't eat me" signal CD47 is a novel diagnostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for diffuse malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Christian M; Forster, Stefan; Brühl, Frido; Yang, Sara H; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Hewer, Ekkehard

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is one of the prognostically most discouraging cancers with median survivals of only 12-22 months. Due to its insidious onset and delayed detection, DMM is often at an advanced stage at diagnosis and is considered incurable. Combined chemo- and radiotherapy followed by surgery only marginally affect outcome at the cost of significant morbidity. Because of the long time period between exposure to asbestos and disease onset, the incidence of DMM is still rising and predicted to peak around 2020. Novel markers for the reliable diagnosis of DMM in body cavity effusion specimens as well as more effective, targeted therapies are urgently needed. Here, we show that the "don't eat me" signalling molecule CD47, which inhibits phagocytosis by binding to signal regulatory protein α on macrophages, is overexpressed in DMM cells. A two-marker panel of high CD47 expression and BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP-1) deficiency had a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 100% in discriminating DMM tumour cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusions, which is superior to the currently used four-marker combination of BAP-1, glucose transporter type 1, epithelial membrane antigen and desmin. In addition, blocking CD47 inhibited growth and promoted phagocytosis of DMM cell lines by macrophages in vitro . Furthermore, DMM tumours in surgical specimens from patients as well as in a mouse DMM model expressed high levels of CD47 and were heavily infiltrated by macrophages. Our study demonstrates that CD47 is an accurate novel diagnostic DMM biomarker and that blocking CD47 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for DMM.

  20. Improved molecular detection of Babesia infections in animals using a novel quantitative real-time PCR diagnostic assay targeting mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qurollo, Barbara A; Archer, Nikole R; Schreeg, Megan E; Marr, Henry S; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Haney, Kaitlin N; Thomas, Brittany S; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2017-03-07

    Babesiosis is a protozoal, tick transmitted disease found worldwide in humans, wildlife and domesticated animals. Commonly used approaches to diagnose babesiosis include microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears, detection of circulating antibodies and PCR. To screen and differentiate canine Babesia infections many PCR assays amplify the 18S rRNA gene. These sequences contain hypervariable regions flanked by highly conserved regions allowing for amplification of a broad-range of Babesia spp. However, differences in the 18S rRNA gene sequence of distantly related clades can make it difficult to design assays that will amplify all Babesia species while excluding the amplification of other eukaryotes. By targeting Babesia mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), we designed a novel three primer qPCR with greater sensitivity and broader screening capabilities to diagnose and differentiate Babesia spp. Using 13 Babesia mtDNA sequences, a region spanning two large subunit rRNA gene fragments (lsu5-lsu4) was aligned to design three primers for use in a qPCR assay (LSU qPCR) capable of amplifying a wide range of Babesia spp. Plasmid clones were generated and used as standards to determine efficiency, linear dynamic range and analytical sensitivity. Animals naturally infected with vector-borne pathogens were tested retrospectively and prospectively to determine relative clinical sensitivity and specificity by comparing the LSU qPCR to an established 18S rDNA qPCR. The LSU qPCR efficiencies ranged between 92 and 100% with the limit of detection at five copies/reaction. The assay did not amplify mammalian host or other vector-borne pathogen gDNA except Cytauxzoon felis (a feline protozoal pathogen). The LSU qPCR assay amplified 12 different Babesia. sp. and C. felis from 31/31 (100%) archived samples, whereas the 18S qPCR amplified only 26/31 (83.9%). By prospective analysis, 19/394 diagnostic accessions (4.8%) were LSU qPCR positive, compared to 11/394 (2.8%) 18S rDNA q

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of post-mortem CT with targeted coronary angiography versus autopsy for coroner-requested post-mortem investigations: a prospective, masked, comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Guy N; Morgan, Bruno; Robinson, Claire; Raj, Vimal; Pakkal, Mini; Amoroso, Jasmin; Visser, Theresa; Saunders, Sarah; Biggs, Mike; Hollingbury, Frances; McGregor, Angus; West, Kevin; Richards, Cathy; Brown, Laurence; Harrison, Rebecca; Hew, Roger

    2017-07-08

    England and Wales have one of the highest frequencies of autopsy in the world. Implementation of post-mortem CT (PMCT), enhanced with targeted coronary angiography (PMCTA), in adults to avoid invasive autopsy would have cultural, religious, and potential economic benefits. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PMCTA as a first-line technique in post-mortem investigations. In this single-centre (Leicester, UK), prospective, controlled study, we selected cases of natural and non-suspicious unnatural death referred to Her Majesty's (HM) Coroners. We excluded cases younger than 18 years, known to have had a transmittable disease, or who weighed more than 125 kg. Each case was assessed by PMCTA, followed by autopsy. Pathologists were masked to the PMCTA findings, unless a potential risk was shown. The primary endpoint was the accuracy of the cause of death diagnosis from PMCTA against a gold standard of autopsy findings, modified by PMCTA findings only if additional substantially incontrovertible findings were identified. Between Jan 20, 2010, and Sept 13, 2012, we selected 241 cases, for which PMCTA was successful in 204 (85%). Seven cases were excluded from the analysis because of procedural unmasking or no autopsy data, as were 24 cases with a clear diagnosis of traumatic death before investigation; 210 cases were included. In 40 (19%) cases, predictable toxicology or histology testing accessible by PMCT informed the result. PMCTA provided a cause of death in 193 (92%) cases. A major discrepancy with the gold standard was noted in 12 (6%) cases identified by PMCTA, and in nine (5%) cases identified by autopsy (because of specific findings on PMCTA). The frequency of autopsy and PMCTA discrepancies were not significantly different (p=0·65 for major discrepancies and p=0·21 for minor discrepancies). Cause of death given by PMCTA did not overlook clinically significant trauma, occupational lung disease, or reportable disease, and did not significantly affect

  2. Elements optiques diffractifs concus avec des ouvertures trapezoidales et polygonales et de nouveaux algorithmes d'optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Jean-Numa

    Nous avons realise de nouveaux encodages et algorithmes d'optimisation destines aux elements optiques diffractis et hologrammes generes par ordinateur (HGO). Un algorithme novateur de condensation rapide simulee iterative permet la resolution de problemes avec plusieurs milliers de variables. Malgre un horaire de refroidissement rapide, de nombreuses solutions sous-optimales sont evitees par des reechelonnements de temperature ramenant le systeme a l'equilibre thermodynamique. L'etat final atteint par le nouvel algorithme a une energie beaucoup plus basse que celle obtenue par d'autres algorithmes. Les generateurs de tableaux irreguliers de points lumineux concus avec la condensation rapide simulee iterative et des ouvertures trapezoidales de hauteurs variables presentent de meilleures performances et beaucoup moins d'ouvertures comparativement a ceux concus avec d'autres methodes. Nous avons aussi realise un HGO multiplexe de taille extremement grande forme d'ouvertures polygonales et le nouvel algorithme iteratif de conception des sous-hologrammes pour generer des images de tres grandes dimensions. Nous utilisons la transformee d'Abbe pour calculer la diffraction des ouvertures polygonales, ce qui permet d'accelerer substantiellement le calcul de la transformee de Fourier de l'hologramme total. La taille en pixels de l'HGO multiplexe forme d'ouvertures polygonales est plus de mille fois superieure a celle d'un HGO conventionnel et sa fenetre objet beaucoup plus grande. L'HGO multiplexe forme d'ouvertures polygonales presente des performances beaucoup plus elevees que celles d'HGO conventionnels ou multiplexes concus avec les methodes precedentes.

  3. Méta-usages du numérique chez le manager : Nouveaux enjeux pour les formations dans l’enseignement supérieur

    OpenAIRE

    Mocquet, Bertrand; Rouissi, Soufiane

    2017-01-01

    Convaincus du rôle des universités dans le développement futur des organisations, nous porterons notre regard dans cet article sur les nouveaux enjeux de formation dans l’enseignement supérieur et de la recherche (ESR) pour prendre en compte la transformation numérique qui s’opère dans la société. Nous constatons deux mouvements combinés sur les usages du numérique dans les organisations publiques ou privées : l’aisance des usagers des services numériques des organisations et l’apparition de ...

  4. Nouveaux ligands mixtes phosphorés: synthèse, coordination et étude de réactivité

    OpenAIRE

    Payet, Elina

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of mixed ligands combining functions with various electronic properties (phosphorus, amine, alkene, amide, iminophosphorane) was approached. Their coordination chemistry was studied and some isolated complexes were used in catalysis (for example in ethylene oligomerization and transfer hydrogenation).; Au cours de ce travail de thèse, la synthèse de nouveaux ligands mixtes combinant des fonctions de propriétés électroniques différentes (phosphores, amines, alcène, ...

  5. Optimization of one-step real-time PCR for the X-tail target of HCV as a diagnostic test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciéli Pedrotti Rozales

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is a global public health issue. The bloodborne nature of HCV transmission poses a substantial risk to healthcare workers, due to occupational exposure to needlestick injuries and blood and other body fluids containing the virus. Undiagnosed HCV infection, including in healthcare workers, represents a growing problem worldwide as the infected population ages, and HCV-related mortality and morbidity is expected to rise substantially over the coming decades. Consequently, diagnostic tests for HCV play an important role in this scenario. The aim of this study was to standardize a one-step RT-PCR assay for detection of HCV. The test demonstrated reproducibility, sensibility (100%, and the limit of detection was set at 100IU/mL. Our study indicates that this assay can be used as a diagnostic tool to follow up healthcare workers after occupational exposure.

  6. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests: findings from randomized trials in two contrasting areas of high and low malaria transmission in south-western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian; Clarke, Siân E

    2016-09-01

    To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children <5 years of age receiving appropriately targeted treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), vs. presumptive treatment. Cluster-randomized trials were conducted in two contrasting areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. Each trial examined the effectiveness of mRDTs in the management of malaria and targeting of ACTs by CHWs comparing two diagnostic approaches: (i) presumptive clinical diagnosis of malaria [control arm] and (ii) confirmatory diagnosis with mRDTs followed by ACT treatment for positive patients [intervention arm], with village as the unit of randomisation. Treatment decisions by CHWs were validated by microscopy on a reference blood slide collected at the time of consultation, to compare the proportion of children <5 years receiving appropriately targeted ACT treatment, defined as patients with microscopically-confirmed presence of parasites in a peripheral blood smear receiving artemether-lumefantrine or rectal artesunate, and patients with no malaria parasites not given ACT. In the moderate-to-high transmission area, ACT treatment was appropriately targeted in 79.3% (520/656) of children seen by CHWs using mRDTs to diagnose malaria, vs. 30.8% (215/699) of children seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). In the low transmission area, 90.1% (363/403) children seen by CHWs using mRDTs received appropriately targeted ACT treatment vs. 7.8% (64/817) seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). Low mRDT sensitivity in children with low-density parasitaemia (<200 parasites/μl) was identified as a potential concern. When equipped with mRDTs, ACT treatments delivered by CHWs are more accurately targeted to children with malaria parasites. mRDT use could play an important role in reducing overdiagnosis of malaria and improving fever case management within

  7. La ruée vers l’or. Nouveaux écrans, nouvelles recettes ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Augros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Autrefois assises sur l’unique marché des salles, les sources des recettes du cinéma se sont multipliées à l’apparition de nouveaux écrans (télévision, vidéo pour adopter un mode séquentiel (les fenêtres de diffusion. Après une certaine stabilisation dans les années 80, l’arrivée sur le marché d’autres écrans (internet, écrans portables met à mal en France et aux Etats-Unis la périodisation installée. Alors qu’en France, le mode de financement du cinéma et la place cruciale de Canal Plus dans les recettes du cinéma conduisent à un raccourcissement de la séquence sans que les professionnels n’envisagent une disparition du modèle, aux Etats-Unis, le déclin du marché vidéo met à l’ordre du jour une abolition pure et simple du séquençage. Les compagnies indépendantes notamment expérimentent de façon croissante les sorties de films sur tous les écrans disponibles sous l’œil intéressé des majors, prêtes à adopter le modèle s’il s’avère pertinent.Stemming ab initio exclusively from the theatre box-office, revenues of films diversified when television and video became alternative ways of screening movies. Thus, a business model was established and stabilized in the 1980s along screening windows. The digital revolution broke this business model in France as well as in the United States. However, while in France, the film investment schemes and Canal Plus Group’s established position as a major source of finance led to the shortening of release windows but not to the disappearance of the release windows format, in the United States, the declining DVD sales and revenues forced the major studios to study new methods of distribution and new business models, based on day-and-date releases and on the gradual dissolution of the windows model. The major companies have been carefully watching the independent film companies experimentations with release windows ready to adopt this new business model if

  8. Nova diagnostics summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivinsky, V.W.; Drake, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors intend that Nova be the best diagnosed ICF research facility in operation today. The authors experience in providing advanced diagnostics for previous laser systems will be extended at Nova, and will be challenged by the development of new instrumentation to diagnose the more advanced targets made possible by this powerful laser. Previous experience has shown that to understand target performance, the authors must have as complete a set of diagnostics as possible. The Nova diagnostics are divided into two sets: the basic set required for the initial Nova experiments and the more advanced set for later, generally more complex, experiments. The basic set will be operational for the first Nova shots; it was a Nova line item funded with Nova construction money. This basic set is presented in a table

  9. It's diagnostics, stupid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernards, René

    2010-04-02

    To stem the spiraling cost of cancer treatment, a concerted effort is urgently needed to develop molecular diagnostics to better identify the patients that respond to expensive targeted therapies. Opportunities and obstacles in the development of such drug response biomarkers are discussed here. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeted and Untargeted Approaches Unravel Novel Candidate Genes and Diagnostic SNPs for Quantitative Resistance of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Phytophthora infestans Causing the Late Blight Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Teresa; Alvarez, Maria Fernanda; Jiménez-Gómez, José M; Muktar, Meki Shehabu; Paulo, Maria João; Steinemann, Sebastian; Li, Jinquan; Draffehn, Astrid; Hofmann, Andrea; Lübeck, Jens; Strahwald, Josef; Tacke, Eckhard; Hofferbert, Hans-Reinhardt; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The oomycete Phytophthora infestans causes late blight of potato, which can completely destroy the crop. Therefore, for the past 160 years, late blight has been the most important potato disease worldwide. The identification of cultivars with high and durable field resistance to P. infestans is an objective of most potato breeding programs. This type of resistance is polygenic and therefore quantitative. Its evaluation requires multi-year and location trials. Furthermore, quantitative resistance to late blight correlates with late plant maturity, a negative agricultural trait. Knowledge of the molecular genetic basis of quantitative resistance to late blight not compromised by late maturity is very limited. It is however essential for developing diagnostic DNA markers that facilitate the efficient combination of superior resistance alleles in improved cultivars. We used association genetics in a population of 184 tetraploid potato cultivars in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with maturity corrected resistance (MCR) to late blight. The population was genotyped for almost 9000 SNPs from three different sources. The first source was candidate genes specifically selected for their function in the jasmonate pathway. The second source was novel candidate genes selected based on comparative transcript profiling (RNA-Seq) of groups of genotypes with contrasting levels of quantitative resistance to P. infestans. The third source was the first generation 8.3k SolCAP SNP genotyping array available in potato for genome wide association studies (GWAS). Twenty seven SNPs from all three sources showed robust association with MCR. Some of those were located in genes that are strong candidates for directly controlling quantitative resistance, based on functional annotation. Most important were: a lipoxygenase (jasmonate pathway), a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (mevalonate pathway), a P450 protein (terpene biosynthesis

  11. Description de trois Monogènes nouveaux, parasites branchiaux de Mormyrus rume (Teleostei : Mormyridae en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahoua K.G.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available L’étude de la parasitofaune branchiale d’un Mormyridae, Mormyrus rume Valenciennes, 1846 (Teleostei : Mormyridae, capturé dans le lac de retenue d’Ayamé I en Côte d’Ivoire (Afrique de l’Ouest a révélé la présence de trois Monogènes nouveaux du genre Bouixella Euzet & Dossou, 1976, qui se différencient des autres espèces du genre par la taille et la morphologie des pièces haptoriales (anchor dorsal et ventral, barre dorsale et ventrale et de l’appareil génital mâle. Nous décrivons dans ce travail ces trois nouvelles espèces : Bouixella gorei n. sp., Bouixella yaoi n. sp. et Bouixella koutouani n. sp.

  12. Khadija Mohsen-Finan, dir., Les médias en Méditerranée. Nouveaux médias, monde arabe et relations internationales

    OpenAIRE

    Tbib, Amor

    2012-01-01

    Les médias en Méditerranée. Nouveaux médias, monde arabe et relations internationales a été publié avec le soutien de la Direction générale de la recherche de la Commission européenne dans le cadre du réseau d’excellence Ramsès 2 ; il est coordonné par Khadija Mohsen-Finan, responsable du programme « Maghreb » à l’Institut français des relations internationales (ifri). Surtout, ce recueil de 19 contributions est le prolongement d’un colloque qui s’est tenu à Casablanca fin 2006 et qui aborde ...

  13. Jean Lojkine, La Révolution informationnelle et les nouveaux mouvements sociaux, Le Bord de l’eau, 2016, 178 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Metzger, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Dans cet ouvrage, Jean Lojkine se propose de comprendre « pourquoi les gouvernements, chargés de traduire concrètement la promesse d’une vie meilleure et d’une dignité enfin reconnue, ont-ils échoué ? » La question mérite, en effet, d’être posée. D’un côté, certains discours politiques – parfois brièvement mis en application – et certaines pratiques informelles – dont l’ampleur est souvent exagérée – font espérer en la fin des politiques d’austérité. Mais, d’un autre côté, les nouveaux mouvem...

  14. L’Art pour l’Art or L’Art pour Tous? The Tension between Artistic Autonomy and Social Engagement in Les Temps Nouveaux, 1896-1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Prins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1896 and 1903, Jean Grave, editor of the anarchist journal LesTemps Nouveaux, published an artistic album of original prints, withthe collaboration of (avant-garde artists and illustrators. While anarchisttheorists, including Grave, summoned artists to create social art,which had to be didactic and accessible to the working classes, artistswished to emphasize their autonomous position instead. Even thoughGrave requested ‘absolutely artistic’ prints in the case of this album,artists had difficulties with creating something for him, trying to combinetheir social engagement with their artistic autonomy. The artisticalbum appears to have become a compromise of the debate between theanarchist theorists and artists with anarchist sympathies.

  15. Detection of a combination of serum IgG and IgA antibodies against selected mycobacterial targets provides promising diagnostic signatures for active TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoniyi, Dolapo O; Baumann, Ralf; Chegou, Novel N; Kriel, Belinda; Jacobs, Ruschca; Kidd, Martin; Loxton, Andre G; Kaempfer, Susanne; Singh, Mahavir; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-06-06

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated. Active TB was excluded in 42 individuals of whom 21 has LTBI whereas active TB was confirmed in 21 patients of whom 19 had a follow-up blood draw at the end of 6-month anti-TB treatment. The leading single serodiagnostic markers to differentiate between the presence or absence of active TB were anti-16 kDa IgA, anti-MPT64 IgA with sensitivity and specificity of 90%/90% and 95%/90%, respectively. The combined use of 3 or 4 antibodies further improved this performance to accuracies above 95%. After successful completion of anti-TB treatment at month 6, the levels of 16 kDa IgA and 16 kDa IgM dropped significantly whereas LAM IgG and TB-LTBI IgG increased. These results show the potential of extending investigation of anti-tuberculous IgG responses to include IgM and IgA responses against selected protein and non-protein antigens in differentiating active TB from other respiratory diseases in TB endemic settings.

  16. Targeted next-generation sequencing as a comprehensive test for patients with and female carriers of DMD/BMD: a multi-population diagnostic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoming; Dai, Yi; Yu, Ping; Qu, Ning; Lan, Zhangzhang; Hong, Xiafei; Sun, Yan; Yang, Guanghui; Xie, Shuqi; Shi, Quan; Zhou, Hanlin; Zhu, Qian; Chu, Yuxing; Yao, Fengxia; Wang, Jinming; He, Jingni; Yang, Yun; Liang, Yu; Yang, Yi; Qi, Ming; Yang, Ling; Wang, Wei; Wu, Haitao; Duan, Jing; Shen, Cheng; Wang, Jun; Cui, Liying; Yi, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD/BMD) are the most commonly inherited neuromuscular disease. However, accurate and convenient molecular diagnosis cannot be achieved easily because of the enormous size of the dystrophin gene and complex causative mutation spectrum. Such traditional methods as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification plus Sanger sequencing require multiple steps to fulfill the diagnosis of DMD/BMD. Here, we introduce a new single-step method for the genetic analysis of DMD patients and female carriers in real clinical settings and demonstrate the validation of its accuracy. A total of 89 patients, 18 female carriers and 245 non-DMD patients were evaluated using our targeted NGS approaches. Compared with traditional methods, our new method yielded 99.99% specificity and 98.96% sensitivity for copy number variations detection and 100% accuracy for the identification of single-nucleotide variation mutations. Additionally, this method is able to detect partial deletions/duplications, thus offering precise personal DMD gene information for gene therapy. We detected novel partial deletions of exons in nine samples for which the breakpoints were located within exonic regions. The results proved that our new method is suitable for routine clinical practice, with shorter turnaround time, higher accuracy, and better insight into comprehensive genetic information (detailed breakpoints) for ensuing gene therapy.

  17. Diagnostic laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cavity. These complications could lead to immediate open surgery ( laparotomy ). Diagnostic laparoscopy may not be possible if you have a swollen bowel, fluid in the abdomen (ascites), or you have had a past surgery.

  18. MR-sequences for prostate cancer diagnostics: validation based on the PI-RADS scoring system and targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmoeller, Lars; Quentin, Michael; Buchbender, Christian; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, Christian; Hiester, Andreas; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the accuracy of MR sequences [T2-, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (T2WI, DWI, and DCE) imaging] at 3T, based on the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) scoring system [Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)] using MR-guided in-bore prostate biopsies as reference standard. In 235 consecutive patients [aged 65.7 ± 7.9 years; median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 8 ng/ml] with multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), 566 lesions were scored according to PI-RADS. Histology of all lesions was obtained by targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy. In 200 lesions, biopsy revealed prostate cancer (PCa). The area under the curve (AUC) for cancer detection was 0.70 (T2WI), 0.80 (DWI), and 0.74 (DCE). A combination of T2WI + DWI, T2WI + DCE, and DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81, 0.78, and 0.79. A summed PI-RADS score of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81. For higher grade PCa (primary Gleason pattern ≥ 4), the AUC was 0.85 for T2WI + DWI, 0.84 for T2WI + DCE, 0.86 for DWI + DCE, and 0.87 for T2WI + DWI + DCE. The AUC for T2WI + DWI + DCE for transitional-zone PCa was 0.73, and for the peripheral zone 0.88. Regarding higher-grade PCa, AUC for transitional-zone PCa was 0.88, and for peripheral zone 0.96. The combination of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved the highest test accuracy, especially in patients with higher-grade PCa. The use of ≤2 MR sequences led to lower AUC in higher-grade and peripheral-zone cancers. (orig.)

  19. Shiva optical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F.; Kobierecki, M.; Ozarski, R.; Seppala, L.; Manes, K.; Merritt, B.

    1977-01-01

    In the laser fusion program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, no target experiment is complete unless it is complemented by careful measurements of the laser pulse that irradiates the target. For this purpose, an incident beam diagnostics (IBD) package has been designed for the Shiva laser. The package will furnish data on items such as the total energy and the focusable energy out of the laser chain, and the spatial and temporal energy and power distribution at the target plane. Understanding laser-plasma interactions requires knowledge of the amount of 1.06 μm light energy that is scattered in various directions from the target. The light energy that is scattered toward the beam focusing lens is analyzed by a reflected beam diagnostic (RBD) package containing a calorimeter, a multiple image camera and a TV camera. This paper describes the detailed design and operation of the IBD and RBD packages as tools to align spatial filters and targets, as well as to diagnose the laser beams and target reflectivity

  20. MR-sequences for prostate cancer diagnostics: validation based on the PI-RADS scoring system and targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmöller, Lars; Quentin, Michael; Arsov, Christian; Hiester, Andreas; Buchbender, Christian; Rabenalt, Robert; Albers, Peter; Antoch, Gerald; Blondin, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of MR sequences [T2-, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (T2WI, DWI, and DCE) imaging] at 3T, based on the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) scoring system [Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS)] using MR-guided in-bore prostate biopsies as reference standard. In 235 consecutive patients [aged 65.7 ± 7.9 years; median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 8 ng/ml] with multiparametric prostate MRI (mp-MRI), 566 lesions were scored according to PI-RADS. Histology of all lesions was obtained by targeted MR-guided in-bore biopsy. In 200 lesions, biopsy revealed prostate cancer (PCa). The area under the curve (AUC) for cancer detection was 0.70 (T2WI), 0.80 (DWI), and 0.74 (DCE). A combination of T2WI + DWI, T2WI + DCE, and DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81, 0.78, and 0.79. A summed PI-RADS score of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved an AUC of 0.81. For higher grade PCa (primary Gleason pattern ≥ 4), the AUC was 0.85 for T2WI + DWI, 0.84 for T2WI + DCE, 0.86 for DWI + DCE, and 0.87 for T2WI + DWI + DCE. The AUC for T2WI + DWI + DCE for transitional-zone PCa was 0.73, and for the peripheral zone 0.88. Regarding higher-grade PCa, AUC for transitional-zone PCa was 0.88, and for peripheral zone 0.96. The combination of T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved the highest test accuracy, especially in patients with higher-grade PCa. The use of ≤2 MR sequences led to lower AUC in higher-grade and peripheral-zone cancers. • T2WI + DWI + DCE achieved the highest accuracy in patients with higher grade PCa • T2WI + DWI + DCE was more accurate for peripheral- than for transitional-zone PCa • DCE increased PCa detection accuracy in the peripheral zone • DWI was the leading sequence in the transitional zone.

  1. Caractérisation et étude de l'effet des sources de carbone et d'azote sur la production de nouveaux métabolites secondaires chez Aspergillus ochraceus non producteur de l'ochratoxine A

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Gamal

    2005-01-01

    Ce travail s'est donné pour objectifs la caractérisation de nouveaux métabolites secondaires ainsi que l'amélioration de la production d'autres composés déjà connus par des mutants d'Aspergillus ochraceus NRRL 3174. En effet, en condition normale, la souche sauvage A. ochraceus NRRL 3174 ne produit qu'un nombre limité de métabolites secondaires. L'induction de la production de nouveaux métabolites a été réalisée par exposition aux UV. Dans ces conditions, 18 mutants (non producteurs d'ochrato...

  2. Controlling transboundary air pollution in Europe: new targets for France; Lutte contre la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere en Europe: les nouveaux objectifs de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchereau, J.M. [Institut francais de l' environnement, 45 - Orleans (France); Oudart, B. [Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d' Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique (CITEPA) 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-03-01

    Under the first international agreement adopted to combat transboundary air pollution (the 1979 Geneva Convention), the Goteborg Protocol was signed on 1 December 1999. It heralds a new approach in implementing the European strategy. The new Protocol is based on a multi-pollutant/ multi-effect approach, taking into account the interconnected nature of the three issues of acidification, eutrophication and the formation of tropospheric (ground-level) ozone. It aims to achieve, at the least cost, a significant reduction in emissions of the pollutants that cause these phenomena. France is one of the first countries to become involved in this effort. Although emissions of the pollutants in France are among the lowest in Europe, France will nevertheless have to halve her SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions in the next 10 years at an annual cost of Euros 9 billion. International negotiations on transboundary pollution issues are based on policy-makers decisions and estimates produced through scientific modelling. However, when interpreting the results, the fundamental question arises as to how the efforts required are to be divided among the countries that are Party to the Protocol, and to how acceptable the corresponding costs are to the market. (author)

  3. Diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  4. Fungal diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Thomas R; Wickes, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsy may enhance the diagnostic accuracy of significant prostate cancer detection compared to standard transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoots, Ivo G; Roobol, Monique J; Nieboer, Daan; Bangma, Chris H; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2015-09-01

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate may improve the diagnostic accuracy of prostate cancer detection in MRI-targeted biopsy (MRI-TBx) in comparison to transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-Bx). Systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence regarding the diagnostic benefits of MRI-TBx versus TRUS-Bx in detection of overall prostate cancer (primary objective) and significant/insignificant prostate cancer (secondary objective). A systematic review of Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane library was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Identified reports were critically appraised according to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies criteria. Only men with a positive MRI were included. The reports we included (16 studies) used both MRI-TBx and TRUS-Bx for prostate cancer detection. A cumulative total of 1926 men with positive MRI were included, with prostate cancer prevalence of 59%. MRI-TBx and TRUS-Bx did not significantly differ in overall prostate cancer detection (sensitivity 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.89, and 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.88, respectively). MRI-TBx had a higher rate of detection of significant prostate cancer compared to TRUS-Bx (sensitivity 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.94 vs 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.84) and a lower rate of detection of insignificant prostate cancer (sensitivity 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.64 vs 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.87). Subgroup analysis revealed an improvement in significant prostate cancer detection by MRI-TBx in men with previous negative biopsy, rather than in men with initial biopsy (relative sensitivity 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.57 vs 1.10, 95% CI 1.00-1.22). Because of underlying methodological flaws of MRI-TBx, the comparison of MRI-TBx and TRUS-Bx needs to be regarded with caution. In men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer and a subsequent positive MRI, MRI-TBx and

  6. Diagnostic formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuruvilla, K.; Kuruvilla, Anju

    2010-01-01

    Writing a ?Diagnostic Formulation? is a skill expected of candidates in the post-graduate examinations in psychiatry in most universities in India. However there is ambiguity regarding what the term means and how it should be written. This article is an attempt to provide some guidelines on this topic.

  7. Les nouveaux défis pour l’anthropologie de la santé New challenges for anthropology of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Massé

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’anthropologie de la santé a connu une évolution spectaculaire au cours des dernières décennies. Elle doit toutefois composer aujourd’hui avec les contributions de plusieurs autres disciplines des sciences sociales et humaines dans le champ d’étude des dimensions sociales, politiques et culturelles de la santé et de la maladie. Pour conserver sa crédibilité comme “science sociale” et pour faire face à l’émergence de nouveaux objets de recherche, elle devra relever plusieurs défis, tant au plan de ses outils conceptuels, mais aussi et surtout au plan de sa maîtrise des méthodologies qualitatives et quantitatives. Mais cela, sans mettre de côté son profond souci pour une réflexion critique sur les politiques de santé et pour une phénoménologie de la souffrance.Medical anthropology has become one of the major subdiscipline in anthropology in the past decades. However, it has today to deal with the interest of other social sciences disciplines for the social, cultural and political dimensions of disease, health and care. In order to strengthen its leadership and to increase its credibility in dealing with new emerging research objects, medical anthropologists will have to accept many challenges, conceptual, theoretical, but especially methodological. This paper discusses some of these challenges.

  8. Électrosynthèse en milieux organisés et propriétés physicochimiques et optiques de nouveaux poly(3-alkylpyrroles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, I.; Hedayatullah, M.; Aaron, J.-J.

    1998-06-01

    Electropolymerization of new 3-alkylpyrroles in aqueous micellar media (SDS and AOT) allows electrosynthesis of well-ordered films with improved adhesion and solubility properties relative to those obtained in organic solvents using classical electrolytes. Poly(3- alkylpyrrole)s prepared in these micellar media are very conducting, hydrophobic, flexible, doping surfactant anions remaining in the films even after reduction. L'électropolymérisation de nouveaux 3-alkylpyrroles en milieux micellaires aqueux (SDS et AOT) permet d'obtenir des films bien organisés, possédant des propriétés d'adhérence et de solubilité meilleures que celles des films préparés dans les solutions organiques électrolytiques classiques. Les poly(3-alkylpyrrole)s électrosynthétisés dans ces milieux micellaires sont très conducteurs, hydrophobes et souples, les anions tensioactifs restant dans les films même après réduction.

  9. Etudes optiques de nouveaux materiaux laser: Des orthosilicates dopes a l'ytterbium: Le yttrium (lutetium,scandium) pentoxide de silicium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoyer, Aurelie

    La decouverte et l'elaboration de nouveaux materiaux laser solides suscitent beaucoup d'interet parmi la communaute scientifique. En particulier les lasers dans la gamme de frequence du micron debouchent sur beaucoup d'applications, en telecommunication, en medecine, dans le domaine militaire, pour la, decoupe des metaux (lasers de puissance), en optique non lineaire (doublage de frequence, bistabilite optique). Le plus couramment utilise actuellement est le Nd:YAG dans cette famille de laser, mais des remplacants plus performants sont toujours recherches. Les lasers a base d'Yb3+ possedent beaucoup d'avantages compares aux lasers Nd3+ du fait de leur structure electronique simple et de leur deterioration moins rapide. Parmi les matrices cristallines pouvant accueillir l'ytterbium, les orthosilicates Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5 se positionnent tres bien, du fait de leur bonne conductivite thermique et du fort eclatement de leur champ cristallin necessaire a l'elaboration de lasers quasi-3 niveaux. De plus l'etude fine et systematique des proprietes microscopiques de nouveaux materiaux s'avere toujours tres interessante du point de vue de la recherche fondamentale, c'est ainsi que de nouveaux modeles sont concus (par exemple pour le champ cristallin) ou que de nouvelles proprietes inhabituelles sont decouvertes, menant a de nouvelles applications. Ainsi d'autres materiaux dopes a l'ytterbium sont connus pour leurs proprietes de couplage electron-phonon, de couplage magnetique, d'emission cooperative ou encore de bistabilite optique, mais ces proprietes n'ont encore jamais ete mises en evidence dans Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5. Ainsi, cette these a pour but l'etude des proprietes optiques et des interactions microscopiques dans Yb:Y2SiO 5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO5. Nous utilisons principalement les techniques d'absorption IR et de spectroscopie Raman pour determiner les excitations du champ cristallin et les modes de vibration dans le materiau

  10. Use of the Capripoxvirus homologue of Vaccinia virus 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit (RPO30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical PCR method to differentiate Goat poxvirus from Sheep poxvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien, Charles Euloge; Le Goff, Christian; Silber, Roland; Wallace, David B; Gulyaz, Velý; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Madani, Hafsa; Caufour, Philippe; Adam, Tajelser; El Harrak, Mehdi; Luckins, Antony George; Albina, Emmanuel; Diallo, Adama

    2011-04-21

    Sheep poxvirus (SPPV), Goat poxvirus (GTPV) and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. Serological differentiation of CaPVs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. However, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species from which the strain was first isolated, is not valid and should be replaced with molecular techniques to allow unequivocal strain differentiation. To identify a diagnostic target for strain genotyping, the CaPV homologue of the Vaccinia virus E4L gene which encodes the 30 kDa DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit, RPO30 was analyzed. Forty-six isolates from different hosts and geographical origins were included. Most CaPVs fit into one of the three different groups according to their host origins: the SPPV, the GTPV and the LSDV group. A unique 21-nucleotide deletion was found in all SPPV isolates which was exploited to develop a RPO30-based classical PCR test to differentiate SPPV from GTPV that will allow rapid differential diagnosis of disease during CaPV outbreaks in small ruminants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS IN INTERNAL MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattner, Ami

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic errors remain an important target in improving the quality of care and achieving better health outcomes. With a relatively steady rate estimated at 10-15% in many settings, research aiming to elucidate mechanisms of error is highly important. Results indicate that not only cognitive mistakes but a number of factors acting together often culminate in a diagnostic error. Far from being 'unpreventable', several methods and techniques are suggested that may show promise in minimizing diagnostic errors. These measures should be further investigated and incorporated into all phases of medical education.

  12. Diagnostics for pellet experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The target diagnostics which are being used and planned in current laser driven ICF Experiments are described. Most of these diagnostics can be easily applied to future ion-beam fusion experiments. The status of laser fusion diagnostics has been much improved in the last 5 years and further improvements can be expected and should be available when the first ICF experiments using ion beams are performed. As an example, x-ray temporal and spatial resolutions are now approximately 5 psec and 3 μm, which is approximately a factor of 4 better than the resolution reported in the first implosion experiments. As one plans ahead for ion-beam fusion experiments it should be emphasized that high yield experiments are easier to diagnose provided adequate shielding is employed. However, in the event that the first high yield experiments fail it will be necessary to have diagnostics available to determine where the problems lie. In laser fusion it is interesting to note that higher laser powers are required now for breakeven experiments than first anticipated, mainly because some aspects of the laser-interaction physics were not recognized until the experiments were carefully diagnosed. Thus as has been pointed out, it may be necessary to increase the energy of the ion-beam driver to enable us to do breakeven experiments with high confidence

  13. Periodontal diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, D F

    2000-10-01

    Periodontitis affects a subset of the population and our current thinking is that progression of periodontal disease may be either continuous or cyclical (burst hypothesis). These features make screening and diagnostic tools desirable in the management of this disease. Although many potential markers exist, several difficulties hamper our ability to declare them diagnostic tests with proven utility. The 'gold standard' for active periodontal disease is not available and inflammation due to gingivally confined lesions (gingivitis) and periodontal inflammation which results in attachment loss is a potential confounder of any test based on assessing the host response elements of the disease. The current absence of proof for the progression of periodontal disease i.e., whether or not the burst hypothesis is correct, is a further problem. Although much is written about the need for markers of current or future disease which will prevent us from overtreating pockets, the time, effort and cost involved in testing these sites has to be balanced against the relative ease and speed of routine therapy such as root planing. In addition, we are still some way from the development and validation of reliable host or microbial testing methods. In terms of screening tests for diseases such as the early-onset forms of periodontitis, the research and development on diagnostic tools involving genetic polymorphisms, specific genes, systemic antibodies or leucocyte cell surface markers of the patients, may become a clinical reality in time. One could envisage chairside tests using blood from thumb pricks being capable of determining a young individual's risk of developing disease at a later age, and thus the need for a timely prevention programme. Before applying any test we should reconsider what treatment planning effects a positive or negative result will have, and any test which does not influence the treatment plan is redundant. Whether periodontal diagnostic tests will be

  14. New narratives on Russian renewable energy policy; Nouveaux aspects de la politique energetique russe en matieres de renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyi, A.V. [Higher School of Economics, Dept. of Energy and Resource, Moscow (Russian Federation); Overland, I. [Novwegian Institute of International Relations (NUPI), Dept. of Energy, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-04-15

    The article points out the renewable energy potential in Russia in light of the new policy targets development, technical and economic potential as well as limits related to a lack of effectiveness of renewable energy promoting policies. Moreover, the article links the renewable energy development to the liberalization of Russian power sector which actually provides a possibility for market-support mechanisms, such as the green certificates. Renewable energy in Russia also has an important regional dimension, particularly for remote regions. (authors)

  15. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  16. Réflexion autour des nouveaux instruments de la production urbaine : vers la fin du modèle keynésien?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Ferguson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available L’intégration progressive d’un raisonnement en termes d’incertitude interroge les modèles keynésiens et fordistes. Elle consacre une appréhension contingente des problèmes suivant des catégories de pensée à construire localement. Est alors élaboré un ensemble d’instruments destinés à proposer aux décideurs des scènes de négociation privilégiant une approche collective des enjeux et problèmes. Ce texte présente une analyse empirique du processus d’instrumentation opéré lors d’un grand projet urbain en cours sur l’agglomération toulousaine. Il y questionne l’effectivité de la rupture avec le keynésianisme annoncée par plusieurs auteurs anglo-saxons à l’origine d’un programme de recherche sur les nouveaux instruments de l’action publique.The progessive integration of a thought process framed in terms of uncertainty seriously challenges the models of both Keynes and Ford. It is dedicated to a contingency approach to problems, according to thought categories constructed locally. A set of mechanisms is thus elaborated in order to propose various negotiation scenarios to decision makers. These favor a collective approach to risks and problems. This text presents an empirical analysis of the process of instrumentation in a large urban development taking place today in the Toulouse area. It questions the effectiveness of the break with keynesianism announced by several Anglo-Saxon authors who originated a research program about the new tools of public action.

  17. Nouveaux territoires et nouvelles identités culturelles : revue des études sur la diaspora chinoise a l’ère d’Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Raynaud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Depuis plus de mille ans, la diaspora chinoise repose essentiellement sur des réseaux structurés d’entraide permettant la réussite individuelle et collective sur le plan social (intégration, économique (réussite financière et culturel (conservation d’une identité culturelle chinoise. Mais que deviennent ces réseaux sociaux à l’heure de la mondialisation, avec l’usage massif des réseaux techniques et technologiques ? A partir d’une analyse de l’état de l’art, ce travail propose une synthèse des similitudes observées dans les communautés de la diaspora chinoise avec l’usage d’Internet. Plusieurs études démontrent qu’Internet fournit aux nouveaux immigrants chinois la possibilité de redéfinir leurs identités culturelles hybrides et fragmentées, entre rupture et continuité de la tradition. Ce réseau technologique bouleverse les concepts de distance et de territoire et constitue un outil essentiel pour l’adaptation des immigrants dans le pays d’accueil. La proximité spatiale n’est plus une nécessité. Internet génère, chez les immigrants de la diaspora, le sentiment « d’être présent » dans le pays d’origine, pourtant situé à plusieurs milliers de kilomètres.

  18. Advanced Targeted Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachchige, Mohan C M; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery has been the major topic in drug formulation and delivery. As nanomedicine emerges to create nano scale therapeutics and diagnostics, it is still essential to embed targeting capability to these novel systems to make them useful. Here we discuss various targeting approaches for delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic nano materials in view of search for more universal methods to target diseased tissues. Many diseases are accompanied with hypoxia and acidosis. Coating nanoparticles with pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs) increases efficiency of targeting acidic diseased tissues. It has been showing promising results to create future nanotheranostics for cancer and other diseases which are dominating in the present world. PMID:25615945

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics | Szopinski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy as well as the scope of utilisation of a new bio-electronic method of organ diagnostics. Design. Double-blind comparative study of the diagnostic results obtained by means of organ electrodermal diagnostics (OED) and clinical diagnoses, as a criterion standard. Setting.

  20. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  1. Laser fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of the capability of laser fusion diagnostics is reviewed. Optical and infrared streak cameras provide one time resolution measurement capability of less than 10 ps, while x-ray streak cameras provide 15 ps time resolution in the range of about 1--30 keV presently. Time integrated spatial resolutions of 1 μm are provided with a variety of optical techniques. Ultraviolet holographic interferometry has measured electron densities above 10 21 cm -3 with 1 μm spatial resolution and 15 ps temporal resolution. X-ray microscopes provide 3 μm time integrated resolution and the x-ray streak pinhole camera has 6 μm spatial resolution. Development of the framing camera has thus far provided 50 μm spatial resolution with 125 ps frame duration and the third order reconstruction of zone plate images has provided 3 μm resolutions for alpha particles. Time integrated measurements of x-rays span the range shown. Finally, the new Shiva neutron spectrometer increases the energy resolution capability of that technique to 25 keV for 14-MeV neutrons. These combined capabilities provide a unique set of diagnostics for the detailed measurement of the interaction of laser light with targets and a subsequent performance of those targets

  2. Mitigation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that experience in the remediation of schools and other large buildings has shown the importance of the effects of both the location of geologic sources and HVAC-induced distribution of indoor radon. In general, elevated radon in areas of schools with evenly distributed HVAC pressures are correlated with maximum soil radon emanations. However, strong or unequal HVAC effects can redistribute indoor radon to areas away from the direct source. Effective remediation required a complete understanding of both contributions. In some schools, highest indoor radon levels were located near large return ducts and were attributed to proximity to negative HVAC pressure. Successful sub-slab depressurization systems were installed, however, in rooms with lower indoor but greatest sub-slab radon levels, closest to the source. This shows the inadequacy of using indoor radon levels alone as a basis for remediation. Wings of two other schools with radon problems have equivalent window fan coil units in rooms of equal size and no central HVAC system. Highest indoor radon levels correlated well with highest sub-slab radon levels due to the equivalent effects of the window units. Diagnostic tests in other schools have revealed: blockwall radon transport to upper floors; high blockwall radon adjacent to sub-slab sources; and elevated indoor radon over crawlspace being drawn upward by HVAC-induced negative pressure, determined from indoor to outdoor micromanometer measurements

  3. Les nouveaux carburants pour l'automobile. Carburants oxygénés : emploi et émissions New Automotive Fuels. Oxygenated Fuels: Their Use and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A la lumière de résultats nouveaux obtenus à l'IFP et de publications récentes sur le sujet, on étudie les principales répercussions de l'emploi de carburants oxygénés sur les émissions de polluants à l'échapement et sur les risques possibles associés à la manipulation des produits. Les polluants examinés sont les alkyles de plomb, l'oxyde de carbone, les oxydes d'azote, les produits imbrûlés, les aldéhydes et les hydrocarbures aromatiques polynucléaires. Les émissions de fumées et de particules solides par les moteurs diesel font aussi l'objet de quelques commentaires. On aborde également les problèmes de pertes par évaporation et on fournit quelques informations sur la toxicité des alcools et des aldéhydes. L'étude fait apparaître un besoin réel de nouvelles recherches dans le domaine, mais elle indique déjà que l'emploi de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants ne devrait pas changer l'ordre de grandeur des niveaux de polluants. In the light of new results from IFP and recent publications on the subject, this article examines the main repercussions of the use of oxygenated fuelss on pollutant exhauts emissions and on possible risks associated with the handling of products. The pollutants examined are lead alkyls, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned products, aldehydes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Emissions of smoke and solid particles by diesel engines are also the subject of various comments. Likewise, the article takes up the problem of losses by evaporation, and some information is provided on the toxicity of alcohols and aldehydes. This study reveals the real need for further research in the field, but it already shows that the use of oxygenated organic products as fuels should not bring about much change in the order of magnitude of pollutant levels.

  4. Etude de nouveaux solvants pour l'extraction des aromatiques des huiles lubrifiantes Research on New Solvents for Aromatics Extraction for Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faid M. K.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d'essais en laboratoire de quelques solvants ou mélanges de solvants nouveaux dans le domaine de l'extraction des aromatiques lourds, qui constitue une étape importante dans la préparation des huiles lubrifiantes. L'influence de la nature du solvant, du taux de solvant et du nombre d'étages d'extraction sur la qualité de l'huile obtenue sont mis en évidence. II est démontré également que l'indice de viscosité de l'huile après l'extraction est fortement lié à la teneur résiduelle en polyaromatiques. Une méthode de calcul simplifié de la composition du raffinat, basée sur la généralisation à plusieurs solutés de l'équation de Kremser, est proposée. Appliquée aux cas étudiés, elle conduit à des résultats tout à fait acceptables pour une évaluation rapide de l'extraction. This article describes laboratory tests results for several new solvents or solvant mixtures in the field of heavy-aromatics extraction, making up an important stage in the preparation of lubricating oil. The influence of the nature of the solvent, of the amount of solvent used and of the number of extraction stages on the quality of the oil obtained is described. It is also shown that the viscosity index of the oil after extraction is closely linked to the residual polyaromatics content. A simplified method for computing the raffinate composition, based on the generalization of the Kremser equation to several solutes, is proposed. When applied to the cases examined, this method gives entirely acceptable results for a quick evaluation of the extraction.

  5. Quality and diagnostic perspectives in laboratory diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Mathias M.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory diagnostics is a medical discipline playing an important part in patient management. In laboratory medicine meaningful, accurate and precise routine measurements are essential for diagnosis, risk assessment, treatment and follow-up of patients. The contribution of the diagnostic laboratory in the overall diagnostic process is app. 40-60%, depending on the kind of disease status investigated. The diagnostic laboratory uses nowadays more than 1.000 different tests mostly provided by ...

  6. Les nouveaux systèmes de propulsion envisageable pour les véhicules urbains Potential New Proplusion Systems for Urban Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salé B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On demande de plus en plus aux véhicules particuliers utilisés en zone urbaine de répondre à un certain nombre de contraintes relatives à la pollution, au bruit et aux économies d'énergie. Il convient donc d'examiner les différents modes de propulsion qui peuvent être retenus en les classant en deux grandes catégories les systèmes thermomécaniques et les systèmes électrochimiques. Les systèmes thermomécaniques, et parmi eux les moteurs à explosion, présentent l'avantage de disposer à la fois d'une puissance massique élevée et d'une énergie massique importante grâce aux possibilités de stockage qu'offrent les hydrocarbures légers. Dans ces conditions il apparaissait tentant, au moins en première étape, d'adapter les moteurs à explosion classiques aux exigences nouvelles en matière d'environnement et d'économie et ceci d'autant plus que ce type de moteur couvre à l'heure actuelle et pour plusieurs années encore la quasi-totalité du parc automobile. Un effort de recherche important a déjà permis de réduire dans une forte proportion les émissions de polluants par l'adaptation de nouveaux modes de combustion ou par l'utilisation de pots catalytiques. Cet effort s'étend d'ailleurs à l'étude d'autres convertisseurs thermomécaniques, tels que le moteur Stirling, qui conjugue les avantages d'un rendement plus élevé à celui d'une pollution réduite, et tels que le moteur à vapeur handicapé cependant par un rendement et une puissance massique faibles. Mais les systèmes thermomécaniques ne peuvent satisfaire à la fois toutes les exigences précédentes. C'est pourquoi on s'oriente vers l'emploi de sources électrochimiques, qui suppriment les deux nuisances pollution et bruit et sont généralement très bonnes du point de vue du rendement global. Le principal écueil concerne le problème du stockage de l'énergie électrique. Bien que des progrès importants aient été obtenus avec les solutions classiques

  7. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Diagnostic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Diagnostic Testing? Diagnostic genetic testing can usually work out if ...

  8. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    determine their targets on the cell. The newly discovered antibodies will then be engineered for utility as new highly specific drugs and diagnostics in...are from the aldo-keto reductase family (AKRs). Remarkably, 3 of the top 10 genes with induction in the mesenchymal TES2b cells Figure 1. Amino

  9. Diagnostic Challenges at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source now being built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, accelerates an H- ion beam to 1000 MeV with an average power of 1.4 MW. The H- beam is then stripped to H+, compressed in a storage ring to a pulse length of 695 ns, and then directed onto a mercury neutron spallation target. Most of the acceleration is accomplished with superconducting rf cavities. The presence of these cavities, the high average beam power, and the large range of beam intensity in the storage ring, provide unique challenges to the beam diagnostics systems. In this talk we will discuss these challenges and some of our solutions, including the laser profile monitor system, the residual gas ionization profile monitors, and network attached devices. Measurements performed using prototype instrumentation will also be presented.

  10. Optical Engines as Representative Tools in the Development of New Combustion Engine Concepts Moteurs transparents comme outils représentatifs dans le développement de nouveaux concepts des moteurs à combustion interne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashdan J.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Single cylinder optical engines are used for Internal Combustion (IC engine research as they allow for the application of qualitative and quantitative non-intrusive, diagnostic techniques to study in-cylinder flow, mixing, combustion and emissions phenomena. Such experimental data is not only important for the validation of computational models but can also provide a detailed insight into the physical processes occurring in-cylinder which is useful for the further development of new combustion strategies such as gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI and Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC. In this context, it is therefore important to ensure that the performance of optical engines is comparable to standard all-metal engines. A comparison of optical and all-metal engine combustion and emissions performance was performed within the present study. The objective was to investigate the principal differences between optical and all-metal engines and understand how these differences ultimately affect mixing, combustion and emissions formation processes. Experimental results reveal the significant impact of differences in combustion chamber wall temperatures between optical and standard engine piston bowls on combustion phasing and engine-out emissions. Quantitative measurements of piston wall temperatures using a laser-induced phosphorescence technique were performed which allowed the subsequent definition of appropriate engine operating strategies so as to compensate for differences in heat transfer properties. Furthermore, differences in combustion chamber geometry were also studied. Geometrical differences can arise as a result of dynamic (compressive/tensile and thermal loading of the extended piston-liner assembly on the optical engine, potentially leading to changes in the effective Compression Ratio. In addition, intake charge dilution in optical engines is often achieved via the use of simulated Exhaust Gas Recirculation

  11. Shiva target irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manes, K.R.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Coleman, L.W.; Storm, E.K.; Glaze, J.A.; Hurley, C.A.; Rienecker, F.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    The first laser/plasma studies performed with the Shiva laser system will be two sided irradiations extending the data obtained by other LLL lasers to higher powers. The twenty approximately 1 TW laser pulses will reach the target simultaneously from above and below in nested pentagonal clusters. The upper and lower clusters of ten beams each are radially polarized so that they strike the target in p-polarization and maximize absorption. This geometry introduces laser system isolation problems which will be briefly discussed. The layout and types of target diagnostics will be described and a brief status report on the facility given

  12. Les nouveaux horizons de l’ecclésiologie médiévale. Ecclésiologie et hérésiologie (Moyen Âge, Temps modernes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Iogna-Prat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le Père Yves Congar, auquel l’une des journées du cycle les «Nouveaux horizons de l’ecclésiologie» a été consacrée l’an passé, a en bonne partie fondé son histoire de l’ecclésiologie sur le couple ecclésiologie/hérésiologie, notant le fait avéré que les grands tournants ecclésiologiques sont, au Moyen Âge, le plus souvent concomitants de graves crises internes – par exemple le Grand Schisme – ou de remises en cause venues de milieux «dissidents» – ou dénoncés et poursuivis comme tels. Les réf...

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ll Diagnostic methods based upon measurements of electrical potential, resistance and impedance of these zones have been proposed; however, their diagnostic accuracy has not been proven and reproducibility has not been consistent. Some of these methods utilise specific bio-electrical properties of acupuncture points.

  14. Plasma diagnostic studies of the influence of process variables upon the atomic and molecular species ejected from (1-x)Li4SiO4:xLi3PO4 targets during rf-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachs, A.L.; Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The deposition of thin-film electrolytes is a critical step in the development of lithium microbatteries with the potential for circuit integration. We have performed a preliminary study of the rf-magnetron sputtering of (1-x)Li 4 SiO 4 :xLi 3 PO 4 targets used to deposit amorphous thin-film electrolytes formed of the three-component system Li 2 O--SiO 2 --P 2 O 5 . Mass and optical emission spectroscopies have been used to investigate the effects of target composition and the deposition conditions upon the atomic and molecular species ejected from the targets. The data provide important information for understanding the mechanism of film formation and for monitoring the Li atomic flux onto the substrates during film growth. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. Nike Facility Diagnostics and Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yung; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Karasik, Max; Kehne, David; Obenschain, Steve; Oh, Jaechul; Serlin, Victor; Weaver, Jim

    2013-10-01

    The Nike laser-target facility is a 56-beam krypton fluoride system that can deliver 2 to 3 kJ of laser energy at 248 nm onto targets inside a two meter diameter vacuum chamber. Nike is used to study physics and technology issues related to laser direct-drive ICF fusion, including hydrodynamic and laser-plasma instabilities, material behavior at extreme pressures, and optical and x-ray diagnostics for laser-heated targets. A suite of laser and target diagnostics are fielded on the Nike facility, including high-speed, high-resolution x-ray and visible imaging cameras, spectrometers and photo-detectors. A centrally-controlled, distributed computerized data acquisition system provides robust data management and near real-time analysis feedback capability during target shots. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  16. Diagnostic measurements of the pumped divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, A.; Bartlett, D.; Costley, A.

    1989-01-01

    The scope of plasma diagnostic capability needed for the pumped divertor is determined by the measurement objectives, which are: (i) to demonstrate feasibility of impurity control using a high flow rate divertor, (ii) to validate a model of the divertor action, and (iii) to optimize pumped divertor performance. Installation of diagnostics, with spatial resolution along the separatrix in the divertor region between the x-point and the target plates, is proposed. Difficult access, small plasma size, large dynamic range, and interpretational issues determine the choices of diagnostic methods which have been made. (author)

  17. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  18. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  19. Diagnostic development for the Atlas pulsed power facility

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, A J; Fulton, R D; Oro, D M; McCuistian, B T; Clark, D A; Roberts, J P; Holtkamp, D B; Watt, R G; Bartsch, R R; Trainor, R J

    1999-01-01

    Atlas will be a 23 MJ capacitor bank capable of delivering greater than 30 MA to a liner target with a nominal 4 microsecond risetime. We describe here our ongoing diagnostic development efforts in this extreme Atlas environment. Included in this discussion are development efforts in X-ray radiography, shock physics diagnostics, and temperature and pressure diagnostics. X-ray radiography is the key diagnostic for visualizing the shock-induced fluid flows characteristic of the proposed Atlas experiments. Due to the large area densities needed for Atlas targets, a number of radiographic systems are under investigation. Diagnostics that address shock physics issues on Atlas include VISAR (velocity interferometer for a surface of any reflector), shock breakout, optical pins, and dark- field shadowgraphy. Temperature diagnostics include infrared pyrometry. As pressure diagnostics we are developing probes based on the pressure dependence of the frequency of fluorescence lines from ruby and the Raman shift in diamon...

  20. Report on the 1st research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research project on standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Radioisotopes produced with a cyclotron and their corresponding radiopharmaceuticals have already been shown to be extremely valuable in basic medical research, disease diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment. There are more than 200 cyclotron facilities worldwide and the number is growing every year. A number of the Member States have acquired cyclotrons for the purpose of producing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and a number of others have expressed an interest in acquiring such facilities. This report is concerned with the production of four radiotracers: Iodine-123, Iodine-124, Thallium-201 and Palladium-103. Iodine-123 is already widely used in SPECT studies, I-124 has shown great promise and can be used for PET studies as well as in radiotherapy. Tl-201 is widely used throughout the world as 201 Tl + for measuring cardiac blood flow. It is a routine tool that is needed for the Nuclear Medicine communities and can be made available by those countries possessing a cyclotron facility with 30 MeV protons. Moreover, as preliminary results dealing with the labelling of chelated polypeptides with trivalent cationic Tl-201 are very promising; the nuclide can also be tried as a potential substitute for Indium tracers in SPECT diagnosis involving polypeptides. Palladium-103, an Auger electron emitter, has become an extremely important radionuclide for therapy. The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) focuses on the optimisation and standardisation of solid phase cyclotron target technology for the production of I-123, I-124, Tl-201 and Pd-103. In particular, as originally proposed and further discussed and agreed upon during the 1st Research Co-ordination Meeting, the main technical goals of the CRP are described as follows: (i) to investigate the possibility of using electrodeposited tellurium and melted tellurium oxide as target material for the production of I-123 and I-124. For the oxide target, the following parameters and techniques will be explored: 1) methods

  1. Laboratory diagnostics of malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, L.

    2018-03-01

    Even now, malaria treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. There are several principal methods for diagnosing malaria. All these methods have their disadvantages.Presumptive treatment of malaria is widely practiced where laboratory tests are not readily available. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria infection. The technique of slide preparation, staining and reading are well known and standardized, and so is the estimate of the parasite density and parasite stages. Microscopy is not always available or feasible at primary health services in limited resource settings due to cost, lack of skilled manpower, accessories and reagents required. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are potential tools for parasite-based diagnosis since the tests are accurate in detecting malaria infections and are easy to use. The test is based on the capture of parasite antigen that released from parasitized red blood cells using monoclonal antibodies prepared against malaria antigen target. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), depend on DNA amplification approaches and have higher sensitivity than microscopy. PCR it is not widely used due to the lack of a standardized methodology, high costs, and the need for highly-trained staff.

  2. Molecular diagnostics for human leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2016-10-01

    The definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis, which results from infection with spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, currently relies on the use of culture, serological testing (microscopic agglutination testing), and molecular detection. The purpose of this review is to describe new molecular diagnostics for Leptospira and discuss advancements in the use of available methods. Efforts have been focused on improving the clinical sensitivity of Leptospira detection using molecular methods. In this review, we describe a reoptimized pathogenic species-specific real-time PCR (targeting lipL32) that has demonstrated improved sensitivity, findings by two groups that real-time reverse-transcription PCR assays targeting the 16S rrs gene can improve detection, and two new loop-mediated amplification techniques. Quantitation of leptospiremia, detection in different specimen types, and the complementary roles played by molecular detection and microscopic agglutination testing will be discussed. Finally, a protocol for Leptospira strain subtyping using variable number tandem repeat targets and high-resolution melting will be described. Molecular diagnostics have an established role for the diagnosis of leptospirosis and provide an actionable diagnosis in the acute setting. The use of real-time reverse-transcription PCR for testing serum/plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, when available, may improve the detection of Leptospira without decreasing clinical specificity.

  3. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K + beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  4. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  5. Argus target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienecker, F. Jr.; Glaros, S.S.; Kobierecki, M.

    1975-01-01

    A target chamber for application in the laser fusion program must satisfy some very basic requirements. (1) Provide a vacuum on the order of 10 -6 torr. (2) Support a microscopically small target in a fixed point in space and verify its location within 5 micrometers. (3) Contain an adjustable beam focusing system capable of delivering a number of laser beams onto the target simultaneously, both in time and space. (4) Provide access for diagnostics to evaluate the results of target irradiation. (5) Have flexibility to allow changes in targets, focusing optics and number of beams. The ARGUS laser which is now under construction at LLL will have a target chamber which meets these requirements in a simple economic manner. The chamber and auxiliary equipment are described, with reference to two double beam focusing systems; namely, lenses and ellipsoidal mirrors. Provision is made for future operation with four beams, using ellipsoidal mirrors for two-sided illumination and lens systems for tetragonal and tetrahedral irradiation

  6. Psychologists' Diagnostic Processes during a Diagnostic Interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, M.; Beerthuis, R.J.; Pieters, J.M.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Swinkels, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In mental health care, psychologists assess clients’ complaints, analyze underlying problems, and identify causes for these problems, to make treatment decisions. We present a study on psychologists’ diagnostic processes, in which a mixed-method approach was employed. We aimed to identify a common

  7. Psychologists' diagnostic processes during a diagnostic interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Beerthuis, Vos R.J.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Witteman, C.L.M.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Swinkels, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    In mental health care, psychologists assess clients’ complaints, analyze underlying problems, and identify causes for these problems, to make treatment decisions. We present a study on psychologists’ diagnostic processes, in which a mixed-method approach was employed. We aimed to identify a common

  8. Recent progress in nanomedicine: therapeutic, diagnostic and theranostic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizzo, L.Y.; Theek, B.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of nanomedicine formulations for therapeutic and diagnostic applications has increased exponentially. Many different systems and strategies have been developed for drug targeting to pathological sites, as well as for visualizing and quantifying important (patho-)

  9. Bangladesh Jobs Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Farole, Thomas; Cho, Yoonyoung

    2017-01-01

    This Jobs Diagnostic presents the characteristics and constraints of the labor market in Bangladesh, identifies the objectives of the jobs agenda, and proposes a policy framework to progress toward them. This multisectoral diagnostic assesses the relationships between supply- and demand-side factors that interact to determine job creation, quality, and inclusion outcomes. Understanding the...

  10. La biosynthèse des isoprénoïdes chez les pucerons : une cible potentielle de nouveaux bio-insecticides ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haubruge E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoprenoid metabolism in aphids: a new target for bio-insecticides development? Currently, the control of aphids is largely dependent on the use of broad-spectrum chemical insecticides. Their adverse effects on the environment, combined with the ability of insects to quickly develop resistance to them, has prompted a search for alternative control products. One of the approaches currently under consideration involves the design of novel bio-rational insecticides targeting and disrupting specific biochemical processes in the insect. As a result of their high specificity, these pest control products generally present little risk to the environment, non-target organisms and human health. In the context of aphid control, isoprenoid metabolism and, more specifically, enzymes of the short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases family constitute promising targets for the development of new control products. Indeed, in aphids, isoprenoid metabolism is associated with the production of mono- and sesquiterpenes, which are compounds playing important roles in the physiology of these insects.

  11. Hémophagocytose et coagulation intravasculaire disséminée au cours de la leishmaniose viscérale de l'adulte: trois nouveaux cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Imène; Azzabi, Samira; Chérif, Eya; Kéchaou, Ines; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kooli, Chékib; Aoun, Karim; Khalfallah, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Les atteintes cliniques et biologiques communes au syndrome d'activation macrophagique (SAM) et à la leishmaniose viscérale (LV) rendent le diagnostic étiologique du SAM très difficile. Cette association est rare et grave. Nous rapportons trois nouvelles observations de SAM secondaire à une LV, compliquées de coagulation intravasculaire disséminée (CIVD). Il s'agissait de trois hommes, âgés respectivement de 31, 20 et 60 ans. Le tableau était fait de fièvre et de splénomégalie associés à une pancytopénie et une CIVD. Le diagnostic de LV était fait par le myélogramme, les sérologies et la polymerase chain reaction. Chez l'un de nos patients, une deuxième sérologie était nécessaire. Tous nos patients étaient traités par Glucantime® avec une bonne évolution. Un cas de pancréatite aigue était noté. En en zones d'endémie, devant un SAM compliqué de CIVD, une LV doit être recherchée, en répétant si nécessaire certaines explorations initialement négatives. Le pronostic dépend de la rapidité du traitement spécifique. PMID:26848343

  12. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12 o above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them

  13. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  14. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  15. Melioidosis diagnostic workshop, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmaster, Alex R; AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D; Brett, Paul J; Brooks, Timothy J G; Brown, Katherine A; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C; Dance, David A B; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J; Rolim, Dionne B; Simpson, Andrew J; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A; Stokes, Martha M; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T

    2015-02-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions.

  16. Exploration structurale et dynamique du phénomène d'activation des récepteurs P2Xs par de nouveaux outils optochimiques

    OpenAIRE

    Habermacher, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    Purinergic P2X receptors are implicated in a diverse range of physiopathological processes and are therefore promising therapeuthic target. Their study suffers from the lack of pharmacological tools selective of one subtype only and mechanisms by which the receptor switches between different conformational states remain elusive.We have developed novel optochemical tools based on azobenzene derivatives to obtain a spatio temporal control of the functionality of the receptor. Inspired by optoge...

  17. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available for many inherited disorders. The main disadvantage is that diagnostic testing carries a very small ... chromosomes, arranged in order of size. Microarray: A technology that examines all of a person’s genes to ...

  18. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  19. Rotorcraft Diagnostics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR program, Ridgetop will introduce the first low-cost, low-power, and lightweight data monitoring solution for rotorcraft diagnostics. The solution is...

  20. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  1. [Diagnostics in osteology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution.

  2. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  3. [Diagnostic criteria in acute neuromyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panea, Cristina; Petrescu, Simona; Monica, Pop; Voinea, Liliana; Dascălu, Ana-Maria; Nicolae, Miruna; Ungureanu, E; Panca, Aida; Grădinaru, Sânziana

    2007-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic disease, was identified in the 19th century, is one of the inflammatory idiopathic demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, often mistaken for severe multiple sclerosis. In 1999 it had been proposed diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica, but in 2006 these criteria were revised by Dean Wingerchuck. These criteria are 99% sensitive and 90% specific for differentiating neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis that present with optic neuritis or a myelitis syndrome. In the following article we present clinical, spinal and cerebral MR imaging, serological and aspects of cerebrospinal fluid examination features of neuromyelitis optica and the revised criteria of neuromyelitis optica established in 2006. The recently identified serum antibody biomarker: neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO Ig G), which target aquaporin 4 water channel, distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis, is one of the revised criteria of neuromyelitis optica.

  4. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  5. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  6. Development of PETAL diagnostics: PETAPhys project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffestin, D.; Boutoux, G.; Baggio, J.; Batani, D.; Blanchot, N.; Bretheau, D.; Hulin, S.; D'Humieres, E.; Granet, F.; Longhi, Th.; Meyer, Ch.; Moreno, Q.; Nuter, R.; Rault, J.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Universite de Bordeaux/Celia Team; CEA. DAM/Cesta Team

    2017-10-01

    Beginning of autumn 2017, PETAL, a Petawatt laser beam, will be operated for experiments on the LMJ facility at the CEA/ Cesta research center. The PETAPhys project provides a support to the qualification phase of the PETAL laser operation. Within the PETAPhys project, we are developing two simple and robust diagnostics permitting both to characterize the focal spot of the PETAL beam and to measure the hard X-ray spectrum at each shot. The first diagnostic consists in optical imaging of the PETAL beam focal spot in the spectral range of the second and third harmonic radiation emitted from the target. The second diagnostic is a hard X-ray dosimeter consisting in a stack of imaging plates (IP) and filters, either placed inside a re-entrant tube or inserted close to target. Numerical simulations as well as experiments on small scale facilities have been performed to design these diagnostics. If available, preliminary results from PETAL experiments will be discussed. We acknowledge the financial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) in the framework of ``the investments for the future'' Programme IdEx Bordeaux-LAPHIA (ANR-10-IDEX-03-02).

  7. Glyco-Immune Diagnostic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets of Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    glycogenes ” responsible for presentation of glyco-conjugates on surfaces of mesothelioma cells and in circulation will allow (a) identification of...were found disease- free at the end- point necropsy. Among the 25 animals that developed Blinded Assignment AE or MPM 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80...necropsies out of 32 animals injected with silica, 31 animals were found disease- free and one animal was found to have developed a sarcoma tumor. All

  8. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonić, T.

    2012-01-01

    Het Marfansyndroom is een erfelijke aandoening van het bindweefsel, met als belangrijkste kenmerk een verwijding van de aorta (hoofdslagader) die tot een plotse dood op jonge leeftijd kan leiden. De groeifactor TGF-β speelt daarbij een belangrijke rol. Teodora Radonic onderzocht of losartan, een

  9. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  10. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  11. Laser diagnostics of biofractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushenko, A G

    1999-01-01

    An optical approach to the problem of modeling and diagnostics of the structures of biofractal formations was considered in relation to human bone tissue. A model was proposed for the optical properties of this tissue, including three levels of fractal organisation: microcrystaline, macrocrystallne, and architectural. The studies were based on laser coherent polarrimetry ensuring the retrieval of the fullest information about the optical and polarisation properties of bone tissue. A method was developed for contactless noninvasive diagnostics of the orientational and mineralogical structure of bone tissue considered as a biofractal. (lasers in medicine)

  12. Diagnostic Imaging Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Fisica Medica

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) and the Argentina Society of Medical Physics (SAFIM) was organized the Diagnostic Imaging Workshop 2012, in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This workshop was an oriented training and scientific exchange between professionals and technicians who work in medical physics, especially in the areas of diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, with special emphasis on the use of multimodal imaging for radiation treatment, planning as well of quality assurance associates.

  13. Diagnostic Imaging for Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay M Mallya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants are a popular modality for permanent tooth replacement. The key to successful implant placement, its subsequent osseointegration and the final prosthetic rehabilitation is proper preoperative assessment. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in the pre- and post-surgical evaluation process. Imaging is used to evaluate suitability of implant sites, aid in selection of appropriate implants, and finally evaluate implant placement and osseointegration. This article reviews the role of diagnostic imaging in the various phases and the advantages and limitations of the numerous imaging modalities.

  14. Designing high speed diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz Carrillo, Gerardo; Martinez, Adam; Mula, Swathi; Prestridge, Kathy; Extreme Fluids Team Team

    2017-11-01

    Timing and firing for shock-driven flows is complex because of jitter in the shock tube mechanical drivers. Consequently, experiments require dynamic triggering of diagnostics from pressure transducers. We explain the design process and criteria for setting up re-shock experiments at the Los Alamos Vertical Shock Tube facility, and the requirements for particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence measurements necessary for calculating Richtmeyer-Meshkov variable density turbulent statistics. Dynamic triggering of diagnostics allows for further investigation of the development of the Richtemeyer-Meshkov instability at both initial shock and re-shock. Thanks to the Los Alamos National Laboratory for funding our project.

  15. Combinatorial selection of aptamers: new radioligands for in vivo molecular imaging; Selection d'aptameres par approche combinatoire: de nouveaux radioligands pour l'imagerie moleculaire in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestourie, C.

    2005-10-15

    Aptamers are oligonucleotide structures selected for their capacity to bind to a desired target. The first part of this work focuses on the selection of aptamers directed against the oncogenic form of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret (RetC634Y). We compared different selection protocols: i) selection against the purified RetC634Y recombinant protein, ii) selection against whole living cells which express RetC634Y and iii) a crossover selection alternating between cells and recombinant protein. One aptamer, D4, was found to be able to inhibit Ret and to reverse the cell phenotype induced by the activation of the receptor. Then, we developed the in vivo use of the selected aptamers. Finally, we used the whole living cells selection protocol to develop aptamers against HLA-G. This protein is characterised by its function in immuno tolerance. Taken together, these studies should pave the way for the in vivo use of aptamers as new therapeutic and diagnostic agents for in vivo PET imaging. (author)

  16. New features of nuclear excitation by {alpha} particles scattering; Nouveaux aspects de l'excitation nucleaire par diffusion de particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saudinos, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy a particles by nuclei is known to excite preferentially levels of collective character. We have studied the scattering of isotopically enriched targets of Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. In part I, we discuss the theoretical features of the interaction. In part II, we describe the experimental procedure. Results are presented and analysed in part III. {alpha} particles scattering by Ca{sup 40} is showed to excite preferentially odd parity levels. In odd nuclei we have observed multiplets due to the coupling of the odd nucleon with the even-even core vibrations. For even-even nuclei, a few levels are excited with lower cross-sections between the well-known first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states. Some could be members of the two phonon quadrupole excitation and involve a double nuclear excitation process. (author) [French] On sait que la diffusion inelastique des particules alpha de moyenne energie excite preferentiellement des niveaux de caractere collectif. Nous avons etudie la diffusion des particules alpha de 44 MeV du cyclotron de Saclay par des isotopes separes de Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. Dans la premiere partie nous exposons les theories de cette interaction. Dans la seconde nous decrivons le systeme experimental. Les resultats sont donnes dans la troisieme partie. Nous montrons que les niveaux excites preferentiellement pour {sup 40}Ca par diffusion ({alpha},{alpha}') sont de parite negative. Dans les noyaux pair-impair nous avons observe des multiplets dus au couplage du nucleon celibataire avec les vibrations du coeur pair-pair. Pour les noyaux pair-pair nous avons pu etudier entre le premier niveau 2{sup +} et le niveau 3{sup -} deja bien connus certains etats plus faiblement excites. Il semble qu'ils sont dus a une excitation quadrupolaire a deux phonons et impliquent un processus de double excitation nucleaire. (auteur)

  17. Diagnostic studies in amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke Pier Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis two diagnostic techniques are studied in amyloidosis. Systemic amyloidosis is characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils (tiny fibres) throughout the body resulting in damage of vital organs. Amyloid can be detected in a tissue specimen stained with Congo red: red-stained amyloid

  18. Angiography in renal diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreyer, H.; Justich, E.; Graz Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The angiographic symptoms of kidney vessels diseases are described as well as traumas and growing and displacing processes of the kidneys. The diagnostic value of angiography in kidney traumas and growing and displacing processes of the kidney is discussed and compared with other techniques, e.g. urography, sonography and computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  19. Electron beam diagnostics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garganne, P.

    1989-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study on beam diagnostics, using carbon wire scanners and optical transition radiation (DTR) monitors. The main consideration consists in the material selection, taking their thermal properties and their effect on the beam into account [fr

  20. 1968 Prototype Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Bedford, MA.

    This true-false diagnostic test was used for pretesting of employees at a Veterans Administration Hospital. The test is comprised of 20 items. An alternate test--Classification Questionnaire--was used for testing after remedial training. (For related document, see TM 002 334.) (DB)

  1. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  2. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  3. Diagnostic Vacuum Curettage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-17

    Apr 17, 1974 ... A trial of the Vabra aspirator, a sterile disposable suction curette, was carried out on 136 outpatients. The apparatus is designed to allow full curettage of the uterine cavity. Adequate specimens for diagnostic histology were ob- tained in' all but 10 cases. Of these, no specimen was obtained in 4 cases.

  4. CERN : Nouveaux records lors d'une période d'exploitation au PS/SPS ; Un nouveau rôle pour les ISR ; Deuxième région d'intersection pour le système pp du SPS ; Détermination de la durée de vie du charme ; Calcul en Sicile et au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    CERN : Nouveaux records lors d'une période d'exploitation au PS/SPS ; Un nouveau rôle pour les ISR ; Deuxième région d'intersection pour le système pp du SPS ; Détermination de la durée de vie du charme ; Calcul en Sicile et au CERN

  5. Targets development at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Hebron, D.; Derzon, M.; Olson, R.; Alberts, T.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, Sandia National Laboratories under contract to the Department of Energy has produced targets designed to understand complex ion beam and z-pinch plasma physics. This poster focuses on the features of target designs that make them suitable for Z-pinch plasma physics applications. Precision diagnostic targets will prove critical in understanding the plasma physics model needed for future ion beam and z-pinch design. Targets are designed to meet specific physics needs; in this case the authors have fabricated targets to maximize information about the end-on versus side-on x-ray emission and z-pinch hohlraum development. In this poster, they describe the fabrication and characterization techniques. They include discussion of current targets under development as well as target fabrication capabilities. Advanced target designs are fabricated by Sandia National Laboratories in cooperation with General Atomics of San Diego, CA and W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc. of Livermore, CA

  6. FEL components and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.

    1997-01-01

    FEL hardware includes undulators, alignment systems, electron beam diagnostics, and mechanical and vacuum systems. While most FEL close-quote s employ conventional undulators, there is some interest in novel types, particularly where conventional designs cannot be used, as at very short periods and high fields. For these areas, superconducting technology is indicated. The most serious issue facing long FEL undulators is that of alignment; mechanical techniques may not be accurate enough, and beam-based strategies must be considered. To maintain alignment and control the electron trajectory, beam position monitors with micron precision are required. Beam size monitors are also required to assure control of emittance. The talks given in the working group sessions touch on undulators, alignment, and electron beam diagnostics, and they are summarized here. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Bunched beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    There is a remarkable diversity in the field of accelerator physics. Look at the proceedings of any conference. Papers range from Hamiltonian dynamics to the latest improvements of performance in accelerator X to the engineering of specialized equipment. Beam diagnostics is somewhere in the middle of this. Diagnostic instruments make the connection between theories and observations, and the capabilities of these instruments influence strongly our ability to improve performance. The gave a series of lectures in 1987 on the general topic of Principles of Beam Observation. The emphasis was on frequency domain analysis of beam generated signals in storage rings, and that is the subject of this paper. The goal is to connect spectrum analyzer observations to what the beam is doing. In addition, understanding beam spectra is essential for understanding coherent effects and instabilities in storage rings, and this is discussed extensively. 23 figures, 4 tables

  8. Nanobiosensors in diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chamorro-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnosis has been greatly improved thanks to the development of new techniques capable of performing very sensitive detection and quantifying certain parameters. These parameters can be correlated with the presence of specific molecules and their quantity. Unfortunately, these techniques are demanding, expensive, and often complicated. On the other side, progress in other fields of science and technology has contributed to the rapid growth of nanotechnology. Although being an emerging discipline, nanotechnology has raised huge interest and expectations. Most of the enthusiasm comes from new possibilities and properties of nanomaterials. Biosensors (simple, robust, sensitive, cost-effective combined with nanomaterials, also called nanobiosensors, are serving as bridge between advanced detection/diagnostics and daily/routine tests. Here we review some of the latest applications of nanobiosensors in diagnostics field.

  9. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  10. RFQ1 diagnostic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidley, B.G.; Arbique, G.M.; de Jong, M.S.; McMichael, G.E.; Michel, W.L.; Smith, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic devices in use on RFQ1 will be described. They consist of a double-slit emittance-measuring unit, a 45 degree deflection energy-analysis magnet, parametric current transformers, optical beam sensors, beam-stop current monitors, and an x-ray end-point analyzer. All of these devices are able to operate up to the full output current of RFQ1 (75 mA cw at 0.6 MeV)

  11. Volumetric Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Force Office of Scientific Research Submitted by: Lin Ma, PhD Professor Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering Department of Mechanical ...established PLIF (planar LIF [11, 12]) to volumetric measurement of species concentration, and have demonstrated single- shot VLIF measurements in both...Ikeda, J., Xu, W., Carter, C.D. Single Shot 3D Flame Diagnostic Based on Volumetric Laser Induced Fluorescence (VLIF), Proceedings of the

  12. Radiological diagnostics in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.; Kuhn, F.P.; Gruetzner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The most important radiologically detectable effects of the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism of the skeletal system and the periarticular soft tissue structures are presented. In the following sensitivity and specificity of radiological imaging - sonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arteriography and selective venous sampling - in the preoperative diagnostic of the parathyroid adenomas are discussed. Therefore, radiological imaging can be omitted before primary surgery. It was only in secondary surgery that radiological process proved useful and a guide during surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  13. Accelerator target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlyer, David J.; Ferrieri, Richard A.; Koehler, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  14. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  15. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  16. 2012 HIV Diagnostics Conference: the molecular diagnostics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Bernard M; Pandori, Mark

    2013-04-01

    2012 HIV Diagnostic Conference Atlanta, GA, USA, 12-14 December 2012. This report highlights the presentations and discussions from the 2012 National HIV Diagnostic Conference held in Atlanta (GA, USA), on 12-14 December 2012. Reflecting changes in the evolving field of HIV diagnostics, the conference provided a forum for evaluating developments in molecular diagnostics and their role in HIV diagnosis. In 2010, the HIV Diagnostics Conference concluded with the proposal of a new diagnostic algorithm which included nucleic acid testing to resolve discordant screening and supplemental antibody test results. The 2012 meeting, picking up where the 2010 meeting left off, focused on scientific presentations that assessed this new algorithm and the role played by RNA testing and new developments in molecular diagnostics, including detection of total and integrated HIV-1 DNA, detection and quantification of HIV-2 RNA, and rapid formats for detection of HIV-1 RNA.

  17. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  18. MAST magnetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlington, T.; Martin, R.; Pinfold, T.

    2001-01-01

    The mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) experiment is a new, large, low aspect ratio device (R=0.7-0.8 m, a=0.5-0.65 m, maximum BT˜0.63 T at R=0.7 m) operating its first experimental physics campaign. Designed to study a wide variety of plasma shapes with up to 2 MA of plasma current with an aspect ratio down to 1.3, the poloidal field (PF) coils used for plasma formation, equilibrium and shaping are inside the main vacuum vessel. For plasma control and to investigate a wide range of plasma phenomena, an extensive set of magnetic diagnostics have been installed inside the vacuum vessel. More than 600 vacuum compatible, bakeable diagnostic coils are configured in a number of discrete arrays close to the plasma edge with about half the coils installed behind the graphite armour tiles covering the center column. The coil arrays measure the toroidal and poloidal variation in the equilibrium field and its high frequency fluctuating components. Internal coils also measure currents in the PF coils, plasma current, stored energy and induced currents in the mechanical support structures of the coils and graphite armour tiles. The latter measurements are particularly important when halo currents are induced following a plasma termination, for example, when the plasma becomes vertically unstable. The article describes the MAST magnetic diagnostic coil set and their calibration. The way in which coil signals are used to control the plasma equilibrium is described and data from the first MAST experimental campaign presented. These coil data are used as input to the code EFIT [L. Lao et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)], for measurement of halo currents in the vacuum vessel structure and for measurements of the structure of magnetic field fluctuations near the plasma edge.

  19. Bouveret's Syndrome: diagnostic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.G.; Sherman, S.B.; Steinhardt, J.E.; Wilson, J.M. Jr.; Richman, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is a rare disease entity manifested by the formation of a cholecystoduodenal or choledochoduodenal fistula with passage of a gallstone into the duodenal bulb and subsequent obstruction of the gastric outlet. To date, no report of this entity using computed tomographic (CT) imaging is available. This article presents a case of Bouveret's syndrome with the classic findings on upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract series and a description of the CT manifestations. The literature is reviewed with discussion of the diagnostic approach to patients with Bouveret's syndrome

  20. COMPLEX RENAL MASSES DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Chekhonatskaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Saratov State Medical University Research Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Urology Nephrology Renal masses are widespread pathology with high mortality and morbidity rate. Early diagnostics is a possibility of nephron-spearing surgery. Ultrasonography is screening imaging modality for renal lesions, Doppler investigation provide possibility for vascularity of these masses evaluation. CT with and without contrast enhancement can be used as a marker of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging has been proposed for the evaluation of renal lesions, especially in cases in which ultrasonography (US and/or CT results are not definitive.

  1. Dermatoglyphics: A Diagnostic Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, I. C.

    1973-01-01

    Dermatoglyphics of patients suffering from diabetes, schizophrenia, duodenal ulcer, asthma, and various cancers have been contrasted and significant differences in the digital ridge counts, maximum atd angles, and distal palmar loop ridge counts have been found. A discriminant analysis of the digital ridge counts was performed and the function was used to attempt differential diagnosis between these conditions on dermatoglyphic evidence alone. This diagnostic trial failed, and possible reasons for its failure are discussed. Attention is drawn to the possibility that prognostic implications of dermatoglyphics might be relevant to screening techniques. PMID:4714584

  2. FASTBUS Snoop Diagnostic Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.; Downing, R.

    1980-11-01

    Development of the FASTBUS Snoop Module, undertaken as part of the prototype program for the new interlaboratory data bus standard, is described. The Snoop Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. Communication with a remote host computer is handled independent of FASTBUS through a serial link. The module consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step FASTBUS cycles, a master-slave interface, and a control microprocessor with serial communication ports. Design details and performance specifications of the prototype module are reported. 9 figures, 1 table

  3. Isotope diagnostics apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a measuring probe for an isotope diagnostics apparatus to determine the distribution of radioactive substances in a body by measuring the radiation emanating from this body by means of a multiplicity of measuring probes directed simultaneously towards areas of measuring surfae and carried in guidances of a holding block. The measuring results of the individual probes are recorded separately, thus allowing the possibility of being evaluated separately, too. Measuring probes of this kind are used in multi-channel measuring objects and are useful particularly for determining the regional cerebral blood flow. (orig./ORU) [de

  4. Diagnostic radiology 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulis, A.R.; Gooding, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the latest version of the continuing education course on diagnostic radiology given yearly by the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Francisco. The lectures are grouped into sections on gastrointestinal radiology, mammography, uroradiology, magnetic resonance, hepatobiliary radiology, pediatric radiology, ultrasound, interventional radiology, chest radiology, nuclear medicine, cardiovascular radiology, and skeletal radiology. Each section contains four to eight topics. Each of these consists of text that represents highlights in narrative form, selected illustrations, and a short bibliography. The presentation gives a general idea of what points were made in the lecture

  5. Targeted therapy for sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forscher C

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Charles Forscher,1 Monica Mita,2 Robert Figlin3 1Sarcoma Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Experimental Therapeutics Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Academic Development Program, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, and Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are tumors of mesenchymal origin that make up approximately 1% of human cancers. They may arise as primary tumors in either bone or soft tissue, with approximately 11,280 soft tissue tumors and 2,650 bone tumors diagnosed each year in the United States. There are at least 50 different subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma, with new ones described with ever-increasing frequency. One way to look at sarcomas is to divide them into categories on the basis of their genetic make-up. One group of sarcomas has an identifiable, relatively simple genetic signature, such as the X:18 translocation seen in synovial sarcoma or the 11:22 translocation seen in Ewing's sarcoma. These specific abnormalities often lead to the presence of fusion proteins, such as EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma, which are helpful as diagnostic tools and may become therapeutic targets in the future. Another group of sarcomas is characterized by complex genetic abnormalities as seen in leiomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. It is important to keep these distinctions in mind when contemplating the development of targeted agents for sarcomas. Different abnormalities in sarcoma could be divided by tumor subtype or by the molecular or pathway abnormality. However, some existing drugs or drugs in development may interfere with or alter more than one of the presented pathways. Keywords: sarcoma, targeted agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mTor inhibition

  6. Des univers multiples nouveaux horizons cosmiques

    CERN Document Server

    Barrau, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Notre univers ne serait-il qu’une fraction d’un vaste multivers ? À l’heure des résultats expérimentaux de Planck et du LHC, de nouvelles questions essentielles se posent quant à l’unicité de l’Univers lui-même. Se pourrait-il que notre cosmos ne soit qu’un îlot dérisoire perdu dans un vaste multivers ? Il est aujourd’hui légitime de le supposer. Mais cette proposition vertigineuse est-elle encore scientifique ? La récente mesure détaillée du rayonnement cosmologique fossile ouvre la voie à de nouvelles approches. Faisant le point sur ces avancées, Aurélien Barrau nous dévoile, dans cette édition actualisée, les théories cosmologiques les plus audacieuses.

  7. New Light Alloys (Les Nouveaux Alliages Legers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    some extent, both the application of mixed loading levels, in the programmed load sequences, and the presence of an aggresive environment speed up the...0.05 0.05 Total 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 "Numers Shown Are Either Maximuma or Ranges MICROSTRUCTURE AND DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR Cast Structure...T65I 0 5 10 20 50 100 Time to Failure (days) Figure 2. The effect of as-cast grain structure on the stress corrosion behavior of 8090- T851 plate. Base

  8. Diagnostic Technologies in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

  9. Radiation hardening of diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10 16 neutrons per second because of ''spallation'' reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop

  10. Reflectometry diagnostics on TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cabrera, Pedro; Coda, Stefano; Porte, Laurie; Offeddu, Nicola; Tcv Team

    2017-10-01

    Both profile reflectometer and Doppler back-scattering (DBS) diagnostics are being developed for the TCV Tokamak using a steerable quasi-optical launcher and universal polarizers. First results will be presented. A pulse reflectometer is being developed to complement Thomson Scattering measurements of electron density, greatly increasing temporal resolution and also effectively enabling fluctuation measurements. Pulse reflectometry consists of sending short pulses of varying frequency and measuring the roundtrip group-delay with precise chronometers. A fast arbitrary waveform generator is used as a pulse source feeding frequency multipliers that bring the pulses to V-band. A DBS diagnostic is currently operational in TCV. DBS may be used to infer the perpendicular velocity and wave number spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the 3-15 cm-1 wave-number range. Off-the-shelf transceiver modules, originally used for VNA measurements, are being used in a Doppler radar configuration. See author list of S. Coda et al., 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 102011.

  11. Encyclopedia of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of imaging. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on diagnostic radiology contributing to the broad field of imaging. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of diagnostic imaging. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list. (orig.)

  12. Radiation hardening of diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemon, R. E.

    The world fusion program has advanced to the stage where it is appropriate to construct a number of devices for the purpose of burning DT fuel. In these next-generation experiments, the expected flux and fluence of 14 MeV neutrons and associated gamma rays will pose a significant challenge to the operation and diagnostics of the fusion device. Radiation effects include structural damage to materials such as vacuum windows and seals, modifications to electrical properties such as electrical conductivity and dielectric strength and impaired optical properties such as reduced transparency and luminescence of windows and fiber optics during irradiation. In preparation for construction and operation of these new facilities, the fusion diagnostics community needs to work with materials scientists to develop a better understanding of radiation effects, and to undertake a testing program aimed at developing workable solutions for this multi-faceted problem. A unique facility to help in this regard is the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility, a neutron source located at the beam stop of the world's most powerful accelerator, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The LAMPF proton beam generates 10(exp 16) neutrons per second because of spallation'reactions when the protons collide with the copper nuclei in the beam stop.

  13. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Diagnostic algorithm for syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, Roberto; Sau, Arunashis; Lim, Phang Boon

    2014-09-01

    Syncope is a common symptom with many causes. Affecting a large proportion of the population, both young and old, it represents a significant healthcare burden. The diagnostic approach to syncope should be focused on the initial evaluation, which includes a detailed clinical history, physical examination and 12-lead electrocardiogram. Following the initial evaluation, patients should be risk-stratified into high or low-risk groups in order to guide further investigations and management. Patients with high-risk features should be investigated further to exclude significant structural heart disease or arrhythmia. The ideal currently-available investigation should allow ECG recording during a spontaneous episode of syncope, and when this is not possible, an implantable loop recorder may be considered. In the emergency room setting, acute causes of syncope must also be considered including severe cardiovascular compromise due to pulmonary, cardiac or vascular pathology. While not all patients will receive a conclusive diagnosis, risk-stratification in patients to guide appropriate investigations in the context of a diagnostic algorithm should allow a benign prognosis to be maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. About the gut microbiome as a pharmacological target in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, Julia J.; van Raalte, Daniel H.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of intestinal bacterial strains (gut microbiota) in the development of cardiometabolic disease is increasingly recognized as potential diagnostic and pharmacological target. Changes in the intestinal bacterial composition and subsequent altered diversity has been associated with

  16. Target detectability in acoustic elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgen, M

    1999-01-01

    The clinically relevant task of visually detecting low contrast targets in noisy strain images estimated from ultrasonic signals is studied. Detectability is measured quantitatively using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) analysis. Contrast in strain images is generated by a complex interaction among the soft tissue elasticity shear modulus distribution, target shape and location in the stress field, and external boundary conditions. Although a large strain variation is preferred for enhancing the contrast, this also increases the signal-dependent noise in strain estimates in a nonlinear fashion. Therefore, understanding the tradeoffs between contrast and noise is necessary for improving the diagnostic performance of strain imaging. In this paper, targets with slab, cylindrical, and spherical geometries are studied. Strains in the target and background and the precision of their estimates are described in terms of the corresponding shear modulus values for each geometry. These results are then incorporated into the CNR expression to investigate the changes in target detectability with the variation of shear modulus in the target and the ultrasonic signal parameters (echo signal-to-noise ratio and inverse fractional bandwidth) as well as the signal processing variables (time-bandwidth product and fractional window overlap).

  17. Diagnostic of laser-accelerated ion beams for the ELIMED project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [Physics Department of Messina University, V.le S. d' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Physics Department of Messina University, V.le S. d' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Andò, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, V. S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Calcagno, L.; Musumeci, P. [Physics Department of Catania University, V. S,. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The laser-generated plasma, in non equilibrium conditions, has peculiar properties depending strongly on the laser parameters, on the target composition and on the target geometry. Different fast diagnostic techniques can be employed for the plasma characterization in terms of particles and photons emission, plasma temperature and density, ion energy distribution, angular emission, yield and electric field acceleration. Particular attention is devoted to the proton emission from hydrogenated targets and to the proton diagnostics by using time of flight techniques and Thomson parabola spectrometry. The diagnostic techniques will be presented and discussed on the base of the development of the ELIMED project.

  18. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Diagnostic Set at the Completion of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkenny, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, P. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, D. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caggiano, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dewald, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsing, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kalantar, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kauffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelton, R. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Batha, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grim, G. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herrmann, H. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Merrill, F. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leeper, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edgell, D. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glebov, V. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Regan, S. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gatu-Johnson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Petrasso, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rindernecht, H. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zylstra, A. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cooper, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ruiz, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-05

    At the completion of the National Ignition Campaign NIF had about 36 different types of diagnostics. These were based on several decades of development on Nova and OMEGA and involved the whole US ICF community. A plan for a limited of NIF Diagnostics was documented by the Joint Central Diagnostic Team in the NIF Conceptual Design Report in 1994. These diagnostics and many more were installed diagnostics by two decades later. We give a short description of each of the 36 different types of NIC diagnostics grouped by the function of the diagnostics, namely target drive, target response and target assembly, stagnation and burn. A comparison of NIF diagnostics with the Nova diagnostics shows that the NIF diagnostic capability is broadly equivalent to that of Nova’s in 1999. NIF diagnostics have a much greater degree of automation and rigor than Nova’s and the NIF diagnostic suite incorporates some scientific innovation compared to Nova and OMEGA namely one much higher speed x-ray imager. Directions for future NIF diagnostics are discussed.

  19. Fast infectious diseases diagnostics based on microfluidic biochip system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostics is one of the most important tools currently in use for clinical pathogen detection due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and low consume of sample and reagent is keyword to low cost molecular diagnostics. In this paper, a sensitive DNA isothermal amplification method for fast clinical infectious diseases diagnostics at aM concentrations of DNA was developed using a polycarbonate (PC microfluidic chip. A portable confocal optical fluorescence detector was specifically developed for the microfluidic chip that was capable of highly sensitive real-time detection of amplified products for sequence-specific molecular identification near the optical diffraction limit with low background. The molecular diagnostics of Listeria monocytogenes with nucleic acid extracted from stool samples was performed at a minimum DNA template concentration of 3.65aM, and a detection limit of less than five copies of genomic DNA. Contrast to the general polymerase chain reaction (PCR at eppendorf (EP tube, the detection time in our developed method was reduced from 1.5h to 45min for multi-target parallel detection, the consume of sample and reagent was dropped from 25μL to 1.45μL. This novel microfluidic chip system and method can be used to develop a micro total analysis system as a clinically relevant pathogen molecular diagnostics method via the amplification of targets, with potential applications in biotechnology, medicine, and clinical molecular diagnostics.

  20. Laboratory Diagnostics for Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Marwan M; Hage, Chadi A

    2017-06-01

    The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is based on a multifaceted approach that includes clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evidence of disease. The gold standards for laboratory diagnosis include demonstration of yeast on pathological examination of tissue and isolation of the mold in the culture of clinical specimens; however, antigen detection has provided a rapid, noninvasive, and highly sensitive method for diagnosis and is a useful marker of treatment response. Molecular methods with improved sensitivity on clinical specimens are being developed but are not yet ready for widespread clinical use. This review synthesizes currently available laboratory diagnostics for histoplasmosis, with an emphasis on complexities of testing and performance in various clinical contexts. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  2. Molecular diagnostic PCR handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viljoen, G.J.; Crowther, J.R.; Nel, L.H.

    2005-01-01

    The uses of nucleic acid-directed methods have increased significantly in the past five years and have made important contributions to disease control country programmes for improving national and international trade. These developments include the more routine use of PCR as a diagnostic tool in veterinary diagnostic laboratories. However, there are many problems associated with the transfer and particularly, the application of this technology. These include lack of consideration of: the establishment of quality-assured procedures, the required set-up of the laboratory and the proper training of staff. This can lead to a situation where results are not assured. This book gives a comprehensive account of the practical aspects of PCR and strong consideration is given to ensure its optimal use in a laboratory environment. This includes the setting-up of a PCR laboratory; Good Laboratory Practice and standardised PCR protocols to detect animal disease pathogens. Examples of Standard Operating Procedures as used in individual specialist laboratories and an outline of training materials necessary for PCR technology transfer are presented. The difficulties, advantages and disadvantages in PCR applications are explained and placed in context with other test systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of PCR for detection of pathogens, with a particular focus on diagnosticians and scientists from the developing world. It is hoped that this book will enable readers from various disciplines and levels of expertise to better judge the merits of PCR and to increase their skills and knowledge in order to assist in a more logical, efficient and assured use of this technology

  3. High-intensity laser diagnostics for OMEGA EP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, J.; Zuegel, J.D.; Bahk, S.W.; Vickery, D.S.; Waxer, L.J.; Irwin, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Boni, R.; Moore, M.D.; Jungquist, R.; Stoeckl, C.

    2006-01-01

    OMEGA EP (Extended Performance) is a new high-energy peta-watt laser system under construction at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. This paper describes our designs for two diagnostics critical to OMEGA EP's mission. The focal-spot diagnostic (FSD) is responsible for characterizing the focal spot of OMEGA EP's off-axis parabolic mirror at full energy. The ultrafast temporal diagnostic (UTD) is responsible for characterizing pulse shapes of full-energy target shots ranging in width from < 1 to 100 ps as well as setting the desired pulse width before the shot. These diagnostics will enable, for the first time, complete spatial and temporal characterization of the focus of a high-energy peta-watt laser at full energy. (authors)

  4. Team building and diagnostic training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, S.

    1987-01-01

    While developing a commercial training program to improve teamwork in control room crews, General Electric's Nuclear Training Services made an important discovery. Traditional training methods for developing teamwork and enhancing diagnostics capabilities are incomplete. Traditional methods generally help, but fail to fulfill the long-term needs of most teams. Teamwork has been treated as a short-term performance problem. Traditional diagnostic training suffers from a similar problem. Too often, it covers only the basic principles of decision-making, ignoring the development of expert diagnostic capabilities. In response to this discovery, they have developed comprehensive training in Team Building and Diagnostics

  5. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    while AO index is reasonably simulated, the Antarctic index remains much lower than its value based on either NCEP or NAVGEM analysis. That means...need to be satisfied. An ocean/ice/waves scorecard for ESPC coupled ocean atmosphere forecast performance This section describes progress in...developing a scorecard system to monitor the ice/ocean/wave performance of the HYCOM-NAVGEM coupled Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC) targeted for

  6. [Molecular and immunohistochemical diagnostics in melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, B; Griewank, K G

    2016-07-01

    To provide appropriate therapy and follow-up to patients with malignant melanoma, proper diagnostics are of critical importance. Targeted therapy of advanced melanoma is based on the molecular genetic analyses of tumor tissue. In addition, sequencing of genes and other genetic approaches can provide insight into the origin of melanocytic tumors and can aid in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. In this regard, spizoid neoplasms remain a challenging entity. Aside from genetic analyses of tumor tissue, immunohistochemistry remains an essential tool in melanoma diagnostics and TNM classification. With new immunotherapies being approved for advanced melanoma, immunohistochemistry to determine PD-L1 expression has gained clinical interest. While PD-L1 expression is associated with response to PD-1 blockade, a substantial number of patients without PD-L1 expression can still experience tumor remission upon treatment. In this review, current and future developments in melanoma diagnostics with regard to molecular genetics and immunohistochemistry are summarized. The utilization of such analyses in clinical decision making is also discussed.

  7. Effective diagnostic DAQ systems to reduce unnecessary data in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taegu, E-mail: glory@nfri.re.kr; Lee, Woongryol; Hong, Jaesic; Park, Kaprai

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • When plasma shots do not successfully perform during the intended target time, the diagnostics systems continue to record these unusable data, contributing to increasing data size. • To overcome this problem, some KSTAR’s library were upgraded to monitor the plasma status in real-time. • With the real-time information of plasma status, some of the KSTAR diagnostic systems stop the acquisition process of unnecessary data. • We were able to reduce the refuse data of approximately 698 GByte in the KSTAR 7th campaign. • It was a very effective way to store useful data, and it was helpful to analysts after shot. - Abstract: The plasma status of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is measured by various diagnostics systems. The measured data size has been increasing every year due to increasing plasma pulse lengths, higher diagnostics operating frequencies, the additions of new diagnostic systems, and an increasing number of diagnostics channels. At times, when plasma shots do not successfully perform during the intended target time, the diagnostics systems continue to record these unusable data, contributing to increasing data size. In addition, the analysis time was affected, as these data need to be separated from the relevant data set. To overcome this problem, KSTAR’s Standard Framework (SFW), Real Time Monitoring (RTMON), and Pulse Automation and Scheduling System (PASS) were upgraded to monitor the plasma status in real-time. When the plasma current is less than 200kA, RTMON sends the plasma status information every second to the SFW via EPICS Channel Access. With the real-time information on plasma status, some of the KSTAR diagnostic systems stop the acquisition process of unnecessary data. This paper describes a method for reducing the storage of unnecessary data and its results in the KSTAR 7th campaign.

  8. Molecular diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Stephen; Skubisz, Monika M; Horne, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancies are a serious gynaecological emergency that can be fatal. As such, prompt diagnosis and safe timely treatment is essential. Here, we review the literature on the development of molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy. A blood-based biomarker that accurately identifies an ectopic pregnancy could be used to offer early diagnostic certainty in cases where ultrasound cannot determine the location of the embryo ('a pregnancy of unknown location'). Molecules examined so far can be broadly grouped into biological themes of relevance to reproduction: (i) Fallopian tube (dys)function, (ii) embryo/trophoblast growth, (iii) corpus luteum function, (iv) inflammation, (v) uterine function and (vi) angiogenesis. While a sensitive and specific biomarker for ectopic pregnancy has yet to be identified, it is possible that improvements in platform technologies or a multi-modal biomarker approach may yield an accurate diagnostic biomarker test. Furthermore, with the advent of better imaging technology, the need for a blood-based biomarker test may be superseded by improvements in ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging technology. There have been some recent preclinical studies describing molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches for ectopic pregnancy. Notably, bench-to-bedside studies have examined the use of combination gefitinib (orally available epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) and methotrexate. Preclinical studies suggest that combination gefitinib and methotrexate is highly effective in inducing placental cell death, and is significantly more effective than methotrexate alone. In early human trials, encouraging preliminary efficacy data have shown that combination gefitinib and methotrexate can rapidly resolve tubal ectopic pregnancies, and large extra-tubal ectopic pregnancies. If a large clinical randomized controlled trial confirms these findings, combination gefitinib and methotrexate could become a new

  9. Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥...

  10. Nanomedicine: Drug Delivery Systems and Nanoparticle Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Hye Won; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, Jun Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Applications of nanotechnology in the medical field have provided the fundamentals of tremendous improvement in precise diagnosis and customized therapy. Recent advances in nanomedicine have led to establish a new concept of theragnosis, which utilizes nanomedicines as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool at the same time. The development of high affinity nanoparticles with large surface area and functional groups multiplies diagnostic and therapeutic capacities. Considering the specific conditions related to the disease of individual patient, customized therapy requires the identification of disease target at the cellular and molecular level for reducing side effects and enhancing therapeutic efficiency. Well-designed nanoparticles can minimize unnecessary exposure of cytotoxic drugs and maximize targeted localization of administrated drugs. This review will focus on major pharmaceutical nanomaterials and nanoparticles as key components of designing and surface engineering for targeted theragnostic drug development

  11. Technical diagnostics of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlckova, B.; Drahy, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with practical experience in application of technical diagnostics methods to steam turbines, in particular using pedestal and shaft vibration measurements as well as estimation of bearing metal temperature and ultrasound emission signals. An estimation of effectiveness of the diagnostics methods used is given on the basis of experimental investigations made on a 30-MW turbine. (author)

  12. Imaging diagnostics of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel; Walther, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  13. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  14. Psychometric perspectives on diagnostic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.

    2008-01-01

    The author identifies four conceptualizations of the relation between symptoms and disorders as utilized in diagnostic systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994): A constructivist perspective, which holds

  15. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  16. Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kułakowska, Alina; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzyńska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wiesław

    2011-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients

  17. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  18. Chorioamnionitis: a diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Arroyave

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chorioamnionitis has been defined as inflammation of the amnion and chorion membranes in response to microbial invasion or other pathological process. May be clinical when clinical manifestations of local and systemic inflammation is present, subclinical when no clinical signs; histological if there is microscopic evidence of infection or inflammation in placental examination. The frequency of chorioamnionitis is highly variable, depending on the risk factors of the population studied, the criteria used for diagnosis (clinical or histological and gestational age. This clinical entity is important because results in maternal, fetal and neonatal aftermath such as postpartum endometritis, pelvic abscess and high risk of caesarean section in the mother. In the fetus, Prematurity, perinatal death, pneumonia, sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage and cerebral palsy. Make an early and accurate diagnosis is essential to prevent these aftermath. Objective: Carry out a literature review on the diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Methods: A search of the literature published during the last 5 years in Pubmed, Tripdatabase, Science direct and Embase biomedical was made, selecting the most relevant literature on chorioamnionitis. Conclusions: Despite medical advances in diagnostic methods, unify parameters for early diagnosis of chorioamnionitis is still a challenge, as shown by the variability of the evidence found in this review.

  19. Diagnostic evaluation of rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Jessica R; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days after an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. Clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle-cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. Muscle Nerve 51: 793-810, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bayesian modelling of fusion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R.; Dinklage, A.; Pasch, E.

    2003-07-01

    Integrated data analysis of fusion diagnostics is the combination of different, heterogeneous diagnostics in order to improve physics knowledge and reduce the uncertainties of results. One example is the validation of profiles of plasma quantities. Integration of different diagnostics requires systematic and formalized error analysis for all uncertainties involved. The Bayesian probability theory (BPT) allows a systematic combination of all information entering the measurement descriptive model that considers all uncertainties of the measured data, calibration measurements, physical model parameters and measurement nuisance parameters. A sensitivity analysis of model parameters allows crucial uncertainties to be found, which has an impact on both diagnostic improvement and design. The systematic statistical modelling within the BPT is used for reconstructing electron density and electron temperature profiles from Thomson scattering data from the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator. The inclusion of different diagnostics and first-principle information is discussed in terms of improvements.

  1. Recent diagnostic developments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Peterson, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Standard diagnostics for fundamental plasma parameters and for plasma physics are routinely utilized for daily operation and physics study in the large helical device (LHD) with high reliability. Diagnostics for steady state plasma are intensively developed, especially for T e , n e (YAG laser Thomson, CO 2 laser polarimeter), data acquisition in steady state, heat resistant probes. To clarify the plasma property of the helical structure, 2-D or 3-D diagnostics are intensively developed: Tangential cameras (Fast SX TV, Photon counting CCD, H α TV); Tomography (Tangential SX CCD, Bolometer); Imaging (Bolometer, ECE, Reflectometer). Divertor and edge physics are one of important key issues for steady state operation. Diagnostics for neutral flux (H α array, Zeeman spectroscopy) and n e (Fast scanning probe, Li beam probe, Pulsed radar reflectometer). In addition to these, advanced diagnostics are being intensively developed with national and international collaborations in LHD. (author)

  2. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.M.; Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Drevon, J.M.; Encheva, A.; Kashchuk, Y.; Maquet, Ph.; Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10 −7 Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10 −10 Pa m 3 s −1 . In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions will be described

  3. DIAGNOSTIC KARATE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Doder

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic condition of a successful process of karate training is making diagnosis of any sportsman. Assessment is usually done by a coach and it is a part of technical process; quantity measurements are also a part of the evaluation which contains these tests. The suggested diagnostic karate tests are based on the knowledge of the specific karate characteristics and on the research which was done so far (Zulić 1985, Milošević and Zulić 1988, Jovanović 1981, 1988, Mudrić 1994, Doder 1998, 2000, 2005, Babiak, Doder, Savić, Golik2001, Savić, Doder, Babiak 2002. Karate as a type of sport demands diagnosis of many relevant characteristics, abilities and features that are thought to be predominant in the analysis of this kind of sport. Knowing all relevant anthropologic karate dimensions it is possible to select necessary instruments for measuring and to test those dimensions that karate results depend on. Considering all scientific knowledge and achievements in this field the fallowing tests are suggested: Morphologic measures: body height, arm span, arm length, pelvis width, hand ankle diameter, knees diameter, elbow diameter, body weight, parameters of one’s chest, stomach, the upper and lower part of one’s arm and legs, then to examine the skin fold of any sportsman’s arms, back, stomach and legs. Functional diagnosis: measuring of the maximum amount of oxygen breathed in. Mobility tests: the speed of simple movements, the speed of karate technique, deep bow on the bench, shoulders capability of moving, the static strength of hands, legs, shoulders and middle part of a body, jump height, an average jump, and the percentage of maximum achievement in jumping.

  4. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, P. E.; Sanchez, J.

    1994-07-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: Magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Scattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma. (Author) 451 refs.

  5. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, P.E.; Sanchez, J.

    1994-01-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Sattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma

  6. Diagnostic peptide discovery: prioritization of pathogen diagnostic markers using multiple features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago J Carmona

    Full Text Available The availability of complete pathogen genomes has renewed interest in the development of diagnostics for infectious diseases. Synthetic peptide microarrays provide a rapid, high-throughput platform for immunological testing of potential B-cell epitopes. However, their current capacity prevent the experimental screening of complete "peptidomes". Therefore, computational approaches for prediction and/or prioritization of diagnostically relevant peptides are required. In this work we describe a computational method to assess a defined set of molecular properties for each potential diagnostic target in a reference genome. Properties such as sub-cellular localization or expression level were evaluated for the whole protein. At a higher resolution (short peptides, we assessed a set of local properties, such as repetitive motifs, disorder (structured vs natively unstructured regions, trans-membrane spans, genetic polymorphisms (conserved vs. divergent regions, predicted B-cell epitopes, and sequence similarity against human proteins and other potential cross-reacting species (e.g. other pathogens endemic in overlapping geographical locations. A scoring function based on these different features was developed, and used to rank all peptides from a large eukaryotic pathogen proteome. We applied this method to the identification of candidate diagnostic peptides in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We measured the performance of the method by analyzing the enrichment of validated antigens in the high-scoring top of the ranking. Based on this measure, our integrative method outperformed alternative prioritizations based on individual properties (such as B-cell epitope predictors alone. Using this method we ranked [Formula: see text]10 million 12-mer overlapping peptides derived from the complete T. cruzi proteome. Experimental screening of 190 high-scoring peptides allowed the identification of 37 novel epitopes with

  7. [Diagnostic laparoscopy in acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Kleemann, M; Hildebrand, P; Roblick, U J; Bruch, H-P

    2006-11-01

    Acute abdomen is not a disease in itself but a description of a complex of symptoms combined with severe abdominal pain developed within a time frame of less than 24 h. All strategies for the management of acute abdomen underline the need for an interdisciplinary approach to diagnosis and therapy. This requires focused and intelligent use of efficient diagnostic procedures. Diagnostic laparoscopy may be a key to solving the diagnostic dilemma of unspecific acute abdomen. Furthermore, it allows not only direct inspection of the abdominal cavity but also surgical intervention, if needed. In particular the rate of negative laparotomies can be reduced.

  8. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  9. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, B.C.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Neilson, H.; Takahashi, H.; Zarnstorf, M.; Cole, M.; Goranson, P.; Lazarus, E.; Nelson, B.

    2003-01-01

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation

  10. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable...

  11. Cyclotron radiation as Tokamak diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler-Ferrari, N.

    1985-01-01

    A brief introduction to the use of Electron Cyclotron Emission as diagnostics in tokamaks is made. The utilization feasibility of this dignostics in the TBR-1 and TTF2A tokamaks is discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  12. Diagnostics and Instrumentation for FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, M E

    2001-01-01

    Free Electron Laser are coherent sources of radiation based on the interaction of a relativistic electron beam in an undulator field. According to the energy of the accelerator, they presently cover a wide spectral range, from the infra-red to the VUV. FELs combine the diagnostics of typical laser systems (for the measurement of spectral and temporal characteristics, the transverse mode pattern, the polarisation) and the diagnostics of relativistic electron beams. The electron beam is characterised in order to evaluate and control the FEL performances, but also in order to measure the effect of the FEL on the electron beam. The FEL characteristics are monitored with various types of detectors, depending mainly on the spectral range. Diagnostics for Linac based Infra Red FELs and storage ring FELs in the UV-VUV will be described. Particular instrumentation, required for FEL operation, such as the optical resonator, possible diagnostics inside the undulator will also be analysed.

  13. Microfluidic technology for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Dittrich, Petra S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics have helped to improve the lives of millions of patients worldwide by allowing clinicians to diagnose patients earlier as well as providing better ongoing therapies. Point-of-care (POC) testing can bring these laboratory-based techniques to the patient in a home setting or to remote settings in the developing world. However, despite substantial progress in the field, there still remain many challenges. Progress in molecular diagnostics has benefitted greatly from microfluidic technology. This chapter aims to summarise the more recent advances in microfluidic-based molecular diagnostics. Sections include an introduction to microfluidic technology, the challenges of molecular diagnostics, how microfluidic advances are working to solve these issues, some alternative design approaches, and detection within these systems.

  14. Recent diagnostic developments on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S; Ozaki, T; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Goto, M; Hamada, Y; Ida, K; Ido, T; Iguchi, H; Inagaki, S; Isobe, M; Kawahata, K; Khlopenkov, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Morita, S; Muto, S; Nagayama, Y; Nakanishi, H; Narihara, K; Nishizawa, A; Ohdachi, S; Osakabe, M; Peterson, B J; Sakakibara, S; Sasao, M; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Tamura, N; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, T; Yamada, I; Goncharov, P; Ejiri, A; Okajima, S; Mase, A; Tsuji-Iio, S; Akiyama, T; Lyon, J F; Vyacheslavov, L N; Sanin, A

    2003-01-01

    The recent diagnostic developments on the large helical device (LHD) are described briefly. LHD is the largest helical machine with all superconducting coils, and its purpose is to prove the ability of a helical system to confine a fusion-relevant plasma in steady state. According to the missions of LHD research, the diagnostic devices are categorized as follows: diagnostics for (i) high nτ E T plasmas and transport physics; (ii) magnetohydrodynamic stability; (iii) long pulse operation and divertor function; and (iv) energetic particles. These are briefly described focusing on the recent developments of the devices. Since the LHD experiment started in March 1998, five series of experimental campaigns have been carried out. The LHD diagnostics during these periods were operated successfully, and contributed to the analysis of the experimental results

  15. Recent diagnostic developments on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, S; Ozaki, T; Ashikawa, N; Emoto, M; Goto, M; Hamada, Y; Ida, K; Ido, T; Iguchi, H; Inagaki S; Isobe, M; Kawahata, K; Khlopenkov, K; Kobuchi, T; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Morita, S; Muto, S; Nagayama, Y; Nakanishi, H; Narihara, K; Nishizawa, A; Ohdachi, S; Osakabe, M; Peterson, BJ; Sakakibara, S; Sasao, M; Sato, K; Shoji, M; Tamura, N; Tanaka, K; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, T; Yamada, I [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Goncharov, P [Grad. Univ. Advanced Studies, Oroshi-cho 322-6, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ejiri, A [University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Okajima, S [Chubu University, Kasugai-shi, 487-8501 (Japan); Mase, A [Kyushu University, Kasuga, 816-8580 (Japan); Tsuji-Iio, S [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Akiyama, T [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Lyon, J F [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-8072 (United States); Vyacheslavov, L N [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sanin, A [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The recent diagnostic developments on the large helical device (LHD) are described briefly. LHD is the largest helical machine with all superconducting coils, and its purpose is to prove the ability of a helical system to confine a fusion-relevant plasma in steady state. According to the missions of LHD research, the diagnostic devices are categorized as follows: diagnostics for (i) high n{tau}{sub E}T plasmas and transport physics; (ii) magnetohydrodynamic stability; (iii) long pulse operation and divertor function; and (iv) energetic particles. These are briefly described focusing on the recent developments of the devices. Since the LHD experiment started in March 1998, five series of experimental campaigns have been carried out. The LHD diagnostics during these periods were operated successfully, and contributed to the analysis of the experimental results.

  16. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, G.J.; Adams, J.M.; Barnes, C.W.

    1997-10-01

    In order for ITER to meet its operational and programmatic goals, it will be necessary to measure a wide range of plasma parameters. Some of the required parameters e.g., neutron yield, fusion power and power density, ion temperature profile in the core plasma, and characteristics of confined and escaping alpha particle populations are best measured by fusion product diagnostic techniques. To make these measurements, ITER will have dedicated diagnostic systems, including radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron and gamma ray spectrometers, internal and external fission chambers, a neutron activation system, and diagnostics for confined and escaping alpha particles. Engineering integration of many of these systems is in progress, and other systems are under investigation. This paper summarizes the present state of design of fusion product diagnostic systems for ITER and discusses expected measurement capability

  17. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald-Tenenbaum, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several decades, a variety of laser diagnostic techniques have been developed and applied to diagnose spacecraft propulsion devices. Laser diagnostics are inherently non-intrusive, and provide the opportunity to probe properties such as temperature, concentration or number density of plume species, and plume velocities in the harsh environments of combustion and plasma discharges. This presentation provides an overview of laser diagnostic capabilities for spacecraft propulsion devices such as small monopropellant thrusters, arcjets, ion engines and Hall thrusters. Particular emphasis is placed on recent developments for time-resolved ion velocity measurements in Hall thruster plumes. Results are presented for one such diagnostic method, a time-synchronized CW-laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique based on a sample hold scheme. This method is capable of correlating measured fluorescence excitation lineshapes with high frequency current fluctuations in the plasma discharge of a Hall thruster and is tolerant of natural drifting in the current oscillation frequency.

  18. Novel uses of detonator diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, John R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilde, Zakary Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tasker, Douglas George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Francois, Elizabeth Green [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nakamoto, Teagan Kanakanui Junichi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Dalton Kay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    A novel combination of diagnostics is being used to research the physics of detonator initiation. The explosive PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate) commonly used in detonators, is also a piezo-electric material that, when sufficiently shocked, emits an electromagnetic field in the radio frequency (RF) range, along crystal fracture planes. In an effort to capture this RF signal, a new diagnostic was created. A copper foil, used as an RF antenna, was wrapped around a foam fixture encompassing a PETN pellet. Rogowski coils were used to obtain the change in current with respect to time (di/dt) the detonator circuit, in and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) stress sensors were used to capture shockwave arrival time. The goal of these experiments is to use these diagnostics to study the reaction response of a PETN pellet of known particle size to shock loading with various diagnostics including an antenna to capture RF emissions. Our hypothesis is that RF feedback may signify the rate of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) or lack thereof. The new diagnostics and methods will be used to determine the timing of start of current, bridge burst, detonator breakout timing and RF generated from detonation. These data will be compared to those of currently used diagnostics in order to validate the accuracy of these new methods. Future experiments will incorporate other methods of validation including dynamic radiography, optical initiation and use of magnetic field sensors.

  19. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  20. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Menière's disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research. PMID:20973968

  1. TARGET STUDIES WITH BNL E951 AT THE AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIRK, H.; BROWN, K.; FERNOW, R.; FINFROCK, C.; GASSNER, D.; GREENE, G.; KAHN, S.; KING, B.; PRIGL, R.; SAMULYAK, R.; SCADUTO, J.; SIMOS, N.; THIEBERGER, P.; TSANG, T.; WANG, H.; WEGGEL, R.

    2001-01-01

    We report initial results of exposing low-Z solid and high-Z liquid targets to 150-ns, 4 x 10 12 proton pulses with spot sizes on the order of 1 to 2 mm. The energy deposition density approached 100 J/g. Diagnostics included fiberoptic strain sensors on the solid target and high-speed photography of the liquid targets. This work is part of the R and D program of the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration

  2. Diagnostics and Resistance Profiling of Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornischer, Klaus; Häußler, Susanne

    Worldwide infectious disease is one of the leading causes of death. Despite improvements in technology and healthcare services, morbidity and mortality due to infections have remained unchanged over the past few decades. The high and increasing rate of antibiotic resistance is further aggravating the situation. Growing resistance hampers the use of conventional antibiotics, and substantial higher mortality rates are reported in patients given ineffective empiric therapy mainly due to resistance to the agents used. These infections cause suffering, incapacity, and death and impose an enormous financial burden on both healthcare systems and on society in general. The accelerating development of multidrug resistance is one of the greatest diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to modern medicine. The lack of new antibiotic options underscores the need for optimization of current diagnostics, therapies, and prevention of the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. The so-called -omics technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have yielded large-scale datasets that advanced the search for biomarkers of infectious diseases in the last decade. One can imagine that in the future the implementation of biomarker-driven molecular test systems will transform diagnostics of infectious diseases and will significantly accelerate the identification of the bacterial pathogens at the infected host site. Furthermore, molecular tests based on the identification of markers of antibiotic resistance will dramatically change resistance profiling. The replacement of culturing methods by molecular test systems for early diagnosis will provide the basis not only for a prompt and targeted therapy, but also for a much more effective stewardship of antibiotic agents and a reduction of the spread of multidrug resistance as well as the appearance of new antibiotic resistances.

  3. Diagnostics and therapy of sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, Stefan K

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews recent aspects of diagnostics, differential diagnostics, and evidence in systemic and local therapy of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). Since a number of disorders can be accompanied by sudden hearing loss, a meaningful and targeted diagnostic strategy is of utmost importance. An important differential diagnosis of sudden hearing loss are intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILS). The incidence of ILS is probably significantly underestimated. This may be due to the lack of awareness or lack of explicit search for an intralabyrinthine tumor on MRI or an inappropriate MRI technique for the evaluation of sudden hearing loss ("head MRI" instead of "temporal bone MRI" with too high slice thicknesses). Therefore, the request to the radiologist should specifically include the question for (or exclusion of) an ILS. With special MRI techniques, it is possibly today to visualize an endolymphatic hydrops. The evidence in the therapy of ISSHL is - with respect to the quality and not quantity of studies - unsatisfying. The value of systemically (low dose) or intratympanically applied corticosteroids in the primary treatment of ISSHL is still unclear. In order to investigate the efficacy and safety of high dose corticosteroids as primary therapy for ISSHL, a national, multicenter, three-armed, randomized, triple-blind controlled clinical trial is currently performed in Germany (http://hodokort-studie.hno.org/). After insufficient recovery of the threshold with systemic therapy of ISSHL, intratympanic corticosteroid therapy appears to be associated with a significantly higher chance of an improved hearing threshold than no therapy or placebo. Both, hearing gain and final hearing threshold, however, appear to be independent from the onset of secondary therapy. Based on currently available data from clinical studies, no recommendation can be made with respect to the type of corticosteroid and specifics of the intratympanic application protocol.

  4. Tuning the beam: a physics perspective on beam diagnostic instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In a nutshell, the role of a beam diagnostic measurement is to provide information needed to get a particle beam from Point A (injection point) to Point B (a target) in a useable condition, with 'useable' meaning the right energy and size and with acceptable losses. Specifications and performance requirements of diagnostics are based on the physics of the particle beam to be measured, with typical customers of beam parameter measurements being the accelerator operators and accelerator physicists. This tutorial will be a physics-oriented discussion of the interplay between tuning evolutions and the beam diagnostics systems that support the machine tune. This will include the differences between developing a tune and maintaining a tune, among other things. Practical longitudinal and transverse tuning issues and techniques from a variety of proton and electron machines will also be discussed.

  5. Primary myelofibrosis: own experience and news from diagnostic and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdulkadyrov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The newest advances in primary myelofibrosis (PMF pathogenesis study, diagnostic and treatment approaches are presented in this article. The JAK-STAT signal pathway activation now recognized as main pathogenesis mechanism of PMF, it caused by JAK2, CALR, MPL genes mutations. Authors demonstrate their own data about epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnostic and treatment results of 315 PMF patients. The most frequent clinical symptoms are: anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms. Diagnostic criteria, prognostic scales (including cytogenetic and molecular features issues are reviewed. Intermediate-1 risk grade is in the most proportion of patients. Therecommended PMF treatment algorithm is listed. The treatment methods, target drugs (Janus kinases inhibitors trials results are discussed.

  6. Primary myelofibrosis: own experience and news from diagnostic and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Abdulkadyrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest advances in primary myelofibrosis (PMF pathogenesis study, diagnostic and treatment approaches are presented in this article. The JAK-STAT signal pathway activation now recognized as main pathogenesis mechanism of PMF, it caused by JAK2, CALR, MPL genes mutations. Authors demonstrate their own data about epidemiology, clinical signs, diagnostic and treatment results of 315 PMF patients. The most frequent clinical symptoms are: anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms. Diagnostic criteria, prognostic scales (including cytogenetic and molecular features issues are reviewed. Intermediate-1 risk grade is in the most proportion of patients. Therecommended PMF treatment algorithm is listed. The treatment methods, target drugs (Janus kinases inhibitors trials results are discussed.

  7. Optical diagnostics in the advanced test accelerator (ATA) environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Y.P.; Cornish, J.P.; Donnelly, D.

    1987-05-01

    The ATA is a 50-MeV, 10-kA, 70-ns pulsed electron beam accelerator that generates an extremely harsh environment for diagnostic measurements. Diagnostic targets placed in the beamline are subject to damage, frequently being destroyed by a single pulse. High radiation (x-ray, gamma, and neutron) and electromagnetic interference levels preclude placing components near the beamline that are susceptible to radiation damage. Examples of such components are integrated circuit elements, hydrocarbons such as Teflon insulation, and optical components that darken, resulting in transmission loss. Optical diagnostics play an important part in measuring experimental parameters such as the beam current density profile. A large number of optical lines of sight (LOS) are routinely deployed along the experimental beamlines that use the ATA beam. Gated TV cameras are located outside the accelerator tunnel, because the tunnel is inaccessible during operations. We will describe and discuss the difficulties, problems, and solutions encountered in making optical measurements in the ATA environment

  8. Diagnostics of ytterbium/aluminium laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Lee, R.W.; Landen, O.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lewis, C.L.; Busquet, M.

    1986-11-01

    Microdot spectroscopy was used to study the x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas consisting of 10% ytterbium, 90% aluminium. Spectra were recorded with a space-resolving flat crystal (PET) mini-spectrometer in the 4.0-8.0 A range. The Janus research laser at LLNL irradiated the targets with green (0.53 μm) light in a 1 nsec pulse. The power density was varied between 4x10 13 and 3x10 14 W/cm 2 . The plasma electron density and temperature were determined from the aluminium XI, XII and XIII line emission. By examining correlations between changes in the plasma conditions with changes in the ytterbium spectra, we will determine the potential for using ytterbium line emission as a plasma diagnostic

  9. Atherosclerosis and Nanotechnology: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jeremy D; Chaddha, Ashish; Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Goonewardena, Sascha N

    2016-02-01

    Over the past several decades, tremendous advances have been made in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, with shifting demographics and evolving risk factors we now face new challenges that must be met in order to further advance are management of patients with CAD. In parallel with advances in our mechanistic appreciation of CAD and atherosclerosis, nanotechnology approaches have greatly expanded, offering the potential for significant improvements in our diagnostic and therapeutic management of CAD. To realize this potential we must go beyond to recognize new frontiers including knowledge gaps between understanding atherosclerosis to the translation of targeted molecular tools. This review highlights nanotechnology applications for imaging and therapeutic advancements in CAD.

  10. Newer diagnostic approaches to intestinal protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J

    2010-10-01

    To update the reader on the latest developments in the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. Correct identification of a diarrhoea causing pathogens is essential for the choice of treatment in an individual patient as well as to map the aetiology of diarrhoea in a variety of patient populations. Classical diagnosis of diarrhoea causing protozoa by microscopic examination of a stool sample lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Alternative diagnostic platforms are discussed. Recent literature on the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa has focused mainly on nucleic acid-based assays, in particular the specific detection of parasite DNA in stool samples using real-time PCR. In addition, the trend has been moving from single pathogen detection to a multiplex approach, allowing simultaneous identification of multiple parasites. Different combinations of targets can be used within a routine diagnostic setting, depending on the patient population, such as children, immunocompromised individuals and those who have been travelling to tropical regions. Large-scale monitoring and evaluation of control strategies become feasible due to automation and high-throughput facilities. Improved technology also has become available for differentiating protozoa subspecies, which facilitates outbreak investigations and extensive research in molecular epidemiology.

  11. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  12. Targeting the Brain with Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Felix; Cruz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we review innovative nanomedicine-based approaches for treating, preventing and diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. We focus on nanoscale systems such as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, micelles and other vehicles (e.g. dendrimers, nanogels, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions) for targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to the brain. To ensure maximum selectivity for optimal therapeutic or diagnostic results, researchers must employ delivery systems that are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. This entails: (i) use of "safe" materials, such as polymers or lipids; (ii) targeting to the brain and, specifically, to the desired active site within the brain; (iii) controlled release of the loaded agent; and (iv) use of agents that, once released into the brain, will exhibit the desired pharmacologic activity. Here, we explore the design and preclinical use of representative delivery systems that have been proposed to date. We then analyze the principal challenges that have delayed clinical application of these and other approaches. Lastly, we look at future developments in this area, addressing the needs for increased penetration of the blood brain barrier (BBB), enhanced targeting of specific brain sites, improved therapeutic efficacy and lower neurotoxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Saliva as a diagnostic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Richard; Simek, Jiri; Vondrakova, Jana; Faber, Edgar; Michl, Petr; Pazdera, Jindrich; Indrak, Karel

    2009-06-01

    This is a review of current knowledge on the use of saliva, gingival cervical fluid and mucosal transudate in the detection of some oral and systemic diseases as well as drugs. Oral fluid is a diagnostic medium that can be easily collected and with minimal invasion but it has been neglected in the past. Today, saliva is being used more often to diagnose: HIV virus, oro-facial and systemic tumors, cardiovascular disease and in detecting addictive substances. Neutropil levels in saliva may also indicate successful bone marrow transplant. Oral fluid is now systematically being researched and oral fluid analysis is being compared with the analysis of other diagnostic media such as blood and urine. A number of recent studies have focused on oncogenic marker detection and its monitoring in saliva. The latest clinical and laboratory findings on diagnostic markers of oropharyngeal carcinoma in oral fluid could be the beginning of their wider use as a diagnostic medium. Oral fluid can also be also used to diagnose other malignancies such as breast cancer which was one of the first malignant tumors to be detected using genetic protein biomarkers. Raised levels of CA15-3 and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor have been found in patients with breast cancer and elevated levels of CA 125 and the glycoprotein complex in the saliva of ovarian cancer patients. Doubtless, the diagnostic value of saliva, aided by current technological development will increase rapidly in the near future.

  14. The Effect of Molecular Diagnostics on the Treatment of Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nancy Ann Oberheim; Butowski, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the use of molecular diagnostics in glioma and its effect on the development of novel therapeutics and management decisions. Genomic and proteomic profiling of brain tumors has provided significant expansion of our understanding of oncogenesis, characterization, and prognostication of brain tumors. Molecular markers such as MGMT, EGFR, IDH, 1p19q, ATRX, TERT, FGFR-TACC, and BRAF are now being used to classify brain tumors as well as influence management decisions. Several of these markers are also being used as therapeutic targets. We review the use of several molecular diagnostics in gliomas and discuss their impact on drug development and clinical trial design. In the future, molecular characterization based on a specific genomic, proteomic as well as transcriptomes for bioformatics analysis will provide clinicians the ability to rationally select drugs with actionable targets for each patient.

  15. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Heertum RL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald L Van Heertum, Robert Scarimbolo, Robert Ford, Eli Berdougo, Michael O’Neal BioClinica Inc, Princeton, PA, USA Abstract: In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes. Keywords: companion diagnostics, molecular imaging, oncology trials, personalized medicine, diagnostic assays

  16. Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development

  17. Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development.

  18. AUTOMATED PEDAGOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS IN MODERN UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr H. Kolhatin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Realisation of the pedagogical assessment functions at using of automated pedagogical diagnostics systems in university instruction process is considered. Pedagogical diagnostics software requirements are determined on the base of automated pedagogical diagnostics systems classifications analysis according to didactical aim of the diagnostics.

  19. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Fonslet, Jesper; Koziorowski, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated wit...

  20. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  1. Review on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of x-ray and using of it for medical imaging have produced tremendous outcomes for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. More than 10 million diagnostic radiological procedures and 100,000 nuclear medicine exams are being performed daily around the world. According to the national commission on radiological protection and measurements (NCRP-report 160, medical x-ray is contribute to approximately 95% of all radiological examinations that is responsible for 74% of the collective dose to the US population. Despite of unique benefits of ionizing radiations, in the field of radiation protection, they are associated with potential risks such as cancer and genetically abnormalities. The cancer risk attributable to diagnostic radiology is estimated about 0.6% to 3%. It is estimated that the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures are annually responsible for 7,587 and 5,695 cases of radiation induced cancer in the population of Japan and US, respectively. Although the radiation dose associated with most radiological procedures are very low, but rapid increasing use of radiography procedures during two past decades have been concerned due to the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiations. On the base of linear no-threshold (LNT model of dose-response curve, any level of exposure is dangerous. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the main target of ionizing radiation. For radiological exposure with low dose, the stochastic effects such as genetic damages and leukemia are concerned. According to the recommendations of the radiation protection regulatory organizations, radiological procedure must be done with respect to social and economic factors in which exposure of patient and population kept as low as reasonable and achievable. Hence, prescription of a radiological test is acceptable only when its advantages are higher than its damages. Optimizing the different parameters such as: collimating the primary beam field to the area of

  2. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... diagnostic accuracy of dermatopathologists and pathologists using photomicrographs vs. digitized images, through a self-assessment examination, and to elucidate assessment of virtual dermatopathology. Methods Forty-five dermatopathologists and pathologists received a randomized combination of 15 virtual...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...

  3. Fetal exposure in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.L.; Vandergrift, J.F.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of possible radiation damage to the fetus or embryo as a result of diagnostic radiography during pregnancy, particularly in the early stages, is discussed. Recommendations of therapeutic abortion after fetal exposure require an adequate knowledge of the doses involved. In the absence of actual dose measurements or estimates, approximate exposure levels may be determined from the literature. A summary of published values for radiography involving the lower abdomen is given. Data is also presented from a series of fetal exposures resulting mostly from routine diagnostic radiography when pregnancy was not known at the time but was established later. Results of actual dose measurements using a phantom and of dose calculations based on published values are in reasonable agreement indicating that literature values of dose provide a satisfactory alternative to measurement. These data suggest that diagnostic radiography rarely, if ever, results in fetal exposures high enough to justify therapeutic abortion. (author)

  4. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  5. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  6. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Megha; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Dynamic Visualization of SNS Diagnostics Summary Report and System Status

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, Willem; Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Embedded Windows XP and LabVIEW. The diagnostics instruments communicate with the control system using the Channel Access (CA) protocol of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). This paper describes the Diagnostics Group's approach to collecting data from the instruments, processing it, and presenting live in a summarized way over the web. Effectively, adding a supervisory level to the diagnostics instruments. One application of this data mining is the "Diagnostics Status Page" that summarizes the insert-able devices, transport efficiencies, and the mode of the accelerator in a compact webpage. The displays on the webpage change automatically to show the latest and/o...

  8. Integration of diagnostics in ITER buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, Arun Prakash, E-mail: arun.prakash@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Walker, Chris; Mita, Y.; Patisson, L.; Kuehn, I.; Cantone, B. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    ITER Diagnostic systems extend from plasma to the various diagnostic areas where they are controlled and acquired data is processed. Diagnostic equipment is found at three levels of the Tokamak Building, within 21 port cells, the gallery and also at three levels of Diagnostic Area. Diagnostic equipment is also located in other buildings, such as the Hot Cell Facility for neutron testing and port plug receipt and preparation. This paper describes the relationship of the ITER Diagnostics with the Buildings and highlights the design requirement and solutions of satisfying this interface acceptably to diagnostic and building performance.

  9. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, G.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next.

  10. Targets and teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C.; Lange, Karin S.; Hoey, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    with less disagreement about recommended targets. Multiple regression analysis indicated that teams reporting higher HbA1c targets and more target disagreement had parents reporting higher treatment targets. This seemed to partially account for center differences in Hb1Ac. Conclusions: The diabetes care...

  11. Therapeutic target for protozoal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Dharmendar [Blacksburg, VA; Jani, Dewal [Blacksburg, VA; Nagarkatti, Rana [Blacksburg, VA

    2008-10-21

    A novel Fasciclin Related Adhesive Protein (FRAP) from Plasmodium and related parasites is provided as a target for therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by the parasites. FRAP has been shown to play a critical role in adhesion to, or invasion into, host cells by the parasite. Furthermore, FRAP catalyzes the neutralization of heme by the parasite, by promoting its polymerization into hemozoin. This invention provides methods and compositions for therapies based on the administration of protein, DNA or cell-based vaccines and/or antibodies based on FRAP, or antigenic epitopes of FRAP, either alone or in combination with other parasite antigens. Methods for the development of compounds that inhibit the catalytic activity of FRAP, and diagnostic and laboratory methods utilizing FRAP are also provided.

  12. An edge over diagnostic setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic setup proposed by H.D. Kingsley serves as a practical aid in treatment planning and diagnosis. These setups have some inherent shortcomings. A simple technique of duplication of the setups in dental stone can solve problems encountered before as well as provide many other advantages over the conventional procedure. The diagnostic setup is prepared by the conventional method [Figure 1]. An alginate impression is then taken of the setups and poured in dental stone to obtain the derived treatment model [Figure 2]. The same setup can now be further modified for alternate lines of treatment. Subsequently models could then be obtained as required [Figure 3].

  13. Diagnostic imaging in internal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book examines medical diagnostic techniques. Topics considered include biological considerations in the approach to clinical medicines; infectious diseases; disorders of the heart; disorders of the vascular system; disorders of the respiratory system; diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract; disorders of the alimentary tract; disorders of the hepatobiliary system and pancreas; disorders of the hematopoietic system; disorders of bone and bone mineralization; disorders of the joints, connective tissues, and striated muscles; disorders of the nervous system; miscellaneous disorders; and procedures in diagnostic imaging

  14. Differential diagnostics of bullous dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullous dermatoses are the diseases characterized by vesication and erosion of skin and/or mucos coats, production of autoantibodies against the structural components of epidermis and/or derma. The most frequent diseases of these disorders are pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, dermatitis herpetiformis, beningn familial chronic pemphigus (Gougerot Hailey-Hailey disease.Diagnostics of bullous dermatoses is based on assessement of clinical signs, results of cytological and histological studies and immunological tests. However none of the current diagnostic methods allows to reveal bullous dermatosis severally and with absolute certainty. Consequently it is necessary to perform wide range of clinical and laboratory tests for early diagnosis and treatment order.

  15. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  16. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER

  17. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography; Diagnostische Nervensonographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeumer, T. [Universitaet zu Luebeck CBBM, Haus 66, Institut fuer Neurogenetik, Luebeck (Germany); Grimm, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schelle, T. [Staedtisches Klinikum Dessau, Neurologische Klinik, Dessau (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Diagnostik von Nervenlaesionen ist ein bildgebendes Verfahren zur Darstellung des peripheren Nervs und seiner ihn umgebenden Strukturen fuer eine aetiologische Einordnung erforderlich. Mit der klinisch-neurologischen Untersuchung und Elektrophysiologie ist eine funktionelle Aussage ueber die Nervenlaesion moeglich. In der Standard-MRT-Untersuchung wird der periphere Nerv nur unzureichend gut dargestellt. Die MRT-Neurographie ist ein sehr gutes, aber auch zeit- und ressourcenintensives Verfahren. Nutzung des Ultraschalls fuer die

  19. In Vivo Radionuclide Generators for Diagnostics and Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edem, Patricia E.; Fonslet, Jesper; Kjær, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In vivo radionuclide generators make complex combinations of physical and chemical properties available for medical diagnostics and therapy. Perhaps the best-known in vivo generator is 212Pb/212Bi, which takes advantage of the extended half-life of 212Pb to execute a targeted delivery of the ther...... reviews some common and not-so-common in vivo generators with the purpose of understanding their value in medicine and medical research.This is currently relevant in light of a recent push for alpha emitters in targeted therapies, which often come with extended decay chains.......In vivo radionuclide generators make complex combinations of physical and chemical properties available for medical diagnostics and therapy. Perhaps the best-known in vivo generator is 212Pb/212Bi, which takes advantage of the extended half-life of 212Pb to execute a targeted delivery...... of the therapeutic short-lived 훼-emitter 212Bi. Often, as in the case of 81Rb/81Kr, chemical changes resulting from the transmutation of the parent are relied upon for diagnostic value. In other instances such as with extended alpha decay chains, chemical changes may lead to unwanted consequences.This article...

  20. Audible sonar images generated with proprioception for target analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuc, Roman B

    2017-05-01

    Some blind humans have demonstrated the ability to detect and classify objects with echolocation using palatal clicks. An audible-sonar robot mimics human click emissions, binaural hearing, and head movements to extract interaural time and level differences from target echoes. Targets of various complexity are examined by transverse displacements of the sonar and by target pose rotations that model movements performed by the blind. Controlled sonar movements executed by the robot provide data that model proprioception information available to blind humans for examining targets from various aspects. The audible sonar uses this sonar location and orientation information to form two-dimensional target images that are similar to medical diagnostic ultrasound tomograms. Simple targets, such as single round and square posts, produce distinguishable and recognizable images. More complex targets configured with several simple objects generate diffraction effects and multiple reflections that produce image artifacts. The presentation illustrates the capabilities and limitations of target classification from audible sonar images.

  1. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  2. Recent trend of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.Y.; Kim, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    Present status and recent trend of diagnostic radiology have been reviewed. The interrelationships and Characteristics of various fields of radiology such as computed tomography, X-ray radiology, and nuclear medicine were discussed. The mevit of computed tomography and the promising use of short lived, accelerator produced radionuclides, and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine were emphasized. (author)

  3. Local Sensitivity and Diagnostic Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Vasnev, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we confront sensitivity analysis with diagnostic testing.Every model is misspecified, but a model is useful if the parameters of interest (the focus) are not sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying assumptions. The study of the e ect of these violations on the focus is

  4. EAMJ Diagnostic April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-04

    Apr 4, 2010 ... Philadelphia Pensylvania, 1992: 317 - 350. 5. Coleman, D. V. and Chapman, P. A. Editors: Clinical Cytopathology. Butterworth and Company. (Publishers) Ltd. 1989: 359 - 362. 6. Waters, E. and Amstrong, J. Disorders of the liver. In: Gray E., Ed. Diagnostic Cytopathology. Edinburgh,. Churchill Livingstone.

  5. Axial diagnostic package for Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed and fielded an axial diagnostic package for the 20 MA, 100 ns, z-pinch driver Z. The package is used to diagnose dynamic hohlraum experiments which require an axial line of sight. The heart of the package is a reentrant cone originally used to diagnose ion-beam-driven hohlraums on PBFA-H. It has one diagnostic line of sight at 0 degrees, 4 at 6 degrees, and 4 at 9 degrees. In addition it has a number of viewing, alignment, and vacuum feedthrough ports. The front of the package sits approximately 5 feet from the pinch. This allows much closer proximity to the pinch, with inherently better resolution and signal, than is presently possible in viewing the pinch from the side. Debris that is preferentially directed along the axis is mitigated by two apertures for each line of sight, and by fast valves and imaging pinholes or cross slits for each diagnostic. In the initial run with this package they fielded a time resolved pinhole camera, a five-channel pinhole-apertured x-ray diode array, a bolometer, a spatially resolved time-integrated crystal spectrometer, and a spatially and temporally resolved crystal spectrometer. They present data obtained from these diagnostics in the dynamic hohlraum research conducted on Z

  6. Diagnostic imaging of exotic pets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic (CT) imaging are important diagnostic modalities in exotic pets. The use of appropriate radiographic equipment, film-screen combinations, and radiographic projections enhances the information obtained from radiographs. Both normal findings and common radiographic abnormalities are discussed. The use of ultrasonography and CT scanning for exotic small mammals and reptiles is described

  7. Cell Analysis and Early Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramaniam, Vinod; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    In an era of aging populations and rising health-care costs, the shift of medical paradigms towards rapid, accurate, early diagnoses of diseases is inevitable. In addition to further development of ultrasensitive in vitro tests, the focus of attention in both diagnostics and the early drug discovery

  8. FEL diagnostics and user control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1998-01-01

    The most recent upgrades and improvements to the free-electron laser (FEL) facility FELIX are presented. Special attention is paid to the improved beam-handling and diagnostic station. In this evacuated beam station a device is implemented that is capable of selecting single micropulses with

  9. Diagnostic imaging of shoulder impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merl, T.; Weinhardt, H.; Oettl, G.; Lenz, M.; Riel, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a method that has been advancing in the last few years to the modality of choice for diagnostic evaluation of the bone joints, as the method is capable of imaging not only the ossous but also the soft tissue components of the joint. MRI likewise has become an accepted method for diagnostic evaluation of syndromes of the shoulder, with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting rotator cuff lesions, or as an efficient MRI arthrography for evaluation of the instability or lesions of the labrocapsular complex. In the evaluation of early stages of shoulder impingement, the conventional MRI technique as a static technique yields indirect signs which in many cases do not provide the diagnostic certainty required in order to do justice to the functional nature of the syndrome. In these cases, functional MRI for imaging of the arm in abducted position and in rotational movement may offer a chance to early detect impingement and thus identify patients who will profit from treatment at an early stage [de

  10. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  11. Risks involved in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    1986-01-01

    Expert opinions and court documents show that a sound knowledge of the medical examiner of the risks involved in the diagnostic methods applied will provide protection both for the patient and the medical examiner. Information of the patient being required by law, this book is intended to offer medical examiners a comprehensive source of information covering all imaging methods for diagnostics and therapy and the related risks, the data for the survey being drawn from the relevant literature. Particular attention has been paid to invasive methods such as angioplasty and diagnostic biopsy including ultrasonic monitoring, which have been developed recently. A great variety of established methods and examination techniques which soon will be replaced by new techniques such as sonography, computerized tomography and, probably, nuclear tomography but still are widely used, also form part of the survey. The various chapters are entitled: Information offered by risk statements; intravenous application of contrast media; arteriography; transcatheteral vascular occlusion; angioplasty; intracavitary, interstitial application of contrast media and lymphography; bronchoradiography; biopsy of organs in the cervical and thorax regions; biopsy of abdominal organs; hysterosalpingography; gastro-intestinal contrast radiography; court decisions referring to malpractice and the duty to inform patients on diagnostic radiographic methods; energy transfer to the human organism. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Novel Uses of Detonator Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, John

    2017-06-01

    A novel combination of diagnostics is being used to research the physics of detonator initiation. Rogowski coils are being used to obtain the time derivatives of electrical currents in the detonators in combination with polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) stress sensors to monitor shock propagation. PVDF is commonly used in contact with the detonator output to detect breakout time of the detonation wave; however, in this experiment PVDF foils are separated from the PETN and re-oriented to observe various shock events from the time of bridge burst until the breakout time of the detonation wave. The goal of these experiments is to use these diagnostics to study the response of detonators using specific explosive particle sizes. The new diagnostics were used to determine the timing of bridge burst, flyer impact, wave propagation and detonator breakout. Custom designed fixtures were loaded with the explosive PETN, which was pressed to a density of 1.55 g/cc. The results of testing various detonators with these new techniques will be presented. The data are compared to those of currently used diagnostics in order to validate the accuracy of these new methods. Future experiments will incorporate other methods of validation including dynamic radiography.

  13. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Gynecologic Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound is helpful in the assessment of many common gynecological conditions from early teens to the late postmenopause. Female pelvic anatomy and pathology are readily imaged through a distended urinary bladder. In gynecologic cancer, examination of peritoneal cavity, kidneys and liver can suggest metastatic spread, which aids tumor staging.

  14. Synthetic peptides for diagnostic use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meloen, R.H.; Langedijk, J.P.M.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Synthetic peptides representing relevant B-cell epitopes are, potentially, ideal antigens to be used in diagnostic assays because of their superior properties with respect to quality control as compared to those of biologically derived molecules and the much higher specificity that sometimes can be

  15. Electronic DNA detection and diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    The Nanopill project is an ambitious undertaking with the objective to develop an early-warning cancer diagnostic pill that is ingested by the patient. The Nanopill collects intestinal fluid as the pill travels down the intestinal tract, and tests for the presence of a free floating hyper-methylated

  16. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  17. Technology assessment and diagnostic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, computerized tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging scanning are discussed to illustrate some aspects of health care technology assessment in the field of diagnostic imaging. Technology assessment is defined as a comprehensive form of policy research that examines short-

  18. Exome sequencing for syndrome diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Elsebet; Risom, Lotte; Ek, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rare congenital disorders and syndromes have a genetic cause, but the diagnostic rate using standard workup is only around 50%. Whole exome and whole genome sequencing methods have improved the genetic diagnosis of syndromes during the latest few years. This article...

  19. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  20. Human target acquisition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  1. Modern diagnostic capabilities for vasospastic angina diagnostics (intracoronary provocative testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Обединский

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to a topical problem of modern cardiology – techniques of diagnosing vasospastic angina. The results of retrospective and prospective studies on the efficacy and safety of vasospastic angina diagnostics are reviewed. The literature on the prevalence, progression and treatment of this pathology is discussed.Received 13 January 2017. Accepted 6 February 2017.Financing: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  2. Modern diagnostic capabilities for vasospastic angina diagnostics (intracoronary provocative testing)

    OpenAIRE

    А. А. Обединский; С. В. Бугуров; О. В. Крестьянинов; И. А. Нарышкин; Д. Д. Зубарев; И. О. Гражданкин; Р. У. Ибрагимов; В. И. Байструков; Р. А. Найденов; Е. И. Кретов

    2017-01-01

    This review is devoted to a topical problem of modern cardiology – techniques of diagnosing vasospastic angina. The results of retrospective and prospective studies on the efficacy and safety of vasospastic angina diagnostics are reviewed. The literature on the prevalence, progression and treatment of this pathology is discussed.Received 13 January 2017. Accepted 6 February 2017.Financing: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  3. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kummar S, Murgo AJ, Tomaszewski JE, Doroshow JH. Therapeutic targeting of cancer cells: era of molecularly targeted agents. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  4. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  5. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  6. Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, J.; Jung, R.

    1984-01-01

    All the non interacting monitors used for the p-anti p instrumentation can be related to the use of the wall image current as induced by relativistic charged particle bunches circulating in a metallic pipe or vacuum chamber. The monitors are then classified by their type of beam coupling impedance. This allows a more generalized approach of the design of the so-called pickups. (orig./HSI)

  7. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    OFILEANU Dimi

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  8. Targeting outcomes redux

    OpenAIRE

    Coady, David P.; Grosh, Margaret; Hoddinott, John

    2002-01-01

    "...There are sharply divergent views as to how much narrowly targeted interventions actually benefit the poor. These result from differing assessments of three issues: whether better targeting outcomes are likely to be achieved, whether such methods are cost-effective, and whether the living standards of the poor are improved by such targeted interventions. This paper focuses on the first issue. Using a newly constructed database of targeted interventions, it addresses three questions: (1) W...

  9. Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Eric; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The original Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms have been demonstrated to be reliable. However, the Validation Project determined that the RDC/TMD Axis I validity was below the target sensitivity of ≥ 0.70 and specificity of ≥ 0...... of the literature providing valid instruments that, relative to the RDC/TMD, are shorter in length, are available in the public domain, and currently are being used in medical settings. RESULTS: The newly recommended Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) Axis I protocol includes both a valid screener for detecting...... any pain-related TMD as well as valid diagnostic criteria for differentiating the most common pain-related TMD (sensitivity ≥ 0.86, specificity ≥ 0.98) and for one intra-articular disorder (sensitivity of 0.80 and specificity of 0.97). Diagnostic criteria for other common intra-articular disorders...

  10. Report on the diagnostics for control of the fusion DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    The range of diagnostics that can be used in DEMO will be severely restricted compared to that used in the current experiments or to be used in ITER. Therefore, a study is planned on the technical feasibility of sensors and diagnostics on the basis of specific tokamak and helical DEMO designs, with the involvement of a wide range of specialists covering reactor design, diagnostics, neutronics, reactor structure, remote maintenance, plasma physics, plasma and machine control, and computer simulation. Topics included typical characteristic times of target plasma behavior, diagnostics tools with their resolution and lifetime, response time of actuators, and plasmas. Through these studies, possible candidates for DEMO diagnostics were identified. The outcome of two years of activities is summarized in this report with a recommendation to the government of Japan. (J.P.N.)

  11. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  12. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee eLuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid innovation in (epigenetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the United States, there are only twenty-three Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved companion diagnostics on the market for eleven unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for thirty-six hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and thirty-four non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  13. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  14. Advances in medical diagnostic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Khin Wee; Mohamad Salim, Maheza Irna; Ong, Sang-Bing; Utama, Nugraha Priya; Myint, Yin Mon; Mohd Noor, Norliza; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the most recent findings and knowledge in advanced diagnostics technology, covering a wide spectrum including brain activity analysis, breast and lung cancer detection, echocardiography, computer aided skeletal assessment to mitochondrial biology imaging at the cellular level. The authors explored magneto acoustic approaches and tissue elasticity imaging for the purpose of breast cancer detection. Perspectives in fetal echocardiography from an image processing angle are included. Diagnostic imaging in the field of mitochondrial diseases as well as the use of Computer-Aided System (CAD) are also discussed in the book. This book will be useful for students, lecturers or professional researchers in the field of biomedical sciences and image processing.

  15. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie

    2015-10-06

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. DSM-5: Challenging diagnostic testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Leigh D; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (DSM) 60-year evolution has not been particularly linear nor cumulative with respect to the process of its construction, its stated purpose, its framework, and inclusion of specific disorders. We consider DSM-5's stated purpose in light of the manual's explicit cautions and other complications encountered when presenting diagnoses in the course of psychological expert testimony under the applicable rules of evidence. This review considers the extent to which DSM-5 bears up under numerous criticisms when employed for forensic purposes and points out challenges that the expert should anticipate when offering diagnostic opinions underpinned by DSM-5 generally and by neurocognitive disorders in particular. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  18. Diagnostic errors in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Pere; Carreres, Anna; Ballester, Mònica

    2017-08-22

    Diagnostic errors have to be recognised as a possible adverse event inherent to clinical activity and incorporate them as another quality indicator. Different sources of information report their frequency, although they may still be underestimated. Contrary to what one could expect, in most cases, it does not occur in infrequent diseases. Causes can be complex and multifactorial, with individual cognitive aspects, as well as the health system. These errors can have an important clinical and socioeconomic impact. It is necessary to learn from diagnostic errors in order to develop an accurate and reliable system with a high standard of quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Hebephilia: quintessence of diagnostic pretextuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Hebephilia is an archaic term used to describe adult sexual attraction to adolescents. Prior to the advent of contemporary sexually violent predator laws, the term was not found in any dictionary or formal diagnostic system. Overnight, it is on the fast track toward recognition as a psychiatric condition meriting inclusion in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This article traces the sudden emergence and popularity of hebephilia to pressure from the legal arena and, specifically, to the legal mandate of a serious mental abnormality for civil commitment of sex offenders. Hebephilia is proposed as a quintessential example of pretextuality, in which special interests promote a pseudoscientific construct that furthers an implicit, instrumental goal. Inherent problems with the construct's reliability and validity are discussed. A warning is issued about unintended consequences if hebephilia or its relative, pedohebephilia, make their way into the DSM-5, due out in 2013. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.

    2015-01-01

    identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation...... of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic...... applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN....

  1. CIT diagnostic computer interface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, W.; Hayes, S.; Lowrance, J.; Oliaro, G.; Sauthoff, N.; Sichta, P.; Stark, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the on-going work performed in proposing instrumentation equipment and communications networks for the Diagnostic Data Acquisition and Diagnostic Instrumentation and Control System for the Compact Ignition Torus (CIT), which will begin operation in 1993. Consideration is given to the system criteria and requirements and their influence on the appropriate application of instrumentation and communication technologies to the system. This paper concentrates on the investigation of the bus communication technologies as they apply to the CIT data acquisition system. It compares CAMAC, VME, and FASTBUS as standards for data acquisition. The paper describes the connectivity between VAX equipment and CAMAC and VME instrumentation systems. Instrumentation and communication functionality and performance levels are presented as factors important to the overall data acquisition system performance

  2. Diagnostic Strategy in APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongyoung; Kim, Jonghyun

    2013-01-01

    These features may bring out changes in operator tasks, changing the characteristics of tasks, or creating new tasks. Diagnostic strategy for identifying anomaly may be different especially in APR1400 from that in the analog control room due to the change of human-system interface, i.e. alarm system and display system. Since the first plant of APR1400 is being built at this moment, it is not known what strategies the operators will adopt in diagnosis tasks in the new operating environment. In this light, this paper aims at investigating operator's diagnostic strategies which are appropriate for APR1400. In order to collect data, several different approaches which are complementary are used to identify diagnostic strategies in the digital control room: analysis on audio/video recording of operation, observation in the simulator, and interview with the operators. The result shows that the digital control room introduces new strategies in the diagnosis, compared with the analog control room, and also changed the characteristics of strategies, mostly, by getting more support from the computerized system. This paper investigated how the digitalized control room may influence operator's diagnostic strategies. Several different approaches, i. e., audio/video record, observation of training, and the interview with operators, were used to gather information about the operator's behaviors. As a conclusion, this paper figured out that the digital control room introduces new strategies in the diagnosis, compared with the analog control room, and also changed the characteristics of the strategies, mostly, by getting more support from the computerized system. The operators interviewed also commented that the diagnosis in the APR1400 is quicker, more correct, and easier, compared with the analog control room

  3. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue f...

  4. Appropriate use of diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, P.E.S.; Cockshott, W.P.

    1984-11-16

    This article discusses ways in which more appropriate use can be made of roentgenography with a resulting decrease in radiation doses to the patient population. The authors recommend that fewer films be made and that traditional roentgenography be replaced with endoscopy, ultrasound, computerized tomography, or angiography where appropriate. They also recommend that medical schools and medical subspecialty groups study the World Health Organization document which provides indications for diagnostic imaging, the choice of procedure and the limitations of each.

  5. Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen

  6. Diagnostic Strategy in APR1400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongyoung; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    These features may bring out changes in operator tasks, changing the characteristics of tasks, or creating new tasks. Diagnostic strategy for identifying anomaly may be different especially in APR1400 from that in the analog control room due to the change of human-system interface, i.e. alarm system and display system. Since the first plant of APR1400 is being built at this moment, it is not known what strategies the operators will adopt in diagnosis tasks in the new operating environment. In this light, this paper aims at investigating operator's diagnostic strategies which are appropriate for APR1400. In order to collect data, several different approaches which are complementary are used to identify diagnostic strategies in the digital control room: analysis on audio/video recording of operation, observation in the simulator, and interview with the operators. The result shows that the digital control room introduces new strategies in the diagnosis, compared with the analog control room, and also changed the characteristics of strategies, mostly, by getting more support from the computerized system. This paper investigated how the digitalized control room may influence operator's diagnostic strategies. Several different approaches, i. e., audio/video record, observation of training, and the interview with operators, were used to gather information about the operator's behaviors. As a conclusion, this paper figured out that the digital control room introduces new strategies in the diagnosis, compared with the analog control room, and also changed the characteristics of the strategies, mostly, by getting more support from the computerized system. The operators interviewed also commented that the diagnosis in the APR1400 is quicker, more correct, and easier, compared with the analog control room.

  7. Testability/Diagnostics Design Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    constraints, a relative lack of importance, political considerations, time, and the complexity of the task-.just to mention a few. This appendix...Defense Plan GFE Government Fumlshed Equipment GIMADS Genero Integrated Maintenance Diagnostics GM Global Memory OPETE General Purpose Electronic Test...Importance, political considerations, time, and the complexity of the task--just to mention a few, This appendix presents a few glimpses of activity on

  8. Etude de nouveaux biomarqueurs de toxicité induite par des micropolluants (benzo(a)pyrène et phtalate de bis(2-ethylhexyle)) sur des modèles de placenta humain

    OpenAIRE

    Wakx, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pollutants is commonly evaluated using placenta as a barrier between mother and fetus. Here, we consider placenta as a target organ for toxic agents. To achieve this, we selected a trophoblastic cell model, which is adapted to toxicological studies. In clinical studies, pregnancy pathologies are associated to changes in human placental lactogen (hPL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretions. Our in vitro work links exposure to micropollutants (mono(2-ethylhexyl)p...

  9. Diagnostic Measurements for Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Tenbohlen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing age of the primary equipment of the electrical grids there exists also an increasing need to know its internal condition. For this purpose, off- and online diagnostic methods and systems for power transformers have been developed in recent years. Online monitoring is used continuously during operation and offers possibilities to record the relevant stresses which can affect the lifetime. The evaluation of these data offers the possibility of detecting oncoming faults early. In comparison to this, offline methods require disconnecting the transformer from the electrical grid and are used during planned inspections or when the transformer is already failure suspicious. This contribution presents the status and current trends of different diagnostic techniques of power transformers. It provides significant tutorial elements, backed up by case studies, results and some analysis. The broadness and improvements of the presented diagnostic techniques show that the power transformer is not anymore a black box that does not allow a view into its internal condition. Reliable and accurate condition assessment is possible leading to more efficient maintenance strategies.

  10. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications.

  11. Radiation exposure in diagnostic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehnel, S.; Michalczak, H.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1995-01-01

    This volume includes the manuscripts of the papers read at the conference as well as a summary and assessment of its results. The scientific discussions were centred upon the following issues: - International surveys and comparisons of rdiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, frequency of the individual diagnostic procedures and age distribution of patients examined; - policies and regulations for the radiation protection of patients, charcteristic dosimetric values and practical usefulness of the effective dose concept during medical examinations; - assessments of the relative benefits and risks and measures to reduce the radiation exposure in the light of quality assurance aspects. The main objective of this conference not only was to evaluate the risks from diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine but also to encourgage a critical analysis and adjustment of examination routines followed in everyday practice. Among the measures recommended were quality assurance, maintenace of international standards, development of guidelines, introduction of standard doses, improved training and professional education of personnel as well as surveys and analyses of certain examination procedures associated with substantial radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references

  13. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.R.; Hecht, F.; Lubs, H.A.; Kimberling, W.; Brown, J.; Gerald, P.S.; Summitt, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, s o radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant. (U.K.)

  14. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  15. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. The Procalcitonin And Survival Study (PASS) – A Randomised multi-center investigator-initiated trial to investigate whether daily measurements biomarker Procalcitonin and pro-active diagnostic and therapeutic responses to abnormal Procalcitonin levels, can improve survival in intensive care unit patients. Calculated sample size (target population): 1000 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Lundgren, Bettina; Hein, Lars; Mohr, Thomas; Petersen, Pernille L; Andersen, Lasse H; Lauritsen, Anne Ø; Hougaard, Sine; Mantoni, Teit; Bømler, Bonnie; Thornberg, Klaus J; Thormar, Katrin; Løken, Jesper; Steensen, Morten; Carl, Peder; Petersen, J Asger; Tousi, Hamid; Søe-Jensen, Peter; Bestle, Morten; Hestad, Søren; Andersen, Mads H; Fjeldborg, Paul; Larsen, Kim M; Rossau, Charlotte; Thomsen, Carsten B; Østergaard, Christian; Kjær, Jesper; Grarup, Jesper; Lundgren, Jens D

    2008-01-01

    Background Sepsis and complications to sepsis are major causes of mortality in critically ill patients. Rapid treatment of sepsis is of crucial importance for survival of patients. The infectious status of the critically ill patient is often difficult to assess because symptoms cannot be expressed and signs may present atypically. The established biological markers of inflammation (leucocytes, C-reactive protein) may often be influenced by other parameters than infection, and may be unacceptably slowly released after progression of an infection. At the same time, lack of a relevant antimicrobial therapy in an early course of infection may be fatal for the patient. Specific and rapid markers of bacterial infection have been sought for use in these patients. Methods Multi-centre randomized controlled interventional trial. Powered for superiority and non-inferiority on all measured end points. Complies with, "Good Clinical Practice" (ICH-GCP Guideline (CPMP/ICH/135/95, Directive 2001/20/EC)). Inclusion: 1) Age ≥ 18 years of age, 2) Admitted to the participating intensive care units, 3) Signed written informed consent. Exclusion: 1) Known hyper-bilirubinaemia. or hypertriglyceridaemia, 2) Likely that safety is compromised by blood sampling, 3) Pregnant or breast feeding. Computerized Randomisation: Two arms (1:1), n = 500 per arm: Arm 1: standard of care. Arm 2: standard of care and Procalcitonin guided diagnostics and treatment of infection. Primary Trial Objective: To address whether daily Procalcitonin measurements and immediate diagnostic and therapeutic response on day-to-day changes in procalcitonin can reduce the mortality of critically ill patients. Discussion For the first time ever, a mortality-endpoint, large scale randomized controlled trial with a biomarker-guided strategy compared to the best standard of care, is conducted in an Intensive care setting. Results will, with a high statistical power answer the question: Can the survival of critically ill

  17. The Procalcitonin And Survival Study (PASS – A Randomised multi-center investigator-initiated trial to investigate whether daily measurements biomarker Procalcitonin and pro-active diagnostic and therapeutic responses to abnormal Procalcitonin levels, can improve survival in intensive care unit patients. Calculated sample size (target population: 1000 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldborg Paul

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis and complications to sepsis are major causes of mortality in critically ill patients. Rapid treatment of sepsis is of crucial importance for survival of patients. The infectious status of the critically ill patient is often difficult to assess because symptoms cannot be expressed and signs may present atypically. The established biological markers of inflammation (leucocytes, C-reactive protein may often be influenced by other parameters than infection, and may be unacceptably slowly released after progression of an infection. At the same time, lack of a relevant antimicrobial therapy in an early course of infection may be fatal for the patient. Specific and rapid markers of bacterial infection have been sought for use in these patients. Methods Multi-centre randomized controlled interventional trial. Powered for superiority and non-inferiority on all measured end points. Complies with, "Good Clinical Practice" (ICH-GCP Guideline (CPMP/ICH/135/95, Directive 2001/20/EC. Inclusion: 1 Age ≥ 18 years of age, 2 Admitted to the participating intensive care units, 3 Signed written informed consent. Exclusion: 1 Known hyper-bilirubinaemia. or hypertriglyceridaemia, 2 Likely that safety is compromised by blood sampling, 3 Pregnant or breast feeding. Computerized Randomisation: Two arms (1:1, n = 500 per arm: Arm 1: standard of care. Arm 2: standard of care and Procalcitonin guided diagnostics and treatment of infection. Primary Trial Objective: To address whether daily Procalcitonin measurements and immediate diagnostic and therapeutic response on day-to-day changes in procalcitonin can reduce the mortality of critically ill patients. Discussion For the first time ever, a mortality-endpoint, large scale randomized controlled trial with a biomarker-guided strategy compared to the best standard of care, is conducted in an Intensive care setting. Results will, with a high statistical power answer the question: Can the survival

  18. Which New Diagnostics for Tuberculosis, and When?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobelens, Frank; van den Hof, Susan; Pai, Madhukar; Squire, S. Bertel; Ramsay, Andrew; Kimerling, Michael E.; Bhan, Anant; Chin, Daniel; Dewan, Puneet; Durovni, Betina; Dye, Chris; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy; Harper, Ian; Langley, Ivor; Leeflang, Mariska; Lienhardt, Christian; McCray, Eugene; Mukadi, Ya Diul; Nicol, Mark; O'Brien, Rick; Ridderhof, John; Schito, Marco; Small, Peter; Vassall, Anna; Zhao, Yanlin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, new diagnostic tools for tuberculosis detection and resistance testing have become available. The World Health Organization endorses new tuberculosis diagnostics by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process. This endorsement process takes

  19. X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The book on X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases covers the following issues: diagnostic procedures, inflammatory thorax diseases, malign thorax diseases, heart and large blood vessels, hear insufficiency, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, interstitial pulmonary diseases, intensive care and traumatology.

  20. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine

    2008-01-01

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies......-operating characteristic or the bivariate model for the data analysis. Challenges that remain are the poor reporting of original diagnostic test accuracy studies and difficulties with the interpretation of the results of diagnostic test accuracy research....

  1. Rational design of diagnostic and vaccination strategies for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Borsuk

    Full Text Available The development of diagnostic tests which can readily differentiate between vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected individuals is crucial for the wider utilization of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG as vaccine in humans and animals. BCG_0092 is an antigen that elicits specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions similar in size and morphological aspects to that elicited by purified protein derivative, in both animals and humans infected with the tubercle bacilli. We carried out bioinformatics analyses of the BCG_0092 and designed a diagnostic test by using the predicted MHC class I epitopes. In addition, we performed a knockout of this gene by homologous recombination in the BCG vaccine strain to allow differentiation of vaccinated from infected individuals. For that, the flanking sequences of the target gene (BCG_0092were cloned into a suicide vector. Spontaneous double crossovers, which result in wild type revertants or knockouts were selected using SacB. BCG_0092 is present only in members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Eight predicted MHC class I epitopes with potential for immunological diagnosis were defined, allowing the design of a specific diagnostic test. The strategy used to delete the (BCG_0092 gene from BCG was successful. The knockout genotype was confirmed by PCR and by Southern blot. The mutant BCG strain has the potential of inducing protection against tuberculosis without interfering with the diagnostic test based on the use of selected epitopes from BCG_0092.

  2. Advances in point-of-care technologies for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mohammad

    2017-12-15

    Advances in miniaturization, nanotechnology, and microfluidics, along with developments in cloud-connected point-of-care (POC) diagnostics technologies are pushing the frontiers of POC devices toward low-cost, user-friendly, and enhanced sensitivity molecular-level diagnostics. The combination of various bio-sensing platforms within smartphone-integrated electronic readers provides accurate on-site and on-time diagnostics based on various types of chemical and biological targets. Further, 3D printing technology shows a huge potential toward fabrication and improving the performance of POC devices. Integration of skin-like flexible sensors with wireless communication technology creates a unique opportunity for continuous, real-time monitoring of patients for both preventative healthcare and during disease outbreaks. Here, we review recent developments and advances in POC technologies and describe how these advances enhance the performance of POC platforms. Also, this review describes challenges, directions, and future trends on application of emerging technologies in POC diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  4. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H W; Young, C S; Mack, J M; Kim, Y H; McEvoy, A; Evans, S; Sedillo, T; Batha, S; Schmitt, M; Wilson, D C; Langenbrunner, J R; Malone, R; Kaufman, M I; Cox, B C; Frogget, B; Tunnell, T W; Miller, E K; Ali, Z A; Stoeffl, W; Horsfield, C J

    2010-01-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ∼6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 10 13 -10 17 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 10 16 -10 20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution

  5. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Batha, S.; Schmitt, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Malone, R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Cox, B. C.; Frogget, B.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.; Tunnell, T. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2010-08-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ~6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 1013-1017 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 1016-1020 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution for the

  6. First rank symptoms: concepts and diagnostic utility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revision: Washington DC, APA,. 2000. 13. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd edition revision: Washington DC, APA,. 1987. 14. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.

  7. Nanotechnology applications in veterinary diagnostics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the search for improved diagnostic methodologies, livestock disease diagnostics and therapeutics have moved from the traditional methods to molecular and currently nanotechnology. In this contribution, the authors identified the importance of nanotechnology in veterinary diagnostics and therapeutics and suggest that ...

  8. Copper laser diagnostics and kinetics support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    In the effort MSNW participated with the LINL copper-Vapor Laser Program by providing a useful plasma diagnostic for interpretation of Copper-vapor laser kinetics. MSNW developed and delivered a pulsed interferometric diagnostic package to LLNL. Moreover MSNW provided personal services at the request and direction of LLL in the implementation of the diagnostic and interpretation of the data

  9. Diagnostic dilemma in tuberculous pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Mohamed Ramadan

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that ADA measurement in the pleural fluid is an appropriate, fast diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, with higher sensitivity (98% and diagnostic accuracy (75%. QuantiFERON-TB Gold which is technically more complicated, expensive and has lower sensitivity (65% and diagnostic accuracy (67.5% than ADA.

  10. Bar coded retroreflective target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  11. Microbiota-Targeted Therapies: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Katherine P.; Armitage, Gary C.; Relman, David A.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The connection between disease and the disruption of homeostatic interactions between the host and its microbiota is now well established. Drug developers and clinicians are starting to rely more heavily on therapies that directly target the microbiota and on the ecology of the microbiota to understand the outcomes of these treatments. The effects of those microbiota-targeted therapies that alter community composition range in scale from eliminating individual strains of a single species (for example, with antibacterial conjugate vaccines) to replacing the entire community with a new intact microbiota (for example, by fecal transplantation). Secondary infections linked to antibiotic use provide a cautionary tale of the unintended consequences of perturbing a microbial species network and highlight the need for new narrow-spectrum antibiotics with rapid companion diagnostics. Insights into microbial ecology will also benefit the development of probiotics, whose therapeutic prospects will depend on rigorous clinical testing. Future probiotics may take the form of a consortium of long-term community residents: “a fecal transplant in a capsule.” The efficacy of microbiota-targeted therapies will need to be assessed using new diagnostic tools that measure community function rather than composition, including the temporal response of a microbial community to a defined perturbation such as an antibiotic or probiotic. PMID:22674555

  12. Evaluation of nested Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting hup B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the role of nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting hup B gene as a rapid diagnostic modality of tubercular ascites and also to detect the infecting species (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis). 100 suspected tubercular ascites patients were enrolled ...

  13. Heavy ion particle beam interaction with a hot ionized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei-Cas, R.; Bardy, J.; Beuve, M.A.; Laget, J.P.; Menier, A.; Renaud, M.

    1983-03-01

    The present status of the experimental facility consisting of a heavy ion beam travelling through a laser created plasma target is described. Some aspects such as laser-tandem coupling, beam performances, constraints on the plasma parameter ranges, plasma and beam diagnostics are analyzed

  14. Real-time interferometric diagnostics of rubidium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djotyan, G. P.; Bakos, J. S.; Kedves, M. Á.; Ráczkevi, B.; Dzsotjan, D.; Varga-Umbrich, K.; Sörlei, Zs.; Szigeti, J.; Ignácz, P.; Lévai, P.; Czitrovszky, A.; Nagy, A.; Dombi, P.; Rácz, P.

    2018-03-01

    A method of interferometric real-time diagnostics is developed and applied to rubidium plasma created by strong laser pulses in the femtosecond duration range at different initial rubidium vapor densities using a Michelson-type interferometer. A cosine fit with an exponentially decaying relative phase is applied to the obtained time-dependent interferometry signals to measure the density-length product of the created plasma and its recombination time constant. The presented technique may be applicable for real-time measurements of rubidium plasma dynamics in the AWAKE experiment at CERN, as well as for real-time diagnostics of plasmas created in different gaseous media and on surfaces of solid targets.

  15. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsch, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  16. ICF in the U.S.: Facilities and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1988-08-01

    In the last few years there has been significant progress in ICF research in laboratories in the United States and elsewhere. These advances have occurred in areas that range from demonstrating an innovative laser beam smoothing techniques important for both directly and indirectly driven ICF, to achieving a more complete understanding of capsule implosions and related physics. This progress has been possible because of the capabilities provided by the ICF laser-target facilities currently in operation and the new developments in diagnostics, particularly for measurements of the implosion process and the conditions in the compressed capsule core. Both of these topics, facilities and selected new diagnostics capabilities in the US ICF Program, are summarized in this paper. 32 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Diagnostics systems developments and applications for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of systems are required for adequate diagnostics of laser fusion experiments. Picosecond scale temporal measurements are typically made with ultrafast streak cameras. Visible and x-ray sensitive streak cameras with resolutions of 6 psec and 15 psec, respectively, and dynamic recording range in excess of 10 3 are in regular use on experiments at Livermore. The characteristics of these cameras and their applications to target experiment diagnostics are described. The development and testing of a prototype ultrafast framing system is discussed. Because of the need for ''real time'' data acquisition, analysis, and control systems, techniques for providing directly computer interfaced image data from streak and framing cameras and optical imaging systems are being developed. The status of these developments and the characteristics of the computer interfaced data and control systems on Argus and Shiva are summarized

  18. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  19. Molecular diagnostics for hereditary hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommen, Manou; Wuyts, Wim; Van Camp, Guy

    2017-08-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is the most common birth defect in industrialized countries with far-reaching social, psychological and cognitive implications. It is an extremely heterogeneous disease, complicating molecular testing. The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has resulted in great progress in diagnostics allowing to study all known HL genes in a single assay. The diagnostic yield is currently still limited, but has the potential to increase substantially. Areas covered: In this review the utility of NGS and the problems for comprehensive molecular testing for HL are evaluated and discussed. Expert commentary: Different publications have proven the appropriateness of NGS for molecular testing of heterogeneous diseases such as HL. However, several problems still exist, such as pseudogenic background of some genes and problematic copy number variant analysis on targeted NGS data. Another main challenge for the future will be the establishment of population specific mutation-spectra to achieve accurate personalized comprehensive molecular testing for HL.

  20. Summary from working group on noninterceptive diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    The working group for noninterceptive diagnostics spent much of its time comparing diagnostic techniques from different fields and their possible application to high-power injectors. The group included backgrounds from electron beam diagnostics, fusion power diagnostics, cw ion source and transport design, and ion beam of diagnostics. The probability of success for adapting techniques from these different areas is quite difficult to judge, short of a detailed examination of each application. Unexpected flaws or unforeseen noise sources can eliminate an idea that would otherwise appear promising. The report presents several ideas that were discussed, with an indication of those ideas most likely to succeed if implemented

  1. Nucleic acid diagnostic approaches in parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerttula, Anne-Marie; Lavikainen, Antti

    Nucleic acid diagnostic technologies are partly replacing traditional microscopy and antigen detection methods in parasitological diagnostics. In particular, the diagnostics of parasitic diarrhea is undergoing a transformation due to the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Diagnostics of malaria is still based on microscopy, but rapid nucleic acid tests are emerging. Laboratories of clinical microbiology in Finland currently provide PCR tests e.g. for intestinal protozoa, Toxoplasma and Trichomonas. Nucleic acid diagnostic methods are superior in specificity and sensitivity, but may give false positive results after a treated infection.

  2. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  3. PDR diagnostics study with CLOUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Rui; Huang Maohai

    2009-01-01

    A series of plane-parallel photodissociation region (PDR) models are calculated using the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. These models span a wide range of physical conditions, with gas densities of n = 10 2 - 10 6 cm -3 and incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) fields of G 0 = 10 0 - 10 6 (where G 0 is the FUV flux in units of the local interstellar value), which are comparable with various astrophysical environments from interstellar diffuse clouds to the dense neutral gas around galactic compact H II regions. Based on the calculated results, we study the thermal balance of PDR gas and the emissions of [C II], [C I] and [O I] fine-structure lines under different physical conditions. The intensities and strength ratios of the studied lines, which are frequently used as PDR diagnostics, are presented using contour diagrams as functions of n and G 0 . We compare the calculated PDR surface gas temperatures T s with those from Kaufman et al. and find that T s from our models are systematically higher over most of the adopted n-G 0 parameter space. The predicated line intensities and ratios from our work and those from Kaufman et al. can be different by a factor greater than 10, and such large differences usually occur near the border of our parameter space. The different methods of treating the dust grain physics, the change of H 2 formation and dissociation rates, and the improvement in the radiation transfer of line emissions in our CLOUDY models are likely to be the major reasons for the divergences. Our models represent an up-to-date treatment of PDR diagnostic calculations and can be used to interpret observational data. Meanwhile, the uncertainties in the treatment of microphysics and chemical processes in PDR models have significant effects on PDR diagnostics.

  4. Safety of Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breyer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Large numbers of people (both sick and healthy) are routinely exposed to ultrasound waves. We shall discuss wave parameters and scanner properties that are relevant to the safety aspect. This includes central pulse frequency, pulse length, intensity (ISPTA and others), focusing, pulse repetition frequency, pulse pressure, etc. Since the transmitted ultrasound power has steadily been increasing during the last two decades, the problems are becoming more serious with time. Doppler methods have gained importance and 'popularity, which additionally increases ultrasound power requirements since the reflectivity of red blood cells is so small that the backscattered pressure is about 100 times less than that from soft tissue structures in the body. Main mechanisms that can potentially present hazard are heating and cavitation. The basic parameter used to assess thermal hazard is ISPTA and the optimal predictor of cavitation hazard is the peak rarefractional pressure. The hazard of heating-up can be summarized in saying that temperatures up to 38.5 o C are safe, while temperatures above 41 o C are definitely not. Care must be taken to stay within the safe zone. However, there does not exist a confirmed report of any type of hazardous effects on humans using intensities presently applied in diagnostic ultrasound scanners. Taking this into account, various international bodies have put limits to the application of ultrasound, which is best summarized in the FDA (USA) regulation that diagnostic apparatus may have an output of maximally 720 mW/cm 2 (derated) provided thermal and mechanical properties are indicated (onscreen) by properly defined Thermal Indices (TI) and Mechanical Index (MI). These aspects shall be discussed in some detail. We shall give the rules for the operator to apply ultrasound with minimal hazard. The general conclusion is that diagnostic ultrasound, as presently known, may be used whenever a qualified expert expects essential medical benefit for the

  5. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  6. Business Targets and Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Felicitas G.

    2014-01-01

    The finding and setting of a business target is the starting point whenever dealing with corporate governance; the autonomy of companies to define those targets is one constitutive characteristic of any market economy. Regulatory demands as the standardization of the German ‘Unternehmensinteresse’ (interest of the company) in the German stock corporation laws as well as ethical-theoretical approaches in the process of forming targets gain relevance both in theory and practice in the context o...

  7. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  8. Targeting and Persuasive Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Egli, Alain (Autor/in)

    2015-01-01

    Firms face a prisoner's dilemma when advertising in a competitive environment. In a Hotelling framework with persuasive advertisingfirms counteract this prisoner's dilemma with targeting. The firms even solve the prisoner's problem if targeted advertising is effective enough. Advertising turns from wasteful competition into profits. This is in contrast to wasteful competition as argument for regulations. A further result is maximum advertising differentiation: thefirms target their advertisin...

  9. Interface language for diagnostic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The neutron multichannel collimator diagnostic on TFTR is run with the help of a keyboard-entered interface language. The language allows the user to interact with the real-time control and data analysis systems in a consistent and efficient manner. It uses a vocabulary that can be abbreviated into one character commands which the proficient user may concatenate into command words. This allows the user to progress quickly from a novice to an expert operating mode. A similar type interface language could be applied to many interactive applications accepting keyboard inputs

  10. Nonculture Diagnostics in Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diagnostics that utilize antibody, antigen or nucleic acid detection offer several advantages that supplement traditional culture-based methods. As a group, nonculture assays can help identify patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI) sooner than is possible with culture, are often more sensitive, and can be used to guide early interventions. Challenges associated with these techniques include the possibility for contamination or cross-reactivity as well as the potential for false negative tests. This review summarized the test characteristics and clinical utility of nonculture-based laboratory methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiological diagnostics in CUP syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmierczak, P.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Graser, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Cyran, C.C.; Rominger, A.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging plays an essential role in the therapeutic management of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) patients for localizing the primary tumor, for the identification of tumor entities for which a dedicated therapy regimen is available and for the characterization of clinicopathological subentities that direct the subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Modalities include conventional x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound as well as positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and MRI-PET. In whole body imaging CT has a high sensitivity for tumor entities which frequently present as a metastasized cancer illness. According to the current literature CT is diagnostic in 86% of patients with pancreatic carcinoma, in 36% of patients with colon carcinoma and in 74% of patients with lung carcinoma. Additionally a meta-analysis showed that for patients with squamous cell carcinoma and cervical lymph node metastases a positive diagnosis was possible in 22% of the cases using CT, in 36% using MRI and in 28-57% using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT ( 18 F-FDG PET-CT). In addition, MRI plays an important role in the localization of primary occult tumors (e.g. breast and prostate) because of its high soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging. At the beginning of the diagnostic algorithm stands the search for a possible primary tumor and CT of the neck, thorax and abdomen is most frequently used for whole body staging. Subsequent organ-specific imaging examinations follow, e.g. mammography in women with axillary lymphadenopathy. For histological and immunohistochemical characterization of tumor tissue, imaging is also applied to identify the most accessible and representative tumor manifestation for biopsy. Tumor biopsy may be guided by CT, MRI or ultrasound and MRI also plays a central role in the localization of primary occult tumors because of superior soft tissue contrast and options for functional imaging (perfusion

  12. Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, A.

    2007-06-15

    The future e{sup -}e{sup +} 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)

  13. Vibration diagnostics instrumentation for ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolini, A.

    2007-06-01

    The future e - e + 500 GeV International Linear Collider will rely on unprecedented nanometer scale particle beam size at the interaction point, in order to achieve the design luminosity. Tight tolerances on static and dynamic alignment of the accelerator cavities and optical components are demanded to transport and focus the high energy electron and positron beams with reasonable position jitter and low emittance. A brief review of techniques and devices evaluated and developed so far for the vibration diagnostics of the machine is presented in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this article, we discuss fundamentals of the spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics, where several important particle motions in a circular accelerator are considered. The properties of the Fourier transform are presented. Then the coasting and the bunched beam motion in both longitudinal and transverse are studied. The discussions are separated for the signal particle, multiple particle, and the Schottky noise cases. To demonstrate the interesting properties of the beam motion spectrum, time domain functions are generated, and then the associated spectra are calculated and plotted. In order to show the whole picture in a single plot, some data have been scaled, therefore they may not be realistic in an accelerator.

  15. Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsutomu; Itai, Yuji

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging of the pancreas, ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), radionuclide (RN) scintigraphy, angiography, and endoscopic retrograde pancreaticography (ERP). First three noninvasive methods, were the most effective to diagnose psudo-cyst or cystoadenoma. Especially, CT gives the clear image of inflammation and shows pancreatic stones and calcification, with high sensitivity. As for pancreatic carcinomas there was no noninvasive methods to apply at an early stage. In order to diagnose the cancer the combination of angiography and ERP was preferable. The problem was how to select the candidates for the investigation of combined method out of the patients with negative CT or US. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Fibromyalgia diagnosis and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Häuser, Winfried

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Criteria for fibromyalgia developed from the conceptualization and hypotheses of Smythe and Moldofsky in 1977 and gradually evolved to a set of classification criteria endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology that emphasized tender points and widespread pain, measures of decreased pain threshold. In 2010, American College of Rheumatology fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria were published that abandoned the tender point count and placed increased emphasis of patient symptoms. The 2010 criteria also contained severity scales and offered physicians the opportunity to assess polysymptomatic distress on a continuous scale. This enabled physicians who were opposed to the idea of fibromyalgia to also assess and diagnose patients using an alternative nomenclature.

  17. Diagnostic Injections About the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Edward; Bernard, Johnathan; Dein, Eric; Johnson, Alex

    2017-12-01

    Injections about the shoulder serve diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. Diagnosis of shoulder conditions, such as rotator cuff tears, acromioclavicular joint pathology, subacromial impingement or anterolateral pain syndrome, glenohumeral joint pathology, suprascapular nerve entrapment, and biceps tendon pathologies, is often complicated by concomitant conditions with overlapping symptoms and by inconclusive physical examination and imaging results. Injections of anesthetic agents can often help clinicians locate the source of pain. However, technique and accuracy of needle placement can vary by route. Accuracy is often improved with the use of ultrasonography guidance, although studies differ on the benefits of guided versus unguided injection.

  18. Optoelectronic tweezers for medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Clemens; Neale, Steven; Menachery, Anoop; Barrett, Mike; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Optoelectronic tweezers (OET) allows the spatial patterning of electric fields through selected illumination of a photoconductive surface. This enables the manipulation of micro particles and cells by creating non-uniform electrical fields that then produce dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces. The DEP responses of cells differ and can produce negative or positive (repelled or attracted to areas of high electric field) forces. Therefore OET can be used to manipulate individual cells and separate different cell types from each other. Thus OET has many applications for medical diagnostics, demonstrated here with work towards diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness.

  19. Reporting of Diagnostic Cytogenetic Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Anne B S; Bieber, Frederick R; Dubuc, Adrian M; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Ligon, Azra H; Mason-Suares, Heather; Morton, Cynthia C; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Xiao, Sheng; Dal Cin, Paola

    2016-04-01

    This appendix, developed by the staff at the Center for Advanced Molecular Diagnostics in the Department of Pathology at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, includes a comprehensive list of current "macros" or standardized statements used to facilitate reporting of cytogenetic results. These are provided as a useful reference for other laboratories. The statements are organized under the general categories of constitutional or acquired abnormalities and subdivided into analysis type (GTG-banding, FISH, or chromosomal microarray). Multi-specimen usage macros are included that can be applied to two or more specimen types. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Cancer diagnostics by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina; Gersonde, Ingo H.; Bindig, Uwe; Mueller, Markus; Miller, Kurt; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    2000-11-01

    A diagnostic method to detect differences between diseased and normal tissue from bladder carcinoma by FTIR-microspectroscopy is described. Regions of interest on 10 micrometer thin tissue sections where mapped in transmission mode. After IR-Mapping, the samples have been analyzed with common pathological techniques. Quadratic discriminant as well as correlation analysis was applied to the obtained IR-maps allowing differentiation between cancerous and normal tissue. In the case of the correlation analyses it is further possible to distinguish between different types of tissue.

  1. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  2. Artificial intelligence methods for diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourgnon-Hanoune, A.; Porcheron, M.; Ricard, B.

    1996-01-01

    To assist in diagnosis of its nuclear power plants, the Research and Development Division of Electricite de France has been developing skills in Artificial Intelligence for about a decade. Different diagnostic expert systems have been designed. Among them, SILEX for control rods cabinet troubleshooting, DIVA for turbine generator diagnosis, DIAPO for reactor coolant pump diagnosis. This know how in expert knowledge modeling and acquisition is direct result of experience gained during developments and of a more general reflection on knowledge based system development. We have been able to reuse this results for other developments such as a guide for auxiliary rotating machines diagnosis. (authors)

  3. Reinventing Diagnostics for Personalized Therapy in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Diponkar

    2010-01-01

    Human cancers are still diagnosed and classified using the light microscope. The criteria are based upon morphologic observations by pathologists and tend to be subject to interobserver variation. In preoperative biopsies of non-small cell lung cancers, the diagnostic concordance, even amongst experienced pulmonary pathologists, is no better than a coin-toss. Only 25% of cancer patients, on average, benefit from therapy as most therapies do not account for individual factors that influence response or outcome. Unsuccessful first line therapy costs Canada CAN $1.2 billion for the top 14 cancer types, and this extrapolates to $90 billion globally. The availability of accurate drug selection for personalized therapy could better allocate these precious resources to the right therapies. This wasteful situation is beginning to change with the completion of the human genome sequencing project and with the increasing availability of targeted therapies. Both factors are giving rise to attempts to correlate tumor characteristics and response to specific adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies. Static cancer classification and grading systems need to be replaced by functional classification systems that not only account for intra- and inter- tumor heterogeneity, but which also allow for the selection of the correct chemotherapeutic compounds for the individual patient. In this review, the examples of lung and breast cancer are used to illustrate the issues to be addressed in the coming years, as well as the emerging technologies that have great promise in enabling personalized therapy

  4. TFTR vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Michelson interferometer has a spectral coverage of 75--540 GHz, allowing measurement of the first four electron cyclotron harmonics. Until recently the instrument has been configured to view the TFTR plasma on the horizontal midplane, primarily in order to measure the electron temperature profile. Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) extraordinary mode spectra from TFTR Supershot plasmas exhibit a pronounced, spectrally narrow feature below the second harmonic. A similar feature is seen with the ECE radiometer diagnostic below the electron cyclotron fundamental frequency in the ordinary mode. Analysis of the ECE spectra indicates the possibility of a non-Maxwellian 40--80 keV tail on the electron distribution in or near the core. During 1990 three vertical views with silicon carbide viewing targets will be installed to provide a direct measurement of the electron energy distribution at major radii of 2.54, 2.78, and 3.09 m with an energy resolution of approximately 20% at 100 keV. To provide the maximum flexibility, the optical components for the vertical views will be remotely controlled to allow the Michelson interferometer to be reconfigured to either the midplane horizontal view or one of the three vertical views between plasma shots

  5. The diagnostic neutral beam system for text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.P.; Burgin, D.; Coupland, J.R.; DeVere, A.P.C.; Green, T.S.; Klein, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of highly stripped impurity ions in a Tokamak plasma by means of charge exchange with a probing neutral beam is an interesting and developing technique. Such a beam system is being designed and manufactured by the Culham Laboratory under contract to the University of Texas at Austin. The specification is for a high brightness beam of hydrogen atoms of 30-50 keV energy with a current density of 30 mA/cm/sup 2/ in the target plane. The pulse length is 100 mS, and the beam has to be capable of being modulated at high frequency (≥ 1 KHz) to improve the overall detection capability of the diagnostic system. The total extracted current at 50 KV is 7.2A. The design has been based on a ''bucket'' type plasma source with a four-electrode extraction array of circular apertures. Low perveance extraction is used to obtain both high brightness and freedom from high voltage breakdown, in view of the high degree of reliability needed. Details of performance of the beam line measured during commissioning tests at Culham are given

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  7. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  8. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  9. Ultrafast x-ray diagnostics for laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1976-01-01

    Temporally, spectrally, and spatially resolved x-ray emission diagnostics are important tools in the study of the heating and compression of laser fusion targets by sub-nanosecond laser pulses. The use of the Livermore 15 psec resolution x-ray streak camera to make such measurements is reviewed. Temporal histories of spectrally resolved x-ray emission in the 1 to 10 keV range have been obtained. These data have served to further define the x-ray streak camera as a quantative diagnostic tool and have also provided data relating to the absorption and compression phases of laser heating. The x-ray streak camera has been used in conjunction with a specially designed pinhole imaging system to temporally record images of laser compressed targets with a spatial resolution of approximately 6 μm. Implosion characteristics are presented for experiments with glass microshell targets. The concept, development, and testing of an ultrafast framing camera for full two-dimensional time resolved imaging is discussed. A prototype camera, based on the image dissection-restoration concept, has achieved an approximately 200 psec frame period with a resolution of 50 μm

  10. Plasmon-Based Colorimetric Nanosensors for Ultrasensitive Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Longhua; Li, Jinghong

    2017-07-28

    Colorimetric detection of target analytes with high specificity and sensitivity is of fundamental importance to clinical and personalized point-of-care diagnostics. Because of their extraordinary optical properties, plasmonic nanomaterials have been introduced into colorimetric sensing systems, which provide significantly improved sensitivity in various biosensing applications. Here we review the recent progress on these plasmonic nanoparticles-based colorimetric nanosensors for ultrasensitive molecular diagnostics. According to their different colorimetric signal generation mechanisms, these plasmonic nanosensors are classified into two categories: (1) interparticle distance-dependent colorimetric assay based on target-induced forming cross-linking assembly/aggregate of plasmonic nanoparticles; and (2) size/morphology-dependent colorimetric assay by target-controlled growth/etching of the plasmonic nanoparticles. The sensing fundamentals and cutting-edge applications will be provided for each of them, particularly focusing on signal generation and/or amplification mechanisms that realize ultrasensitive molecular detection. Finally, we also discuss the challenge and give our future perspective in this emerging field.

  11. L'émergence de la thérapeutique de précision: de nouveaux défis et de nouvelles possibilités pour les leaders en santé du Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jim; Shields, Laura; Racette, Ray J; Juzwishin, Donald; Coppes, Max

    2015-11-01

    À l'ère de la médecine personnalisée et de la médecine de précision, l'approche envers les soins est en rapide mutation. Les cliniciens exigent de plus en plus d'information génétique et moléculaire et les patients s'attendent à la fournir pour la prévention, le dépistage, le diagnostic, le pronostic, la promotion de la santé et le traitement d'un nombre croissant de maladies. Les leaders en santé canadiens doivent comprendre les changements nécessaires liés à ces technologies perturbantes et ouvrir la voie. Le présent article s'attarde sur la thérapeutique de précision, mais contient également de l'information générale sur les concepts et la terminologie liés à la médecine personnalisée et à la médecine de précision. Il explore également le leadership en santé canadien et les problèmes liés au système qui peuvent nuire à leur mise en œuvre. L'article vise à inspirer, informer et mobiliser les leaders en santé canadiens à amorcer un dialogue sur les transformations nécessaires pour préparer le système de santé à profiter des bienfaits de la thérapeutique de précision. © 2015 Collège canadien des leaders en santé

  12. Array CGH Analysis and Developmental Delay: A Diagnostic Tool for Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, F; Xu, J; Jung, J; Prasad, C

    2013-11-01

    Developmental delay occurs in 1-3% of the population, with unknown etiology in approximately 50% of cases. Initial genetic work up for developmental delay previously included chromosome analysis and subtelomeric FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) has emerged as a tool to detect genetic copy number changes and uniparental disomy and is the most sensitive test in providing etiological diagnosis in developmental delay. aCGH allows for the provision of prognosis and recurrence risks, improves access to resources, helps limit further investigations and may alter medical management in many cases. aCGH has led to the delineation of novel genetic syndromes associated with developmental delay. An illustrative case of a 31-year-old man with long standing global developmental delay and recently diagnosed 4q21 deletion syndrome with a deletion of 20.8 Mb genomic interval is provided. aCGH is now recommended as a first line test in children and adults with undiagnosed developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Puce d'hybridation génomique comparative et retard de développement : un outil diagnostic pour les neurologues. Le retard de développement survient chez 1 à 3% de la population et son étiologie est inconnue chez à peu près 50% des cas. L'évaluation génétique initiale pour un retard de développement incluait antérieurement une analyse chromosomique et une analyse par FISH (hybridation in situ en fluorescence) de régions subtélomériques. La puce d'hybridation génomique comparative (CGHa) est devenue un outil de détection des changements du nombre de copies géniques ainsi que de la disomie uniparentale et elle est le test le plus sensible pour fournir un diagnostic étiologique dans le retard de développement. Le CGHa permet d'offrir un pronostic et un risque de récurrence, améliore l'accès aux ressources, aide à limiter les évaluations et peut modifier le traitement médical dans bien des cas

  13. Diagnostic approaches to malaria in Zambia, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukonka, Victor M; Chanda, Emmanuel; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Elbadry, Maha A; Wamulume, Pauline K; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Lubinda, Jailos; Laytner, Lindsey A; Zhang, Wenyi; Mushinge, Gabriel; Haque, Ubydul

    2015-06-03

    Malaria is an important health burden in Zambia with proper diagnosis remaining as one of the biggest challenges. The need for reliable diagnostics is being addressed through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, without sufficient laboratory amenities in many parts of the country, diagnosis often still relies on non-specific, clinical symptoms. In this study, geographical information systems were used to both visualize and analyze the spatial distribution and the risk factors related to the diagnosis of malaria. The monthly reported, district-level number of malaria cases from January 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the National Malaria Control Center (NMCC). Spatial statistics were used to reveal cluster tendencies that were subsequently linked to possible risk factors, using a non-spatial regression model. Significant, spatio-temporal clusters of malaria were spotted while the introduction of RDTs made the number of clinically diagnosed malaria cases decrease by 33% from 2009 to 2014. The limited access to road network(s) was found to be associated with higher levels of malaria, which can be traced by the expansion of health promotion interventions by the NMCC, indicating enhanced diagnostic capability. The capacity of health facilities has been strengthened with the increased availability of proper diagnostic tools and through retraining of community health workers. To further enhance spatial decision support systems, a multifaceted approach is required to ensure mobilization and availability of human, infrastructural and technological resources. Surveillance based on standardized geospatial or other analytical methods should be used by program managers to design, target, monitor and assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of malaria diagnostic resources country-wide.

  14. Epigenetics and Therapeutic Targets Mediating Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly evolving science of epigenetics is transforming our understanding of the nervous system in health and disease and holds great promise for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting neurological diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic factors and mechanisms serve as important mediators of the pathogenic processes that lead to irrevocable neural injury and of countervailing homeostatic and regenerative responses. Epigenetics is, therefore, of considerable translational significance to the field of neuroprotection. In this brief review, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and highlight the emerging roles played by epigenetic processes in neural cell dysfunction and death and in resultant neuroprotective responses. PMID:26236020

  15. Software diagnostic aids on Aladdin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisert, D.E.; Stott, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The upgrade of the Aladdin control system included many enhancements in the software. Some of the new diagnostic aids provided are: intelligent temporary logging of all readbacks for at least the previous 12 hours, permanent logging of specified readbacks into disk files, temporary logging of beam positions at an operator-specified interval, an alarm system for all devices, including range limits for analogue readbacks that should remain fixed and window limits which automatically track readbacks that should decay or increase monotonically, automated checklists to verify the devices are within the specified operating range for a particular phase of operation, latched digital signals to capture momentary changes. The software has been designed to alert the operator when something is wrong, without generating a flood of unimportant messages, and to make it possible to observe and record readbacks over a range of time scales. The latter capability is essential for tracking down marginal components and correlating observed problems with possible causes. The algorithms used for these diagnostic aids, and how well they perform their desired tasks, are described in this paper. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic imaging in fertility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, A.C.; Fleischer, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 10%-15% of married couples are affected by a fertility disorder. The number of infertile couples seeking medical assistance has increased dramatically in the past decade. The roles of diagnostic imaging with radiography and US (conventional and transvaginal) is emphasized in the assessment of couples with fertility disorders and an unexpectedly higher incidence of fetal wastage secondary to unsuspected uterine anomalies. The most frequently utilized radiographic examination in infertile patients is hysterosalpingography (HSG). Techniques and complications of HSG are illustrated. The normal anatomy, variants, and congenital anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes are demonstrated, as are the numerous abnormalities such as filling defects of the uterine cavity, synechiae, effects of maternal diethylstilbestrol exposure, inflammatory tubal disease, and the more common HSG findings following uterine and tubal surgery. The role of diagnostic imaging in male infertility, including vasography and varicocele detection, are addressed. Conventional and transvaginal US in the management of gynecologic fertility disorders are examined, with an emphasis on follicular monitoring, guided follicular aspirations, endometrial evaluations, and evaluation of other disorders (such as endometriosis) associated with infertility

  17. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Nema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field.

  18. Prostate carcinoma: current diagnostic strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, Monica Maria Agata Stiepcich; Ferraz, Maria Lucia Cardoso Gomes; Oliveira, Jose Marcelo Amatuzzi; Andriolo, Adagmar

    2001-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second cause of cancer death in men in the Western world. Despite progress in the treatment of advanced disease, it is recognized that the only possibility of reduction in prostate cancer death is nearly diagnosis when the disease is localized. In the present study our aim was to review the current strategy for diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable tumor marker and has demonstrated effectiveness in detecting prostate carcinoma, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and disclosing disease recurrence. However, alternative methods are been proposed just as the free to total PSA ratio, PSA density, PSA velocity, which could improve the diagnostic sensibility and the specificity. Image diagnostic methods include transrectal ultra sound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance image, and bone cintigraphy. The ultra sound is the best approach to guide the prostate biopsy and, together with the magnetic resonance is still useful for loco regional graduation. Computerized tomography as magnetic resonance image can be used for identification of linfonodal involvement. Bone cintigraphy is the best method for the identification of metastatic disease. (author)

  19. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P. [Russian Radiology Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotlyarov, Peter M. [Russian Center of Roentgenradiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V. [Yaroslavl Railway Clinic (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yury K. [State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  20. Interprofessional working in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, Ruth M.; Day, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers interprofessional working within one diagnostic imaging department. The literature is still divided about the long-term impact of interprofessional learning in pre-registration health and social care education, and its impact on the quality of care provided. When reading the literature about interprofessional working the main topics considered by other authors are team working, communication between professionals, stereotyping and tribalism. The results presented are from an ethnographic study in one department with participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The three main aspects discussed in this paper are; tribalism and culture within the diagnostic radiography profession, communication between different professional groups, and a lack of understanding of the roles of other professional groups. It was evident from the results of this study that tribalism and culture, and a lack of understanding were significant barriers to interprofessional working. It was felt by the authors that pre-registration and post-registration interprofessional education could be significant in changing the culture of the NHS in the future as more professionals learn from and about one another

  1. [Pedophilia: etiology, diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromberger, P; Jordan, K; Müller, J L

    2013-09-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most destructive events for healthy child development. Following psychiatric classification systems, pedophilia must be distinguished from child sexual abuse. Approximately only one half of all child abusers fulfill the diagnostic criteria for pedophilia which is defined as a persistent or dominating sexual preference for prepubescent children characterized by persistent thoughts, fantasies, urges, sexual arousal or behavior. This article describes the diagnostic criteria and potential differential diagnoses as well as epidemiological and etiological findings. From an etiological point of view multifactorial mechanisms are currently considered to be responsible especially genetic factors, learning theoretical and neurobiological factors. Psychotherapeutic and pharmaceutical treatment options will be discussed. According to the current state of knowledge cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy is the method of choice in the treatment of pedophilia and has demonstrated positive treatment effects in meta-analyses regarding relapse prevention. Medicinal treatment of pedophilia is only indicated for severe forms of pedophilia. Important aspects of risk management in the treatment of pedophilia and aspects which must be considered in the forensic psychiatric assessment are presented.

  2. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Thematic plan on diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Due to the vital importance of diagnostic radiology in both the diagnosis and management of disease processes, there is a need for a greater coherent international effort to help the developing nations create strategies for the incorporation of imaging into their healthcare systems. To meet the needs of such countries, a comprehensive programme is required to take into consideration the availability of local expertise (medical and technical), the infrastructure (stable electrical supply, water and air-conditioning) and the disease pattern or burden. In short, the total solution requires coordinating the International Atomic Energy Agency efforts with those of other partners. The Agency already has programmes in nuclear medicine and radiation therapy supported by activities in dosimetry and medical physics. Through the Technical Co-operation fund the Agency already supports projects in some areas of diagnostic imaging, dosimetry and radiation protection, but it lacks a comprehensive programme to provide a systematic approach focusing on the medical aspects of imaging science and including all the imaging technologies. Member States require the Agency's assistance in this area since no single UN organisation has the resources or the expertise to do the entire job without help. This document presents the proposed programme strategy and action plan

  4. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P.; Kotlyarov, Peter M.; Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V.; Alexandrov, Yury K.

    2010-01-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  5. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Malone; John R. Celesteb; Peter M. Celliers; Brent C. Froggeta; Robert L. Guyton; Morris I. Kaufman; Tony L. Lee; Brian J. MacGowan; Edmund W. Ng; Imants P. Reinbachs; Ronald B. Robinson; Lynn G. Seppala; Tom W. Tunnell; Phillip W. Watts

    2005-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1–5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  6. Combining a thermal-imaging diagnostic with an existing imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert M.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lee, Tony L.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Ng, Edmund W.; Reinbachs, Imants P.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Seppala, Lynn G.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2005-08-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two independent line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets having sizes of 1-5 mm. An 8-inch-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 inside the 30-foot-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter to the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is spilt into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A corrector lens on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Thermal imaging collects light at f/5 from a 2-mm object placed at Target Chamber Center (TCC). Streak cameras perform VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts so that pointing accuracy of the optical axis may be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) are used to align both diagnostics. The red alignment laser is selected to be at the 50 percent reflection point of the beam splitter. This alignment laser is introduced at the recording streak cameras for both diagnostics and passes through this special beam splitter on its way into the NIF vacuum chamber.

  7. Beam diagnostics for Laser-induced proton generation at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Heun; Park, Seong Hee; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Ki Tae; Chan, Young Ho; Lee, Byung Cheol; Yoo, Byeong Duk

    2005-01-01

    With an advent of femto-second lasers, a laseraccelerated ion generation has been world-widely studied for medical and nuclear applications. It is known that protons with the energy from several tens MeV to a few hundreds MeV require for a cancer therapy and nuclear reaction. Even though, up to present, the maximum energy of laser-accelerated proton is about 60 MeV, it is expected that the energy of protons generated can be obtained at least up to 150 MeV. According to theoretical and experimental works, it turns out the energy distribution and the flux of ions strongly depends on the intensity of a fs laser at a target. However, physics on laser-plasma interaction is still not clear. The precise measurements of parameters of a fs laser and ions are important to figure out the physics and develop the theoretical interpretation. Typically, beam diagnostic system includes measurements and/or monitoring of the temporal and spatial profiles of lasers at the target as well as the energy spectrum and density profile of protons, which are critical for the analysis of mechanism and the characterization of protons generated. We fabricated and installed the target chamber for laser-accelerated proton generation and are now integrating beam diagnostic system. For laser diagnostics, beam monitoring and alignment system has been installed. For a charged particle, CR-39 detectors, Thomson parabola spectrometer, and Si charged particle detectors are installed for density profile and energy spectrum. In this paper, we discuss the laser beam monitoring and alignment system. We also estimates expected spectrum of protons from Thomson parabola spectrometer, depending on the parameters of protons

  8. Principles of validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Assay validation requires a series of inter-related processes. Assay validation is an experimental process: reagents and protocols are optimized by experimentation to detect the analyte with accuracy and precision. Assay validation is a relative process: its diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity are calculated relative to test results obtained from reference animal populations of known infection/exposure status. Assay validation is a conditional process: classification of animals in the target population as infected or uninfected is conditional upon how well the reference animal population used to validate the assay represents the target population; accurate predictions of the infection status of animals from test results (PV+ and PV-) are conditional upon the estimated prevalence of disease/infection in the target population. Assay validation is an incremental process: confidence in the validity of an assay increases over time when use confirms that it is robust as demonstrated by accurate and precise results; the assay may also achieve increasing levels of validity as it is upgraded and extended by adding reference populations of known infection status. Assay validation is a continuous process: the assay remains valid only insofar as it continues to provide accurate and precise results as proven through statistical verification. Therefore, the work required for validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases does not end with a time-limited series of experiments based on a few reference samples rather, to assure valid test results from an assay requires constant vigilance and maintenance of the assay, along with reassessment of its performance characteristics for each unique population of animals to which it is applied. (author)

  9. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  10. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  11. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  12. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  13. Internal targets for LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, K.; Gspann, J.; Mohl, D.; Poth, H.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter considers the use of thin internal targets in conjunction with phase-space cooling at the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). Topics considered include the merits of internal target operation; the most efficient use of antiprotons and of proton synchrotron (PS) protons, highest center-of-mass (c.m.) energy resolution; highest angular resolution and access to extreme angles; the transparent environment for all reaction products; a windowless source and pure targets; highest luminosity and count rates; access to lowest energies with increasing resolution; internal target thickness and vacuum requirements; required cooling performance; and modes of operation. It is demonstrated that an internal target in conjunction with phase-space cooling has the potential of better performance in terms of the economic use of antiprotons and consequently of PS protons; energy resolution; angular resolution; maximum reaction rate capability (statistical precision); efficient parasitic operation; transparency of the target for reaction products; access to low energies; and the ease of polarized target experiments. It is concluded that all p - experiments which need high statistics and high p - flux, such as studies of rare channels or broad, weak resonance structures, would profit from internal targets

  14. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  15. Electron beam fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauser, M.J.; Sweeney, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    R The behavior of the DT filled gold shells when irradiated by a variety of pulse shapes was studied. In these pulses the power (and beam current) was varied, but the voltage was kept constant at 1 MeV. In general the performance of the target, for a given peak power, was not significantly affected by the pulse shape. Pulses with rise times of up to half the implosion time do not significantly degrade the target performance. The use of the ''optimal pulse'' of laser fusion with a fixed peak power does not appear to improve the performance of these targets. The main function of the ''optimal pulse'' is to produce a large rho r of the target during the thermonuclear burn. In e-beam targets a total rho r of 5--10 g/cm 2 can be obtained without pulse shaping; the problem here is one of achieving high enough temperatures to ignite the DT. (U.S.)

  16. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  17. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoos, Y.; Geypens, B.; Maes, B.; Hiele, M.; Rutgeerts, P.

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13 C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13 CO 2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13 CO 2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13 C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13 C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  18. Calculation of radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology. Method and surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauferrier, R.; Ramee, A.; Ezzeldin, K.; Guibert, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method for evaluating the radiation exposure of the main target organs during various diagnostic radiologic procedures is described. This technique was used for educational purposes: study of exposure variations according to the technical modalities of a given procedure, and study of exposure variations according to various technical protocols (IVU, EGD barium study, etc.). This method was also used for studying exposure of patients during hospitalization in the Rennes Regional Hospital Center (France) in 1982, according to departments (urology, neurology, etc.). This method and results of these three studies are discussed [fr

  19. Personalized Cancer Medicine: Molecular Diagnostics, Predictive biomarkers, and Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Castro, D; Clarke, P A; Al-Lazikani, B; Workman, P

    2013-01-01

    The progressive elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has fueled the rational development of targeted drugs for patient populations stratified by genetic characteristics. Here we discuss general challenges relating to molecular diagnostics and describe predictive biomarkers for personalized cancer medicine. We also highlight resistance mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors in lung cancer. We envisage a future requiring the use of longitudinal genome sequencing and other omics technologies alongside combinatorial treatment to overcome cellular and molecular heterogeneity and prevent resistance caused by clonal evolution. PMID:23361103

  20. Representation scaffolds improve diagnostic efficiency in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Leah T; Zottmann, Jan M; Adolf, Christian; Lottspeich, Christian; Then, Cornelia; Wirth, Stefan; Fischer, Martin R; Schmidmaier, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Diagnostic efficiency is important in daily clinical practice as doctors have to face problems within a limited time frame. To foster the clinical reasoning of students is a major challenge in medical education research. Little is known about students' diagnostic efficiency. On the basis of current theories, scaffolds for case representation (statement of the case as far as it is summarised in the mind) could be a promising approach to make the diagnostic reasoning of intermediate medical students more efficient. Clinical case processing of 88 medical students in their fourth and fifth years was analysed in a randomised, controlled laboratory study. Cases dealing with dyspnoea were provided in an electronic learning environment (CASUS). Students could freely choose the time, amount and sequence of clinical information. During the learning phase the intervention group was asked to write down case representation summaries while working on the cases. In the assessment phase diagnostic efficiency was operationalised as the number of correct diagnoses divided by the time spent on diagnosing. Diagnostic efficiency was significantly improved by the representation scaffolding (M = 0.12 [SD = 0.07], M = 0.09 [SD = 0.06] correct cases/time, p = 0.045), whereas accuracy remained unchanged (M = 2.28 [SD = 1.10], M = 2.09 [SD = 1.08], p = 0.52). Both groups screened the same amount of clinical information, but the scaffolding group did this faster (M = 20.8 minutes [SD = 7.15], M = 24.6 minutes [SD = 7.42], p = 0.01; Cohen's d = 0.5). Diagnostic efficiency is an important outcome variable in clinical reasoning research as it corresponds to workplace challenges. Scaffolding for case representations significantly improved the diagnostic efficiency of fourth and fifth-year medical students, most likely because of a more targeted screening of the available information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical