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Sample records for target development society

  1. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included. (WHK)

  2. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included

  3. Proceedings of the sixth annual conference of the International Nuclear Target Development Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steers, G. (comp.)

    1978-08-01

    The Sixth Annual Conference of the International Nuclear Target Development Society was held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California, on October 19--21, 1977. The discussion covered nuclear target preparation by evaporation, reduction of oxides, electrodeposition, reactive sputtering, rolling, gas jets, and related techniques. Abstracts were prepared for eighteen of the papers presented at the conference and are included in the data base. (GHT)

  4. Development process of subjects society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background due to defining the role of people in the development of society and the almost complete absence of scientific management processes capable of progressive development of both individuals and social communities, and nations, and civilization in general. In order to overcome inherent subjectivist methodology of knowledge, psyholohizatorskyh, hiperpolityzovanyh and utilitarian approach, the authors proposed a three-tier system of business processes of society. The conceptual core of the approach consists in the detection task as logical - mathematical laws of subjects of primary, secondary and higher levels of development, and on the mechanisms of their formation and practice. The solution of the tasks allowed the authors to reveal the structure of both the ascending and descending processes of economic society. Thus, the analysis of individual carriers upward changes as «individual», «individuality», «person» and «personality» showed conditionality determination of their activities with «anthropometric», «ethnic», «demographic» and «ideological» mechanisms. Nature as common carriers downstream changes revealed using correlative related «groups», «group «, «groups» and «communities» whose activity is due to «vitalistic», «education», «professional» and «stratification» mechanisms. To disclose the nature and organization of secondary and higher levels of economic society by the authors introduced the category of «citizen», «heneralista», «human space», «human galactic» ‘formation and development is causing «status», «Persona logical», «humanocentric», «institutional», «cluster», «kontaminatsiyni» and other mechanisms. One of the main achievements of the work, the authors consider the possibility of further development and practical implementation of new quality management processes of economic society based multimodal dialectical logic.

  5. Development Strategy for Slovak society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikula, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this book authors analyse the present state of economy as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will mainly address energy security, diversification of energy sources, renewable energy sources and energy savings. The strategic goal is to transform energy into a form that will ensure long competition-capable and reliable supply of all forms of energy, taking into account sustainable development, security of supply and technical security. The strategy of energy security of Slovakia in 2030 is to achieve a competitive energy industry, ensuring safe, reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices with regard to consumer protection, environmental protection, sustainable development, security of supply and technical security.

  6. Literacy Education and Sustainable Development in Developing Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghenekohwo, Jonathan E.; Frank-Oputu, Ekima A.

    2017-01-01

    The development of a literate society is a pre-requisite for the emergence of a knowledge economy. The thesis advanced in this paper is that, without massive investment and promotion of literacy education, development that is targeted at the 17-point sustainable development goals (SDGs) will be bereft of citizen's empowerment, engagement,…

  7. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  8. impact of cooperative societies in national development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    DEVELOPMENT AND THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY. ROWLAND A. ..... Nigerian economy. Put briefly, this would include the Consumers Cooperative Societies which are organized by consumers who pool their resources together in order to advance their interest in retail ... in production, profit sharing, cost-saving or risk.

  9. Methodologies for local development in smart society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BĂTĂGAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available All of digital devices which are connected through the Internet, are producing a big quantity of data. All this information can be turned into knowledge because we now have the computational power and solutions for advanced analytics to make sense of it. With this knowledge, cities could reduce costs, cut waste, and improve efficiency, productivity and quality of life for their citizens. The efficient/smart cities are characterized by more importance given to environment, resources, globalization and sustainable development. This paper represents a study on the methodologies for urban development that become the central element to our society.

  10. Health Physics Society: origins and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1978-08-01

    Events leading up to the birth of the Health Physics Society in June, 1955, are reviewed. Membership requirements, chapters, and sections are discussed. An international organization, International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), founded in 1963, was the outgrowth of the Health Physics Society. Other events in the history of the organization, such as the initiation of publishing of a society journal in 1957, the employment of the first Executive Secretary in 1965, and the establishment of awards, are reviewed. The two appendixes include lists of the officers of the society and award recipients

  11. Vision and strategy development of Slovak society. Development Strategy for Slovak society (basis for public adversary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikula, V.; Peknik, M.; Tirpak, I.; Bucek, M.

    2010-02-01

    This analytical study analyses the present state as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. This strategy of development of Slovak society is scientific testimony of the authors, the manner and extent of its use will determine political representation. Future economic growth and development of Slovak's regions will mainly depend on the availability of raw materials, energy resources, water, food processes and improving the environment. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will address energy security, diversification of energy sources, utilization of domestic raw materials and renewable energy and energy savings. The energy security strategy is to achieve a competitive energy industry for reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices, with a view to protection of the customer and the environment.

  12. Developing civil society expertise to promote democratic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Arab states record some of the highest levels of armed conflict and military spending in the world. In 2017, ten were at war with their own societies or with neighbours, while others were at risk of relapsing into conflict. In several cases, national armed forces have broken down, posing the additional challenge of ...

  13. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  14. Nuclear target making and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimczak, G.W.; Thomas, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Physics Division operates a facility which produces and coordinates production of thin targets for charged-particle induced experiments, primarily at the Tandem-Linac and Dynamitron accelerators. In addition, these thin films are occasionally prepared for other scientific purposes. The services of the nuclear target-making facility are available to the Physics Division, other divisions of the Laboratory, and other scientific institutions. In addition to the typical production requirements, research work is performed in this facility to develop new techniques, as well as to implement and advance new state-of-the-art techniques developed at other institutions. Several new facilities and items of equipment are described

  15. Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives in Developing Society in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper illuminates the nature and inception of Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives and their failure in sustainable development and poverty alleviation throughout various historical-political eras due to such (periodic-policy) institutional constraints requiring removal if sustainable development is to be achieved in any ...

  16. The development of an information society for Uganda's industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the environment within which Uganda can be productively involved in the process of building an information society for industrial development. There are concerted efforts by the government of Uganda and civil society organisations in the country towards the development of information literacy and ...

  17. Information Society for the South | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ) for development or, more broadly, the information society, has focused on situations commonly found in the North (developed countries). As a result, many of the prescriptions and recommended solutions are irrelevant to the needs and ...

  18. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Targeted Testing and Augmentation Therapy: A Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Marciniuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase, and deficiency predisposes individuals to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Severe A1AT deficiency occurs in one in 5000 to one in 5500 of the North American population. While the exact prevalence of A1AT deficiency in patients with diagnosed COPD is not known, results from small studies provide estimates of 1% to 5%. The present document updates a previous Canadian Thoracic Society position statement from 2001, and was initiated because of lack of consensus and understanding of appropriate patients suitable for targeted testing for A1AT deficiency, and for the use of A1AT augmentation therapy. Using revised guideline development methodology, the present clinical practice guideline document systematically reviews the published literature and provides an evidence-based update. The evidence supports the practice that targeted testing for A1AT deficiency be considered in individuals with COPD diagnosed before 65 years of age or with a smoking history of <20 pack years. The evidence also supports consideration of A1AT augmentation therapy in nonsmoking or exsmoking patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 25% to 80% predicted attributable to emphysema and documented A1AT deficiency (level ≤11 μmol/L who are receiving optimal pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies (including comprehensive case management and pulmonary rehabilitation because of benefits in computed tomography scan lung density and mortality.

  19. The Reconfiguration of Civil Society through Ethnic Communal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Frank Lalich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Migrant communities participate in the reconfiguration of civil society in places of settlement. Among the consequences of the large-scale culturally diverse postwar migration was in the regeneration, broadening and diversification of Australian civil society. This contribution outlines with unique data generated from ethnic communal organisations in Sydney the process of confluence of migration and civil society out of settlement constraints. Consecutive waves of migrants experienced settlement constraints that impaired the quality of their lives in a welfare state. Migrants, mostly left to themselves, acted collectively to improve the quality of their existence, to enable co-ethnic communication, and to mediate with the rest of society. They established thousands of grassroots organisations through collective mobilization of scarce resources. Many ethnic collectives through collective action appropriated their own communal places to satisfy spiritual, educational, welfare and other secular needs alongside the other forms of institutional development. Ethnic communal places, representatives of the re-territorialized cultures, heritages and elements of civil society, signify migrant inclusion in Australian social structures, including in civil society. Through development of community capital, ethnic collectives impacted on civil society in an environment experiencing limited cross-cultural social exchange. This development is representative of the unique structure of Australian civil society.

  20. The power station society's new research and development initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermander, O.

    1981-01-01

    The society of power stations in Sweden has taken an initiative to promote research and development by its members which consist of privately owned generating stations. The areas of work are to be: technology, organisation, economy and finance, environment and relationship to society and man. The article deals with the economics, resources, aims and basis for cooperation and general administrative aspects. (J.H.H.)

  1. Evaluation of suitability implementation cashless society in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hrabec, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    The theme of this bachelor thesis is Evaluation of suitability implementation cashless society in developing countries, especially in Nigeria and India. The work examines pros and cons of cashless society on European countries and then apply it to India and Nigeria. The main goal is to evaluate how are India and Nigeria prepared for going cashless and to point out on pros and cons which would that change bring.

  2. Cytomegalovirus protease targeted prodrug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabit, Hairat; Dahan, Arik; Sun, Jing; Provoda, Chester J; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Hilfinger, John H; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent virus that infects up to 90% of the population. The goal of this research is to determine if small molecular prodrug substrates can be developed for a specific HCMV encoded protease and thus achieve site-specific activation. HCMV encodes a 256 amino acid serine protease that is responsible for capsid assembly, an essential process for herpes virus production. The esterase activity of the more stable HCMV A143T/A144T protease mutant was evaluated with model p-nitrophenol (ONp) esters, Boc-Xaa-ONp (Ala, Leu, Ile, Val, Gln, Phe at the Xaa position). We demonstrate that the A143T/A144T mutant has esterase activity toward specific small ester compounds, e.g., Boc-L-Ala-ONp. Mono amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of ganciclovir (GCV) were also synthesized and evaluated for hydrolysis by the A143T/A144T protease mutant in solution. Hydrolysis of these prodrugs was also evaluated in Caco-2 cell homogenates, human liver microsomes (HLMs), and rat and human plasma. For the selectivity potential of the prodrugs, the hydrolysis ratio was evaluated as a percentage of prodrug hydrolyzed by the HCMV protease over the percentages of prodrug hydrolyses by Caco-2 cell homogenates, HLMs, and human/rat plasma. A dipeptide prodrug of ganciclovir, Ac-l-Gln-l-Ala-GCV, emerged as a potential selective prodrug candidate. The results of this research demonstrate that targeting prodrugs for activation by a specific protease encoded by the infectious HCMV pathogen may be achievable.

  3. Medical Informatics Impact of Information Society in Health Care Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2005), s. 269-274 ISSN 1335-2393. [YBERC 2005. Young Biomedical Engineers and Researchers Conference. Stará Lesná, 13.07.2005-15.07.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : medical informatics * information society * telemedicine * education * research and development Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  4. Development of a new Knee Society scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Philip C; Scuderi, Giles R; Brekke, Adam C; Sikorskii, Alla; Benjamin, James B; Lonner, Jess H; Chadha, Priya; Daylamani, Daniel A; Scott, W Norman; Bourne, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    The Knee Society Clinical Rating System was developed in 1989 and has been widely adopted. However, with the increased demand for TKA, there is a need for a new, validated scoring system to better characterize the expectations, satisfaction, and physical activities of the younger, more diverse population of TKA patients. We developed and validated a new Knee Society Scoring System. We developed the new knee scoring system in two stages. Initially, a comprehensive survey of activities was developed and administered to 101 unilateral TKA patients (53 women, 48 men). A prototype knee scoring instrument was developed from the responses to the survey and administered to 497 patients (204 men, 293 women; 243 postoperatively, 254 preoperatively) at 15 medical institutions within the United States and Canada. Objective and subjective data were analyzed using standard statistical and psychometric procedures and compared to the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Score and SF-12 scores for validation. Based on this analysis, minor modifications led to the new Knee Society Scoring System. We found the new Knee Society Scoring System to be broadly applicable and to accurately characterize patient outcomes after TKA. Statistical analysis confirmed the internal consistency, construct and convergent validity, and reliability of the separate subscale measures. The new Knee Society Scoring System is a validated instrument based on surgeon- and patient-generated data, adapted to the diverse lifestyles and activities of contemporary patients with TKA. This assessment tool allows surgeons to appreciate differences in the priorities of individual patients and the interplay among function, expectation, symptoms, and satisfaction after TKA.

  5. DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, RUSU (CIGU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development became a goal for knowledge society, but one of the main question in literature remains as how close is the relationship between economic dvelopment, knowledge society and local governments' level. Given the great diversity of situations and frameworks both across countries and within them in the European Union, I consider that each country must have own policies designed to implement process of decentralization with the commitment of "healthy" economy in a society dominated by the technology and innovation. In this context, the problem occurs in decentralization should be managed on two levels: on the one hand in terms of central-local budgets relations, and on the other hand, in the local public finance structural plan. The paper will try to emphasize the connection between decentralization, local economic sustainable development and knowledge society, taking into account an overview of this three aspects and empirical evidences. In this regard, I will use the background offered by literature and the official statiscal data for analysis to identify the variables which explain decentralization and local economic development in the knowledge society. I estimate the analysis to confirm the hypothesis that there are good aspects, but also deficiencies that require solutions and budgetary policy options as part undisputed positioning local government finance as an engine of development of the whole nation. I consider that the paper can be a useful viewpoint in understanding local public finances in decentralization, which allows researchers to include other sources of information for researching an in a much more complex approach.

  6. Fifth annual conference of the International Nuclear Target Development Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gursky, J.C.; Povelites, J.G. (comps.)

    1977-06-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for sixteen papers presented at the conference. Abstracts of three papers presented orally at the conference are included in the proceedings. Three papers have been abstracted previously for the data base. For abstracts of these see CONF-761055 in the Report Number Index. (RCK)

  7. Targets development at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.; Hebron, D.; Derzon, M.; Olson, R.; Alberts, T.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, Sandia National Laboratories under contract to the Department of Energy has produced targets designed to understand complex ion beam and z-pinch plasma physics. This poster focuses on the features of target designs that make them suitable for Z-pinch plasma physics applications. Precision diagnostic targets will prove critical in understanding the plasma physics model needed for future ion beam and z-pinch design. Targets are designed to meet specific physics needs; in this case the authors have fabricated targets to maximize information about the end-on versus side-on x-ray emission and z-pinch hohlraum development. In this poster, they describe the fabrication and characterization techniques. They include discussion of current targets under development as well as target fabrication capabilities. Advanced target designs are fabricated by Sandia National Laboratories in cooperation with General Atomics of San Diego, CA and W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc. of Livermore, CA

  8. Development and Eco-Efficiency in the Information Society

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Balaceanu; Diana Apostol

    2012-01-01

    I / dematerialization of economies is probably the main characteristic of the IST (Information Society Technology). We explore in this text the benefits of i / dematerialization in the terms of eco-efficiency and / or sustainable development. If the main contribution of IST / ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is demonstrated by the efforts of the economies to increase their intangible capital stocks and to restructure, i / dematerialization is not inherently eco-efficient and / o...

  9. Development of "dark" tourism in the contemporary society

    OpenAIRE

    Minić Natalija

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the development of „dark“ tourism as a type of special interest tourism. The study included analysis of the definition of „dark“ tourism, tourist motivations for this type of tourism, Stone' s typology of dark destination offers, and a portion is devoted to the role of „dark“ tourism in contemporary society. Also there are important „dark“ tourism destinations in the world as an example of this type of tourism development. The work includes a reference to the promot...

  10. Development of "dark" tourism in the contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the development of „dark“ tourism as a type of special interest tourism. The study included analysis of the definition of „dark“ tourism, tourist motivations for this type of tourism, Stone' s typology of dark destination offers, and a portion is devoted to the role of „dark“ tourism in contemporary society. Also there are important „dark“ tourism destinations in the world as an example of this type of tourism development. The work includes a reference to the promotion of dark tourism in Romania, as a destination that has largely failed to impose itself on the world tourism market because this form of tourism promotion. In the first part special attention is paid to the special interest tourism, which is a new development that drives modern society. Modern tourists have a different kind of motivation when they are planning travel and tour operators need to focus on current trends. One of the trends relating to the development of „dark“ tourism and some of the countries at the national level is positioned as a destination which are distinguished by this kind of tourism. There is the space for this type of tourism development, but they require specific solutions that are distinctive to each country.

  11. EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTION AS A DETERMINING FACTOR IN SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vlasyuk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new paradigm for economic development of higher educational institutions of Ukraine requires appropriate institutional support. The reality of domestic transients is the imperfection of institutions, which corresponds to the mixed economy of market type and adequately represents the norms and stereotypes of behavior in the spheres of income distribution regulation, employment, social security, health, education. The purpose of the paper is to study the role of educational production as a determining factor in economic development of society. Methodology. In the researching process general scientific and special methods of the studying processes and facts were used in their correlation and development. Among them: monographic – in the forming of the research subject and object; induction and deduction – in the determining of the means, objects of the labour and factor of educational production; the method of the systematic studying the business processes – in the determining of the interaction of the main components of the educational production. Results. The cause of any production is needs availability. To meet his needs the person should enter into business relations with other people that is the basis of market relations. A key resource of the economy, the main engine of development perform is the knowledge which is also an important criterion for successful adaptation of a man in society. Accordingly, in society, the role of education as a sphere of production, exchange, consumption of knowledge is increasing. The received knowledge, skills and other competences by the individual is the end result of educational process. Knowledge is one of the main elements of intellectual property and intellectual capital, and it contributes to the development of the macroenvironment, namely, labor and scientific potential of the state. Each high school, its scientific and innovative activity, its financial bases of development, depends on the

  12. Creativity’s Kernel Development for Conscience Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru TODOROI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is man’s (in our opinion not only man’s (Natural Intelligence but an exclusive important computer’s, that is, Artificial Intelligence’s capacity to produce insights, new ideas, inventions or artistic objects, which are accepted of being of social, spiritual, esthetic, or technological value. Creativity is a mental process [1]. The Piirto’s Six Steps of Creativity development (acquire Knowledge, develop Curiosity, become Interested, Passion, Dedication, and Professionalism interference and interaction with Piirto’s 7i features (Inspiration, Imagery, Imagination, Intuition, Insights, Improvisation, and Incubation which characterize highly creative people represents the Base Creativity’s Kernel to be developed in Conscience Society. Tools for Base Creativity’s Kernel’s development are represented by both [2] it’s information (adaptable environment and its operational (adaptable system parts.

  13. Information society development through ICT market strategies Albania versus other developing countries

    CERN Document Server

    Kordha Tolica, Ermelinda; Gorica, Klodiana

    2015-01-01

    ​This book examines the relationship between information society and information communication technology (ICT) markets, while evaluating the ICT impact on Albanian society and its economy. It offers insights on the country's information society development and compares it to other nations. The book begins with a general introduction to information society and efforts that can be used for ICT strategy. It then takes a look at ICT as an industrial sector and uncovers the importance for a strong ICT infrastructure management. Using this background information, the book finally explores the growing information society and ICT sector found in Albania. It measures the information society being created, and compares it to other countries in South Eastern Europe. Next the authors introduce a theoretical model for ICT driven development, focusing on ICT innovation and investment as factors that can affect the ICT market. These factors have also taken into account for strategy development in the national and industr...

  14. Developing conservation targets in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S. Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of targets is foundational in conservation. Although progress has been made in setting targets, the diverse linkages among ecological and social components make target setting for coupled social-ecological systems extremely challenging. Developing integrated social-ecological targets is difficult because it forces policy makers to consider how management actions propagate throughout social-ecological systems, and because ultimately it is society, not scientists, that defines targets. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for identifying management targets and illustrate this approach using an example motivated by Puget Sound, USA. Our approach blends ecological modeling with empirical social science to articulate trade-offs and reveal societal preferences for different social-ecological states. The framework aims to place information in the hands of decision makers and promote discussion in the appropriate forums. Our ultimate objective is to encourage the informed participation of citizens in the development of social-ecological targets that reflect their values while also protecting key ecosystem attributes.

  15. The development of educational marketing in modern Ukrainian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.І. Vikarchuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the acute problems of educational marketing development in modern Ukrainian society, its impact on modernization of national education system. The development process of educational services in Ukraine is characterised. The theoretical principles of the concept of "educational marketing" and the importance of marketing activities in educational institutions in achieving their commercial and non-commercial goals are also investigated. The authors make the reasonable conclusion about the necessity of creating the concept of providing educational services which should be started with the analysis of potential clients' demand, educational services market research, labour market research to develop and establish marketing events programme. The system of objective education market should be built for this, and the integral part of which is the clear market profile formation through segmentation. Educational institutions, in terms of marketing, produce a supply, provide with the services of promotion both educational and related services on the market. However, the educational services market has a number of unsolved issues which influence unprofitably on the quality of services. The transparency of education system means that the determination of its goals is not limited to the government procurement, but it means the expanding of education needs created by students, their parents and teachers; the programmes set a basic, required, minimum point, a common knowledge core which is open to additions that depend on cultural, regional, ethnic and other conditions.

  16. Development of Creativity – An Investment to the Creative Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Dalia Rakauskaitė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Given the importance of the modern creative society, revealing the need for creativity in personality of education as a spiritual and intellectual elite exclusiveness, the role of visual expression, art, culture, historical knowledge and contemporary features, the teacher has the creator’s role of creativity in education in higher education institutions in Lithuania.Design/methodology/approach – Scientist literature reveals that creativity is the learner’s property and for that purpose, the universities adapt their original and innovative teaching and learning methods. Based on the case study, the author of this paper discusses the role of visual expression in fostering creativity, creative methods of education, and looks at Mykolas Romeris University subject’s called “Creativity ability and activities” curriculum.Findings – Creativity is not the exclusive property of talented people, but it is also available to each individual. Education and training can be an incentive and an obstacle to creativity. It is, therefore, necessary to create and adapt individual and original teaching and learning methods and an inquisitive society. A variety of methods is important in creative education. Education of art is the best way to reveal personal creativity. Teachers are artists, who provide a professional approach to their subject area. They are anexample of their life and work for a young person, the names of their famous universities in artistic creation, which is equivalent to faculty research scientists work.Research limitations/implications – The article provides an overview of only one subject in “Creativity ability and activities” methodology of creativity in the educational process. In addition, feedback of only one course student is included (N-90.Practical implications – In the creative process, students would see a positive selfassessment of their individual personality sides, understanding their own and other

  17. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. METHODS...... of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. CONCLUSIONS: This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy...... or partly remitted patients. It is strongly encouraged that trials exclude patients with current substance or alcohol use disorders, neurological disease or unstable medical illness, and keep non-study medications stable. Additional methodological considerations include neuroimaging assessments, targeting...

  18. Adult Education in American Society: Some Developments, Trends, and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Alexander N.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of adult education in a changing American society is presented in the document. Section 1, Adult Education in American Society, examines societal changes and educational goals as well as the structure and organization of adult education programs. Section 2, The Delivery System of Adult Education, discusses: (1) the audience; (2)…

  19. The Implementation of Targeted Temperature Management: An Evidence-Based Guideline from the Neurocritical Care Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lori Kennedy; Hill, Michelle; May, Teresa L; Human, Theresa; Guanci, Mary McKenna; Jacobi, Judith; Moreda, Melissa V; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2017-12-01

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) is often used in neurocritical care to minimize secondary neurologic injury and improve outcomes. TTM encompasses therapeutic hypothermia, controlled normothermia, and treatment of fever. TTM is best supported by evidence from neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, although it has also been explored in ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and intracranial hemorrhage patients. Critical care clinicians using TTM must select appropriate cooling techniques, provide a reasonable rate of cooling, manage shivering, and ensure adequate patient monitoring among other challenges. The Neurocritical Care Society recruited experts in neurocritical care, nursing, and pharmacotherapy to form a writing Committee in 2015. The group generated a set of 16 clinical questions relevant to TTM using the PICO format. With the assistance of a research librarian, the Committee undertook a comprehensive literature search with no back date through November 2016 with additional references up to March 2017. The Committee utilized GRADE methodology to adjudicate the quality of evidence as high, moderate, low, or very low based on their confidence that the estimate of effect approximated the true effect. They generated recommendations regarding the implementation of TTM based on this systematic review only after considering the quality of evidence, relative risks and benefits, patient values and preferences, and resource allocation. This guideline is intended for neurocritical care clinicians who have chosen to use TTM in patient care; it is not meant to provide guidance regarding the clinical indications for TTM itself. While there are areas of TTM practice where clear evidence guides strong recommendations, many of the recommendations are conditional, and must be contextualized to individual patient and system needs.

  20. The development of the international stereotactic radiosurgery society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, L Dade

    2011-01-01

    In this report the origins of the International Stereotactic Radiosurgery Society (ISRS) are described from the viewpoint of one of the early organizers and first president. The value of the society, the subsequent leadership, and the Jacob Fabrikant Award winners are also presented. A brief and incomplete timeline for the field of stereotactic radiosurgery is shown. The goals and mission of the ISRS continue to be met via the sponsorship of biennial meetings and publications.

  1. Did Educational Expansion Trigger the Development of an Education Society? Chances and Risks of a New Model of Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunberger, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of whether educational expansion leads to a new type of society, the education society. Taking into consideration the combined elements of three models of society (the post-industrial society, the knowledge society and the information society)--the chances and risks of an educational society will be elicited…

  2. Impact of cooperative societies in national development and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In art, non verbal communication through drawings and poems, have gained grounds in the area of communication. The rationale for this paper, is not to solely discuss the artist, but mainly to show case what the society in time past had gained through this approach and what the present generation stands to benefit from his ...

  3. E-BUSINESSES AND INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY AND THEIR IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Suzana ARTENE

    2014-01-01

    The term of informational society arose from the necessity to accurately denote the society's transformation, generated by the rapid development of information and communications technology. Through the extremely rapid growth of the quality of e-businesses and communication services, the society went through a drastic change process due to the access liberalization to information and communications, thus becoming an information society, practically an e-society. For governments and publi...

  4. Contraceptive development: targets, approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, G S

    2007-01-01

    The control of fertility constitutes a global health issue, since overpopulation and unintended pregnancy have both major personal and societal impact. Although some regions of the world are seeing neutral or negative population growth, many developing countries are seeing explosive growth of their populations and these population changes will affect the entire globe. It is estimated that in a decade, the largest cohort of young women worldwide in human history will reach adolescence thus necessitating the need for a wide range of contraceptive options that can be used by both females and males. The contraceptive revolution that occurred in the 1960s with the development of the hormonal-based oral contraceptive for women has subsequently made a significant impact on societal dynamics in several cultures, yet there has been virtually no innovation in this field since that time. This lack of innovation contrasts dramatically with the vast enhancement of our knowledge base of the basic processes of reproduction. The genomic and proteomic revolutions have provided new tools and new targets for contraceptive development, and the results of such approaches have identified gene products that play critical roles in female and male reproduction, thus expanding the array of targets for novel and innovative female- and male-based contraceptives. This normally would herald a renaissance in contraceptive development, yet the commitment of industry to this endeavor is limited to a few firms due to the economics of contraceptive development. This chapter will consider the types of targets being considered in the development of new generations of contraceptives and will also focus on the challenges that industry has in meeting these goals.

  5. Allocation of Talent in Society and Its Effect on Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenze, Tarmo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in psychology and economics have demonstrated that the average cognitive ability (talent) of people living in a society affects the economic development of the society. There is, however, reason to expect that the economic development of societies depends not just on the average level of talent but also on the allocation of talent…

  6. Target and accelerator developments at CTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvord, C. W.; Mendez, A. J.; Wittner, D. E.

    2001-07-01

    The accelerator products marketed by CTI have exclusively focused on proton-only, low energy (11 MeV) designs. This choice best suited the research customer, interested in producing several doses a day of a variety of positron emitting compounds. The PET cyclotron market has evolved into a high output, cost driven, competitive radiotracer production environment. A thoughtful analysis of the choices of energy and particle reveals that an 11 MeV proton accelerator outfitted with target changers and automated target loading and unloading equipment is still the best choice for FDG distribution. However technological innovations are required to face the challenges of the rapidly growing PET radiotracer business. Modifications to the CTI line of accelerators developed to face this evolving need will be presented.

  7. Targeting TLR2 for Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso P. Basto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel and more effective immunization strategies against many animal diseases may profit from the current knowledge on the modulation of specific immunity through stimulation of innate immune receptors. Toll-like receptor (TLR2-targeting formulations, such as synthetic lipopeptides and antigens expressed in fusion with lipoproteins, have been shown to have built-in adjuvant properties and to be effective at inducing cellular and humoral immune mechanisms in different animal species. However, contradictory data has arisen concerning the profile of the immune response elicited. The benefits of targeting TLR2 for vaccine development are thus still debatable and more studies are needed to rationally explore its characteristics. Here, we resume the main features of TLR2 and TLR2-induced immune responses, focusing on what has been reported for veterinary animals.

  8. Development strategy and targets of CGNPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan Yunlong

    2002-01-01

    The development of nuclear power industry in Guangdong results from the steady implementation of a catch-up strategy aimed at the advanced world level in the nuclear power industry. China Guangdong Nuclear Power (Holding) Co., Ltd. (CGNPC) started from Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS). In the form of joint venture, GNPS has obtained sophisticated technology, management expertise and human resources both at home and abroad, and has successfully completed the learning curve from importing, digesting, absorbing to innovating and self-improving. Under the principle of maintaining continuous nuclear power development by reinvesting the returns on the operating nuclear power stations, the second nuclear power project, Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LNPS) is progressing well and preparation for the third nuclear power project is now in full swing. With a rolling-on development mechanism being established, Daya Bay has become the cradle for nuclear power development in Guangdong. In the 21 st century, CGNPC is facing new challenges and opportunity. CGNPC will uphold the principle of maintaining continuous nuclear power development by reinvesting the returns on the operating nuclear power stations, brace itself for the market competition and explore sustained development of nuclear power in China by pursuing constant innovation in technology, management, system and concept. The strategy framework for future development of CGNPC is defined as follows: - to establish three-dimension strategic targets; - to pursue two-step development with the year 2015 as the dividing point; - to promote concerted development of nuclear power, associated industries and supporting services

  9. Antibiotics in development targeting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Joyce A

    2011-12-01

    The resolution of antibiotic-ribosomal subunit complexes and antibacterial-protein complexes at the atomic level has provided new insights into modifications of clinically relevant antimicrobials and provided new classes that target the protein cellular apparatus. New chemistry platforms that use fragment-based drug design or allow novel modifications in known structural classes are being used to design new antibiotics that overcome known resistance mechanisms and extend spectrum and potency by circumventing ubiquitous efflux pumps. This review provides details on seven antibiotics in development for treatment of moderate-to-severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and/or acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: solithromycin, cethromycin, omadacycline, CEM-102, GSK1322322, radezolid, and tedizolid. Two antibiotics of the oxazolidinone class, PF-02341272 and AZD5847, are being developed as antituberculosis agents. Only three antibiotics that target the protein cellular machinery, TP-434, GSK2251052, and plazomicin, have a spectrum that encompasses multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. These compounds provide hope for treating key pathogens that cause serious disease in both the community and the hospital. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Development of Helios target insertion mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.D.; Cummings, C.E.; Tucker, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    A system for precisely positioning a DT-filled target in the Helios target vacuum chamber is described. The target insertion mechanism (TIM), which is designed to insert either a target or a surrogate sphere into the vacuum chamber through an airlock to prevent loss of vacuum, is discussed in detail and its performance is evaluated

  11. Impact of geohazards on sustainable development of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blistan, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the authors analyze environmental risk factors in Slovakia in terms of sustainable development within environmental conditions and perspectives. Geological and geomorphological conditions affecting sustainable development are analyzed. Monitoring system of the environment and the need for sustainable development is presented.

  12. State-civil society partnerships and sustainable urban development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development scholars have consistently focused on the role of non-state actors in the development process. In sub-Saharan Africa, this concern became increasingly important due to the inability of many African states to effectively guide the development process. Consequently, non-state actors have progressively ...

  13. How to lead world society towards sustainable development?

    OpenAIRE

    Simonis, Udo E.

    1998-01-01

    In political terms it all started with the World Commission on Environment and Development which in its 1987 report Our Common Future stated that ...humanity has the ability to make development sustainable - to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, p. 8). The Commission defined sustainable development as ... a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investment, the ...

  14. Future technological developments to fulfill AG2020 targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Østergård, Hanne; Borch, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    . Based on the technological narratives and imperatives, we select a set of present available technologies that are able to support the society in reaching the targets set up by AG2020. For each of these technologies, we evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the technology to reach the target as well...

  15. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab

  16. Holistic Development: Muslim Women's Civil Society Groups in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muslim women's organizations in East and West Africa have cultivated successful strategies to mitigate the varied domestic economic and political outcomes produced by globalization. Although China and the BRICS countries are providing multipolar development models their results may not differ significantly from their ...

  17. Developing a reading culture in Nigerian society: Issues and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for developing reading culture are to introduce children to reading very early in their lives, to read for contests, and to establish libraries in their classrooms and training of the teachers who will teach the children how to read. Benefits of reading culture to the individual are increase in memory, discipline, vocabulary ...

  18. Mapping Civil Society Initiatives toward the Development and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In addition to the mapping exercise, the project will result in an analytical paper on the nature, scope and scale of work being carried out, and an annotated directory of CSOs working on development issues with the Muslim community of India. The directory will be published and made available to the general public and ...

  19. Governments and civil society seek ways to develop social and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-20

    Jan 20, 2012 ... Millions of Canadians already participate in this economy, through credit unions, co-ops, ethical investment, and “fair trade” commerce, making choices ... and solidarity economy through five lenses: local development, innovation, finance and trade, work and employment, and food security and sovereignty.

  20. E-BUSINESSES AND INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY AND THEIR IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Suzana ARTENE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of informational society arose from the necessity to accurately denote the society's transformation, generated by the rapid development of information and communications technology. Through the extremely rapid growth of the quality of e-businesses and communication services, the society went through a drastic change process due to the access liberalization to information and communications, thus becoming an information society, practically an e-society. For governments and public administrations informational society means more efficient, transparent and rapid public services, less expensive and closer to the needs of final consumers, whether we are talking about citizens or enterprises, thus facilitating their e-interaction with public authorities. Sustainable development must take into account the perspective of the society's structure and to re-launch and reorganize on this basis the management of resources.

  1. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A; Bonnin, C M; Bowie, C R; Carvalho, A F; Gallagher, P; Lafer, B; López-Jaramillo, C; Sumiyoshi, T; McIntyre, R S; Schaffer, A; Porter, R J; Torres, I J; Yatham, L N; Young, A H; Kessing, L V; Vieta, E

    2017-12-01

    To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. The task force was launched in September 2016, consisting of 18 international experts from nine countries. A series of methodological issues were identified based on literature review and expert opinion. The issues were discussed and expanded upon in an initial face-to-face meeting, telephone conference call and email exchanges. Based upon these exchanges, recommendations were achieved. Key methodological challenges are: lack of consensus on how to screen for entry into cognitive treatment trials, define cognitive impairment, track efficacy, assess functional implications, and manage mood symptoms and concomitant medication. Task force recommendations are to: (i) enrich trials with objectively measured cognitively impaired patients; (ii) generally select a broad cognitive composite score as the primary outcome and a functional measure as a key secondary outcome; and (iii) include remitted or partly remitted patients. It is strongly encouraged that trials exclude patients with current substance or alcohol use disorders, neurological disease or unstable medical illness, and keep non-study medications stable. Additional methodological considerations include neuroimaging assessments, targeting of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy in future trials and increase comparability between studies. © 2017 The Authors Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Methodological rigour and transparency of clinical practice guidelines developed by neurology professional societies in Croatia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Ivana Tudor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines are systematically created documents that summarize knowledge and assist in delivering high-quality medicine by identifying evidence that supports best clinical care. They are produced not only by international professional groups but also by local professionals to address locally-relevant clinical practice. We evaluated the methodological rigour and transparency of guideline development in neurology formulated by professionals in a local medical community. METHODS: We analyzed clinical guidelines in neurology publicly available at the web-site of the Physicians' Assembly in Croatia in 2012: 6 guidelines developed by Croatian authors and 1 adapted from the European Federation of Neurological Societies. The quality was assessed by 2 independent evaluators using the AGREE II instrument. We also conducted a search of the Cochrane Library to identify potential changes in recommendation from Cochrane systematic reviews included in guideline preparation. RESULTS: The methodological quality of the guidelines greatly varied across different domains. "Scope and Purpose" and "Clarity of Presentation" domains received high scores (100% [95% confidence interval (CI 98.5-100] and 97% [77.9-100], respectively, the lowest scores were in "Stakeholder Involvement" (19% [15.5-34.6] and "Editorial Independence" (0% [0-19.2]. Conclusions of 3 guidelines based on Cochrane systematic reviews were confirmed in updated versions and one update provided new information on the effectiveness of another antidepressant. Two Cochrane reviews used in guidelines were withdrawn and split into new reviews and their findings are now considered to be out of date. CONCLUSION: Neurological guidelines used in Croatia differ in structure and their methodological quality. We recommend to national societies and professional groups to develop a more systematic and rigorous approach to the development of the guidelines, timely inclusion of best

  3. Intermittent claudication: new targets for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Eric P

    2013-07-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the result of extensive atherosclerosis in the arterial supply to the lower extremities. PAD is associated with increased systemic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as substantial disability due to walking impairment. Claudication is the classic symptom of leg pain with walking that is relieved by rest, but patients with PAD without typical claudication also have a walking limitation. Treatment of the patient with PAD is directed towards reducing cardiovascular risk and improving exercise capacity. The pathophysiology of the physical impairment is complex as changes in the muscle distal to the arterial stenoses contribute to the limitations. Current treatment options to improve exercise performance have limitations emphasizing the need for new pharmacotherapies for this highly prevalent condition. The multifactorial contributors to the exercise impairment in PAD suggest potential targets for novel drug therapies. Advances in understanding angiogenesis make pharmacologic revascularization possible. However, ensuring that new blood vessels develop in a distribution relevant to the clinical impairment remains a challenge. Skeletal muscle metabolism and its regulation are altered in patients with PAD and strategies to improve the efficient oxidation of fuel substrates may improve muscle function. PAD is associated with increased oxidative stress which may result in injury to the muscle microvasculature and myocyte. Minimizing this oxidative stress by enhancing cellular defense mechanisms, administration of anti-inflammatory agents or by providing antioxidants, could prevent oxidative injury. Given the central role of atherosclerosis in the flow limitation, therapies to induce regression of atherosclerotic lesions could result in improved blood flow and oxygen delivery. Drugs targeting the distribution of blood flow in the microcirculatory environment of the muscle have the potential to better match oxygen delivery with

  4. Anglo American plc report to society: towards sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The report for the calendar year 2002 focuses on the safety, health and environmental performance of the Group and its subsidiaries which include Anglo Coal South Africa and Anglo Coal Australia. The company is involved in the coal, metal and minerals industry, and forestry, worldwide. The Environment section of the report includes reference to the Group's drive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to develop a greenhouse gas inventory, efforts to measures methane emission at South African coal mines, treatment of acid mine drainage at Landau Colliery in South Africa, recovery of fine coals from a washing plant at Greenside Colliery, community forestry and farming initiatives in South Africa, and support of community projects by Anglo Coal Australia.

  5. INFORMATISATION OF PUBLIC SERVICES – STRATEGIC RESOURCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Ciochina

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays one of the strategic resources in the development of society is the information which is supported by modern information technologies. The impact of implementing information technologies in various fields of human activity is so strong that is brings into question a new phase in the society evolution – information society. One of the largest industries worldwide is the industry of information technology and it is an upward growing one. Because of the advantages that information techn...

  6. Social Development – Requirement and Consequence of the Evolution of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Elena Gentimir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Society evolves according to the energy and mindset of individuals. The more individuals are open to new things, the faster they produce change. This paper presents the relationship between social development and evolution of society from the perspective of the individual to produce and accept change. Education and assimilation power rush and improve the process of change. Investment and support individuals in positive actions bring benefits to society and the economy.

  7. The German Cardiac Society from its foundation as the German Society for Circulation Research to the present: its history, structure and targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, G

    2002-01-01

    The "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie--Herzund Kreislaufforschung" (German Cardiac Society) was founded as "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kreislaufforschung" on June 6, 1927, in Bad Nauheim by B. Kisch, Cologne, and A. Weber, Bad Nauheim. They were actively supported by F.M. Groedel, Bad Nauheim, who later in 1950--together with B. Kisch, now both of New York--was co-founder of the American College of Cardiology (ACC). Thus, our Society is the oldest society of cardiology in Europe. The first meeting of the Society was held in Cologne in 1928, with H. E. Hering as president. From that year on there was an annual meeting of the Society until the last one during WWII in 1941 in Bad Nauheim. After WWII the first meeting of the Society was held again in Bad Nauheim in 1949. The Society met there annually until 1982. From 1983 onwards--the Society now called "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herz- und Kreislaufforschung"--the (spring) meeting has taken place in Mannheim. In 1974 an additional annual autumn meeting was established, taking place at alternating locations. The emphasis of these autumn meetings is placed on continuous medical education on a high level, contrary to the spring meetings focussing on the scientific aspects. In 1950 the Society joined the International Society and Federation of Cardiology (ISFC)--now the World Heart Federation (WHF)--in Paris, and in 1952 the European Society of Cardiology (E.S.C.) in London. According to its statutes, in 1994 the Society changed its name to "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie--Herz- und Kreislaufforschung". The Society, which brings together cardiologists, clinicians in universities, community hospitals and in private practice, and researchers working in the field of cardiology, cardiac surgeons and pediatric cardiologists, has more than 4900 members, including 10 honorary members, and 13 corresponding members. The Society has 4 committees, 9 project groups and 10 clusters with 29 working groups, and sponsors

  8. Role of ?reative Social Practices in the Development of United Activities in Russian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Yury Grigorievich; Kulikov, Sergey Pavlovich; Krotov, Dmitry Valerievich; Salogub, Anzhela Mikhailovna; Gnatyuk, Maksim Aleksandrovich

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals the role of creative social practices in the development of united activities in Russian society. Creative social practices in Russian society are implemented by different social groups and strata for the purpose of self-realization, participation in socially important affairs when agreed by state institutions, ensuring safety…

  9. Korean Nuclear Society - KNS: to develop nuclear industry to develop Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    The Korean Nuclear Society (KNS) was founded in 1969 with the purpose of developing nuclear sciences and civil nuclear engineering. KNS has played a fundamental role in the developing of nuclear power turning South Korea into the 6. atomic power in the world in only 40 years. KNS has more than 4300 members from nuclear industry, research centers, and university laboratories. Since 2014 KNS is a partner of the 'nuclear for climate' initiative. Korean nuclear industry has been intensifying its research and developpement capacities since it won the contract for supplying several reactors to the United Arab Emirates. Since 1996, KNS has also been the editor of the journal NUTOPIA (Nuclear Engineering and Technology Journal). Each year KNS organizes a number of conferences on nuclear-related topics. (A.C.)

  10. Development of an autonomous target tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidda, Venkata Ramaiah

    In recent years, surveillance and border patrol have become one of the key research areas in UAV research. Increase in the computational capability of the computers and embedded electronics, coupled with compatibility of various commercial vision algorithms and commercial off the shelf (COTS) embedded electronics, and has further fuelled the research. The basic task in these applications is perception of environment through the available visual sensors like camera. Visual tracking, as the name implies, is tracking of objects using a camera. The process of autonomous target tracking starts with the selection of the target in a sequence of video frames transmitted from the on-board camera. We use an improved fast dynamic template matching algorithm coupled with Kalman Filter to track the selected target in consecutive video frames. The selected target is saved as a reference template. On the ground station computer, the reference template is overlaid on the live streaming video from the on-board system, starting from the upper left corner of the video frame. The template is slid pixel by pixel over the entire source image. A comparison of the pixels is performed between the template and source image. A confidence value R of the match is calculated at each pixel. Based on the method used to perform the template matching, the best match pixel location is found according to the highest or lowest confidence value R. The best match pixel location is communicated to the on-board gimbal controller over the wireless Xbee network. The software on the controller actuates the pan-tilt servos to continuously to hold the selected target at the center of the video frame. The complete system is a portable control system assembled from commercial off the shelf parts. The tracking system is tested on a target having several motion patterns.

  11. Early clinical development of targeted anticancer agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brummelen, E.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Van Brummelen studied the safety and preliminary signs of efficacy of several novel targeted anticancer agents in phase I trials. In her thesis, she reports the results of trials with the immunotherapies pembrolizumab and cergutuzumab-amunaleukin, and with combinations of inhibitors of the MEK and

  12. Social management in traditional, industrial and post-industrial society: the prospects for management systems development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Mukhametzhanova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to social management development at different stages of society's evolution - traditional, industrial and post-industrial. The historical types of social management are highlighted.

  13. Global labour-standards advocacy by European civil society organisations: trends and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.; Burgoon, B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, developments in intergovernmental organizations and transnational private governance organizations have created new opportunities and constraints for the promotion of global labour-standards governance by civil society organizations (CSOs). This article describes how European CSOs

  14. Socially Inclusive Development: The Foundations for Decent Societies in East and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Pamela; Wallace, Claire; Sapsford, Roger

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with how social processes and social provision are conceptualised and measured in societies in order to offer guidance on how to improve developmental progress. Significant advances have been made in developing multidimensional measures of development, but they provide little guidance to governments on how to build sustainable societies. We argue for the need to develop a theoretically informed social and policy framework that permits the foundations for building decent societies to be put in place by governments. In our view the recently developed Decent Society Model provides such a framework. Our example is the assessment of government provision, by function, within fourteen countries of East and Southern Africa. The context is the current debates about socially inclusive development, but we argue that it is necessary to range more widely, as social processes of different kinds are multiply interrelated. Social inclusion is recognised by governments as well as international agencies, including the World Bank and the United Nations, as not only an ethical imperative but smart economics; socially inclusive societies are more stable and have greater potential for economic growth. Societies that can develop sustainably need not only to be inclusive, however, but to provide economic security for all, to be socially cohesive and to empower citizens so that as individuals and communities they can take control over their own lives.

  15. Meeting the millennium development goals' targets: Proposed UN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on existing literature on governance and MDGs, the paper seeks to illuminate the dismal progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals' (MDGs) targets, with almost two-thirds of the target period gone by, since the targets were set by 189 member states of the UN in 2000. The urge to meet the ...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIAN SEASIDE TOURISM IN THE FRAME OF SUSTAINABLE EUROPEAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAŢIELA BRÂNZĂ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development can be achieved only in the frame of a sustainable society. In the context of Romania's integration into the Great Society of the European Union, tourism activity should be developed, respecting sustainable tourism principles promoted by the Union. This paper presents statistical analysis of the Romanian seaside tourism and the results of a statistical survey conducted in the summer of 2007 to findout possible means to increase the quality of tourism services on the Romanian seaside. Also, the paper proposes solutions for sustainable tourism development in the Romanian Black Seaarea.

  17. A Portrait of Librarianship in Developing Societies. Occasional Paper Number 148.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquet de Lemos, Antonio A.

    A Brazilian librarian with international experience reviews a cross-section of the literature on libraries and librarianship in developing countries as reported by observers from developed countries, deploring tendencies to make comparisons which imply value judgements, use models which reflect the experience of industrialized societies, display…

  18. The state and the development of an information society: Greek policy and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucas, Dimitris

    2017-09-01

    The paper looks into the dynamics of information society policy and its implementation in the Greek context. It argues that information society development is a contested process, influenced by pre-existing state, economy and society relations. Based on this, it looks into the different aspects of the idiosyncratic path which the evolution of the Greek information society has followed, particularly after 2000. Using Bob Jessop's strategic-relational approach (SRA) to the state as an analytical framework and drawing on a number of in-depth interviews with relevant political actors, it provides insights into policy implementation by examining: the public management of information technology projects, how such projects were received in bureaucratic structures and practices, as well as the relationship between the state and the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in public procurement processes. The emphasis is on the period 2000-2008, during which a major operational programme on the information society in Greece was put into effect. The paper also touches upon the post-2008 experience, suggesting that information society developments might include dynamics operating independently and even in contradiction to the state agenda. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  19. Visualizing the application of GIS in transformation towards a sustainable development and a low carbon society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M H; Ariffin, A; Malik, T A

    2014-01-01

    A strategy for sustainable development is a significant milestone on the road to a more socially, economically and environmentally responsible society. It creates a framework within which the stakeholders can make a strong contribution to a better future. Because of the merits and growing interest in sustainable development, the race is on for researchers and stakeholders in the construction sector to initiate actions to reduce the negative impacts of development and sharpen their competitive edge. The cities should be created with a vision which supports harmonious communities and living conditions through sustainable urban development. The resources must be used efficiently while reducing the development impact on human health and environment during the buildings' life cycle. Environmental auditing and pressure-state response based models to monitor sustainable development in Malaysia should be developed. A data availability and sharing system should be developed and implemented to facilitate for the use in the establishment of sustainable development and low carbon society. Ideas which affect millions of people and guide the policies of nations must be accessible to all. Only thus can they permeate the institutions from the local to the global level. Creating sustainable development and low carbon societies depends on the knowledge and involvement of all stakeholders in the industry. So what is our level of understanding of GIS and its application? The development of geospatial data in Malaysia is important because the successful implementation of sustainable development and low carbon projects depend largely on the availability of geospatial information. It would facilitate the stakeholders and resolve some of the problems regarding the availability, quality, organisation, accessibility and sharing of spatial information. The introduction of GIS may change the way for better sustainable urban development and low carbon society performance. The use of GIS

  20. Visualizing the application of GIS in transformation towards a sustainable development and a low carbon society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. H.; Ariffin, A.; Malik, T. A.

    2014-02-01

    A strategy for sustainable development is a significant milestone on the road to a more socially, economically and environmentally responsible society. It creates a framework within which the stakeholders can make a strong contribution to a better future. Because of the merits and growing interest in sustainable development, the race is on for researchers and stakeholders in the construction sector to initiate actions to reduce the negative impacts of development and sharpen their competitive edge. The cities should be created with a vision which supports harmonious communities and living conditions through sustainable urban development. The resources must be used efficiently while reducing the development impact on human health and environment during the buildings' life cycle. Environmental auditing and pressure-state response based models to monitor sustainable development in Malaysia should be developed. A data availability and sharing system should be developed and implemented to facilitate for the use in the establishment of sustainable development and low carbon society. Ideas which affect millions of people and guide the policies of nations must be accessible to all. Only thus can they permeate the institutions from the local to the global level. Creating sustainable development and low carbon societies depends on the knowledge and involvement of all stakeholders in the industry. So what is our level of understanding of GIS and its application? The development of geospatial data in Malaysia is important because the successful implementation of sustainable development and low carbon projects depend largely on the availability of geospatial information. It would facilitate the stakeholders and resolve some of the problems regarding the availability, quality, organisation, accessibility and sharing of spatial information. The introduction of GIS may change the way for better sustainable urban development and low carbon society performance. The use of GIS is to

  1. Graphic Communication for Development in Africa: Target Audience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achieving desired response from target audience is the overall goal for graphic communication in support of development initiatives. However, in Africa, responses to development messages, which are largely determined by target audience perception, are predominantly far from being desired. Therefore, this paper focuses ...

  2. Treatment of high blood pressure in elderly and octogenarians: European Society of Hypertension statement on blood pressure targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Stenehjem, Aud; Os, Ingrid; Van de Borne, Philippe; Burnier, Michel; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Redon, Josep; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    The European Society of Hypertension recommend the following main rules for treatment of hypertension in elderly and octogenarians: 1) In elderly hypertensives with SBP ≥ 160 mmHg there is solid evidence to recommend reducing SBP to between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg. 2) In fit elderly patients less than 80 years old treatment may be considered at SBP ≥ 140 mmHg with a target SBP < 140 mmHg if treatment is well tolerated. 3) In fit individuals older than 80 years with an initial SBP ≥ 160 mmHg it is recommended to reduce SBP to between 150 mmHg and 140 mmHg. 4) In frail elderly patients, it is recommended to base treatment decisions on comorbidity and carefully monitor the effects of treatment. 5) Continuation of well-tolerated antihypertensive treatment should be considered when a treated individual becomes octogenarian. 6) All hypertensive agents are recommended and can be used in the elderly, although diuretics and calcium antagonists may be preferred in isolated systolic hypertension.

  3. Continuing professional development and ICT: target practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, K A; Reynolds, P A

    2008-07-26

    Ever-increasing needs and demands by dentists and all other members of the dental team for education and training at all levels - undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing - are straining the resources of existing providers of such education. At the same time, there are ever-increasing opportunities to develop online delivery and the use of a range of information and communication technology (ICT) systems and services further, in all aspects of dental education. This paper reviews recent developments that have led to an increased demand for dental postgraduate programmes and continuing professional development (CPD) courses in the United Kingdom and then discusses how ICT has and will impact on teaching practice. Examples include the use of teaching and learning resources in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and the increasing use of blended learning. The paper then explores the need for both teachers and students to adapt to the new environment to ensure they can benefit to the maximum and that teaching and learning practices are changed accordingly.

  4. Spallation neutron source target station design, development, and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; McManamy, T.J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Battle, R.E.; Chipley, K.K.; Crabtree, J.A.; Jacobs, L.L.; Lousteau, D.C.; Rennich, M.J.; Riemer, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    The spallation neutron source target station is designed to safely, reliably, and efficiently convert a 1 GeV beam of protons to a high flux of about 1 meV neutrons that are available at 24 neutron scattering instrument beam lines. Research and development findings, design requirements, design description, initial checkout testing, and results from early operation with beam are discussed for each of the primary target subsystems, including the mercury target, neutron moderators and reflector, surrounding vessels and shielding, utilities, remote handling equipment, and instrumentation and controls. Future plans for the mercury target development program are also briefly discussed

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on new material development. Nano-technology and hydrogen energy society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Asano, Masaharu; Ohshima, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Masaki; Ohgaki, Junpei

    2005-03-01

    We have newly held the Workshop on New Material Development in order to enhance the research activities on new material development using radiation. Theme of this workshop was 'nano-technology and hydrogen', both of which are considered to have great influence on our social life and have shown rapid progress in the related researches, recently. Researchers from domestic universities, research institutes, and private companies have attended at the workshop and had the opportunity to exchange information and make discussions about the latest trend in the leading edge researches, and have contributed to the material development in future. The technology for manufacturing and evaluation of very fine materials, which is essential for the nano-technology, and the development of new functional materials, which will support the hydrogen energy society in future, have increasingly become important and have been intensively investigated by many research groups. In such investigation, the ionizing radiation is indispensable as the tool for probing and modifying materials. For this reason, this workshop was held at JAERI, Takasaki, a center of excellence for radiation application in Japan. This workshop was held by JAERI, Takasaki, on November 19, 2004 under the joint auspices of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Chemical Society of Japan, the Polymer Science Society of Japan and the Japanese Society of Radiation Chemistry. The workshop was attended by 97 participates. We believe that this workshop supported by many academic societies will largely contribute to the research on new material development in the field of nano-technology and hydrogen. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Is schooling good for the development of society? The case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Harber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with three possible theoretical relationships, between education and social, economic and political development, that - (a education improves society, (b education reproduces society as it is and (c education actually makes society worse. The paper then uses South Africa as a case study to critically analyse these different roles of education in relation to development theory. In particular, it examines three theoretical tensions in post-apartheid education policy and practice - those between human capital theory and social reproduction, between modernisation and bureaucratic disorganisation, and between democracy and peace and authoritarianism and violence. It concludes by attempting to explain these tensions and contradictions in term of factors specific to South Africa such as teacher professionalism and teacher identity and in relation to wider factors inherent in the historical origins of schooling as a form of organisation based on social control.

  7. The growth of a Society: a journey in the development of governance, management, and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Russell F; Barr, David C A M

    2012-04-01

    A review of the history and development of the Urological Society of Australasia now the Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The history of The Urological Society of Australasia was written by Sally Wilde and published by Hyland House in 1999.Whilst this documented geographical and numerical growth along with some structural changes, it did not discuss the change in and development of organisational structure. This paper describes how the growth of an organisation can at times proceed at a rate not matched by concurrent growth in organisational skill. The need for review of structure and the mechanism to affect change that matches and facilitates growth, together with some of the consequences are discussed. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  8. Hierarchical mechanism of development of wealth and structure for a premodern local society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Miki Y

    2011-06-01

    We propose a hierarchical model of social development composed of two associated hierarchies, each of which describes economic and noneconomic activities in society, respectively. The model is designed to explain the development of wealth distribution and social structure over 50 years in a premodern Japanese local society. Data analysis shows that the wealth distribution has a well-known universal power-law tail throughout the observed period, while the Pareto index gradually decreases with time. We further show that the noneconomic social properties, such as the household number, average family size, and number of collaterals in a household, of the local society, also have decreasing or increasing trends throughout the observed period. We show that the hierarchical model consistently demonstrates the correlations of these economic and noneconomic properties.

  9. Movement : A Global Civil Society Report on Progress and Impact for Migrants' Rights and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The civil society Migration and Development (MADE) network commissioned this first edition of a "Movement" report as an independent assessment of what progress has been made on achieving each of the eight goals in that 5-year 8-point Plan of Action in the two years since 2013. Based on interviews,

  10. Catalysing Educational Development or Institutionalising External Influence? Donors, Civil Society and Educational Policy Formation in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Recent pronouncements on the benefits of enlisting civil society in educational development have so far not attracted adequate scholarly analyses. This paper therefore seeks to present a critical perspective on this new trend by providing a fine-grained look at three concrete cases of NGO involvement in educational policy-making in Nepal. It also…

  11. Sizing for ethnicity in multi-cultural societies: development of size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    71 427 3708 ..... girth, there is an inconclusive trend. Both the bust girth and the hip girth have weak correlation with most of the ..... Clothing appearance and fit: Science and. Sizing for ethnicity in multi-cultural societies: development of size ...

  12. Sixty years of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP): origins and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of the Interamerican Society of Psychology, which was founded on December 17, 1951, in Mexico City. Firstly, the historical circumstances of the foundation period are presented, as well as the people who made this organization possible, and the state of psychology on the American continent at that time. Secondly, the most important activities that the Interamerican Society of Psychology has developed during its 60 years are mentioned, such as the publication of books and scientific journals, the creation of several task forces and the Interamerican Congresses of Psychology. Basically, the purpose of this paper is to review the history of the Interamerican Society of Psychology through the recovery and use of various documentary sources.

  13. Low enrichment Mo-99 target development program at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlevy, Therese M.; Anderson, Peter J.; Beattie, David; Braddock, Ben; Fulton, Scott; Godfrey, Robert; Law, Russell; McNiven, Scott; Sirkka, Pertti; Storr, Greg; Wassink, David; Wong, Alan; Yeoh, Guan

    2002-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO, formerly AAEC) has been producing fission product Mo-99 in HIFAR, from the irradiation of Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) UO 2 targets, for nearly thirty years. Over this period, the U-235 enrichment has been increased in stages, from natural to 1.8% to 2.2%. The decision to provide Australia with a replacement research reactor (RRR) for HIFAR has created an ideal opportunity to review and improve the current Mo-99 production process from target design through to chemical processing and waste management options. ANSTO has entered into a collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (RERTR) to develop a target using uranium metal foil with U-235 enrichment of less than 20% The initial focus has been to demonstrate use of LEU foil targets in HIFAR, using existing irradiation methodology. The current effort focussed on designing a target assembly with optimised thermohydraulic characteristics to accommodate larger LEU foils to meet Mo-99 production needs. The ultimate goal is to produce an LEU target suitable for use in the Replacement Research Reactor when it is commissioned in 2005. This paper reports our activities on: - The regulatory approval processes required in order to undertake irradiation of this new target; -Supporting calculations (neutronics, computational fluid dynamics) for safety submission; - Design challenges and changes to prototype irradiation; - Trial irradiation of LEU foil target in HIFAR; - Future target and rig development program at ANSTO. (author)

  14. Creating Inquiry Between Technology Developers and Civil Society Actors: Learning from Experiences Around Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenborg, Lotte

    2016-06-01

    Engaging civil society actors as knowledgeable dialogue partners in the development and governance of emerging technologies is a new challenge. The starting point of this paper is the observation that the design and orchestration of current organized interaction events shows limitations, particularly in the articulation of issues and in learning how to address the indeterminacies that go with emerging technologies. This paper uses Dewey's notion of 'publics' and 'reflective inquiry' to outline ways of doing better and to develop requirements for a more productive involvement of civil society actors. By studying four novel spaces for interaction in the domain of nanotechnology, this paper examines whether and how elements of Dewey's thought are visible and under what conditions. One of the main findings is that, in our society, special efforts are needed in order for technology developers and civil society actors to engage in a joint inquiry on emerging nanotechnology. Third persons, like social scientists and philosophers, play a role in this respect in addition to external input such as empirically informed scenarios and somewhat protected spaces.

  15. Ukrainian Nuclear Society International Conference 'Strategy of the nuclear power development: The choice of Ukraine'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevskij, I.N.; Trofimenko, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    Abstracts of the papers presented at the International Conference of the Ukrainian Nuclear Society 'Strategy of the nuclear power development'. The following problems are considered: present situation with the nuclear power and its safety; nuclear fuel cycle development; waste and spent nuclear fuel management; reactors' decommissioning issues; modernization of the NPP with WWER reactors; future reactors; economics of nuclear power; safety culture; legal and regulatory framework, state nuclear regulatory control; PR in nuclear power industry; staff training

  16. Role of Mass Media in the Disaster Preparedness and Sustainable Development of Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seid-Aliyeva, Dinara E.

    2006-01-01

    Better understanding of the causes and effects of large earthquakes can assists in mitigation of damage and loss of lives as a result of destructive natural events. Well-informed and educated population living in geological hazard-prone regions can reduce catastrophic consequences of natural disasters and guaranty the sustainable development of healthy society. A development of information service for disaster management is of importance in reduction of the disaster's consequences

  17. Decoupling reconsidered: Does world society integration influence the relationship between the environment and economic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhofer, Wesley; Jorgenson, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    This study advances scholarship on environment and development by examining whether nations more embedded in the pro-environmental world society are more or less likely to experience a relative decoupling between economic development and carbon emissions over time. The authors calculate a network centrality measure using national-level membership data on environmental international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), and then employ the measure to create four subsamples of nations that are relatively more or less integrated in the environmental world society. The authors use interactions between measures of economic development and time in two-way fixed effects models to estimate the potentially changing effects of development on carbon emissions for the four subsamples of nations from 1970 to 2009. Results indicate that nations that are the most embedded in the environmental world society experienced a moderate decrease through time in the effect of development on carbon emissions, while the effect of development on emissions increased through time in the most peripheral nations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Kraiger, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the training and development literature since the year 2000. We review the literature focusing on the benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society. We adopt a multidisciplinary, multilevel, and global perspective to demonstrate that training and development activities in work organizations can produce important benefits for each of these stakeholders. We also review the literature on needs assessment and pretraining states, training design and delivery, training evaluation, and transfer of training to identify the conditions under which the benefits of training and development are maximized. Finally, we identify research gaps and offer directions for future research.

  19. Overview of Target Development for Next Generation Radioactive Beam Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    With the increased intensities of radioactive ion beams at present and future facilities a wide variety of target technologies are being brought to bear for the experimental studies undertaken with these beams. For astrophysical reaction studies, classical thin foil targets are still going to be extensively used, mainly as hydrogen- or deuterium-rich plastics (or metals). But more complex target systems such as windowless gas jets, liquid or cryogenic solid targets are being developed. Cryogenic gas cells have also been employed though one must contend with issues relating to the windows used. Active targets usually integrated with time projection chambers are being used with rare beams for their high detection efficiency and also for low energy processes. In an active target, the gas acts as both a target and detector and allows for investigations of nuclear structure and transfer reactions with very high efficiency and at high resolution due to the thickness of the target. Polarized targets, in the form of gas-phase, foil, and crystal targets, are being used and further developed for use at rare isotope facilities. And finally, in heavy-element research, more exotic beams even at moderate intensities can be used with the standard 208Pb as well as exotic actinide targets to perhaps open previously unanticipated reaction channels for the production, chemistry, and spectroscopic studies of isotopes of the heaviest elements. For use with high quality secondary beams, very small samples of rare actinide isotopes in conjunction with high efficiency gamma ray detectors can be used for such research. This talk will be an overview to introduce the topics to be covered in detail in the contributions to this mini-symposium. Prepared in collaboration with John P. Greene, Physics Division, ANL. With the increased intensities of radioactive ion beams at present and future facilities a wide variety of target technologies are being brought to bear for the experimental studies

  20. The Tax Regulation as a Component of Social Development of Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitishin Andriy О.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic essence of the contemporary tax regulation as part of the social development of society has been disclosed, and its importance in the strategy of socio-economic development of society has been demonstrated. Directions, typical instruments and elements of the national tax regulation of the social sphere have been allocated. The main financial instruments for family support in the European Union Member States are presented and systematized, their multidirectedness and absence of a unified approach have been identified. It has been found that the result of tax reforms in the OECD countries in the early XXIst century is reducing the average rates of income tax on individuals and the social security contributions for employees and employers. Methodical and practical recommendations have been developed to assess the effectiveness of implementation of the social content of tax and budget policy on the basis of the maximum potential social tax quota in the current institutional conditions that will facilitate the enhancement of their role, synchronicity of implementation, and synergistic effects in the social development of society. An analysis of the indicators of implementation of the social content of tax policy in Ukraine in 2014-2016 has been carried out, its main tendencies have been defined.

  1. The main tendencies of development of morality and religiosity in modern society

    OpenAIRE

    Bezarova, Galyna

    2015-01-01

    The tendencies of morality and religion interconnection and their further development in the period of globalization and informatization of modern society based on the philosophical and religious analysis of morality and religion is considered in the article.The author argues that morality serves as a social culture of coexistence organization and as an internal regulator and personal judge of individual deeds, internal law of action in terms of good and evil. But it is also an attempt to ach...

  2. INFORMATISATION OF PUBLIC SERVICES – STRATEGIC RESOURCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the strategic resources in the development of society is the information which is supported by modern information technologies. The impact of implementing information technologies in various fields of human activity is so strong that is brings into question a new phase in the society evolution – information society. One of the largest industries worldwide is the industry of information technology and it is an upward growing one. Because of the advantages that information technology brings for a social and economical growth, all the economically developed countries and all the ones still developing, have adopted informatisation on a general level as also in certain special areas. In our country on public administration services have been adopted by the Government Decision no. 1007/20012 approving Government strategy on informatisation of public administration, and many regulation, making this reference: Law no. 455/20013 regarding e-signature; Law no. 52/20034 regarding transparency of decisions from public administration; Law no. 291/20025 for approval of Government Decision no. 24/20026 regarding electronic means of collecting fees and local taxes; Law no. 161/20037 regarding some measures to ensure the transparency for exercising public roles in public positions and in the business environment, prevention and punishment of corruption.

  3. The European Society of Human Genetics: beginnings, early history and development over its first 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Peter S

    2017-05-10

    The European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) was founded on 15 March 1967, after preliminary discussions at the International Human Genetics Congress in Chicago the previous year and in Copenhagen in early 1967. Its initial meeting was held on 18-19 November 1967, also in Copenhagen, and annual meetings have been held from that time until the present, apart from years in which the International Congress of Human Genetics was also being held. The character of the Society during its early years was strongly influenced by its founding and permanent Secretary, Jan Mohr, head of the Copenhagen Institute of Medical Genetics, whose records are archived in the Tage Kemp/Jan Mohr Archive, now part of the Danish National Archives. These records show Jan Mohr's determination to keep the activities of the Society limited to the holding of an annual meeting to enhance contacts between European human geneticists, and to resist expansion to other activities. Pressures for a wider role of ESHG became irresistible in the late 1980s and a revised constitution, adopted in 1991, reshaped the Society into a more conventional and less restrictive structure. This has allowed it to play a wider and increasingly influential role in the development of human and medical genetics across Europe, with its own Journal, a range of committees covering different aspects of the field and a series of valuable reports on specific important topics, to be described in a forthcoming article on the Society's more recent history.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 May 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.34.

  4. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W

    2016-05-01

    Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled "Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program" is attached as supplementary material. This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Development of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology disaster victim identification forensic odontology guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J

    2009-12-01

    The need for documented procedures and protocols are important in every specialist group to ensure a consistent service to the community. They provide guidance to members of the specialist group about responsibilities and appropriate practices, and confidence to the community that the services are of the highest possible standard. In a Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) incident, by enabling the process to be audited, they also serve to ensure that identifications are reliable. Following the Bali Bombings of 2002 and the 2004 Asian Tsunami the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology recognised the need for a practice guide to assist the management of their members in DVI incidents. 31 members of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology participated in the development of a guideline document for Disaster Victim Identification using a Delphi based model. The advantage of using the iterative Delphi process is that it encouraged participants to think about the processes used in the forensic odontology aspects of a DVI incident and their expectations of a guiding document. The document developed as a result of this project is comprehensive in coverage and places the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology at the vanguard of professionalism in the forensic odontology and DVI community.

  6. The Role of Globe Innovation Networks in Development of Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna T. Girenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author explores the evolution of the concept of the information society. There is identified the role of the formation of global innovation networks. The formation of global innovation networks is carried out through coordination and cooperation of scientific and technological activities on the basis of bilateral and multilateral relations, information exchange, scientific and technical services areas of development, implementation of scientific-technical activities in the framework of the international organizations, as well as through the development of national and regional innovation networks.

  7. Development of the American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) Rectal Cancer Surgery Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Sean C.; Morris, Arden M.; Baxter, Nancy N.; Fleshman, James W.; Alavi, Karim S.; Luchtefeld, Martin A.; Monson, John R. T.; Chang, George J.; Temple, Larissa K.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is excellent evidence that surgical safety checklists contribute to decreased morbidity and mortality. Objective To develop a surgical checklist comprising the key phases of care for rectal cancer patients. Design Consensus-oriented decision-making model involving iterative input from subject matter experts under the auspices of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Results The process generated a 25-item checklist covering the spectrum of care for rectal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Limitations Lack of prospective validation. Conclusions The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Rectal Cancer Surgery checklist comprises the essential elements of pre-, intra- and postoperative care that must be addressed during the surgical treatment of patients with rectal cancer. PMID:27270511

  8. Agencification of Public Service Delivery in Developing Societies: Experiences of Pakistan and Tanzania Agency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friday Francis Nchukwe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agencification is not a new phenomenon in the public sector. However, since 1980s in developing societies, not only the number of new agencies has gone up but, the existing agencies have also been revitalized under the rubric of New Public Management capsulated in World Bank/IMF’s guided governance and administrative reforms. These agencies have been created in an administrative system which has weak political institutions but well entrenched bureaucracy with strong colonial bureaucratic traditions such as centralization of power exercised by a class of senior bureaucrats occupying top positions in federal ministries. The article examines agencification in developing countries with particular reference to Pakistan and Tanzania agency model. It noted that agencification in developing countries was rarely, if ever, pursued within a systemic conceptual and legal framework, but agencies are often seen as an alternative to already existing state-owned companies which are plagued with corruption. The article therefore draws some observations and remedial actions for improvement in the performance of public sector organisations in developing countries in general and Africa in particular. It concludes that while most government ministries in developing societies cannot trigger public sector transformation due to a lack of performance improvement, agencies are unlikely to do so because of the particular autonomy of the administrative systems in which they are embedded.

  9. Analysis of development of buldings societies market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses market trends of the building societies in the Czech Republic in years 1995–2003. The main aim of the contribution is to verify the following thesis:1.\tIn previous development, it comes to the permanently increasing growth in the market of deposits and loans of building saving.2.\tConcentration in the market of building saving decreases.Analyses is made on two partial markets : deposit market and market of building saving loans. Growth rate index was chosen for the evaluation of the growth of both submarkets. Herfindahl-Hirchman index was chosen for evaluation of concentration trends. Analyses of the building saving market using the stated methodical approaches enables to enunciate the findings for the appointed hypothesis.Both submarkets do not show permanent increasing of growth rate in the period 1995–2003. The growth rates of both markets are declining in the first part of the period, the growth rates are increasing in the second part of the period. The concentration level of both markets is decreasing in years 1998–2003. This trend in the building societies market was influenced namely by general trend of market rate of interest in this period, by increasing exploitation of the real estate credit as a form of housing financing and by more activ credit policy used by minority building societies.The concentration development in the market of deposits and loans of building saving is not identical with the development of concentration in the market of deposits and loans in the whole bank sector. It may be deduced, that the development in the whole bank sector has been affected by the factors that have not operated in the market of building saving – decrease of banks in the bank sector of Czech Republic and educing of the part of redressed bank assets out of Czech Republic bank sector.

  10. The Spanish Society of Soil Science: Main projects and activities developed during the last years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Jaume; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Arbelo, Carmen D.; Díaz-Raviña, Montserrat; Badía, David; Alcañiz, Josep M.; Santos, Fernando; Hermosin, M. Carmen; Barral, M. Teresa

    2017-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (in Spanish: Sociedad Española de la Ciencia del Suelo, SECS) was founded in 1947 by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) to promote cohesion and collaboration between soil science professionals, and with an innovative spirit and a willingness to serve the society. The objectives are: to promote the study, knowledge, research and protection of the soil; to spread, from a scientific point of view, the role played by the soil in favour of society, through ecosystem services such as the production of food and raw materials; The SECS also focus on the protection of other habitats and the conservation of our archaeological heritage; and to preserve knowledge of the soil, its management and use, both from the production and environmental point of view, leading to the optimization of its capabilities. The activities and services of the SECS are accessible on the web site www.secs.com.es, which is continually updated. In this contribution, we will show some examples of recent projects and activities developed by the SECS such as: the edition of the Spanish Journal of Soil Science (SJSS) since 2011; books like the white book on "Tratamiento del suelo en los libros de texto de ESO y Bachillerato en España" available in http://www.secs.com.es/archivo/libro-suelo.pdf, in which the term "Soil" is analysed in many secondary school books (152) in the Spanish education system; conferences, courses, exhibitions, expositions, calendars, the comic "Vivir en el suelo" in diferent languages, and diverse material to promote and disseminate the importance of the soil to the society; and last but not least, the Multingual Soil Science Dictionary (Spanish, Catalan, Gallician and Potuguese with translations in English and French (in process)) available online: http://cit.iec.cat/GLOSECS/inici.html. The promotion of student teams for soil science contests, the SECS Award to attend the Simposio Latinoamericano de Enseñanza y Educación en Ciencia

  11. A Challenge to Aging Society by microRNA in Extracellular Vesicles: microRNA in Extracellular Vesicles as Promising Biomarkers and Novel Therapeutic Targets in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomofumi Yamamoto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells and is the second most common hematological cancer. MM frequently occurs in the elderly population with the median age as the middle sixties. Over the last 10 years, the prognosis of MM has been dramatically improved by new therapeutic drugs; however, MM is still incurable. The pathogenesis of MM is still unclear, thus greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MM malignancy is desirable. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs were shown to modulate the expression of genes critical for MM pathogenesis. In addition, miRNAs are secreted via extracellular vesicles (EVs, which are released from various cell types including MM cells, and these miRNAs are involved in multiple types of cell-cell interactions, which lead to the malignancy of MM. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of miRNA secretion via EVs and of EVs themselves in MM development. We also discuss the potential clinical applications of EVs as promising biomarkers and new therapeutic targets for improving the outcome of MM, resulting in a brighter future for aging societies.

  12. State, market and civil society: Latin American development in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Vellinga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s Latin America made a radical break with the model of development that had been pursued by most countries on the continent for the last fifty years and implemented a new development strategy, defined along neo-liberal lines. These changes have taken place under conditions of increasing globalization, e.g. they had to be realized increasingly within globally defined parameters and structures. The relationship between the state, the market and civil society was redefined. The traditional structures of interest representation of groups and classes, their legitimacy and effectiveness underwent significant changes in many countries. In this article we will explore the nature of these changes and their consequences for state reform and the relation to problems of national development. We will do so in a comparative perspective, including experiences from South East Asia. The debate about the relationship between state, market and civil society has received a new impetus from the 2008 crisis of the international financial system and the widely spread criticism of the workings of the market capitalism that it has generated. For Latin American development the conclusions of this debate and their possible translation into concrete policies are of the utmost importance.

  13. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed. (orig.)

  14. Experimental methods in radioactive ion-beam target/ion source development and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welton, R.F.; Alton, G.D.; Cui, B.; Murray, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed off-line experimental techniques and apparatuses that permit direct measurement of effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiencies for nearly any chemically reactive element in high-temperature target/ion sources (TIS) commonly used for on-line radioactive ion-beam (RIB) generation. The apparatuses include a hot Ta valve for effusive-flow delay-time measurements, a cooled molecular injection system for determination of ionization efficiencies, and a gas flow measurement/control system for introducing very low, well-defined molecular flows into the TIS. Measurements are performed on a test stand using molecular feed compounds containing stable complements of the radioactive nuclei of interest delivered to the TIS at flow rates commensurate with on-line RIB generation. In this article, the general techniques are described and effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiency measurements are reported for fluorine in an electron-beam plasma target/ion source developed for RIB generation and operated in both positive- and negative-ion extraction modes. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. Development of an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Major in The Earth System, Environment and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuebbles, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Humanity faces great challenges in the 21st Century to understand and limit our impact on the Earth System. To address these challenges, it is essential to understand the nature and implications of environmental change, and the complexity of the Earth system. We need to educate citizens that have the background to make new developments in understanding technical aspects of the Earth System, and to develop an understanding the interactions between society and the Earth System sufficient to make informed policy choices. Traditional disciplinary departments and majors don't fully address this; teaching and research talent in the study of the Earth System is spread over many disciplinary-oriented departments. At the University of Illinois, we are currently developing a new cross-disciplinary undergraduate major being called The Earth system, environment and Society. This development is co-sponsored by a number of departments centered in the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences (but including other departments throughout the university). Our intention is that this major will be a catalyst for bringing together the many disciplines involved in Earth System Science education. The curriculum and course for study will focus on the science and human dimensions of the Earth system, with special emphasis on the processes and issues related to the environment across a range of spatial scales from local and regional to global. Along with meeting the requirements expected of all students in a liberal arts and sciences major, students in The Earth System, Environment and Society major will be required to complete a core set of courses designed to introduce students to all of the different components of the Earth System (students will choose from course options in both the sciences and the social sciences). After completing the core courses, students will then focus their studies on one of the two options within the major, Science of the Earth System (this option will emphasize the

  16. Formulation and development of colon-targeted mucopenetrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulation and develop colon-targeted mucopenetrating metronidazole nanoparticles. Methods: Metronidazole-loaded chitosan nanoparticles with a pH-sensitive polymer, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose phthalate (HPMCP), were prepared by ionic gelation technique and then coated with Eudragit S100 by ...

  17. The Oncology Nursing Society Leadership Competency project: developing a road map to professional excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Donald D; Hand, Mikel W; Jones, Ann R; Harrington, Nancy Kay; Best, Robyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B

    2014-08-01

    Combining the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's report on the future of nursing, an Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) leadership think tank, and current evidence, the ONS Leadership Competencies were developed to provide all nurses with a pathway to advance their leadership skills and abilities. Generated through a systematic approach of literature review, data synthesis, and peer and expert review, the ONS Leadership Competencies are divided into five domains: vision, knowledge, interpersonal effectiveness, systems thinking, and personal mastery. Each of the competencies can be measured at the individual, group, and governance levels. They serve as a means of self-assessment, growth, future planning, and professional development. This article describes the process used to develop the ONS Leadership Competencies and offers examples of how they may be used in practice.

  18. Development of Antibacterials Targeting the MEP Pathway of Select Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Yersinia pestis will serve as effective antibiotics by blocking isoprene biosynthesis . In strong support of this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the dose... antibiotic resistant strains and the ease by which antibiotic resistance can be engineered into bacteria further highlights the need for continued...development of novel antibiotics against new bacterial targets. This research project directly addresses this need through the development of a broad spectrum

  19. The impact of Nordic adult education ideas on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresevičienė, Margarita; Trepulė, Elena; Trečiokienė, Edita

    2017-02-01

    This article analyses the role of the cooperation with and the influence of the Nordic countries on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania through adult education since the reinstatement of its independence from Soviet regime in March 1990 to the present. The authors focus on three main areas: (1) the training of Lithuanian adult educators; (2) the establishment and development of NGOs; and (3) the implications for a Lithuanian policy of adult education. Within the framework of Nordic-Baltic cooperation established among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8) in 1992, Lithuanian adult educators seized the opportunity to visit Scandinavian institutions and projects. Experiencing Nordic adult education ideas has resulted in a marked shift in Lithuanian adult educators' values, methodology and careers; and in the establishment of a series of very influential umbrella associations as well as hundreds of NGOs in Lithuania which work with adults and support functioning democratic values in society. This shift is related to the civic responsibility and active participation growing out of the bottom-up approaches of group work, cooperation, discussions and learning circles which are so inherent in the Nordic tradition of adult education. The internalisation of new democratic values was more complicated than expected for many Lithuanian politicians, adult educators and NGO leaders in terms of how political decisions were perceived and implemented. Furthermore, the influence of the Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education may also be traced in adult education policy implications in Lithuania. Some changes in the policies of contemporary Lithuania have not been successful and even failed to promote a democratic society.

  20. Developing targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klindtworth Katharina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palliative Care is an approach that improves quality of life for patients and their families facing the problems associated with incurable life-threatening illness. In many countries, due to the rapidly ageing population, increasingly more people are suffering from serious chronic disease towards the end of life, making further development in palliative care a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to develop the first targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care in Germany. Methods Based on the findings from pilot studies (qualitative interviews and surveys with different stakeholders in the health care system, we conducted a modified Delphi study with two rounds of questionnaires with experts in public health and palliative care. In the first round, the experts commented on the findings from the pilot studies. The answers were evaluated descriptively and with qualitative content analysis, resulting in the formulation of 25 targets. These were presented to the experts in the second Delphi round to assess each of them separately with regard to its importance and current implementation (7-point answer scales and in relation to the other targets (defining the five most important of the 25 targets. Results Six most relevant targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care in Germany were worked out: Supporting palliative care as a basic attitude for the care of people in the last phase of life; coordinating healthcare for people in the last phase of life; establishing cooperation among health professions and disciplines; establishing education in palliative care for all professional groups with contact to people in the last phase of life; reviewing the evidence of palliative care measures; offering support to family members who are caring for someone in the last phase of life. Conclusions To systematically develop palliative care, it makes sense to define fields of action

  1. Developing targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nils; Lueckmann, Sara L; Kuehne, Franziska; Klindtworth, Katharina; Behmann, Mareike

    2010-04-29

    Palliative Care is an approach that improves quality of life for patients and their families facing the problems associated with incurable life-threatening illness. In many countries, due to the rapidly ageing population, increasingly more people are suffering from serious chronic disease towards the end of life, making further development in palliative care a major public health challenge. The aim of this study was to develop the first targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care in Germany. Based on the findings from pilot studies (qualitative interviews and surveys with different stakeholders in the health care system), we conducted a modified Delphi study with two rounds of questionnaires with experts in public health and palliative care. In the first round, the experts commented on the findings from the pilot studies. The answers were evaluated descriptively and with qualitative content analysis, resulting in the formulation of 25 targets. These were presented to the experts in the second Delphi round to assess each of them separately with regard to its importance and current implementation (7-point answer scales) and in relation to the other targets (defining the five most important of the 25 targets). Six most relevant targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care in Germany were worked out: Supporting palliative care as a basic attitude for the care of people in the last phase of life; coordinating healthcare for people in the last phase of life; establishing cooperation among health professions and disciplines; establishing education in palliative care for all professional groups with contact to people in the last phase of life; reviewing the evidence of palliative care measures; offering support to family members who are caring for someone in the last phase of life. To systematically develop palliative care, it makes sense to define fields of action with individual targets. For Germany, it can be recommended to give

  2. Human Resource Development for Knowledge-based Society and Challenges of Nagoya University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Takashi

    Innovation in the previous century resulted in development of useful products ranging from automobiles and aircraft to cellular phones. However, the innovation and development of science and technology have changed the society and brought about negative issues. The issues emerged in the previous century remain in the excessive forms in the 21st century. The 21st century is seeing the rise of knowledge-based society, and paradigm shift is now going on. Human resources of university for creation of innovation are being called on to contribute to solving issues. Young people who pass through a doctor program must play a role as an innovator who can promote the paradigm shift. However, the higher education system of the universities in Japan is now required to be changed to dissolve the mismatch on the doctor program with industries, government and students. The discussion in the Business-University Forum of Japan for innovation of education system and a few challenges of the Nagoya University are introduced in this paper.

  3. POVERTY, WELL-BEING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: OFFICIAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MEASURES IN POSTMODERN SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA I. IORGULESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and well-being are concepts that cannot be separated, and research on poverty is implicitly linked to welfare economics. Poverty, in the complex conditions of modern societies affected by financial and economic crises, requires a clear definition and measures as accurate as possible. The paper presents some issues related to official methods and techniques for estimating poverty. Three steps necessary for poverty measurement are introduced and, also, multidimensional and poverty dynamics analyses are highlighted as important issues for poverty eradication policies. Results on youth poverty dynamics, the duration and recurrence of poverty and the perpetuation of poverty in EU countries are presented. The concepts of poverty risk, as well as some results of the search for key factors influencing the likelihood of being at risk of poverty, is discussed. Traditionally the living standard of households is measured by income, but recently other tools for measuring well-being in the broader framework of postmodern societies have been developed. As examples are some experimental methods and techniques for estimating poverty introduced in the U.S. and the European Union. Also, in the context of discussions related to the design of policies for sustainable development, some aspects of well-being measures in ecological economics are presented.

  4. Nonstructural Proteins of Alphavirus—Potential Targets for Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Abu Bakar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses are enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA viruses, typically transmitted by arthropods. They often cause arthralgia or encephalitic diseases in infected humans and there is currently no targeted antiviral treatment available. The re-emergence of alphaviruses in Asia, Europe, and the Americas over the last decade, including chikungunya and o’nyong’nyong viruses, have intensified the search for selective inhibitors. In this review, we highlight key molecular determinants within the alphavirus replication complex that have been identified as viral targets, focusing on their structure and functionality in viral dissemination. We also summarize recent structural data of these viral targets and discuss how these could serve as templates to facilitate structure-based drug design and development of small molecule inhibitors.

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinman, D.

    1994-03-01

    On December 30, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities which took place under this contract during the period of October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. During this period, GA was assigned 18 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included ''Capabilities Activation'' and ''Capabilities Demonstration'' to enable us to begin production of glass and composite polymer capsules. Capsule delivery tasks included ''Small Glass Shell Deliveries'' and ''Composite Polymer Capsules'' for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We also were asked to provide direct ''Onsite Support'' at LLNL and LANL. We continued planning for the transfer of ''Micromachining Equipment from Rocky Flats'' and established ''Target Component Micromachining and Electroplating Facilities'' at GA. We fabricated over 1100 films and filters of 11 types for Sandia National Laboratory and provided full-time onsite engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to make targets for the Naval Research Laboratory. We investigated spherical interferometry, built an automated capsule sorter, and developed an apparatus for calorimetric measurement of fuel fill for LLNL. We assisted LANL in the ''Characterization of Opaque b-Layered Targets.'' We developed deuterated and UV-opaque polymers for use by the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) and devised a triple-orifice droplet generator to demonstrate the controlled-mass nature of the microencapsulation process

  6. Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice: a guideline developed by a working group of the Netherlands Epidemiological Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaen, Gerard M H; Langendam, Miranda; Weyler, Joost; Burger, Huibert; Siesling, Sabine; Atsma, Willem Jan; Bouter, Lex

    2018-02-10

    To develop a guideline on Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice that will increase value and transparency, increase the accountability of the epidemiologists, and reduce research waste. A working group of the Netherland Epidemiological Society was given the task of developing a guideline that would meet these objectives. Several publications about the need to prevent Detrimental Research Practices triggered this work. Among these were a series in the Lancet on research waste and a subsequent series on transparency in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. The reputation and trust in epidemiologic research is still high, and the Netherlands Epidemiological Society wishes to keep it that way. The guideline deals with how epidemiologic research should be conducted, archived, and disclosed. It does not deal with the more technical aspects, such as required sample size, choice of study design, and so forth. The guideline describes each step in the process of conducting an epidemiologic study, from the first idea to the ultimate publication and beyond. The working group reviewed the literature on responsible research conduct, including the various existing codes of conduct. It applied the general principles from these codes to the elements of an epidemiologic study and formulated specific recommendations for each of these. Next step was to draft the guideline. Preceding the 2016 annual national epidemiology conference in Wageningen, a preconference was organized to discuss the draft guideline and to assess support. Support was clearly present, and the provided recommendations were incorporated into the draft guideline. In March 2017, a draft version of the guideline was sent to all 1,100 members of the society with the request to review and provide comments. All received responses were positive, and some minor additions were made. The Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice guideline has now been approved by the board of the Netherlands Epidemiological Society

  7. Basic/Translational Development of Forthcoming Opioid- and Nonopioid-Targeted Pain Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick; Yekkirala, Ajay; Yaksh, Tony L

    2017-11-01

    Opioids represent an efficacious therapeutic modality for some, but not all pain states. Singular reliance on opioid therapy for pain management has limitations, and abuse potential has deleterious consequences for patient and society. Our understanding of pain biology has yielded insights and opportunities for alternatives to conventional opioid agonists. The aim is to have efficacious therapies, with acceptable side effect profiles and minimal abuse potential, which is to say an absence of reinforcing activity in the absence of a pain state. The present work provides a nonexclusive overview of current drug targets and potential future directions of research and development. We discuss channel activators and blockers, including sodium channel blockers, potassium channel activators, and calcium channel blockers; glutamate receptor-targeted agents, including N-methyl-D-aspartate, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid, and metabotropic receptors. Furthermore, we discuss therapeutics targeted at γ-aminobutyric acid, α2-adrenergic, and opioid receptors. We also considered antagonists of angiotensin 2 and Toll receptors and agonists/antagonists of adenosine, purine receptors, and cannabinoids. Novel targets considered are those focusing on lipid mediators and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Of interest is development of novel targeting strategies, which produce long-term alterations in pain signaling, including viral transfection and toxins. We consider issues in the development of druggable molecules, including preclinical screening. While there are examples of successful translation, mechanistically promising preclinical candidates may unexpectedly fail during clinical trials because the preclinical models may not recapitulate the particular human pain condition being addressed. Molecular target characterization can diminish the disconnect between preclinical and humans' targets, which should assist in developing nonaddictive analgesics.

  8. Governing Transformation towards Low-carbon Societies: An ideational perspective from developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrysson, Maryna

    of mitigation actions, are not only defined by technological lockins. Equally important is the persistence of ideas that are used to justify and legitimise reforms by mobilising discourses on energy supply and security and framing energy transitions as part of wider goals to maintain socio-economic stability......-actor and multi-factor governance of climate-compatible development. It aims to improve our understanding of potential endogenous sources of transformation by asking how ideas of sustainability influence the governance of a low-carbon society. It investigates the construction of policy problems, the content...... in electricity generation while justifying economic growth by means of green growth arguments become more deeply embedded in development trajectories. Narrow conceptualisations of policy problems and solutions in the cases presented here have resulted in incumbent actors resorting to quite conventional...

  9. ISES [International Solar Energy Society] and the UNCED [United Nations Conference on Environment and Development] process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorriman, D.

    1992-01-01

    The International Solar Energy Society (ISES)/United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (UNCED) process, developed as a preparation for the Earth Summit 92 held in Brazil, involved the collection and compilation of material and the development of consensus. The process involved five phases of a survey on environment and energy issues, roundtable events, and final input into the Earth Summit. The following are results from the ISES survey. When setting national energy policies, the two least important considerations are concern for global environmental impacts and life cycle costs of energy options. In terms of electricity supply, the main issues are reliability and dispatchability. The most significant issues impacting economic development in developing countries are population growth and land resource degradation. Fresh water pollution was a concern in all countries. In industrialized countries with adequate power supply, the main issue is improved quality of life. In developing countries, growth dominates the need for new energy supplies. A large number of recommendations for United Nations action are presented. 3 refs

  10. Exploring Enterprise Systems and Management Control in the Information Society: Developing a Conceptual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Rohde, Carsten; Rom, Anders

    Society is evolving from the industrial society towards the information society where information technology plays a crucial role. Few IT innovations have had as much impact on business organizations in the past years as Enterprise Systems (ES). These systems affect most functions...... between ES and management control. We describe the changes taking place in companies operating in the information society, describe and define management control and review existing research on the relationship between management control and enterprise systems. We criticize existing management control...

  11. Developments in the International Society of Biometeorology over the decade, 2007-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, Marie R.

    2017-09-01

    Over the decade 2007-2016, the International Society of Biometeorology (ISB) has pursued its purpose of advancing the science of biometeorology through its Congresses and sponsoring conferences, meetings and workshops. In conjunction with Springer, ISB has introduced a new book series: Biometeorology, and published three volumes. ISB's journal, the International Journal of Biometeorology, has increased the number of issues to 12 per year and added the Fields of `Aerobiology', `Climate Change and Ecology' and `Climate Change and Public Health'. Within ISB, there are currently six Commissions, reflecting the interests of the members and the needs of society. The newest, Biophysics of Adaptation and Response Commission, formed in 2015. Another group which formed over the decade was the Students and New Professionals Group. The Universal Thermal Climate Index Commission was formally dissolved in 2014 having met its aim of developing an easily understood human thermal index. At the Executive Board level, geographical representation has increased, with Councillors now being elected to represent six regions: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Oceania and Northern America. The ISB has worked to better coordinate and communicate biometeorological research, collaborating strategically with international partners to achieve this objective.

  12. ROLES OF COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haradhan Kumar MOHAJAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At present one of the most important concepts in social learning theory is the idea of communities of practice (CoP, which describes a learning theory with a strong relationship to the social construction of knowledge. A CoP is a collection of people who engage on performing a common activity for the welfare both of members of the community and the society. In modern society, it is used in some form of high levels of skills, knowledge and proficiency to perform the jobs properly. It plays an important role in the sharing of knowledge and creating value for both their members and organizations. A CoP is composed of three crucial characteristics: domain, community, and practice, which provide a guide to the development of community. The paper describes structural components, basic characteristics, and essential elements of a CoP. It also highlights benefits, importance, and the challenges and barriers of a CoP. In addition, it describes virtual CoP in brief. The main aim of this study is to explore the ins and out of a CoP in some details

  13. The value of the phenomenon of communication for the sustainable development of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Plaksina

    2016-06-01

    On this basis the substantial potential of communication is determined. A di-verse range of communication’s actions is presented. Communication carries out satisfaction the people’s need in emotional resonance and empathy; penetration into the inner world of Another, co-presence, being «here» and «now» together with Another; integration, unity, feeling part of a whole people and becoming related; finding a certain sense; producing and approving of values, humanization; realiza-tion of the basic human need - to be included in society and culture, i.e., generic quality of sociality which is inherent to man; improvisation, in conjunction with the presence of algorithms in the communication; preventing, overcoming an inferiority of people’s objectivisation, de-objectivisation; counteracting to the massification, standardization, «oversimplification» of consciousness and personality. Thereby this paper shows that communication efficiently overcomes and blocks the most of the challenges/risks, which might lead to instability of the socie-ty’s development in the informational stage of history - the four groups from six groups, which were identified in this article. As a result, the positive influence of communication on the sustainability of modern society in a global scale has been substantiated and proven.

  14. Accelerating vaccine development and deployment: report of a Royal Society satellite meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregu, Migena; Draper, Simon J; Hill, Adrian V S; Greenwood, Brian M

    2011-10-12

    The Royal Society convened a meeting on the 17th and 18th November 2010 to review the current ways in which vaccines are developed and deployed, and to make recommendations as to how each of these processes might be accelerated. The meeting brought together academics, industry representatives, research sponsors, regulators, government advisors and representatives of international public health agencies from a broad geographical background. Discussions were held under Chatham House rules. High-throughput screening of new vaccine antigens and candidates was seen as a driving force for vaccine discovery. Multi-stakeholder, small-scale manufacturing facilities capable of rapid production of clinical grade vaccines are currently too few and need to be expanded. In both the human and veterinary areas, there is a need for tiered regulatory standards, differentially tailored for experimental and commercial vaccines, to allow accelerated vaccine efficacy testing. Improved cross-fertilization of knowledge between industry and academia, and between human and veterinary vaccine developers, could lead to more rapid application of promising approaches and technologies to new product development. Identification of best-practices and development of checklists for product development plans and implementation programmes were seen as low-cost opportunities to shorten the timeline for vaccine progression from the laboratory bench to the people who need it.

  15. Recent advances in developing small molecules targeting RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2012-01-20

    RNAs are underexploited targets for small molecule drugs or chemical probes of function. This may be due, in part, to a fundamental lack of understanding of the types of small molecules that bind RNA specifically and the types of RNA motifs that specifically bind small molecules. In this review, we describe recent advances in the development and design of small molecules that bind to RNA and modulate function that aim to fill this void.

  16. Building the Capability of Non-Formal Education Teachers to Develop a Learning Society for Promoting Lifelong Education in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungsri, Sumalee

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to study Thai non-formal education teachers' perceptions of their opportunities to obtain knowledge about the learning society; identify the knowledge of non-formal education teachers need about the learning society which could be obtained through a distance learning package; and to develop and evaluate distance learning package on…

  17. A Heuristic Model of Consciousness with Applications to the Development of Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Curreri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A working model of consciousness is fundamental to understanding of the interactions of the observer in science. This paper examines contemporary understanding of consciousness. A heuristic model of consciousness is suggested that is consistent with psycophysics measurements of bandwidth of consciousness relative to unconscious perception. While the self reference nature of consciousness confers a survival benefit by assuring the all points of view regarding a problem are experienced in sufficiently large population, conscious bandwidth is constrained by design to avoid chaotic behavior. The multiple hypotheses provided by conscious reflection enable the rapid progression of science and technology. The questions of free will and the problem of attention are discussed in relation to the model. Finally the combination of rapid technology growth with the assurance of many unpredictable points of view is considered in respect to contemporary constraints to the development of society.

  18. ROLE AND PLACE OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL CULTURE IN SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga P. Kokoulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The causal connection of the emergence and development of sport and its history were considered in thisarticle, and the analysis of the nature of sport andphysical culture in the modern society was made. Substantiated the necessity and importance of sports andphysical education at the present stage of the societydevelopment. Some factors that prevent globalizationand widespread dissemination of sport and physicalculture were introduced. Possible ways of solvingthese problems were put forward, highlighted motivational sphere on the formation of the active positionin the field of healthy lifestyle. The author conducted the study, which analyzed the following factors: how often respondents are engaged in sports and physicalculture, and that gives them the sport in addition to thegood physical form - data systematized and presented.

  19. A Heuristic Model of Consciousness with Applications to the Development of Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    A working model of consciousness is fundamental to understanding of the interactions of the observer in science. This paper examines contemporary understanding of consciousness. A heuristic model of consciousness is suggested that is consistent with psycophysics measurements of bandwidth of consciousness relative to unconscious perception. While the self reference nature of consciousness confers a survival benefit by assuring the all points of view regarding a problem are experienced in sufficiently large population, conscious bandwidth is constrained by design to avoid chaotic behavior. The multiple hypotheses provided by conscious reflection enable the rapid progression of science and technology. The questions of free will and the problem of attention are discussed in relation to the model. Finally the combination of rapid technology growth with the assurance of many unpredictable points of view is considered in respect to contemporary constraints to the development of society.

  20. Developing knowledge and strategies for enabling and governing transitions to a low carbon society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    Most of the research on low carbon society in Denmark has hitherto focused on developing scenarios and analyzing possible policy instruments, including market mechanisms, costs and impacts in relation to known options and impacts. The Danish Council of Strategic Research funds the four year......, companies, cities, and national and international policy. Theoretically the research alliance builds upon a combination of theories including social practice theory, innovation economy, institutional theory, actor-network theory and governance theory. Through a combination of historical analysis, case...... stakeholders to make continuous adjustments of objectives and means in unavoidably conflict ridden transition processes.  Analyses of how key measures and institutions at different societal levels might contribute to transition processes.  Characterisation of 4-6 typical sustainable transition set...

  1. What science for what kind of society? Reflecting the development of big science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Lecture will be in English– Translation available in French Without any doubt, CERN can be described as being among the most ambitious scientific enterprises ever undertaken. For 60 years, the Member States have not only invested considerable financial means into this institution, but have also supported the creation of a highly visionary research programme. And this has led to a change in the way science is done, as captured by the idea of "big science". Yet this naturally also raises a number of quite fundamental questions: How did the meaning of "doing science" change? What justifies societal engagement with and support for such a cost-intensive long-term scientific undertaking? And finally, in what ways does (and did) this research enterprise contribute to the development of contemporary societies? By focusing on some key examples, the talk will thus explore how the ways of doing research and scientific and societal relations have undergone change over the ...

  2. Creating a learning society a new approach to growth, development, and social progress

    CERN Document Server

    Stiglitz, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that an improved standard of living results from advances in technology, not from the accumulation of capital. It has also become clear that what truly separates developed from less-developed countries is not just a gap in resources or output but a gap in knowledge. In fact, the pace at which developing countries grow is largely a function of the pace at which they close that gap. Thus, to understand how countries grow and develop, it is essential to know how they learn and become more productive and what government can do to promote learning. In Creating a Learning Society, Joseph E. Stiglitz and Bruce C. Greenwald cast light on the significance of this insight for economic theory and policy. Taking as a starting point Kenneth J. Arrow's 1962 paper "Learning by Doing," they explain why the production of knowledge differs from that of other goods and why market economies alone typically do not produce and transmit knowledge efficiently. Closing knowledge gaps and helping laggards ...

  3. THE MEANING OF A MARGINAL-INTELLECTUAL IN DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Валерьевна Могдалева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the current problem of intellectual margins arising under the condition of social and historical development. For studying the question mark there were used the following methods: an integrated method, system method, the structural-functional method and the method of historical analysis.The author focuses on a particular position of marginal-intellectual, which is regarded as inventive, a creative person, "a constructor of new cultural practices". During research it was revealed that the position of marginal intellectuals between the two social groups, cultures and religions, gives him more knowledge and allows us to use them in creative activities. Marginal intellectuals formed a new group, which includes people of high levels of education and skills, and a developed system of needs and political activity.The main abstracts and results of this article help us to understand the diversity and complexity of the phenomenon of intellectual marginalization, as well as the place and meaning of intellectuals in the historical development of society. The practical significance of the results of this work is the ability to use its materials for the preparation and conducting the general and specialized courses in philosophy, sociology, history and cultural studies. In general, the given abstracts and the obtained results can be used for further theoretical and practical development of the concept of marginality of the intelligence as a social group.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-29

  4. Targets downstream of Cdk8 in Dictyostelium development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skelton Jason

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cdk8 is a component of the mediator complex which facilitates transcription by RNA polymerase II and has been shown to play an important role in development of Dictyostelium discoideum. This eukaryote feeds as single cells but starvation triggers the formation of a multicellular organism in response to extracellular pulses of cAMP and the eventual generation of spores. Strains in which the gene encoding Cdk8 have been disrupted fail to form multicellular aggregates unless supplied with exogenous pulses of cAMP and later in development, cdk8- cells show a defect in spore production. Results Microarray analysis revealed that the cdk8- strain previously described (cdk8-HL contained genome duplications. Regeneration of the strain in a background lacking detectable gene duplication generated strains (cdk8-2 with identical defects in growth and early development, but a milder defect in spore generation, suggesting that the severity of this defect depends on the genetic background. The failure of cdk8- cells to aggregate unless rescued by exogenous pulses of cAMP is consistent with a failure to express the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A. However, overexpression of the gene encoding this protein was not sufficient to rescue the defect, suggesting that this is not the only important target for Cdk8 at this stage of development. Proteomic analysis revealed two potential targets for Cdk8 regulation, one regulated post-transcriptionally (4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPD and one transcriptionally (short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR1. Conclusions This analysis has confirmed the importance of Cdk8 at multiple stages of Dictyostelium development, although the severity of the defect in spore production depends on the genetic background. Potential targets of Cdk8-mediated gene regulation have been identified in Dictyostelium which will allow the mechanism of Cdk8 action and its role in development to be determined.

  5. Monitoring Water Targets in the Post-2015 Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) provides a comprehensive approach to developing water services in a way that ensures social equity, health, well-being and sustainability for all. In particular, the water goal includes targets related to sanitation, wastewater, water quality, water efficiency, integrated water management and ecosystems (details to be finalized in September 2015). As part of its implementation, methods to monitor target indicators must be developed. National governments will be responsible for reporting on progress toward these targets using national data sets and possibly information from global data sets that applies to their countries. Oversight of this process through the use of global data sets is desirable for encouraging the use of standardized information for comparison purposes. Disparities in monitoring due to very sparse data networks in some countries can be addressed by using geospatially consistent data products from space-based remote sensing. However, to fully exploit these data, capabilities will be needed to downscale information, to interpolate and assimilate data both in time and space, and to integrate these data with socio-economic data sets, model outputs and survey data in a geographical information system framework. Citizen data and other non-standard data types may also supplement national data systems. A comprehensive and integrated analysis and dissemination system is needed to enable the important contributions that satellites could make to achieving Water SDG targets. This presentation will outline the progress made in assessing the needs for information to track progress on the Water SDG, options for meeting these needs using existing data infrastructure, and pathways for expanding the role of Earth observations in SDG monitoring. It will also discuss the potential roles of Future Earth's Sustainable Water Futures Programme (SWFP) and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in coordinating these efforts.

  6. Ovarian and oocyte targets for development of female contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish Kumar; Malik, Ankita; Arukha, Ananta Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormone-based contraceptives have been used by women for long time since their introduction. Efforts have been made to make steroidal contraceptives cost-effective, safe and improve their users' compliance. In addition, attempts have been made to develop nonsteroidal contraceptives. Contraceptive vaccines have been investigated as an alternate strategy for contraception. The currently used steroidal contraceptives are reviewed. In addition, status of emerging nonsteroidal contraceptives that inhibit folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and endometrium receptivity targeting phosphodiesterase 3, angiopoietins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, COX-2, progesterone/estrogen receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor are presented. Various approaches to develop contraceptive vaccines aiming to inhibit ovarian follicle development, ovulation, fertilization and implantation including their current applications and limitations are discussed. Development of new nonsteroidal contraceptives, in addition to long-acting steroidal contraceptives, is pertinent for offering wider choice to women. It is imperative that basic research to discover new targets in the ovaries must be undertaken to facilitate development of novel contraceptives. Further, efforts on studying the feasibility and safety of contraceptive vaccines may be continued to bring these within the realm of application as contraceptives for humans.

  7. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, W. S.; Zevenbergen, L. A.; Adair, H. L.

    1985-06-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of a minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity actinides in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed.

  8. PARADIGM CHANGE THE EDUCATION THE TEACHERS OF PRIMARY CLASSES IN THE CONDITIONS OF INFORMATION SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kushnir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and wide dissemination of new digital technologies in all spheres of life significantly changes the structure of the labor market (there are new profession is changing dramatically professional activities existing and the requirements of employers (the ability to learn independently throughout their lives, to critically evaluate information, team work becomes more important, Maturity than a specific set of knowledge and skills. At the same time, today's children live in crowded information space, which highlights the issue of formation of information culture of their bases from an early age and quality of development needed for successful self-realization in the information society. This leads to changes in the entire education system, in particular the training of future elementary school teachers. A retrospective analysis of the use of information and communication technologies in education confirms the occurrence of such technologies for the development of children, which at different times dreamed of teachers and psychologists. Analysis of practice of training future elementary school teachers shows insufficient level of awareness of modern ICT capabilities, which are mainly used to support the traditional educational process, not the implementation of new learning approaches. The article analyzes the impact of the development of modern information and communication technologies for education in the context of professional training of future elementary school teachers.

  9. The development of ecological environment in China based on the system dynamics method from the society, economy and environment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Yang; Ge, Song; Han, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The harmonious development in society, economy and environment are crucial to regional sustained boom. However, the society, economy and environment are not respectively independent, but both mutually promotes one which, or restrict mutually complex to have the long-enduring overall process. The present study is an attempt to investigate the relationship and interaction of society, economy and environment in China based on the data from 2004 to 2013. The principal component analysis (PCA) model was employed to identify the main factors effecting the society, economy and environment subsystems, and SD (system dynamics) method used to carry out dynamic assessment for future state of sustainability from society, economy and environment perspective with future indicator values. Sustainable development in China was divided in the study into three phase from 2004 to 2013 based competitive values of these three subsystems. According to the results of PCA model, China is in third phase, and the economy growth is faster than the environment development, while the social development still maintained a steady and rapid growth, implying that the next step for sustainable development in China should focus on society development, especially the environment development.

  10. The development of the Canadian Rural Health Research Society: creating capacity through connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, M L P; Dosman, J A; Kulig, J C; Medves, J M

    2007-01-01

    The organization of rural health research in Canada has been a recent development. Over the past 8 years, rural and remote researchers from more than 15 universities and agencies across Canada have engaged in a process of research capacity building through the development of a network, the Canadian Rural Health Research Society (CRHRS) among the scientifically and geographically diverse researchers and their community partners. The purpose of this article is to discuss the development of the CRHRS as well as the challenges and lessons learned about creating networks and building capacity among rural and remote health researchers. Key elements of network development have included identifying and developing multidisciplinary research groupings, maintaining ongoing connections among researchers, and promoting the sharing of expertise and resources for research training. The focus has been on supporting research excellence among networks of researchers in smaller centres. Activities include a national annual scientific meeting, the informal formation of several regional and national research networks in specific areas, and the development of training opportunities. Challenges have included the issues of sustaining communication, addressing a range of networking and capacity-enhancement needs, cooperating in an environment that rewards competition, obtaining resources to support a secretariat and research activities, and balancing the demands to foster research excellence with the needs to create infrastructure and advocate for adequate research funding. The CRHRS has learned how to begin to support researchers with diverse interests and needs across sectors and wide geographical areas, specifically by: (1) focusing on research development through creating and supporting trusting connections among researchers; (2) building the science first, followed by infrastructure development; (3) making individual researchers the nodes in the network; (4) being inclusive by

  11. A 10-Year Analysis of American Society for Radiation Oncology Junior Faculty Career Development Awards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimple, Randall J.; Kao, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Between 2000 and 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) awarded 22 Junior Faculty Career Development Awards (JFA) totaling $4.4 million. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these awards on the grantees' career development, including current position, publications, and subsequent independent grant funding. Methods: Each awardee was requested via email and telephone to provide an updated curriculum vitae, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) biosketch, and information regarding current position of employment. Twenty-one of the 22 JFA recipients complied. Reported grant funding was extracted from each candidate's CV, and the amounts of NIH grants obtained were confirmed via NIH REPORTER. Reported publications were confirmed via PubMed. Results: All survey respondents (21 of 21) have remained in academic positions. Subsequent aggregate grant funding totaled more than $25 million (range, $0-$4.1 million), 5.9 times the initial investment. NIH grant funding totaled almost $15 million, 3 times the initial investment. Awardees have published an average of 34.6 publications (range, 0-123) for an overall rate of 4.5 papers/year (range, 1-11). Conclusions: ASTRO JFAs over the past decade have been strongly associated with grantees remaining in academic positions, success in attracting private and NIH grants, and publication productivity. In an era of dwindling federal research funding, the support provided by the ASTRO JFA may be especially helpful to support the research careers of promising junior faculty members

  12. A 10-year analysis of American Society For Radiation Oncology Junior Faculty Career Development Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimple, Randall J; Kao, Gary D

    2013-03-15

    Between 2000 and 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) awarded 22 Junior Faculty Career Development Awards (JFA) totaling $4.4 million. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of these awards on the grantees' career development, including current position, publications, and subsequent independent grant funding. Each awardee was requested via email and telephone to provide an updated curriculum vitae, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) biosketch, and information regarding current position of employment. Twenty-one of the 22 JFA recipients complied. Reported grant funding was extracted from each candidate's CV, and the amounts of NIH grants obtained were confirmed via NIH REPORTER. Reported publications were confirmed via PubMed. All survey respondents (21 of 21) have remained in academic positions. Subsequent aggregate grant funding totaled more than $25 million (range, $0-$4.1 million), 5.9 times the initial investment. NIH grant funding totaled almost $15 million, 3 times the initial investment. Awardees have published an average of 34.6 publications (range, 0-123) for an overall rate of 4.5 papers/year (range, 1-11). ASTRO JFAs over the past decade have been strongly associated with grantees remaining in academic positions, success in attracting private and NIH grants, and publication productivity. In an era of dwindling federal research funding, the support provided by the ASTRO JFA may be especially helpful to support the research careers of promising junior faculty members. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  14. Development of risperidone liposomes for brain targeting through intranasal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Reema; Singh, Mohan; Ranjan, OmPrakash; Nayak, Yogendra; Garg, Sanjay; Shavi, Gopal V; Nayak, Usha Y

    2016-10-15

    The present paper is aimed at development of functionalized risperidone liposomes for brain targeting through nasal route for effective therapeutic management of schizophrenia. The risperidone liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration method. Various parameters such as lipid ratio and lipid to drug ratio were optimized by using Design-Expert(®) Software to obtain high entrapment with minimum vesicle size. The surface of the optimized liposomes was modified by coating stearylamine and MPEG-DSPE for enhanced penetration to the brain. The formulations were evaluated for vesicle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency. The morphology was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In vivo efficacy was assessed by performing pharmacokinetic study in Wistar albino rats following intranasal administration of the formulations in comparison to intravenous bolus administration of pure drug. The mean vesicle size of optimized liposomes ranged from 90 to 100nm with low polydispersity index (risperidone into the brain than plasma. High brain targeting efficiency index for LP-16 indicating preferential transport of the drug to brain. The study demonstrated successful formulation of surface modified risperidone liposomes for nasal delivery with brain targeting potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase: A drug target for the development of antimalarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Maqbool, Mudasir; Mobashir, Mohammad; Hoda, Nasimul

    2017-01-05

    Malaria is a critical human disease with extensive exploration yet unestablished due to occurrence of frequent drug resistance. This aspect of malaria pharmacology calls for the introduction of new antimalarial. The drugs reported till date targeted different stages of the parasites in order to stop their growth and proliferation. Beside this, various drugs that could inhibit the imperative enzymes of the parasite have also been reported. Amid them, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has a key worth. DHODH is involved in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis of the malarial parasite which acts as a primary source of energy for its survival. Since life of the parasite utterly depends on pyrimidine biosynthesis, so it can be used as an apt drug target for malaria eradication. In addition to this, DHODH is also present in human and their active sites have significant structural dissimilarities, so the development of selective inhibitors may prove to be a milestone in search of new antimalarials. Inhibitors of human DHODH have been used to treat autoimmune diseases such as, rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis and have been investigated in the treatment of cancer, viral diseases, as well as in plant pathology. Here, we have reviewed the important role of DHODH as a viable drug target against malaria, its importance for the survival of the parasite, and DHODH inhibitors reported so far. The rate of success of the reported DHODH inhibitors and further required improvements have also been accounted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a cluster-jet target for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; PANDA Cluster Jet Target Group

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Stefan Meyer Institute (SMI) is part of the international PANDA collaboration. The universal detector will be constructed for the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). PANDA will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. The physics program of PANDA will comprehend charmonium spectroscopy below and above open charm threshold, search for exotics (glueballs, hybrids), lambda and double-lambda hypernuclei studies and the investigation of in-medium modifications of charmed mesons - an experimentally unexplored field. SMI contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the antiproton - cluster jet interaction zone: in order to reach the desired target density, an optimization of the nozzle and the skimmer arrangement is essential. A density-profile monitor for the cluster-jet was designed and built at SMI. Several nozzle types have been studied using different gases, temperatures and inlet pressures. To ensure low background the residual gas load in the interaction zone has to be minimized. The installation of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes is planned. A prototype of the interaction zone has been set up at SMI. The pumping capacity of NEG and the reactivation cycles were tested. The status of the development of the cluster-jet target and studies of the interaction region will be presented (author)

  17. Development and preparation of thin, supported targets and stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Petek, M.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Gibson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Usually, it is desirable to prepare thin films that are self-supporting so that any extraneous support materials will not interfere with experimental measurements. However, films with very low areal densities, films other than metals or films covering large areas may require the use of a backing or support. Two classes of supported thin films are being developed by the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML). Electrodeposition of oxide thin films is a fairly common target preparation technique that is usually performed on backings such as thin metal foils or low atomic number materials like Be and to a lesser extent, C foils. Techniques have been developed by IRML that result in electrodeposition of oxide films up to 500 μg/cm 2 on carbon foils or aluminized mylar. Electrodeposition is a very attractive target fabrication method since it is very efficient in the usage of rare and/or valuable isotopes. The ability to prepare these films on carbon or mylar foils provides a target that has, in most applications, far less interference resulting from the backing. Thin films of carbon, aluminum, boron and titanium are being used as stripper foils in the generation of neutral (H - →H 0 ) particle beams with energies of 50 MeV or greater. Neutralizer foils as large as 25 cm x 25 cm have been prepared from Al and C in thicknesses ranging from 5 to 12 μg/cm 2 that are mounted on thin nickel grids with a transmittance of approximately 90%. Significantly larger foils are currently under development. (orig.)

  18. Hedgehog pathway as a drug target: Smoothened inhibitors in development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin TL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tara L Lin1, William Matsui21Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Division of Hematologic Malignancies, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Emerging laboratory and clinical investigations demonstrate that Hedgehog signaling (Hh represents a novel therapeutic target in various human cancers. This conserved signaling pathway precisely regulates self-renewal and terminal differentiation in embryonic development, but is typically silenced in adult tissues, with reactivation usually only during tissue repair. Aberrant Hh pathway signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis, self-renewal, and chemotherapy resistance of a growing number of solid and hematologic malignancies. Major components of the Hh pathway include the Hh ligands (Sonic, Desert, and Indian, the transmembrane receptor Patched, the signal transducer Smoothened (Smo, and transcription factors Gli1–3 which regulate the transcription of Hh target genes. Mutations in Hh pathway genes, increased Hh signaling in tumor stroma, and Hh overexpression in self-renewing cells (cancer stem cells have been described, and these different modes of Hh signaling have implications for the design of Hh pathway inhibitors and their integration into conventional treatment regimens. Discovery of a naturally-occurring Smo inhibitor, cyclopamine, and the identification of Hh pathway mutations and over expression in cancer cells prompted the development of several cyclopamine derivatives. Encouraging laboratory and in vivo data has resulted in Phase I and II clinical trials of Smo inhibitors. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of Hh pathway signaling in malignancy and Smo antagonists in development. Recent data with these agents shows that they are well-tolerated and may be effective for subsets of patients. Challenges remain

  19. Hedgehog pathway as a drug target: Smoothened inhibitors in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tara L; Matsui, William

    2012-01-01

    Emerging laboratory and clinical investigations demonstrate that Hedgehog signaling (Hh) represents a novel therapeutic target in various human cancers. This conserved signaling pathway precisely regulates self-renewal and terminal differentiation in embryonic development, but is typically silenced in adult tissues, with reactivation usually only during tissue repair. Aberrant Hh pathway signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis, self-renewal, and chemotherapy resistance of a growing number of solid and hematologic malignancies. Major components of the Hh pathway include the Hh ligands (Sonic, Desert, and Indian), the transmembrane receptor Patched, the signal transducer Smoothened (Smo), and transcription factors Gli1-3 which regulate the transcription of Hh target genes. Mutations in Hh pathway genes, increased Hh signaling in tumor stroma, and Hh overexpression in self-renewing cells (cancer stem cells) have been described, and these different modes of Hh signaling have implications for the design of Hh pathway inhibitors and their integration into conventional treatment regimens. Discovery of a naturally-occurring Smo inhibitor, cyclopamine, and the identification of Hh pathway mutations and over expression in cancer cells prompted the development of several cyclopamine derivatives. Encouraging laboratory and in vivo data has resulted in Phase I and II clinical trials of Smo inhibitors. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of Hh pathway signaling in malignancy and Smo antagonists in development. Recent data with these agents shows that they are well-tolerated and may be effective for subsets of patients. Challenges remain for appropriate patient selection and the optimal combination and sequence of these targeted therapies into current treatment paradigms.

  20. IAP proteins as targets for drug development in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrez L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Dubrez,1,2 Jean Berthelet,1,2 Valérie Glorian,1,21Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (Inserm, Dijon, France; 2Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, FranceAbstract: The inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs constitute a family of proteins involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell death, immune and inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell motility. There is accumulating evidence supporting IAP-targeting in tumors: IAPs regulate various cellular processes that contribute to tumor development, such as cell death, cell proliferation, and cell migration; their expression is increased in a number of human tumor samples, and IAP overexpression has been correlated with tumor growth, and poor prognosis or low response to treatment; and IAP expression can be rapidly induced in response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy because of the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES-dependent mechanism of translation initiation, which could contribute to resistance to antitumor therapy. The development of IAP antagonists is an important challenge and was subject to intense research over the past decade. Six molecules are currently in clinical trials. This review focuses on the role of IAPs in tumors and the development of IAP-targeting molecules for anticancer therapy.Keywords: Smac mimetics, apoptosis, antitumor therapy

  1. Environmental Approach to the Study of the Modern Stage of Information Society Development: Research Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, Vitali Yu.; Barkova, Eleonora V.; Ivleva, Marina I.; Buzskaya, Olga M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses modern information society in terms of an information ecology approach. Its aim is to determine the place of the human being in the human-society-ecosystem relations system and to study the prospects of a humanistic approach to the understanding of the essence of subject-object relationships in the communication space of…

  2. Can Disaster Risk Education Reduce the Impacts of Recurring Disasters on Developing Societies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of recurring disasters on vulnerable urban societies have been tragic in terms of destruction and fatalities. However, disaster risk education that promotes risk mitigation and disaster preparedness has been shown to be effective in minimizing the impacts of recurring disasters on urban societies. Although the recent integration of…

  3. Peptide deformylase as an antibacterial drug target: target validation and resistance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfel, C M; Locher, H; Evers, S; Takács, B; Hubschwerlen, C; Pirson, W; Page, M G; Keck, W

    2001-04-01

    New inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) which are very potent against the isolated enzyme and show a certain degree of antibacterial activity have recently been synthesized by our group. Several lines of experimental evidence indicate that these inhibitors indeed interfere with the target enzyme in the bacterial cell. (i) The inhibition of Escherichia coli growth could be counteracted by overexpression of PDF from different organisms, including E. coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Conversely, reduced expression of PDF in S. pneumoniae resulted in an increased susceptibility to the inhibitors. (ii) Proteome analysis on two-dimensional gels revealed a shift for many proteins towards lower pI in the presence of PDF inhibitors, as would be expected if the proteins still carry their N-formyl-Met terminus. (iii) PDF inhibitors show no antimicrobial activity against E. coli under conditions that make growth independent of formylation and deformylation. The antibacterial activity in E. coli was characterized as bacteriostatic. Furthermore, the development of resistance in E. coli was observed to occur with high frequency (10(-7)). Resistant mutants show a reduced growth rate, and DNA sequence analysis revealed mutations in their formyl transferase gene. Taking all these aspects into account, we conclude that PDF may not be an optimal target for broad-spectrum antibacterial agents.

  4. Promoting children’s literature: The challenges and possibilities of using the Internet in a developing society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Greyling

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibilities and practicalities of using the Internet in a multicultural society such as South Africa to the benefit of language and cultural identity, media literacy and children’s literature. Stories create opportunities for worlds to meet and for cultural and language identities to be formed – especially in the minds of children. It is thus of crucial importance that children’s literature should be available and advanced in all indigenous languages. The Internet, the information and communication technology of the future, can play a significant role in the creation and transference of cultural identity, including the advancement of indigenous languages in general, and literature and literacy in particular. The vast technical possibilities of the Internet, its cost-efficiency and interactive and inviting character make it an important option to consider for the advancement of children’s literature. Although access to the Internet in South Africa is still relatively limited, the importance of new communication technologies is recognised by various policies, the implementation of which could result in the accessibility of electronic media and the literacy of its users. With “Storiewerf”, an existing website for Afrikaans children’s literature as a working example, new websites can be developed to provide content and services for other target groups as well.

  5. Developments in numerical simulation of IFE target and chamber physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Minguez, E.; Alonso, E.; Gil, J.M.; Malerba, L.; Marian, J.; Martel, P.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Munoz, R.; Ogando, F.; Perlado, J.M.; Piera, M.; Reyes, S.; Rubiano, J.G.; Sanz, J.; Sauvan, P.; Velarde, M.; Velarde, P.

    2000-01-01

    The work presented outlines the global frame given at the Institute of Nuclear Fusion (DENIM) for having an integral perspective of the different research areas with the development of Inertial Fusion for energy generation. The coupling of a new radiation transport (RT) solver with an existing multi-material fluid dynamics code using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (ARM) is presented in Section 2, including improvements and additional information about the solver precision. In Section 3, new developments in the atomic physics codes under target conditions, to determine populations, opacity data and emissivities have been performed. Exotic and innovative ideas about Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), as catalytic fuels and Z-pinches have been explored, and they are explained in Section 4. Numerical simulations demonstrate important reductions in the tritium inventory. Section 5 is devoted to safety and environment of the IFE. Uncertainties analysis in activation calculations have been included in the ACAB activation code, and also calculations on pulse activation in IFE reactors and on the activation of target debris in NIF are presented. A comparison of the accidental releases of tritium from some IFE reactors computed using MACCS2 code is explained. Finally, Section 6 contains the research on the basic mechanisms of neutron damage in SiC (low-activation material) and FeCu alloy using the DENIM/LLNL molecular dynamics code MDCASK. (authors)

  6. Targeting Villages for Rural Development Using Satellite Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Kush R; Chen, George H; Abelson, Brian; Nowocin, Kendall; Sakhrani, Vivek; Xu, Ling; Spatocco, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Satellite imagery is a form of big data that can be harnessed for many social good applications, especially those focusing on rural areas. In this article, we describe the common problem of selecting sites for and planning rural development activities as informed by remote sensing and satellite image analysis. Effective planning in poor rural areas benefits from information that is not available and is difficult to obtain at any appreciable scale by any means other than algorithms for estimation and inference from remotely sensed images. We discuss two cases in depth: the targeting of unconditional cash transfers to extremely poor villages in sub-Saharan Africa and the siting and planning of solar-powered microgrids in remote villages in India. From these cases, we draw out some common lessons broadly applicable to informed rural development.

  7. Development of target-tracking algorithms using neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Sun; Lee, Joon Whaoan; Yoon, Sook; Baek, Seong Hyun; Lee, Myung Jae [Chonbuk National University, Chonjoo (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    The utilization of remote-control robot system in atomic power plants or nuclear-related facilities grows rapidly, to protect workers form high radiation environments. Such applications require complete stability of the robot system, so that precisely tracking the robot is essential for the whole system. This research is to accomplish the goal by developing appropriate algorithms for remote-control robot systems. A neural network tracking system is designed and experimented to trace a robot Endpoint. This model is aimed to utilized the excellent capabilities of neural networks; nonlinear mapping between inputs and outputs, learning capability, and generalization capability. The neural tracker consists of two networks for position detection and prediction. Tracking algorithms are developed and experimented for the two models. Results of the experiments show that both models are promising as real-time target-tracking systems for remote-control robot systems. (author). 10 refs., 47 figs.

  8. Development of new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Chung, Weon Kuu; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2015-06-01

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology.

  9. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Weon Kuu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Kangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Hwan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwan Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology.

  10. Development of new on line statistical program for the Korean society for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Si Yeol; Ahn, Seung Do; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chung, Weon Kuu; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop new on-line statistical program for the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KOSRO) to collect and extract medical data in radiation oncology more efficiently. The statistical program is a web-based program. The directory was placed in a sub-folder of the homepage of KOSRO and its web address is http://www.kosro.or.kr/asda. The operating systems server is Linux and the webserver is the Apache HTTP server. For database (DB) server, MySQL is adopted and dedicated scripting language is the PHP. Each ID and password are controlled independently and all screen pages for data input or analysis are made to be friendly to users. Scroll-down menu is actively used for the convenience of user and the consistence of data analysis. Year of data is one of top categories and main topics include human resource, equipment, clinical statistics, specialized treatment and research achievement. Each topic or category has several subcategorized topics. Real-time on-line report of analysis is produced immediately after entering each data and the administrator is able to monitor status of data input of each hospital. Backup of data as spread sheets can be accessed by the administrator and be used for academic works by any members of the KOSRO. The new on-line statistical program was developed to collect data from nationwide departments of radiation oncology. Intuitive screen and consistent input structure are expected to promote entering data of member hospitals and annual statistics should be a cornerstone of advance in radiation oncology

  11. Life Courses in the Globalization Process : The Development of Social Inequalities in Modern Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, Sandra; Hofaecker, Dirk; Mills, Melinda; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter; Kurz, Karin; Hofmeister, Heather; Hofäcker, D.

    This article examines the impact of the globalization process on individual life courses and employment careers in modern societies from an international comparative perspective. Empirical results are summarized from the GLOBALIFE research project (Life Courses in the Globalization Process), which

  12. Social Capital in Divided Societies: Development of a Social Capital Questionnaire in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McALONEY, Kareena; STRINGER, Maurice; MALLETT, John

    2011-01-01

    The population of Northern Ireland is highly divided by religion across multiple aspects of social life including residence, education and employment. Increased understanding of the bonds between and across religious groups may shed light on the nature of group relations within this society. The social capital questionnaire (SCQ) was adapted for use in this religiously divided society. A 44 item pilot measure was assessed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques with two ...

  13. CERTIFICATION - THE ACTIVITY WHICH INFLUENCES THE DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF HUMAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta RADULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presenteds the national, European and international institutional existingrelationships of the standardisation and certification bodies. Furthermore, is analyzed the connection betweencertification and standardisation and their influence on the level of the society from Romania and namely fromthe European Union countries. Certification process is very complex as it requires a radical change in workmode of society requires rules and principles and requires the ability to learn and assimilate new knowledge

  14. PCSK9: Regulation and Target for Drug Development for Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Amy C; Dron, Jacqueline S; Hegele, Robert A; Huff, Murray W

    2017-01-06

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) is a secreted zymogen expressed primarily in the liver. PCSK9 circulates in plasma, binds to cell surface low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, is internalized, and then targets the receptors to lysosomal degradation. Studies of naturally occurring PCSK9 gene variants that caused extreme plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) deviations and altered atherosclerosis risk unleashed a torrent of biological and pharmacological research. Rapid progress in understanding the physiological regulation of PCSK9 was soon translated into commercially available biological inhibitors of PCSK9 that reduced LDL-C levels and likely also cardiovascular outcomes. Here we review the swift evolution of PCSK9 from novel gene to drug target, to animal and human testing, and finally to outcome trials and clinical applications. In addition, we explore how the genetics-guided path to PCSK9 inhibitor development exemplifies a new paradigm in pharmacology. Finally, we consider some potential challenges as PCSK9 inhibition becomes established in the clinic.

  15. Cdc7 kinase - a new target for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan; Mahalingam, Devalingam; O'Dwyer, Michael; Santocanale, Corrado; Kelly, Kevin; Carew, Jennifer; Giles, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The cell division cycle 7 (Cdc7) is a serine threonine kinase that is of critical importance in the regulation of normal cell cycle progression. Cdc7 kinase is highly conserved during evolution and much has been learned about its biological roles in humans through the study of lower eukaryotes, particularly yeasts. Two important regulator proteins, Dbf4 and Drf1, bind to and modulate the kinase activity of human Cdc7 which phosphorylates several sites on Mcm2 (minichromosome maintenance protein 2), one of the six subunits of the replicative DNA helicase needed for duplication of the genome. Through regulation of both DNA synthesis and DNA damage response, both key functions in the survival of tumour cells, Cdc7 becomes an attractive target for pharmacological inhibition. There are much data available on the pre-clinical anti-cancer effects of Cdc7 depletion and although there are no available Cdc7 inhibitors in clinical trials as yet, several lead compounds are being optimised for this purpose. In this review, we will address the current status of Cdc7 as an important target for new drug development.

  16. The Pim kinases: new targets for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Ronan; Kelly, Kevin; Carew, Jennifer; Nawrocki, Stefan; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Sarantopoulos, John; Bearss, David; Giles, Francis

    2011-12-01

    The three Pim kinases are a small family of serine/threonine kinases regulating several signaling pathways that are fundamental to cancer development and progression. They were first recognized as pro-viral integration sites for the Moloney Murine Leukemia virus. Unlike other kinases, they possess a hinge region which creates a unique binding pocket for ATP. Absence of a regulatory domain means that these proteins are constitutively active once transcribed. Pim kinases are critical downstream effectors of the ABL (ableson), JAK2 (janus kinase 2), and Flt-3 (FMS related tyrosine kinase 1) oncogenes and are required by them to drive tumorigenesis. Recent investigations have established that the Pim kinases function as effective inhibitors of apoptosis and when overexpressed, produce resistance to the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor, rapamycin . Overexpression of the PIM kinases has been reported in several hematological and solid tumors (PIM 1), myeloma, lymphoma, leukemia (PIM 2) and adenocarcinomas (PIM 3). As such, the Pim kinases are a very attractive target for pharmacological inhibition in cancer therapy. Novel small molecule inhibitors of the human Pim kinases have been designed and are currently undergoing preclinical evaluation.

  17. Developing Student Science and Information Literacy through Contributions to the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.; Farley, I.; Geary, A.

    2016-12-01

    Introductory-level Earth science courses provide the opportunity for science and non-science majors to expand discipline-specific content knowledge while enhancing skill sets applicable to all disciplines. The outcomes of the student work can then benefit the education and outreach efforts of an international organization - in this case, a wiki devoted exclusively to the geosciences, managed by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). The course Environment Earth at Penn State Brandywine is a general education science course with the overarching course goal for students to understand, communicate examples, and make informed decisions relating to big ideas and fundamental concepts of Earth science. To help accomplish this goal, students carry out a semester-long digital engaged scholarship project that benefits the users of the SEG Wiki (http://wiki.seg.org/). To begin with developing the literacy of students and their ability to read, interpret, and evaluate sources of scientific news, the first assignment requires students to write an annotated bibliography on a specific topic that serves as the foundation for a new SEG Wiki article. Once students have collected and summarized information from reliable sources, students learn how writing for a wiki is different than writing a term paper and begin drafting their wiki page. Students peer review each other's work for content and clarity before publishing their work on the SEG wiki. Students respond positively to this project, reporting a better understanding of and respect towards the authors of online wiki pages, as well as an overall satisfaction of knowing their work will benefit others. Links to student-generated pages and instructional materials can be found at: http://sites.psu.edu/segwiki/.

  18. Autophagy as a target for cancer therapy: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, Jennifer S; Kelly, Kevin R; Nawrocki, Steffan T

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that eliminates cytosolic proteins, macromolecules, organelles, and protein aggregates. Activation of autophagy may function as a tumor suppressor by degrading defective organelles and other cellular components. However, this pathway may also be exploited by cancer cells to generate nutrients and energy during periods of starvation, hypoxia, and stress induced by chemotherapy. Therefore, induction of autophagy has emerged as a drug resistance mechanism that promotes cancer cell survival via self-digestion. Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy enhances the activity of a broad array of anticancer agents. Thus, targeting autophagy may be a global anticancer strategy that may improve the efficacy of many standard of care agents. These results have led to multiple clinical trials to evaluate autophagy inhibition in combination with conventional chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the anticancer agents that have been reported to modulate autophagy and discuss new developments in autophagy inhibition as an anticancer strategy

  19. Different types of multiethnic societies and different patterns of development and change in the prehistoric Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipane, Marcella

    2015-07-28

    After briefly examining the forms of cultural contact in pre- and protohistoric societies in relation to the problem of the varying perception of territories and their "borders" as well as of "membership" in those societies, and after a brief reconsideration of the concept of culture and ethnicity in such archaic contexts, this paper then examines three examples of multiethnic societies in the Near East, and specifically in Upper Mesopotamia and Southeast Anatolia, in the fifth, fourth, and at the beginning of the third millennia before the common era (BCE), respectively. These examples are dealt with as emblematic cases of different models of society, types of interaction with alien groups, levels of integration, and development dynamics. Each of these cases is examined with respect to its socioeconomic context, the archeological evidence of "multiethnicity," the types of interaction between different components, the degree of cultural integration achieved, and the effects on the dynamics of change and the development of the societies examined. By analyzing and comparing these examples, the paper aims to show how interethnic contact impacted differently on different societies according to their types, the reasons and purposes of the interaction, and the degree of integration achieved.

  20. Novel targets and future strategies for acute cardioprotection: Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenloy, Derek J; Garcia-Dorado, David; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Davidson, Sean M; Downey, James; Engel, Felix B; Jennings, Robert; Lecour, Sandrine; Leor, Jonathan; Madonna, Rosalinda; Ovize, Michel; Perrino, Cinzia; Prunier, Fabrice; Schulz, Rainer; Sluijter, Joost P G; Van Laake, Linda W; Vinten-Johansen, Jakob; Yellon, Derek M; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Heusch, Gerd; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-05-01

    Ischaemic heart disease and the heart failure that often results, remain the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and worldwide. As such, in order to prevent heart failure and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, novel therapies are required to protect the heart against the detrimental effects of acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). During the last three decades, a wide variety of ischaemic conditioning strategies and pharmacological treatments have been tested in the clinic-however, their translation from experimental to clinical studies for improving patient outcomes has been both challenging and disappointing. Therefore, in this Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart, we critically analyse the current state of ischaemic conditioning in both the experimental and clinical settings, provide recommendations for improving its translation into the clinical setting, and highlight novel therapeutic targets and new treatment strategies for reducing acute myocardial IRI. The last two authors contributed equally to the paper as joint senior authors. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Health Disparity Still Exists in an Economically Well-Developed Society in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lee

    .06-1.44 and 1.6 (95% CI 1.09-2.37 respectively.Null hypothesis was not supported. A strong gradient was still found to exist among different socio-economic groups for various health-related behaviors in developed society like Hong Kong.

  2. Health Disparity Still Exists in an Economically Well-Developed Society in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert; Chua, Hoi-wai; Chan, Mariana; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Wong, Jasmine W. S.; Chuh, Antonio A. T.

    2015-01-01

    , lower family income and recipient of CSSA with ORs 1.24 (95% CI 1.06-1.44) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.09-2.37) respectively. Conclusion Null hypothesis was not supported. A strong gradient was still found to exist among different socio-economic groups for various health-related behaviors in developed society like Hong Kong. PMID:26098942

  3. The strategy for the development of information society in Serbia by 2020: Information security and critical infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology has changed the world economy and induced new political trends. The European Union (EU and many non-EU member states apply the strategies of information society development that raise the level of information security (IS. The Serbian Government (Government has adopted the Strategy for Information Society in Serbia by 2020 (Strategy, and pointed to the challenges for the development of a modern Serbian information society. This paper presents an overview of the open-ended questions about IS, critical infrastructures and protection of critical infrastructures. Based on publicly available data, some critical national infrastructures are listed. As a possible solution to the problem of IS, the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI-based Information security integrated information system (ISIIS is presented. The ISIIS provides modularity and interoperability of critical infrastructures both in Serbia and neighboring countries.

  4. Targeted p120-catenin ablation disrupts dental enamel development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Bartlett

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental enamel development occurs in stages. The ameloblast cell layer is adjacent to, and is responsible for, enamel formation. When rodent pre-ameloblasts become tall columnar secretory-stage ameloblasts, they secrete enamel matrix proteins, and the ameloblasts start moving in rows that slide by one another. This movement is necessary to form the characteristic decussating enamel prism pattern. Thus, a dynamic system of intercellular interactions is required for proper enamel development. Cadherins are components of the adherens junction (AJ, and they span the cell membrane to mediate attachment to adjacent cells. p120 stabilizes cadherins by preventing their internalization and degradation. So, we asked if p120-mediated cadherin stability is important for dental enamel formation. Targeted p120 ablation in the mouse enamel organ had a striking effect. Secretory stage ameloblasts detached from surrounding tissues, lost polarity, flattened, and ameloblast E- and N-cadherin expression became undetectable by immunostaining. The enamel itself was poorly mineralized and appeared to be composed of a thin layer of merged spheres that abraded from the tooth. Significantly, p120 mosaic mouse teeth were capable of forming normal enamel demonstrating that the enamel defects were not a secondary effect of p120 ablation. Surprisingly, blood-filled sinusoids developed in random locations around the developing teeth. This has not been observed in other p120-ablated tissues and may be due to altered p120-mediated cell signaling. These data reveal a critical role for p120 in tooth and dental enamel development and are consistent with p120 directing the attachment and detachment of the secretory stage ameloblasts as they move in rows.

  5. Development of annular targets for 99MO production-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, C.; Lewandowski, E. F.; Snelgrove, J. L.; Liberatore, M. W.; Walker, D. E.; Wiencek, T. C.; McGann, D. J.; Hofman, G. L.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1999-01-01

    The new annular target performed well during irradiation. The target is inexpensive and provides good heat transfer during irradiation. Based on these and previous tests, we conclude that targets with zirconium tubes and either nickel-plated or zinc-plated foils work well. We proved that we could use aluminum target tubes, which are much cheaper and easier to work with than the zirconium tubes. In aluminum target tubes nickel-plated fission-recoil barriers work well and prevent bonding of the foil to the new target tubes during irradiation. Also, zinc-plated and aluminum-foil barriers appear promising in anodized aluminum tubes. Additional tests are anticipated to address such issues as fission-recoil barrier thickness and uranium foil composition. Overall, however, the target was successful and will provide an inexpensive, efficient way to irradiate LEU metal foil for the production of 99 Mo

  6. Prospects for developing new antibacterials targeting bacterial type IIA topoisomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašić, Tihomir; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin

    2014-01-01

    The modulation of DNA topology by DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, both of which are type IIA topoisomerases and found in most bacteria, is a function vital to DNA replication, repair and decatenation. Despite the potential for resistance development, DNA gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV have been proven to be and remain highly attractive targets in antibacterial drug discovery due to their potential for dual targeting. The search for new GyrA and/or ParC inhibitors that can overcome the increasing spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has been successfully focused in the last decades on the modification of the known fluoroquinolone scaffold as primarily guided by ligand-based design via classical structure-activity relationship studies and the optimisation of physicochemical properties. This focus has resulted in several novel fluoroquinolones that have been introduced into clinical practice since 2000, and several of these new compounds are currently in different phases of clinical trials. Due to increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones, a significant part of DNA gyrase research has shifted to the discovery of new GyrB and/or ParE inhibitors, which are commonly identified through fragment-based design as well as virtual screening techniques and structure-based hit optimisation programs. This research often results in lead compounds with potent inhibitory activity and promising antibacterial activity profiles. Nevertheless, it is important to understand how different physicochemical properties (e.g., logD and total polar surface area) and different structural motifs influence the compounds' permeability to ensure the efficient discovery of potent, small-molecule antibacterials particularly against Gram-negative strains.

  7. Contesting Technologies in the Networked Society: A Case Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Shale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopke, Jill E.

    In this dissertation, I study the network structure and content of a transnational movement against hydraulic fracturing and shale development, Global Frackdown. I apply a relational perspective to the study of role of digital technologies in transnational political organizing. I examine the structure of the social movement through analysis of hyperlinking patterns and qualitative analysis of the content of the ties in one strand of the movement. I explicate three actor types: coordinator, broker, and hyper-local. This research intervenes in the paradigm that considers international actors as the key nodes to understanding transnational advocacy networks. I argue this focus on the international scale obscures the role of globally minded local groups in mediating global issues back to the hyper-local scale. While international NGOs play a coordinating role, local groups with a global worldview can connect transnational movements to the hyper-local scale by networking with groups that are too small to appear in a transnational network. I also examine the movement's messaging on the social media platform Twitter. Findings show that Global Frackdown tweeters engage in framing practices of: movement convergence and solidarity, declarative and targeted engagement, prefabricated messaging, and multilingual tweeting. The episodic, loosely-coordinated and often personalized, transnational framing practices of Global Frackdown tweeters support core organizers' goal of promoting the globalness of activism to ban fracking. Global Frackdown activists use Twitter as a tool to advance the movement and to bolster its moral authority, as well as to forge linkages between localized groups on a transnational scale. Lastly, I study the relative prominence of negative messaging about shale development in relation to pro-shale messaging on Twitter across five hashtags (#fracking, #globalfrackdown, #natgas, #shale, and #shalegas). I analyze the top actors tweeting using the #fracking

  8. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  9. Living in Two Worlds: The Development and Transition of Mormon Education in American Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, Scott C.; Randall, E. Vance

    2014-01-01

    Religious organisations have long relied on education to transmit cherished values, working within society to preserve their worldview. Therefore, when a religious education system is restructured, it can act as a barometer of change, revealing societal values and reflecting negotiated roles. Like other faiths, the Church of Jesus Christ of…

  10. Career development for early career academics: benefits of networking and the role of professional societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Lena; Flickinger, Tabor E; Barello, Serena; Kunneman, Marleen; Mantwill, Sarah; Quilligan, Sally; Zanini, Claudia; Aelbrecht, Karolien

    2014-10-01

    Whilst effective networking is vitally important for early career academics, understanding and establishing useful networks is challenging. This paper provides an overview of the benefits and challenges of networking in the academic field, particularly for early career academics, and reflects on the role of professional societies in facilitating networking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Theories of Societal Development: Effects of Education and the Promotion of a Free Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Vincent Hoover Adams, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis and synthesis of educational philosophies of Adler (1982), Dewey (1907), Greene (1988), and Illich (1970) in terms of their underlying principles about the strengths and limitations of building education systems for the purpose of promoting freedom for individuals and society are discussed. Information that is reflective of current…

  12. Strategies for Developing a Sustainable Learning Society: An Analysis of Lifelong Learning in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charungkaittikul, Suwithida; Henschke, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Today's world may be characterised as the dawn of the new millennium of the learning society, where knowledge is considered as a country's most valued asset and primary source of power. In the increasingly intense competition among international communities, Thailand has been respected for advancing the concept of transforming communities, cities…

  13. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Quality Improvement Initiative: developing performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutter, Matthew D.; Senore, Carlo; Bisschops, Raf; Domagk, Dirk; Valori, Roland; Kaminski, Michal F.; Spada, Cristiano; Bretthauer, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Bellisario, Cristina; Minozzi, Silvia; Hassan, Cesare; Rees, Colin; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hucl, Tomas; Ponchon, Thierry; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and United European Gastroenterology (UEG) have a vision to create a thriving community of endoscopy services across Europe, collaborating with each other to provide high quality, safe, accurate, patient-centered and accessible endoscopic

  14. Development of students’ research activity under the conditions of contemporary information-oriented society

    OpenAIRE

    Belova Tatiana G.; Belov Igor P.

    2016-01-01

    Present article is to review an issue of students’ research activity from the viewpoint of contemporary information age. It provides analysis of such concepts as “research”, “research stand”, “research skills”, “research activity” and elicits the potential of research-based teaching under the conditions of present-day information-oriented society.

  15. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Development of a cryogenic target system for the FOREST experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, R.; Fujimura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Kasagi, J.; Kuwasaki, S.; Sato, M.; Yamazaki, H.; Shimizu, H.; Kanda, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new cryogenic target production system for a 4π γ-ray detector FOREST has been installed in the GeV-γ experimental hall. The achieving temperature at the target is 4.5 K. It can maintain solid or liquid H 2 /D 2 . The target system enables us to make up solid or liquid hydrogen in a short time ∼2 hours after 3 hour-precooling. (author)

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE URALS: THE SEARCH OF AUTHORITIES AND CIVIL SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila A. Dashkevich

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the role of civil society in the establishment of the higher educational institutions in the Urals, and to determine the importance and activeness of the Ural intelligentsia in the process of transformation of regional education. Methods. The study is based on the methodological approaches inherent in the modernization paradigm. The methods used in the analysis and systematization of the factual material are historical-comparative, historical-genetic...

  18. World society theory and the development of Irish higher education (1960 - 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the major changes which have occurred in Irish higher education over the last five decades using World Society theory as an analytical framework. In doing so, it provides an alternative perspective to the realist economic or critical discourses which currently dominate the literature on changes in this sector. The premise is that the transformation that has taken place in that sector - its rapid expansion and diversification, its increased centrality in a knowledge based ...

  19. Civil society development in Russia : political actors and power in EU-Russia relations

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines non-state actors’ role in International Relations. To accomplish this, the study has two objectives. The first objective is theoretical: to explain that different dimensions of power must be included in studies on non-state actors. The second objective is empirical: to show that non-state actors working on Russian civil society must relate to different dimensions of power. The empirical data is based upon participation and semi-structured interviews in the ...

  20. Targeting DNA repair systems in antitubercular drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Alina; Brzostek, Anna; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2018-01-28

    Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, are difficult to treat using currently available chemotherapeutics. Clinicians agree on the urgent need for novel drugs to treat tuberculosis. In this mini review, we summarize data that prompts the consideration of DNA repair-associated proteins as targets for the development of new antitubercular compounds. We discuss data, including gene expression data, that highlight the importance of DNA repair genes during the pathogenic cycle as well as after exposure to antimicrobials currently in use. Specifically, we report experiments on determining the essentiality of DNA repair-related genes. We report the availability of protein crystal structures and summarize discovered protein inhibitors. Further, we describe phenotypes of available gene mutants of M. tuberculosis and model organisms Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. We summarize experiments regarding the role of DNA repair-related proteins in pathogenesis and virulence performed both in vitro and in vivo during the infection of macrophages and animals. We detail the role of DNA repair genes in acquiring mutations, which influence the rate of drug resistance acquisition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. 100-B/C Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.W. Ovink

    2010-03-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-B/C remedial investigation/feasibility study addendum to DOE/RL-2008-46. This report also establishes the analyte exclusion criteria applicable for 100-B/C use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the target analytes.

  2. Steering the Information Society Development as a Vision-based, Multi-stakeholder Process: a Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Dragomirescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The steering of the information society development at country level is a desideratum for the smooth unfolding of the respective societal change -- nowadays a key issue worldwide for scientific research and public governance. Some possible guidelines are presented on how to come up with a vision shared by stakeholders and how to ensure concertation among them along the way.

  3. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  4. Research and development on materials for the SPES target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, Stefano; Andrighetto, Alberto; Manzolaro, Mattia; Scarpa, Daniele; Vasquez, Jesus; Rossignoli, Massimo; Monetti, Alberto; Calderolla, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco

    2014-03-01

    The SPES project at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro) is focused on the production of radioactive ion beams. The core of the SPES facility is constituted by the target, which will be irradiated with a 40 MeV, 200 µA proton beam in order to produce radioactive species. In order to efficiently produce and release isotopes, the material constituting the target should be able to work under extreme conditions (high vacuum and temperatures up to 2000 °C). Both neutron-rich and proton-rich isotopes will be produced; in the first case, carbon dispersed uranium carbide (UCx) will be used as a target, whereas to produce p-rich isotopes, several types of targets will have to be irradiated. The synthesis and characterization of different types of material will be reported. Moreover, the results of irradiation and isotopes release tests on different uranium carbide target prototypes will be discussed.

  5. Challenges of science-society interactions in the frame of sustainable development: A case-study of contemporary Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paneva Aneliya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectively tackling problems of sustainable development such as climate change, poverty, and biodiversity loss requires a different perspective on the role of science in society. Building on the understanding that knowledge production processes shall go hand in hand with governance processes, sustainability science and ecological economics promote transdisciplinarity and participatory procedures as a key requirement for scientific work on nature-society interactions. Involving non-academic actors such as local lay persons, civil society representatives, businesses, and decision makers in the research process promises the discovery of practical solutions to related problems and empowerment of communities. While this novel research approach has been increasingly applied in Western societies, its adoption by scientific actors in the context of Central and Eastern Europe, however, remains relatively low. Employing Bulgaria as a case study, this investigation examined the inter-actions between academia and practice through a series of expert interviews and a review of policy documents, thus offering insights into the specific conditions of implementing science for sustainable development. It emerges that knowledge transfer and experience exchange in the field are needed. Promoting social learning in this domain requires clarification of the roles of actors and institutions for sustainable development. Finally, recommendations for science related policies and scientific work are given.

  6. National Agriculture Society (SNA and fruit-crops development in Chile, 1838- 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its beginning in 1938, the National Agriculture Society (SNA began publishing journals with agriculture-related topics. This generated a singular feature-length documentary from which those devoted to fruit growing are examined in this work. Three-hundred articles referred to plant’s cultivation practices, diseases and pests infestations, fruit conservation, and the export business. North American and Argentinian, among others, references are mentioned in these articles. The SNA contributions to fruit-crops growing in Chile were significant, which became evident in the 1936 census

  7. Development of a higher power cooling system for lithium targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, B; Green, S; Scott, M C; Bennett, J R J; Edgecock, T R

    2015-12-01

    The accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy beam at the University of Birmingham is based around a solid thick lithium target cooled by heavy water. Significant upgrades to Birmingham's Dynamitron accelerator are planned prior to commencing a clinical trial. These upgrades will result in an increase in maximum achievable beam current to at least 3 mA. Various upgrades to the target cooling system to cope with this increased power have been investigated. Tests of a phase change coolant known as "binary ice" have been carried out using an induction heater to provide a comparable power input to the Dynamitron beam. The experimental data shows no improvement over chilled water in the submerged jet system, with both systems exhibiting the same heat input to target temperature relation for a given flow rate. The relationship between the cooling circuit pumping rate and the target temperature in the submerged jet system has also been tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and evaluation of vinpocetine inclusion complex for brain targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaojiao Ding; Jinfeng Li; Shirui Mao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to prepare vinpocetine (VIN) inclusion complex and evaluate its brain targeting effect after intranasal administration. In the present study, VIN inclusion complex was prepared in order to increase its solubility. Stability constant (Kc) was used for host selection. Factors influencing properties of the inclusion complex was investigated. Formation of the inclusion complex was identified by solubility study and DSC analysis. The brain targeting effect of the com...

  9. Targeting the noradrenergic system for gender-sensitive medication development for tobacco dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Terril L; Weinberger, Andrea H; Smith, Philip H; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Mineur, Yann S; Picciotto, Marina R; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for both women and men in the United States, and women often experience poorer smoking cessation outcomes than men. Preliminary evidence suggests there are sex differences in medication effectiveness for smoking cessation. However, current medications do not take into account gender-sensitive treatment development and efficacy, underscoring the importance of this underdeveloped area of research. We reviewed preclinical and clinical evidence for gender differences in the inability to quit smoking by examining (a) the effect of increased negative affect and stress reactivity on smoking outcomes in women and (b) smoking for nicotine reinforcement in men. We also reviewed the current literature targeting the noradrenergic system as a novel gender-sensitive treatment strategy for tobacco dependence. We hypothesize that noradrenergic agents that normalize noradrenergic activity may differentially attenuate stress reactivity in women and nicotine-related reinforcement in men, indicating that targeting the noradrenergic system for smoking cessation may be effective for both genders, with benefits operating through sex-specific mechanisms. Converging lines of preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that gender-sensitive approaches to medication development for smoking cessation are a critical next step for addressing low quit rates and exacerbated health risks among women. Evidence reviewed indicates that smoking activates different brain systems modulated by noradrenergic activity in women versus men, and noradrenergic compounds may preferentially target these gender-sensitive systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Research and development on materials for the SPES target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corradetti Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The SPES project at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro is focused on the production of radioactive ion beams. The core of the SPES facility is constituted by the target, which will be irradiated with a 40 MeV, 200 µA proton beam in order to produce radioactive species. In order to efficiently produce and release isotopes, the material constituting the target should be able to work under extreme conditions (high vacuum and temperatures up to 2000 °C. Both neutron-rich and proton-rich isotopes will be produced; in the first case, carbon dispersed uranium carbide (UCx will be used as a target, whereas to produce p-rich isotopes, several types of targets will have to be irradiated. The synthesis and characterization of different types of material will be reported. Moreover, the results of irradiation and isotopes release tests on different uranium carbide target prototypes will be discussed.

  11. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Backeljauw, Philippe F; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). PARTICIPANTS: A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including...... pediatric and adult endocrinologists, basic scientists, regulatory scientists, and participants from the pharmaceutical industry. EVIDENCE: Current literature was reviewed for gaps in knowledge. Expert opinion was used to suggest studies required to address potential safety and efficacy issues. CONSENSUS...... day of the workshop. Scientists from industry and regulatory agencies reviewed the manuscript to identify any factual errors. CONCLUSIONS: LAGH compounds may represent an advance over daily GH injections because of increased convenience and differing phamacodynamic properties, providing the potential...

  12. Environmental and Post-Modernity Crisis in the Information Society: Some Impacts for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the information society, which arises from the new technological revolution of the media, and its impact on the rights to information, complexity and environmental crisis in postmodernity, with a view to a Environmentally balanced environment and a healthy quality of life on the planet, rights that are very important to the community. In addition, the article under discussion makes a critical analysis of the current situation experienced with respect to these rights in the national legal order. The deductive method is used primarily in this study, since the literature review and documentary analysis of legal provisions are presented as a theoretical basis for the considerations made throughout the article.

  13. Church’s influence on the development of civil society in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Melnyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The term church refers to a group of people governed by similar rules and beliefs, who congregate in recognition of a higher Being. In most cases the term church and religion are used synonymously. While religions is domesticated by morals that are illuminated by faith, most states are guided by politics whose orientation is generally practical empirical. In most cases the church. Church institutions have long been not only present in public life but directly influence the activity of the Ukrainian authorities. Therefore, the Church has long been performing a mediation mission in settlement of the socio-political conflict in Ukraine, with different intensity going on since the declaration of its independence. That mission lies in the formation of philosophic and moral perceptions of children and adults, inoculation of tolerance / intolerance, etc.  The features of the democratization of the political process in Ukraine and the religious factors influence the formation of a consolidated democracy. It is noted that in today’s political democratization process involves the institutionalization of power and expanding the role of non-political non-governmental actors, which include the religious association. This paper therefore intends to evaluate the relationship between church and civil society in Ukraine. This paper falls under cross cutting themes like religion, values and civil society. However, the start of the transitional period in Ukraine was rather marked with a religious revival. Suppressed by the previous regime, religion in the transition to democracy finally found a way to make itself visible and redefine its position in the new emerging social context. But, what role did religion play in the period of post-communist transition? The authors will employ philosophical methodology. This method involves analyzing issues and rationalizing. The data that will be used includes mainly secondary data. This includes information that is

  14. Sustainable development - opening address 29th Annual Canadian Nuclear Society Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainable development which in a broad sense incorporates three dimensions: economic growth, environmental protection, and social welfare. The challenge for sustainable development is to address these three dimensions in a balanced way

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO DESIGN A LOW-CARBON SOCIETY IN SMALL COMMUNITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO PUTRAJAYA, MALAYSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuri; Simson, Janice. J.; Gomi, Kei; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    In this study, we developed the method to design Low-carbon society for small communities almost without industry, with regarding of costs for countermeasures. Then we applied it to Putrajaya, Malaysia, and estimate Socio-economic indicators, energy demand, CO2 emission in year 2007 and 2025. For countermeasure case in 2025, we set three cases according to their priority; Transport, Renewable energy, Building, and calculated costs for countermeasures also. As a result, it was shown that it is possible to reduce 45% of CO2 emission by 2025 compared to 2007 level. Renewable energy priority case needs the highest cost, and Building and Transport was estimated to be the second and third highest. C-ExSS will help more realistic discussion on the policy and countermeasures for developing low-carbon society based on their costs.

  16. A Holistic In silico Approach to Develop Novel Inhibitors Targeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To design a dual inhibitor of natural origin capable of targeting ErbB1 and ErbB2 kinases for the treatment of lung cancer. Method: Advanced In silico drug designing techniques were explored in this study. Sequence and structure analysis of ErbB1 and ErbB2 was followed by three dimensional (3D) ...

  17. Meeting the Kyoto Targets : the importance of developing country participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the implications of progressively broadening the scope of the market of tradable permits from no emissions trading to full global trading. We start with the no emissions trading case where each Annex I country must individually meet its Kyoto targets. Next, we consider a case

  18. Efficient Fourier based Algorithm Development for Airborne Moving Target Indication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows how the signal model that is commonly used as a starting point in multi-channel Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for airborne Moving Target Indication (MTI) formally corresponds to a model that can be derived from a bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) model extended for

  19. 100-K Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovink, R.

    2012-09-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-K Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) addendum to the Integrated 100 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan (DOE/RL-2008-46, Rev. 0).

  20. 100-F Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovink, R.

    2012-09-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-F Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) addendum to the Integrated 100 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan (DOE/RL-2008-46, Rev. 0).

  1. Geosciences: an important tool for the ethical advancement and the economic and cultural development of our society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito Graziano, Gian

    2013-04-01

    The development of a society in economic, cultural and ethical terms is always linked to the growth of the scientific and technical knowledge. It follows that the downsizing of the scientific research brings to a slower growth or even, as it is happening these days in Italy, a real cultural decay. The consequences of the economic crisis are evident to everyone, but it is precisely in times of crisis that the best strategies to restart the economy and give new cultural perspectives to society are studied. The crisis is also contrasted with ideas and ability to put them into practice. This, however, also presupposes a different cultural approach, which has to also include a review of values and beliefs, and a redefinition of the objectives to be pursued. This approach is modeled on the basis of several positive experiences that a country can boast. Among these experiences, there are those arising from the scientific culture: geology, for example, such as chemistry, biology or other sciences, can help to change vision. The research and practice of Earth sciences have important implications on the life and activities of the population and therefore the geoscientists, as active subjects in the society, should question their role and responsibilities. They should be at the service of society, especially in the fields of prevention from natural hazards and valorization of georesources. In this sense they can give important indications for economy and development of their country. The Italian Council of Geologists (Consiglio Nazionale dei Geologi - CNG) acts with the aim of highlighting the social role of geoscientists, hoping for a new cultural Renaissance, which leads to new researches, without obscurantism or prejudices. In an authoritative way, the CNG intends to put this social role before any demand from the professional category. Therefore, it has recently presented its political Manifesto, geared essentially to the good governance of the territory, to all the

  2. Identifying the Right Disease Targets to Develop Better Drugs, Faster | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Identifying the Right Disease Targets to Develop Better Drugs, Faster Past ... reason is that we're not selecting the right biological changes to target from the start. How ...

  3. Modeling to Support the Development of Habitat Targets for Piping Plovers on the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenau, Kate E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-05

    Report on modeling and analyses done in support of developing quantative sandbar habitat targets for piping plovers, including assessment of reference, historical, dams present but not operated, and habitat construction calibrated to meet population viability targets.

  4. Educational space of information society as a space of risk for human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Petrenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of philosophical analysis of education educational space in the context of media reality is the system analysis, communication and risk status in space education. Crisis and negative phenomena in postmodern education is not the result of the process of formation of modern electronic media and virtual media space. Artificial man-made environment provides a comfortable existence for the reckless consumer awareness. The crisis of education in the emerging media space could deepen if the electronic media will be perceived in the spirit of modernism. The fundamental fact of subordination technology has dangerous twist of metaphor as personal meaning-creation procedure to media contents mode of production. The transition from education information and intellectual consumerism to opening creative abilities of understanding associated with the need to reform the internal structure of education. Using the power of modern media and the media they create space must be returned to its existential essence of education as an integral properties of humanity. In categorical analyzes educational level measuring media space most appropriate exercise within the phenomenological methodology as concrete-filled form of subjective meaning of human existence. The most generalized educational dimension of media space is studied within the concept of socio-cultural environment of the information society through education and media engagement components of social space in the context of media and information environment of formation and activity. Within the concept of information-educational space is carried out as a versatile analysis of electronic media and their role in the educational process and the subjective dimension of the new media reality. Within the concept of virtual space and its varieties («communicative space», «Internet space» is most deeply analyzed virtual educational communication as specific feature educational media

  5. Developing Targeted Hybrid Imaging Probes by Chelator Scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer, Dominik; Grossrubatscher, Leo; Petrik, Milos; Michalcikova, Tereza; Novy, Zbynek; Rangger, Christine; Klingler, Maximilian; Haas, Hubertus; Kaeopookum, Piriya; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Haubner, Roland; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2017-06-21

    Positron emission tomography (PET) as well as optical imaging (OI) with peptide receptor targeting probes have proven their value for oncological applications but also show restrictions depending on the clinical field of interest. Therefore, the combination of both methods, particularly in a single molecule, could improve versatility in clinical routine. This proof of principle study aims to show that a chelator, Fusarinine C (FSC), can be utilized as scaffold for novel dimeric dual-modality imaging agents. Two targeting vectors (a minigastrin analogue (MG11) targeting cholecystokinin-2 receptor overexpression (CCK2R) or integrin α V β 3 targeting cyclic pentapeptides (RGD)) and a near-infrared fluorophore (Sulfo-Cyanine7) were conjugated to FSC. The probes were efficiently labeled with gallium-68 and in vitro experiments including determination of logD, stability, protein binding, cell binding, internalization, and biodistribution studies as well as in vivo micro-PET/CT and optical imaging in U-87MG α V β 3 - and A431-CCK2R expressing tumor xenografted mice were carried out. Novel bioconjugates showed high receptor affinity and highly specific targeting properties at both receptors. Ex vivo biodistribution and micro-PET/CT imaging studies revealed specific tumor uptake accompanied by slow blood clearance and retention in nontargeted tissues (spleen, liver, and kidneys) leading to visualization of tumors at early (30 to 120 min p.i.). Excellent contrast in corresponding optical imaging studies was achieved especially at delayed time points (24 to 72 h p.i.). Our findings show the proof of principle of chelator scaffolding for hybrid imaging agents and demonstrate FSC being a suitable bifunctional chelator for this approach. Improvements to fine-tune pharmacokinetics are needed to translate this into a clinical setting.

  6. Development of a cluster-jet target for PANDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Orth, H.; Luehning, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) is part of the international PANDA collaboration. The universal detector will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). PANDA will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. The physics program of PANDA will encompass charmonium spectroscopy below and above open charm threshold, search for exotics (glueballs, hybrids), lambda and double-lambda hypernuclei studies and the investigation of in-medium modifications of charmed mesons - an experimentally unexplored field. SMI contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. In order to reach the desired target density, an optimization of the cold head, the nozzle and the skimmer arrangement is essential. A density-profile monitor for the cluster-jet was designed and built at SMI. Several nozzle types will be studied using different gases, temperatures and inlet pressures. Additionally we, together with the cluster-jet target group at GSI, are carrying out R and D for improving the jet-density. The Genova/Fermilab cluster-jet target used for these measurements has been in use at Fermilab for the experiments E760 and E835 and has been transferred to GSI for this purpose. The setup of the density-profile monitor at SMI and several measurements at GSI will be presented. (author)

  7. Modelling radicalization: how small violent fringe sects develop into large indoctrinated societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Martin B.; McCalla, Scott G.; D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2017-08-01

    We model radicalization in a society consisting of two competing religious, ethnic or political groups. Each of the `sects' is divided into moderate and radical factions, with intra-group transitions occurring either spontaneously or through indoctrination. We also include the possibility of one group violently attacking the other. The intra-group transition rates of one group are modelled to explicitly depend on the actions and characteristics of the other, including violent episodes, effectively coupling the dynamics of the two sects. We use a game theoretic framework and assume that radical factions may tune `strategic' parameters to optimize given utility functions aimed at maximizing their ranks while minimizing the damage inflicted by their rivals. Constraints include limited overall resources that must be optimally allocated between indoctrination and external attacks on the other group. Various scenarios are considered, from symmetric sects whose behaviours mirror each other, to totally asymmetric ones where one sect may have a larger population or a superior resource availability. We discuss under what conditions sects preferentially employ indoctrination or violence, and how allowing sects to readjust their strategies allows for small, violent sects to grow into large, indoctrinated communities.

  8. Energy in the perspective of the sustainable development: The 2000W society challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Marechal, François; Favrat, Daniel; Jochem, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    As energy plays a central role in the world development, it represents as well a major challenge for sustainable development. Today, more than 80% of the primary energy consumption is based on fossil fuels and the share is likely to remain high in the future. Even if technology developments will reduce the specific consumption, the world energy demand is likely to increase in line with its population. Energy and material efficiency and the integration of the renewable resources will therefore...

  9. inner – urban slums in a developing society: a critical look at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVELATION MINISTRIES

    2007-03-27

    Mar 27, 2007 ... projects. More critical to the renewal effort will be the prompt payment of adequate compensation to indigenes for lands acquired for the programme. KEYWORDS: Inner–City ... Most urban analysts emphasize the spread and development of fringe squatters as being peculiar to the developing countries and ...

  10. Civil Society Involvement in International Development Cooperation: In Search for Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peels, Rafael; Develtere, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Participatory decision making seems to be the new development paradigm in international cooperation. It is still a long way, however, to achieve the objectives that are formulated by the international development actors. Non-state actors are only limitedly involved in the policy decision-making. In this paper, we argue that when these actors take…

  11. Development of AN Active 238UF6 Gas Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, C.; Enders, J.; Freudenberger, M.; Göök, A.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed studies of the fission process, e.g., the search for parity nonconservation (PNC) effects, the energy dependence of fission modes or the population of fission isomers, depend on high quality data, therefore requiring high luminosities. An active gas target containing uranium may overcome the deterioration of energy and angular resolution caused by large solid target thicknesses. A single Frisch-grid ionization chamber has been built to test a mixture of standard counting gases (e.g., argon) with depleted uranium hexafluoride (238UF6), utilizing a triple alpha source to evaluate signal quality and drift velocity. For mass fractions of up to 4 percent of 238U the drift velocity increases with rising UF6 content, while a good signal quality and energy resolution is preserved.

  12. Changes of acoustic target strength during juvenile perch development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 66, 2-3 (2004), s. 355-361 ISSN 0165-7836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK3046108; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017901; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6017801 Keywords : perch * larvae * target strength Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2004

  13. Development of optical-pumping polarized deuteron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamae, Tadaaki; Yokokawa, Tamio; Nishikawa, Itaru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Konno, Osamu; Nakagawa, Itaru; Sugawara, Masumi; Tanaka, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Miyase, Haruhisa; Tsubota, Hiroaki

    1998-01-01

    An optical-pumping system of rubidium atoms for a laser-driven polarized deuteron target was constructed. The density and polarization of the rubidium atoms were measured using Faraday rotation. The rotation angle was determined within an error of 0.01 deg. Our preliminary result showed a polarization of 0.4 at a gas thickness of 4x10 13 atoms/cm 2

  14. Hedgehog pathway as a drug target: Smoothened inhibitors in development

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tara; Matsui,William

    2012-01-01

    Tara L Lin1, William Matsui21Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Division of Hematologic Malignancies, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Emerging laboratory and clinical investigations demonstrate that Hedgehog signaling (Hh) represents a novel therapeutic target in various human cancers. This conserved signaling pathway precisely reg...

  15. Bio-patents, development and society: on the patentability of human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszczuk, Ana Paula; de Meirelles, Jussara Maria Leal

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the possibility of patenting inventions based on human genes and the need for an effective adaptation of the Patent Law system to enable the patenting of material derived from human genes. Furthermore, to allow for the inclusion of human gene-based inventions in the current patent system, many more amendments are required than those that have already become law during and since the twentieth century. It should be emphasized that one of the main characteristics of Patent Law is this changeability that requires the law to constantly respond to economic needs, advances in science and their resulting challenges in order to protect the product of human ingenuity. Therefore, new adaptations are required. In this context, the present paper adopts the understanding that human genes may serve as a basis for patentable inventions provided that the traditional requirements of novelty, inventiveness, utility and descriptive adequacy are adapted to the specific nature of living human matter. They should also be in line with the principles of legality and morality and not infringe human dignity, personality rights and should fulfill their social and environmental functions. Therefore, a bio-patent has a threefold function: economic, social and environmental. The economic function lies in the exclusive right to exploit an invention; the social function is implicit because there is no reason for the existence of a patent that solely benefits, its owner without society also enjoying its benefits and; the environmental function is that which guarantees that a bio-patent should preserve biodiversity and social diversity.

  16. Mapping of Norwegian civil society organizations working on energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study provides a mapping of Norwegian CSOs working on energy and development issues in developing countries and an overview assessment of how the CSOs fit with the priorities of the Norwegian Governments Clean Energy for Development Initiative. The study has been commissioned by Norad, the Norwegian agency for development aid. The study surveys 10 Norwegian CSOs, five of which are primarily environmentally oriented (Bellona, FIVAS, Naturvernforbundet, WWF-Norway and Zero, with green backgrounds in the tables) and five of which are primarily socially oriented (ARC-Aid, Kirkens Noedhjelp, Misjonsalliansen, Norges Vel and Utviklingsfondet, with reddish background in the tables). The study is based on a desk-top review of available material from the CSOs as well as semi-structured interviews. The goal of the Clean Energy for Development Initiative is to increase access to clean energy at an affordable price based on the long-term management of natural resources and efficient energy use. Activities shall also contribute to sustainable economic and social development in selected partner countries and to international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.The study shows that many Norwegian CSOs have potential to contribute further to effective implementation of Clean Energy for Development Initiative strategies and realization of goals: At least five Cos are already carrying out relevant work in the Initiatives core countries (ref. table A below). In addition, most of the Cos surveyed have a long track-record of relevant activities in non-core countries (ref. table A), something which provides substantial potential for transfer of relevant experience and concepts from non-core countries to work in core countries. Most of the Cos have a relevant and professional competence base, capacity and plans for scaling-up Clean Energy for Development Initiative related work.The CSOs engaged in clean energy for development activities are mainly engaged in developing clean

  17. Sustainable development in city districts: BaLaLuZ project - Society; Schlussbericht 'Gesellschaft' - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arend, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one of a series of reports concerning municipal development in various cities in Switzerland. The four city districts involved include Basel (Gundeldinger Feld), Lausanne (Bellevaux), Lucerne (Basel-/Bernstrasse) and Zurich (Werdwies). This paper takes a look at society aspects in the four districts and examines the factors that influence the sustainable development of the districts. Topics discussed include basic residential needs, safety, health, and supply along with culture and education. Also examined are the possible topics equality and fairness and participation along with geographical reference and neighbourhood relations. A project for this area of investigation is suggested.

  18. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  19. Development of the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ) for migrants to Western societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Anita J; DeBruyn, Rebecca; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    , and perceptions of care, has been created--the Migrant Friendly Maternity Care Questionnaire (MFMCQ)--in three languages (English, French and Spanish). It is completed in 45 minutes via interview administration several months post-birth. CONCLUSIONS: A 4-stage process of questionnaire development...... Initiative; adaptations of these recommendations specific to maternity care have yet to be elucidated and validated. We aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring migrant-friendly maternity care (MFMC) which could be used in a range of maternity care settings and countries. METHODS: This study was conducted...... in four stages. First, questions related to migrant friendly maternity care were identified from existing questionnaires including the Migrant Friendliness Quality Questionnaire, developed in Europe to capture recommended general hospital care for migrants, and the Mothers In a New Country (MINC...

  20. Legal and policy foundations for global generic competition: Promoting affordable drug pricing in developing societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero Miguel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called 'TRIPS flexibilities' restated in 2001 by the World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health offer a variety of policy avenues for promoting global price-based competition for essential medicines, and thus for improving access to affordable medicines in the developing world. In recent years, developing countries and international organisations alike have begun to explore the potentialities of global generic markets and competition generally, and also of using compulsory licensing to remedy anti-competitive practices (e.g. excessive pricing) through TRIPS-compatible antitrust enforcement. These and other 'pro-competitive' TRIPS flexibilities currently available provide the critical leverage and policy space necessary to improve access to affordable medicines in the developing world.

  1. Islamic Education: A Principle to Develop Religious Society to Anticipate Negative Impact of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Solihin Nasrudin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyze how the Islamic education is able to be the principle of inter-religious harmony to  anticipate  negative impact of social media use. Islam as a universal religion has proven its ability  to encourage the development of science and technology. Social media has emerged along with the development of information technology. The social media is able to facilitate  community to communicate and  to exchange information, but at the same time social media may also threat th...

  2. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...

  3. Communication Problems in a Mass Society: Mass Audience, Mass Communication and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemeka, Andrew A.

    This paper examines the problem of how to reconcile the practical realities of the nature of the mass audience with the demands of personal and social development, particularly in Africa and other Third World Countries, where the demands of modernization have confronted traditional norms and values. After defining and clarifying key concepts such…

  4. Expedition agroparks : research by design into sustainable development and agriculture in network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard

  5. Avoiding Praetorian Societies: Focusing U.S. Strategy on Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    political science, U.S. history in political development is long and sto- ried. It is ironic , therefore, that U.S. military doctrine and strategy...undertaken government functions in everything from establish- ing public order and law enforcement to restoring es- sential services using SWEAT -MS.42

  6. Historical experience of the Soviet period Russian school in the context of information society development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Galina N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process and basic tendencies of creating scientific information related to the development of the Russian comprehensive school during the Soviet period are considered in the paper. The conclusions and generalizations are based on the analysis of articles and dissertation papers published in Russia in Soviet and post-Soviet time

  7. Toward a Unified Knowledge-based Society for Sustainability -- Developing a Synthesis on the Methodological Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alec A. Schaerer

    2006-01-01

    The debates on development manifest an increasing concern for sustainability, but as yet little awareness of the hierarchy in the ideas through which humans contribute to the problem. This gap is widened by a widespread but nevertheless unnecessary acceptance of unreasonable elements such as paradoxes, or the general fragmentation in knowledge, or allegedly general...

  8. Targeting autophagy in cancer management – strategies and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozpolat, Bulent; Benbrook, Doris M

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic process involving lysosomal degradation of intracellular components, damaged organelles, misfolded proteins, and toxic aggregates, reducing oxidative stress and protecting cells from damage. The process is also induced in response to various conditions, including nutrient deprivation, metabolic stress, hypoxia, anticancer therapeutics, and radiation therapy to adapt cellular conditions for survival. Autophagy can function as a tumor suppressor mechanism in normal cells and dysregulation of this process (ie, monoallelic Beclin-1 deletion) may lead to malignant transformation and carcinogenesis. In tumors, autophagy is thought to promote tumor growth and progression by helping cells to adapt and survive in metabolically-challenged and harsh tumor microenvironments (ie, hypoxia and acidity). Recent in vitro and in vivo studies in preclinical models suggested that modulation of autophagy can be used as a therapeutic modality to enhance the efficacy of conventional therapies, including chemo and radiation therapy. Currently, more than 30 clinical trials are investigating the effects of autophagy inhibition in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapies and targeted agents in various cancers. In this review, we will discuss the role, molecular mechanism, and regulation of autophagy, while targeting this process as a novel therapeutic modality, in various cancers

  9. Investment strategy for sustainable society by development of regional economies and prevention of industrial pollutions in Japanese manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2014-01-01

    A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities are currently located at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This

  10. New Directions for the Hokuriku-Shin‧etsu Society for Engineering Education : Responding to New Developments in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    In this paper, I address the roles and responsibilities of the faculty members involved in the education of human resources in the engineering field at higher education facilities while briefly overviewing the trends in higher education carried out under the educational policy developed along the lines suggested in the recent report by the Central Council for Education. I give examples of actual practices carried out by the Japanese Society for Engineering Education, which leads engineering education and education for engineers in Japan. Moreover, the ideal directions of the Hokuriku-Shin‧etsu Society for Engineering Education (more concretely, the integration of the membership system with that of the Japanese Society for Engineering Education and revision of the annual membership fee) are clarified considering the comments from individual members in the Hokuriku Shin‧etsu area. Furthermore, the transition of accredited programs of the Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education in response to the internationalization of engineering education and the status of education in this area are also presented.

  11. Exploiting mitochondria as targets for the development of new antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Calderone, Richard

    2017-02-17

    Mitochondria are essential for cell growth and survival of most fungal pathogens. Energy (ATP) produced during oxidation/reduction reactions of the electron transport chain (ETC) Complexes I, III and IV (CI, CIII, CIV) fuel cell synthesis. The mitochondria of fungal pathogens are understudied even though more recent published data suggest critical functional assignments to fungal-specific proteins. Proteins of mammalian mitochondria are grouped into 16 functional categories. In this review, we focus upon 11 proteins from 5 of these categories in fungal pathogens, OXPHOS, protein import, stress response, carbon source metabolism, and fission/fusion morphology. As these proteins also are fungal-specific, we hypothesize that they may be exploited as targets in antifungal drug discovery. We also discuss published transcriptional profiling data of mitochondrial CI subunit protein mutants, in which we advance a novel concept those CI subunit proteins have both shared as well as specific responsibilities for providing ATP to cell processes.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT’S CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN A POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY: THE IMPERATIVES OF CAPITAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Astakhova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: problems of cultural competence development among higher school students are becoming increasingly important against a decline in a cultural level of an individual in a post-industrial society. Their relevance is determined by low level of effectiveness in the use of competence-based approach in higher education, debatable nature of the culture concept in scholarship, and evolution of axiological dominants in different cultures, specificity of dominant values in post-industr ial culture. Materials and Methods: the author uses a competence-based approach to determine the cultural competence of students. A cultural approach is applied to determine various approaches to culture. A capital approach is established as the approach enabling to take into account the cultural and axiological dominants of post-industrial society. Analytic-synthetic methods are used in the search and analysis of literature on the topic; the method of comparative analysis in the determination of essence of concepts of cultural competence: method of sociological survey to discover the level of cultural competence of graduates. Results: the sociological survey of employers revealed the insufficient level of cultural competence among graduates; the concept of cultural competence in pedagogical science was examined; the limitations of approaches to this concept were identified, the author’s definition of cultural competence of personality in a postindustrial society is substantiated. Based on the author’s informed definition of cultural competence, as well as the notion of cultural capital, the author substantiates the definition of “cultural-capital competence of a student in a post-industrial society” as a structural part of his / her cultural competence, which takes into account the requirements of a post-industrial society. Discussion and Conclusions: given the evolution of value priorities in a post-industrial culture, the author substantiates the

  13. The Development of Social Entrepreneurship – The Key to an Inclusive Society through Social Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Sîrb

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current international context, marked by the economic crisis and by the expansion of social problems, placed the concept of social economy and that of social entrepreneurship as being an effective tool in solving certain problems of socially excluded or under social risk persons, with real impact on their social inclusion and labour market integration. Regardless the goods or services produced or their price, the social economy organisations operate in a competitive environment, together with the classically organized enterprises, with the mention that their principal purpose is in equal measure to obtain profit and the labour market integration of vulnerable persons, as well as their empowerment and development of some self-marketing skills, for a self- determined life. In the present article, I will address as practical example of social business, a farm of roses from Alba county, situated in the Sâncrai village, belonging to the municipality of Aiud, an area known in Romania for the specific agricultural activities of cultivating roses, as well as other plants or shrubs. The development of such a viable social business, having as specific this activity, represents a great opportunity offered to vulnerable persons or to those who are in social risk in Sâncrai area and in the surroundings, by the fact that this offers a chance for a better life and for their social and labour market inclusion, but also for acquiring certain professional abilities, as well as human ones, in the same time with the development of a local brand namely the culture of roses.

  14. Nuclear-electrica experience related to the public information about nuclear energy and its benefits for development of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatamanu, Mariana

    2005-01-01

    All target audience is important in building the confidence, but some categories deserve special attention, considering the today priorities of the company: Local public, including local authorities - as far the anti-nuclear NGOs started a strong campaign against Cernavoda 2 and further development of the site. Mass-media representatives, increasing the co-operation with local newspapers, as well as with the national ones. Politicians, considering this year elections, and the re-drafting process of the political strategies of different parties. Improving the internal communication developing INTRANET and EXTRANET channels, and extending social events inside the company. A better social acceptability of nuclear energy may be obtained through a sustained effort to improve the public trust, using tools as diversified as possible; The public information and public participation are the two main components of the communication process, the accent following to be changed from information to participation; Public communication must be professionalized and planned so that each target group be treated in a specific manner; According to our experience, at this moment the target groups are local communities, mass media representatives and decision makers, but we can not neglect the internal communication which is important for local public involvement; Company has enough flexibility to re-define the target audience, considering possible future reallocation of priorities. (author)

  15. The Development Strategy of Muhammadiyah School in Based Conservative-NU Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Aisyiyah Kindergarten (Aisyiyah Bustanul Athfal and Muhammadiyah Elementary School at Mlangi Sleman Yogyakarta, where the majority of the community are from Nahdlatul Ulama (NU, that cause some social conflicts. However, the Aisyiyah Kindergarten and Muhammadiyah Elementary School are still be the favorite school at Mlangi. In fact, there are 23 pesantren based on NU, Masyitoh Kindergarten, 2 islamic elementary school belong to an-Nasyat and al-Falahiyah and NU Elementary School. This research discussed on obstacles, conflict, format of solutions, and development strategy of Aisyiyah Kindergarten and Muhammadiyah Elementary School at Mlangi. This research is a qualitative study used in-depth interview, observation, and documentation. The results showed the barriers and conflicts experienced by Aisyiyah Kindergarten and Muhammadiyah Elementary School in Mlangi, they are: parents’ low attention on formal education, clash of school activities and pesantren activities, limited infrastructure, limited human resources, negative thinking of Mlangi community on Aisyiyah Kindergarten and Muhammadiyah Elementary School, the difference in religious teaching, and the new admission competition. Development strategy of Aisyiah Kindergarten and Muhammadiyah Elementary School in Mlangi include imaging, increasing extra curricular program, improving infrastructure facilities, accomodating local culture, and providing tolerance and accomodation for students with different culture.

  16. Factors contributing to school failure among school children in very fast developing Arabian Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Madeeha; Bener, Abdulbari

    2009-07-01

    Education is one of the main foundations for the child's development and also for national human resource development. Failure at school and grade retention is a serious concern among children, and their parents. The characteristics of school failure in Qatar have not been studied earlier. The aim of this study is to assess the presence of social, psychological, health and school related factors that cause school failure. All students who had failed their grades and had to be retained and repeat the year from 35 randomly selected schools of all grades elementary, intermediate and high school were included in this study for academic years from 2003 to 2008. Each student was individually interviewed by a well-trained school social worker. The study was performed on a total 699 children who were classified as school failures. Social reasons include living with one parent 26.9%, parental divorce (27%) parents showing no interest in their child's education and school system (41.6%), low income (19.3%), and smoking (19.6%). Frequent absence from school was a result in 33.3%; incomplete homework (45.9%) and teachers identified 63.7% of students to be hyperactive, inattentive and disruptive in classroom. Most frequent psychological disorders include examination phobia (68.8%), anxiety (49.4%), anger (32.5%), fear (43.2%) and learning disability (37.9%). The most prevalent health disorders included visual disorders (23.5%), asthma (14.9%), anemia (15.2%), and hearing deficiency (8.2%). Psychological and health related factors were found to be more prevalent in students who failed a grade in school. The primary care pediatrician can play a key role by identifying students at high risk and providing early intervention.

  17. Optimizing target selection and development strategy in cancer treatment: the next wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sausville, Edward A

    2004-09-01

    Successful cancer treatments of the future are being developed with a focus on the molecular targets underlying the pathophysiology of neoplasia. Prominent targets which have emerged are those which are mutated in the course of a cancer's development, and mediate activation or release from suppression of pathways mediating proliferation or apoptosis. These arguably are "pathogenic" targets. However, equally important are targets which can be defined on the basis of "large scale" analysis techniques of gene or protein expression in tumors which define targets expressed as a result of a tumor's differentiation state or tissue of origin ("ontogenic" targets); targets mediating drug uptake or metabolism ("pharmacologic" targets), and "microenvironmental" targets mediating the alteration of tumor stromal elements. Irrespective of the nature of the molecular target which is the focus of new therapeutic efforts, target definition in susceptible tumors or patients ideally would be part of the development plan. In addition, an understanding of the therapeutic index which might be achieved in host vs tumor tissues using a surrogate or actual marker of drug effect ideally would be available from animal models and inform the development strategy in humans.

  18. The Cellular Targets of Estrogen in Mammary Ductal Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kushner, Peter

    2002-01-01

    ...) or with alternative response elements, especially AP-i and CRE elements, mediate proliferation. We have been successful in developing transgenic mice with expression of wild type and AP-1/CRE superactive human ER alpha (K206A...

  19. Knowledge Transfer and Leadership Development in Coordination with Young Generation in Nuclear (YGN) Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Chirayu; Janin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    IYNC in a Nutshell: The mission - IYNC (International Youth Nuclear Congress) is the global network of a new generation of nuclear professionals to: •Communicate the benefits of nuclear science and applications •Promote the peaceful use of nuclear power •Provide a platform for networking •Facilitate knowledge transfer between generations and across boundaries; The structure - IYNC is a non-profit organization run by: •11 Officers •Board of Directors •50 National Representatives (e.g. YGN) •20 Members at Large •Dedicated committees and team for projects (30+) → more than 80 volunteers; The activities - •Biannual Congress (IYNCWiN18) •Grants Committee •YGN Startup & Support •Bulletin, Newsletter – sign up www.iync.org •Innovation4Nuclear (I4N) •Nuclear4Climate •Annual Board of Directors. YGN (Young Generation Network): What is a YGN? • A group of young professionals and students interested in nuclear science and technology; Benefits: •Knowledge transfer •Train the future international leaders •Networking •Attracts, develops and retains young professionals

  20. [Public health crises in a developed society. Successes and limitations in Spain. SESPAS report 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérvas, Juan; Meneu, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    The perception, acceptability and management of risks are social construction. Consequently, in managing public health crises, the gap between facts, beliefs and feelings tests the responsiveness of official institutions to health alarms that can be objective, potential, or imaginary. On balance, a strong point of the Spanish experience of health crises is the presence of clinicians and public health officers working in an organization capable of responding adequately, although the quasi-federal Spanish political structure has both advantages and disadvantages. Weaknesses include the low profile given to public health and a management structure that relies too heavily on partitocracy. The management of these crises could be improved by transferring greater scope to health professionals in decisions about crisis identification and management (with transparency) and limiting bureaucratic inertia. For some, health crises involve visibility or business opportunities (not always legitimate). Therefore, the perception of crisis will increasingly rest less in the hands of experts and more in those of groups interested in spreading these crises or in providing solutions. While progress is needed to develop participation in strategies to respond to emerging crises, even more essential is the involvement of all healthcare levels in their preparation and dissemination. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of sulfur- and nitrogen- free hydrogen odorants - An important step toward a safe hydrogen society -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Oshikawa, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Le Lay, M.; Iwase, M.; Braun, N.A.; Eilers, J.; Walz, A.; Vogt, M.; Herr, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed four sulfur-free and nitrogen-free odorants, which can be effectively used to odorize hydrogen. The odors were described through an olfactory test as alarming, strange, and chemical, giving sense of danger to the person who smells the odor. The safety of the material has been assessed and has been shown to be safe for usage. Testing the stability of odorized hydrogen in 80 MPa pressurized state, it was shown for a period of 13 weeks that the odorant retained its warning odor. Using the odorized hydrogen, FC duration test at 0.2 A/cm 2 was carried out for over 900 h without significant decrease in performance or the detectable degradation of MEA. The outlet of the fuel cell had no warning odor, suggesting deodorization on the catalyst. Use of activated charcoal as an adsorbent showed that the deodorization could be effectively carried out, ensuring that normal operation conditions are not perceived as a hydrogen leakage. (authors)

  2. State of the art and new developments in molecular diagnostics for hemoglobinopathies in multiethnic societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, C L

    2014-02-01

    For detecting carriers of thalassemia traits, the basic part of diagnostics consists of measurement of the hematological indices followed by mostly automatic separation and measurement of the Hb fractions, while direct Hb separation either on high pressure liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis is sufficient to putatively identify carriers of the common Hb variants like HbS, C, E, D, and O-Arab. A putative positive result is reported together with an advice for parents, partner, or family analysis. For couples, presumed at-risk confirmation at the DNA level is essential. In general, this part of diagnostics is done in specialized centers provided with sufficient experience and the technical tools needed to combine hematological and biochemical interpretation with identification of the mutations at the molecular level. State-of-the-art tools are usually available in centers that also provide prenatal diagnosis and should consist of gap-PCR for the common deletions, direct DNA sequencing for all kind of point-mutations and the capacity to uncover novel or rare mutations or disease mechanisms. New developments are MLPA for large and eventually unknown deletion defects and microarray technology for fine mapping and primer design for breakpoint analysis. Gap-PCR primers designed in the region flanking the deletion breakpoints can subsequently be used to facilitate carrier detection of uncommon deletions in family members or isolated populations in laboratories where no microarray technology or MLPA is available. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  4. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Lyme guidelines: a cautionary tale about the development of clinical practice guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Lorraine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flawed clinical practice guidelines may compromise patient care. Commercial conflicts of interest on panels that write treatment guidelines are particularly problematic, because panelists may have conflicting agendas that influence guideline recommendations. Historically, there has been no legal remedy for conflicts of interest on guidelines panels. However, in May 2008, the Attorney General of Connecticut concluded a ground-breaking antitrust investigation into the development of Lyme disease treatment guidelines by one of the largest medical societies in the United States, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA. Although the investigation found significant flaws in the IDSA guidelines development process, the subsequent review of the guidelines mandated by the settlement was compromised by a lack of impartiality at various stages of the IDSA review process. This article will examine the interplay between the recent calls for guidelines reform, the ethical canons of medicine, and due process considerations under antitrust laws as they apply to the formulation of the IDSA Lyme disease treatment guidelines. The article will also discuss pitfalls in the implementation of the IDSA antitrust settlement that should be avoided in the future.

  5. A drug target that stimulates development of healthy stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have overcome a major impediment to the development of effective stem cell therapies by studying mice that lack CD47, a protein found on the surface of both healthy and cancer cells. They discovered that cells obtained from the lungs of CD47-de

  6. Molecular target in oncology. Opportunity for radiopharmaceuticals development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Marques, Fabio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a cellular multifactorial disease, regulated by changes in phenotype characteristics, such as adhesion, invasion, migration, and tumorigenesis; genotypic status of commonly altered genes (KRAS and p53); microenvironmental conditions, such pH, oxygen and nutrient supply. All these features provide opportunities for radiopharmaceuticals development, both for diagnostic and therapy. For both applications, radiopharmaceuticals molecules can be divided in small synthetic molecules, small peptides (natural or modified), large molecules such as antibody or nanoparticles. The characteristics of those molecules and use will guide the choice of the radionuclide to be used for labeling it. In the presentation, data from literature and research ongoing in the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo/Brazil will be used for demonstrate the potential for radiopharmaceuticals development. (author)

  7. Trees, poverty and targets: Forests and the Millennium Development Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, James

    2007-04-15

    Where are the forests in the MDGs? When players in the forestry world get together they are good at setting goals. They are a good match for the political leaders that gave us the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since the 1980s there has been a proliferation of international dialogues dealing with forests and, a bit like the football World Cup, every four years or so they come up with a feast of goals. If forestry goals were all we needed to make progress, then sustainable and pro-poor forestry would have long since become a worldwide reality. Of course, implementation still lags well behind aspiration, but at least there is now a considerable body of international knowledge and agreement on how forests can contribute to development.

  8. Advancing cancer drug discovery towards more agile development of targeted combination therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Neil O; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Cameron, David A

    2012-01-01

    Current drug-discovery strategies are typically 'target-centric' and are based upon high-throughput screening of large chemical libraries against nominated targets and a selection of lead compounds with optimized 'on-target' potency and selectivity profiles. However, high attrition of targeted agents in clinical development suggest that combinations of targeted agents will be most effective in treating solid tumors if the biological networks that permit cancer cells to subvert monotherapies are identified and retargeted. Conventional drug-discovery and development strategies are suboptimal for the rational design and development of novel drug combinations. In this article, we highlight a series of emerging technologies supporting a less reductionist, more agile, drug-discovery and development approach for the rational design, validation, prioritization and clinical development of novel drug combinations.

  9. Blueprint for the development of low carbon society scenarios for Asian regions- case study of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. S.; Matsuoka, Y.; Chau, L. W.; Teh, B. T.; Simson, J. J.; Gomi, K.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysian government aims to reduce 40% reduction of carbon emission intensity by the year 2020 using 2005 as the base year. Several mitigation and adaptation strategies in addressing environmental and climate change are formulated at national, regional and local level to mitigate greenhouse gases. This paper aims to examine local and regional resilient policy actions to reduce greenhouse gases using the empirical case of Iskandar Malaysia. The study case is selected because it is one of the fast developing economic corridor regions in Malaysia. In this study, a low carbon society blueprint is initiated to guide the rapid development of this economic corridor towards low carbon green growth. The blueprint provides the sustainable green growth roadmap with major 12 actions for the region. It is done through a bottom-up approach where stakeholder discussions are carried out to allow local communities participation in the plan formulation.

  10. Blueprint for the development of low carbon society scenarios for Asian regions- case study of Iskandar Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C S; Chau, L W; Teh, B T; Matsuoka, Y; Simson, J J; Gomi, K

    2013-01-01

    Malaysian government aims to reduce 40% reduction of carbon emission intensity by the year 2020 using 2005 as the base year. Several mitigation and adaptation strategies in addressing environmental and climate change are formulated at national, regional and local level to mitigate greenhouse gases. This paper aims to examine local and regional resilient policy actions to reduce greenhouse gases using the empirical case of Iskandar Malaysia. The study case is selected because it is one of the fast developing economic corridor regions in Malaysia. In this study, a low carbon society blueprint is initiated to guide the rapid development of this economic corridor towards low carbon green growth. The blueprint provides the sustainable green growth roadmap with major 12 actions for the region. It is done through a bottom-up approach where stakeholder discussions are carried out to allow local communities participation in the plan formulation.

  11. Pengendalian Malaria dalam Upaya Percepatan Pencapaian Target Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Rini Puji Lestari

    2012-08-01

    health official Malaria Center, and community leaders who observe malaria. Retrieval of data time is 10 – 16 April 2011 by in-depth interviews. It was found that malaria control programs have been implemented by the Departement of Health North Maluku Province, but have not been able to effectively reduce malaria morbidity. This is because malaria control is performed is not comprehensive. Handling is more directed to break the chain transmission to human, their habitats have not been touched up. Key words: Control of malaria, millennium development goals, malaria morbidity

  12. Development of radioactively labelled cancer seeking biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvarigou, A.D.; Archimandritis, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of the above project we are studying the labelling of biomolecules, peptides and antibodies, with radionuclides emitting β - and γ radiation. More specifically, for the time being, we have investigated the labelling of peptides with Re-188 and of antibodies with Sm-153 and Re-188. The radiolabelled derivatives are further evaluated in vivo for possible application in Oncology. For these radiobiological studies we are trying to apply ectopic and orthotopic tumour animal models and to develop, in collaboration with other national and foreign institutes, proper imaging devices for small animal imaging

  13. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene.

  14. Development of radioactively labelled cancer seeking biomolecules for targeted therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work done towards the development of bifunctional chelating agents, modified peptide and their radiolabelling studies with 90 Y and 188 Re are reported. Bifunctional chelating agents DOTA, TETA and DAHPES were synthesised. DOTA-Lanreotide (Mauritius) was synthesised from lanreotide. 90 Y and 188 Re used in the studies were obtained from 90 Sr- 90 Y and 188 W- 188 Re generators. Complexation studies of DOTA and Mauritius with 90 Y and that of DAHPES and EC with 188 Re were carried out. Cell labelling of 90 Y-DOTA-Lanreotide with a cell line expressing somatostatin receptors was also carried out

  15. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene

  16. Psoriasis pathogenesis and the development of novel targeted immune therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Jason E; Chan, Tom C; Krueger, James G

    2017-09-01

    Psoriasis is caused by a complex interplay between the immune system, psoriasis-associated susceptibility loci, autoantigens, and multiple environmental factors. Over the last 2 decades, research has unequivocally shown that psoriasis represents a bona fide T cell-mediated disease primarily driven by pathogenic T cells that produce high levels of IL-17 in response to IL-23. The discovery of the central role for the IL-23/type 17 T-cell axis in the development of psoriasis has led to a major paradigm shift in the pathogenic model for this condition. The activation and upregulation of IL-17 in prepsoriatic skin produces a "feed forward" inflammatory response in keratinocytes that is self-amplifying and drives the development of mature psoriatic plaques by inducing epidermal hyperplasia, epidermal cell proliferation, and recruitment of leukocyte subsets into the skin. Clinical trial data for mAbs against IL-17 signaling (secukinumab, ixekizumab, and brodalumab) and newer IL-23p19 antagonists (tildrakizumab, guselkumab, and risankizumab) underscore the central role of these cytokines as predominant drivers of psoriatic disease. Currently, we are witnessing a translational revolution in the treatment and management of psoriasis. Emerging bispecific antibodies offer the potential for even better disease control, whereas small-molecule drugs offer future alternatives to the use of biologics and less costly long-term disease management. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-target drugs: the trend of drug research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Pan, Wei; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing the status of drugs in the market and examining the trend of drug research and development is important in drug discovery. In this study, we compared the drug targets and the market sales of the new molecular entities approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration from January 2000 to December 2009. Two networks, namely, the target-target and drug-drug networks, have been set up using the network analysis tools. The multi-target drugs have much more potential, as shown by the network visualization and the market trends. We discussed the possible reasons and proposed the rational strategies for drug research and development in the future.

  18. Scaling up model of social capital: Developing a model of empowerment for poor society in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawa, A. F.; Kusumastuti, A.; Harjo, I. W. W.

    2017-06-01

    Indonesian government has delivered various community development programs to alleviate poverty problems of rural communities. This is despite the fact that the numbers of people who live in poverty in this area is going to increase. This has given rise to a crucial question in how development programs should be distributed to rural community members. This article present empirical findings of research depicts a model or mechanism by which rural community members who have been involved in Posdaya (Pos Pemberdayaan Keluarga/ Family Empowerment Post) program success in achieving economic empowerment objective by employing their social capital. This study employs qualitative method with an approach of case study and multiple case design. It conducts the logic of ‘replica’, meaning that it would lead the analysed case to be used either for making predictions of similar results (literal logic) or for achieving different results (theoretical replica). The fundamental assumption of the study refers to the lack involvement or participation of the empowered community or social groups. The domination of top-down approach has allowed people to rely on external party. On the other hand, bottom-up approach has not been fully implemented due to the absence of strong social capital in the empowered society. As a consequence, there have been only parts of people controlling and enjoying the presented empowerment program. Social capital is not an existing or a given capital in society. Rather, social capital is a mere potential, and in order to shape and develop it some strategies or endeavours are required. Thus, the study attempts to find out a suitable model to arrange and progress the social capital in the implementation of social empowerment program. Additionally, the study will advance the scaling up model into a wider space with an expectation to create a powerful community.

  19. Development of a Pamphlet Targeting Computer Workstation Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    With the increased use of computers throughout Goddard Space Flight Center, the Industrial Hygiene Office (IHO) has observed a growing trend in the number of health complaints attributed to poor computer workstation setup. A majority of the complaints has centered around musculoskeletal symptoms, including numbness, pain, and tingling in the upper extremities, shoulders, and neck. Eye strain and headaches have also been reported. In some cases, these symptoms can lead to chronic conditions such as repetitive strain injuries (RSI's). In an effort to prevent or minimize the frequency of these symptoms among the GSFC population, the IHO conducts individual ergonomic workstation evaluations and ergonomics training classes upon request. Because of the extensive number of computer workstations at GSFC, and the limited amount of manpower which the Industrial Hygiene staff could reasonably allocate to conduct workstation evaluations and employee training, a pamphlet was developed with a two-fold purpose: (1) to educate the GSFC population about the importance of ergonomically-correct computer workstation setup and the potential effects of a poorly configured workstation; and (2) to enable employees to perform a general assessment of their own workstations and make any necessary modifications for proper setup.

  20. Development of the systems for uniform target irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A.Yu.; Garanin, S.G.; Derkach, V.N.; Zhidkov, N.V.; Kravchenko, A.G.; Petrazhitskaya, N.A.; Starodubtsev, K.V.; Sukharev, S.A.; Shnyagin, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The new devices have been developed for laser beams homogenizing in the focal spot - multi-component lens raster and raster with the edges smoothing phase mask. The envelope non-uniformity of -4 radians. Investigation into the temporary-spatial smoothing with the use of low-density foams with the density less than the critical one is still in progress. Experiments on the foams with the density of 1-2.3 mg/cm 3 , thickness of 100-200 μm, and the cells' sizes up to the tens of micrometers were carried out with the radiation wavelength of 0.657 μm. The RMS non-uniformity < 5% has been found for the beam passed through the foam. The non-uniformity is evenly distributed over the spatial frequency spectrum. The induced divergence of radiation is measured to be 0.35 radian. The frequency of the rearranged speckled field of about 2 THz was obtained. The beam smoothing was recorded from the start of pulse of radiation, had the duration up to 1 ns, and the width of the radiation spectrum was about 30 A. The work was performed in part under the sponsorship of the RFFI (grants No. 09-02-12157-ofi-m and No. 09-02-97095-r-povolzh'ye-a) and grant of the President of the RF to leading scientific schools No. 65192.2010.2.

  1. Development of production of {sup 99}Mo from LEU target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adang, H.G.; Mutalib, A.; Lubis, H. [Radioisotope Production Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong (Indonesia)] [and others

    1998-10-01

    {sup 99}TC, the most popular radioisotope in nuclear medicine, is daughter of {sup 99}Mo. {sup 99}Mo is produced in research reactor by irradiating of high enriched uranium (HEU). However, in recent year, strict regulation that has been implemented by USA DOE and NPT has led to the difficulty in getting HEU. Therefore, BATAN has tried to develop the production of {sup 99}Mo by using low enriched uranium (LEU). The research involves the use of LEU in the production of {sup 99}Mo. This research was started in 1994 by joint-research between BATAN and Argonne National Laboratory USA. This program is divided into three research groups. The first group emphasizes its research on fabrication of LEU foil that is going to be irradiated. The second group studies the irradiation`s aspects and physical characteristic of irradiated LEU foils. The third group studies the radiochemical separation process of fission product {sup 99}Mo from solution of irradiated LEU foils. There are five steps that are carried out in studying of radiochemical separation of {sup 99}Mo from irradiated LEU. First is designing a dissolver that is going to be used in dissolving of LEU foil and testing its reliability. Second is dissolving LEU in the new design dissolver. Third is evaluation the modified of Cintichem`s radiochemical separation process of {sup 99}Mo from LEU. Forth is modifying the Cintichem`s radiochemical separation process of {sup 99}Mo from the solution of irradiated LEU. And fifth is using the modified of Cintichem`s radiochemical separation process for separation {sup 99}Mo from solution of irradiated LEU. The first through the forth steps of experiments were already carried out and will be reported in this workshop, whereas the fifth step of experiment is going to be conducted in February 1998. (author)

  2. First-in-class, first-in-human phase I results of targeted agents: highlights of the 2008 American society of clinical oncology meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molckovsky, Andrea; Siu, Lillian L

    2008-10-29

    This review summarizes phase I trial results of 11 drugs presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting held in Chicago IL from May 30 to June 3rd 2008: BMS-663513, CT-322, CVX-045, GDC-0449, GRN163L, LY2181308, PF-00562271, RAV12, RTA 402, XL765, and the survivin vaccine.

  3. First-in-class, first-in-human phase I results of targeted agents: Highlights of the 2008 American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Lillian L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes phase I trial results of 11 drugs presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting held in Chicago IL from May 30 to June 3rd 2008: BMS-663513, CT-322, CVX-045, GDC-0449, GRN163L, LY2181308, PF-00562271, RAV12, RTA 402, XL765, and the survivin vaccine.

  4. Intra-Target Microdosing - A Novel Drug Development Approach: Proof of Concept, Safety, and Feasibility Study in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T; MacLeod, D; Lee, K; Santoro, A; DeMasi, D K; Hawk, T; Feinglos, M; Rowland, M; Noveck, R J

    2017-09-01

    Intra-Target Microdosing (ITM) is a novel drug development approach aimed at increasing the efficiency of first-in-human (FIH) testing of new molecular entities (NMEs). ITM combines intra-target drug delivery and "microdosing," the subpharmacological systemic exposure. We hypothesized that when the target tissue is small (about 1/100th of total body mass), ITM can lead to target therapeutic-level exposure with minimal (microdose) systemic exposure. Each of five healthy male volunteers received insulin microdose into the radial artery or full therapeutic dose intravenously in separate visits. Insulin and glucose levels were similar between systemic administration and ITM administration in the ipsilateral hand, and glucose levels demonstrated a reduction in the ipsilateral hand but not in the contralateral hand. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake demonstrated differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral arms. The procedures were safe and well-tolerated. Results are consistent with ITM proof-of-concept (POC) and demonstrate the ethical, regulatory, and logistical feasibility of the approach. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  5. Consumption in the Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  6. FRAX® International Task Force of the 2010 Joint International Society for Clinical Densitometry & International Osteoporosis Foundation Position Development Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Jane A; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada; Luckey, Marjorie M

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a serious worldwide epidemic. FRAX® is a web-based tool developed by the Sheffield WHO Collaborating Center team, that integrates clinical risk factors and femoral neck BMD and calculates the 10 year fracture probability in order to help health care professionals identify patients who need treatment. However, only 31 countries have a FRAX® calculator. In the absence of a FRAX® model for a particular country, it has been suggested to use a surrogate country for which the epidemiology of osteoporosis most closely approximates the index country. More specific recommendations for clinicians in these countries are not available. In North America, concerns have also been raised regarding the assumptions used to construct the US ethnic specific FRAX® calculators with respect to the correction factors applied to derive fracture probabilities in Blacks, Asians and Hispanics in comparison to Whites. In addition, questions were raised about calculating fracture risk in other ethnic groups e.g., Native Americans and First Canadians. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) in conjunction with the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) assembled an international panel of experts that ultimately developed joint Official Positions of the ISCD and IOF advising clinicians regarding FRAX® usage. As part of the process, the charge of the FRAX® International Task Force was to review and synthesize data regarding geographic and race/ethnic variability in hip fractures, non-hip osteoporotic fractures, and make recommendations about the use of FRAX® in ethnic groups and countries without a FRAX® calculator. This synthesis was presented to the expert panel and constitutes the data on which the subsequent Official Positions are predicated. A summary of the International Task Force composition and charge is presented here. Copyright © 2011 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainable development through nuclear technology : 29th annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 32nd CNS/CNA student conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 29th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society and 32nd CNS/CNA Student Conference on Sustainable Development through Nuclear Technology was held on June 1-4, 2008 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The theme of the conference was 'Nuclear Sustainability'. The central objective of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of views on how this technical enterprise can best serve the needs of humanity, now and in the future. The renewed global interest in nuclear technology is based on a recognition of its potential to meet economic and environmental targets more favourably than competing technologies. Although many of these attractions are short-term in nature, they stem from a broader potential of nuclear technology to drive all aspects of development (social, environmental, economic) in a sustainable in this area. (author) a terial in support of fuel resources themselves. The conference drew a record attendance of over 450 delegates. Over 100 technical papers were presented within 15 technical sessions, as well as over 30 student papers in 5 sessions. The following list of session titles indicates the diversity of the technical papers: advanced reactors; plant and components; process systems; thermalhydraulics; safety and licensing; hydrogen; human factors; physics; instrumentation and control; environment and waste management; and plant operation. (author)

  8. Development of a Ne gas target for {sup 22}Na production by proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Bidhan Ch., E-mail: mechbidhan@gmail.com; Pal, Gautam [Mechanical Engineering Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Barua, Luna; Das, Sujata Saha [Radiopharmaceuticals Laboratory, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2016-03-15

    The article presents the design and development of a neon gas target for the production of {sup 22}Na using a proton beam from the room temperature cyclotron in Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata. The target design is made to handle a beam power of 85 W (17 MeV, 5 μA). The design is based on simulation using the computer code FLUKA for the beam dump and CFD-CFX for target cooling. The target has been successfully used for the production of {sup 22}Na in a 6 day long 17 MeV, 5 μA proton irradiation run.

  9. Transformation of Neolithic Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    and prepared the way for the appearance of Bronze Age societies. The great era of megalithic architecture came to an end as the production and exchange of gold, copper and bronze objects became the driving force in the development of Copper and Bronze Age societies. This development also had a great influence...

  10. A target development program for beamhole spallation neutron sources in the megawatt range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.; Atchison, F. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Spallation sources as an alternative to fission neutron sources have been operating successfully up to 160 kW of beam power. With the next generation of these facilities aiming at the medium power range between 0.5 and 5 MW, loads on the targets will be high enough to make present experience of little relevance. With the 0.6 MW continuous facility SINQ under construction, and a 5 MW pulsed facility (ESS) under study in Europe, a research and development program is about to be started which aimes at assessing the limits of stationary and moving solid targets and the feasibility and potential benefits of flowing liquid metal targets. Apart from theoretical work and examination of existing irradiated material, including used targets from ISIS, it is intended to take advantage of the SINQ solid rod target design to improve the relevant data base by building the target in such a way that individual rods can be equipped as irradiation capsules.

  11. IDH mutations in cancer and progress toward development of targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, L; Yen, K; Attar, E C

    2016-04-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes, converting isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (αKG).IDH1 and IDH2 mutations have been identified in multiple tumor types, including gliomas and myeloid malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Here we provide an overview of the function of normal and mutated IDH, discuss the role of IDH mutations in tumorigenesis and progression and review the key clinical considerations when treating IDH-mutated tumors based on emerging clinical data from mutant IDH1/2 inhibitor trials. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations confer neomorphic activity in the mutant protein, resulting in the conversion of αKG to the oncometabolite, D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The subsequent accumulation of 2-HG results in epigenetic dysregulation via inhibition of αKG-dependent histone and DNA demethylases, and a block in cellular differentiation. There is growing preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that IDHmutations are involved in neoplasia. Furthermore, preclinical studies assessing small molecule inhibitors of mutant IDH1/2 enzymes have provided proof of concept that this approach decreases intracellular 2-HG levels, reverses epigenetic dysregulation and induces cellular differentiation. Phase I studies of mutant IDH inhibitors are currently ongoing in patients with IDH-mutant hematologic and solid tumors, with early data in hematologic tumors suggesting a manageable safety profile as well as clinical benefit, with a mechanism of action based on differentiation of malignant cells. Inhibition of mutant IDH shows promise as a treatment approach in hematologic malignancies, with further development ongoing in solid tumors and glioma. The mutant IDH inhibitors may have clinical utility both as single agents and in combination strategies that target additional oncogenic pathways. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  12. The Bacterial Type III Secretion System as a Target for Developing New Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    McShan, Andrew C.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens requires new targets for developing novel antibacterials. The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an attractive target for developing antibacterials as it is essential in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS consists of structural proteins, effectors and chaperones. Over 20 different structural proteins assemble into a complex nanoinjector that punctures a hole on the eukaryotic cell membrane to allow the delivery of effectors ...

  13. PROBLEMS OF FINANCING OF TARGET PROGRAMS OF DEVELOPMENT OF REGION (EXPERIENCE OF KHABAROVSK TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Shljahovoj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In article considers variants of financing of target programs of development of the region, providing joint participation state and commercial structures. Parameters of conformity of conditions of target programs and terms of financing of programs are specified by the credit organization. The three-level scheme of financing of regional programs by the regional banks, being a component of bank strategy of development, is offered.

  14. Functional foam coatings inside tubing and custom developed diamond ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawedeit, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The development of inertial confinement fusion targets requires new efficient ablator materials and characteristic temperature measurements during confinement. Here, an aerogel coating process is developed to coat inside spheres and cylinders. The characteristic emission spectrum of doped aerogel inside diamond targets is used as temperature gauge during confinement. Coatings inside metal cylinders confirmed the generality of the coating procedure. In addition artificial diamond is characterized which represents an interesting ablator material.

  15. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an understanding of the cadastral evolution in Denmark with a focus on establishing the cadastre as an outcome of the enclosure movement in the late 1700s. The purpose of the cadastre was collection of tax based on the yielding capacity of the soil. The Danish cadastre, this way......, was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  16. Development of new target concepts for proton beams at CERN/ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Delonca, Melanie; Montavon, Ghislain; Peyraut, Francois

    More and more, the power of primary beam sent onto targets increases until reaching several kiloWatts of magnitude, inducing new problematic and challenges. Consequently, the need of new target design arises and leads to new conceptual design proposal. Amongst them, a concept of Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) loop target making use of an heat exchanger (HEX) and a pump has been proposed during the European project EURISOL Design Study. This concept proposed an improvement in terms of release efficiency of short-lived species by transforming the irradiated liquid into droplets shape. This thesis presents the development of this target design proposal. A prototype target has been developed and will be tested under proton beam at ISOLDE at Cern, Geneva. Several analytical tools for the study of this kind of targets are proposed, taking into account different design parameters. These tools can be applied for other high power target concept and allow an easy dimensioning of this kind of targets. As well, an innovativ...

  17. The International Glaciological Society: offering opportunity to publish in high quality, open access journals and to attend several targeted symposia and workshops every year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, M. M.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The International Glaciological Society (IGS) was founded in 1936 to provide a focus for individuals interested in practical and scientific aspects of snow and ice. At the start of 2016 all IGS publications, the Journal of Glaciology (impact factor 3.643) and topically oriented Annals of Glaciology (impact factor 2.349), became `Gold Open Access'. Author publication charges (APCs) are also competitive because the IGS partners with Cambridge University Press (CUP), and scientific editing and review is quick and in tune with what authors value. In addition to publishing, the IGS organizes and facilitates several International Symposia a year on trending topics proposed by the scientific community (often associated with topical issues of the Annals of Glaciology) as well as many branch meetings, workshops and summer training schools for students. The international symposia are located in diverse areas, recently including Nepal, France, Australia, New Zealand, Iceland and Beijing. Often our meetings coincide with opportunities for travel experience, such as visiting Tibet or hiking the Annapurna circuit in Nepal. Membership in the IGS offers good services and value, including: 10% discount on author processing charges (APCs), special registration rates for IGS symposia and workshops, belonging to an old and established learned society with worldwide membership and access to an extended peer group.

  18. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  19. The LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the production of molybdenum-99 in the NRU research reactors at Chalk River, Canada has been extracted from reactor targets employing highly enriched uranium (HEU). A reliable supply of HEU metal from the United States used in the manufacture of targets for the NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume molybdenum production process. Each link of the isotope supply chain, from isotope production to ultimate use by the physician, has been established using this proven and established method of HEU target irradiation and processing to extract molybdenum-99. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the construction of two MAPLE reactors and a New Processing Facility. The design of the MAPLE facilities was based on an established process developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. However, in concert with the global trend to utilize low enriched uranium (LEU) in research reactors, MDS Nordion has launched a three phase LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. Phase 1, the Initial Feasibility Study, which identified the technical issues to convert the MAPLE reactor targets from HEU to LEU for large scale commercial production was reported on at the RERTR- 2000 conference. The second phase of the LEU Target Development and Conversion Program was developed with extensive consultation and involvement of experts knowledgeable in target development, process system design, enriched uranium conversion chemistry and commercial scale reactor operations and molybdenum production. This paper will provide an overview of the Phase 2 Conversion Development Program, report on progress to date, and further

  20. Guidelines for target costing adoption in the development of products for the residential real estate market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reymard Savio Sampaio de Melo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focuses on the problems associated with the traditional practice of reducing costs in construction and the need to increase business competitiveness in the residential real estate sector. In this context, target costing is a promising approach to improve the competitiveness of companies by ensuring that the products launched on the market do not jeopardize the company's results and value delivery to customers. However, far too little attention is paid to target costing implementation by companies that develop residential real state products for sale and face strong market competition. Thus, this paper seeks to investigate whether the standard framework of target costing in the literature applies - with or without adjustments - to real estate developers. Case study was the research strategy adopted. Guidelines are proposed for the introduction of target costing in the development process of residential real estate products. The proposed guidelines are related to the three main sections of the target costing process: market-driven costing, product-level target costing and component-level target costing.

  1. CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHANGING SOCIETY AND PERSONALITY: THE INTEGRATION OF RESEARCH POSITIONS IN RUSSIA AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Pushkareva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article analyzes the problems of continuous education (lifelong education formation in the modern changing environment. The author identify characteristic features and mechanisms of Continuous Education functioning, to integrate basic research position on the issue in Russia and foreign countries. The purpose of this article is to determine the nature of those changes which affect the operation of continuous education and their details. Materials and Methods: the research methodology is a synthesis of the philosophical analysis of the education continuity problems, its orientation and contents at different levels of the modern educational system that allows you to explore Continuing Education primaril y as a process. Results: the author of the article compares key approaches to the problem, the Russian and foreign researchers. It is noted that in the foreign research literature also pays considerable attention to various approaches to the definition of concepts in the field of Continuous Education: primarily, such as “education throughout life” (lifelong learning or “continuing education” (continuing education; and, to this approach as the “adult education” (adult education. The author focuses on the fact that the fundamental factor in the functioning of Continuing Education is its definition, primarily as a process of personality adaptation to the diverse and constantly changing conditions of social development. Discussion and Conclusions: in conclusion of this article author’s research conclusions, revealing defining the specifics of the changes affecting the operation of Continuing Education. The author emphasizes that the conditions of society and the personality development constantly changing and significantly determine the character of Continuous Education development.

  2. Application of stable isotopic techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases like obesity and NIDDM in developing societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.; Iyengar, V.; Sawaya, A.

    2002-01-01

    Economic development in developing societies characterized by industrialization, urbanization and globalization has seen the emergence of an epidemic of diet and life-style related chronic degenerative diseases. A research project has been initiated under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, under its Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to promote the use of stable isotopic techniques to document the extent of the problem and to understand the determinants of this epidemic. The principal objectives of this CRP involving countries both in the North and the South are to define the magnitude of the problem of obesity and non-insulin Dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in developing countries, to identify the vulnerable groups at increased risk and to attempt to describe the metabolic and physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. These comparative international studies of obesity and NIDDM are looking at the effects of childhood malnutrition (Brazil and socio-economic differentials (Mexico) on adult risk factors; the composition of the daily diet on obesity (Chile); levels of patterns of physical activity of older adults (China) as well as their influence on weight gain and obesity (Cuba, Nigeria); the impact of body composition and energy expenditure on the evolution frank diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance (Jamaica), and of body compositional changes and the role of inflammatory cytokines on impaired glucose tolerance (India). The last study conducted in New Zealand was aimed at comparing the energy expenditures of Maori (Pacific Island) with New Zealanders of European descent. The findings of the CRP of the MEA in this area carried out in several countries are presented in this article. (author)

  3. The Individual Practice Development Theory: an individually focused practice development theory that helps target practice development resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Jane; Forsyth, Kirsty; Freeth, Della

    2012-06-01

    Research indicates that multifaceted practice development (PD) interventions are more effective than single strategies. However, models of education in health care need to consider cost-effectiveness. This paper presents a research-based, PD theory called the Individual Practice Development Theory. It argues that programmes that use the Individual Practice Development Theory to tailor PD support to the learning needs of practitioners will result in more engagement in PD and will target PD resources efficiently. The in-depth qualitative, multi-method realistic evaluation was of a multifaceted, organization-wide PD programme in one National Health Service Mental Health and Learning Disabilities Trust. Semi-structured interviews, practice observation and documentation audit were used to gather data from occupational therapists. Results indicated that environmental contexts, particularly the support of the immediate team, and the participant's personal circumstances affected PD behaviour change. Six mechanisms acted as catalysts. These were: Building Confidence, Finding Flow, Accumulating Reward, Conferring with Others, Constructing Knowledge Know-how and Channelling Time. Four stages of PD characterized as: 'In the Hangar', 'On the Runway', 'Take-off' and 'In the Air' were identified. The research also illustrated the interconnectivity between outcome levels, contextual circumstances and activating mechanisms. The findings suggested that PD interventions need to be more individually tailored to achieve optimum learning outcomes. The identification of four discernable stages permits rapid understanding of PD support needs in order to focus PD support. With a systematic and individualized approach to PD in health care, more target PD supports can be put in place. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A study of the development of bio-energy resources and the status of eco-society in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Huang, Yongmei; Gong, Jirui [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Botany, CAS, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Industrialization of bio-energy relies on the supply of resources on a large scale. The theoretical biomass resources could reach 2.61-3.51 billion tce (tons of coal equivalent)/a in China, while the available feedstock is about 440-640 million tce/a, however, among this only 1.5-2.5% has been transferred into energy at present. Marginal land utilization has great prospects of supplying bio-energy resources in China, with co-benefits, such as carbon sequestration, water/soil conservation, and wind erosion protection. There is a large area of marginal land in China, especially in northern China, including about 263 million ha of desertification land, 173 million ha of sand-land, and 17 million ha of salinizatin land. The plant species suitable to be grown in marginal lands, including some species in Salix, Hippophae, Tamarix, Caragana, and Prunus is also abundant Biomass feedstock in marginal lands would be 100 million tce/a in 2020, and 200 million tce/a in 2050. As a result, a win-win situation of eco-society and bio-energy development could be realized, with an expected 4-5% reduction of total CO{sub 2} emission in China in 2020-2050. Although much progress has been made in the field of bio-energy research in China, yet significant efforts should be taken in the future to fulfill large-scale industrialization of bio-energy. (author)

  5. Resilience of the Nexus of Competitive Water Consumption between Human Society and Environment Development: Regime Shifts and Early Warning Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Liu, P.; Feng, M.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the modeling of the water supply, power generation and environment (WPE) nexus by Feng et al. (2016), a refined theoretical model of competitive water consumption between human society and environment has been presented in this study, examining the role of technology advancement and social environmental awareness growth-induced pollution mitigation to the environment as a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of the coexistence of both higher social water consumption and improved environment condition. By coupling environmental and social dynamics, both of which are represented by water consumption quantity, this study shows the possibility of sustainable situation of the social-environmental system when the benefit of technology offsets the side effect (pollution) of social development to the environment. Additionally, regime shifts could be triggered by gradually increased pollution rate, climate change-induced natural resources reduction and breakdown of the social environmental awareness. Therefore, in order to foresee the pending abrupt regime shifts of the system, early warning signals, including increasing variance and autocorrelation, have been examined when the system is undergoing stochastic disturbance. ADDIN EN.REFLIST Feng, M. et al., 2016. Modeling the nexus across water supply, power generation and environment systems using the system dynamics approach: Hehuang Region, China. J. Hydrol., 543: 344-359.

  6. 2016 President's Plenary International Psycho-Oncology Society: challenges and opportunities for growing and developing psychosocial oncology programmes worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Bultz, Barry D; Ullrich, Andreas; Asuzu, Chioma C; Turner, Jane; Grassi, Luigi; Jacobsen, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Consistent with the International Psycho-Oncology Society's (IPOS) vision and goals, we are committed to improving quality cancer care and cancer policies through psychosocial care globally. As part of IPOS's mission, upon entering "Official Relations" for a second term with the World Health Organization (WHO), IPOS has dedicated much attention to reaching out to countries, which lack formalized psychosocial care programmes. One of IPOS's strategies to accomplish this goal has been to bring psycho-oncology training programmes to low- and middle-income countries and regions. To this end, the IPOS Board approved a new position on the Board of Directors for a member from a low- to middle-income country (LMIC). The IPOS 2016 President's Plenary focused on challenges and opportunities that exist in growing and developing psychosocial oncology programmes worldwide. The plenary presentations highlight how IPOS and WHO have aligned their goals to help LMICs support cancer patients as an essential element of cancer and palliative care. IPOS country representatives are strongly supported in liaising with national health authorities and with WHO Country Representatives in LMICs. The plenary speakers discussed the role IPOS Federation has taken in building a global network of psychosocial leaders and the impact this had in assisting LMICs in meeting IPOS's psychosocial care objectives. The plenary highlighted the challenges of expanding psychosocial reach into these countries. One significant question remains: Can psychosocial guidelines be adapted to LMICs and regions? Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market.

  8. Novel and Viable Acetylcholinesterase Target Site for Developing Effective and Environmentally Safe Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen; Ragsdale, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Suranyi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for human suffering and financial losses worldwide. New and environmentally safe insecticides are urgently needed to cope with these serious problems. Resistance to current insecticides has resulted in a resurgence of insect pests, and growing concerns about insecticide toxicity to humans discourage the use of insecticides for pest control. The small market for insecticides has hampered insecticide development; however, advances in genomics and structural genomics offer new opportunities to develop insecticides that are less dependent on the insecticide market. This review summarizes the literature data that support the hypothesis that an insect-specific cysteine residue located at the opening of the acetylcholinesterase active site is a promising target site for developing new insecticides with reduced off-target toxicity and low propensity for insect resistance. These data are used to discuss the differences between targeting the insect-specific cysteine residue and targeting the ubiquitous catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterase from the perspective of reducing off-target toxicity and insect resistance. Also discussed is the prospect of developing cysteine-targeting anticholinesterases as effective and environmentally safe insecticides for control of disease vectors, crop damage, and residential insect pests within the financial confines of the present insecticide market. PMID:22280344

  9. The Tranquebarian Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2015-01-01

    of this development was the establishment of the Tranquebarian Society, the third learned society east of the Cape of Good Hope. The article examines the unique assemblage of scientific networks, people, instruments, institutions, and ideas of local and global origin that converged in Tranquebar, and it investigates...

  10. Development of the consumption behavior that promotes sustainable society: Focusing on recycling of small waste home appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Takae

    2015-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) became the first UNESCO Associated School in Japan in 1953, and since then it has practiced ESD in various educational activities in all ranges of education. As a teacher of home economics, I have focused on consumer affairs and encouraged my students to consider what each of them can do as an individual consumer in order to create a sustainable society. In Japan, several acts related to consumer affairs have been enforced in recent years. "Act on Promotion of Consumer Education" was enforced in December 2012, and construction of the "Consumer Citizen Society" was proposed. It places emphasis not only on environmental concerns but also on the initiative of consumers and its influence on social and economic trends. In addition, "Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment" was enforced in April, 2013. It aims at protecting living environment and healthy development of the national economy by appropriate treatment of waste materials and effective use of resources. For my lessons on "food, clothing and shelter in relation to consumption behavior and environmental problems", I took up "the recycling of small waste home appliances" as the teaching materials to raise awareness on resources recycling. The purpose of the lessons is three-fold: (1) to make students aware of environmental load; (2) to deepen the understanding of the influence which excessive consumption has on developing countries; (3) to encourage the students to think positively toward the solution of the problems. I am currently practicing the lessons, and I have shown below the summary of the instruction. Lesson 1: Give a quiz based on the database on environmental label from Ministry of the Environment website. Then show a film on whereabouts of the hi-tech industrial waste (e-waste). After the film, show some everyday products for which mineral resources are used in order to impress the idea of "urban mine". Lesson 2: Show a

  11. The possibility of coexistence and co-development in language competition: ecology-society computational model and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jian; Shang, Song-Chao; Wei, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Shuang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Language is characterized by both ecological properties and social properties, and competition is the basic form of language evolution. The rise and decline of one language is a result of competition between languages. Moreover, this rise and decline directly influences the diversity of human culture. Mathematics and computer modeling for language competition has been a popular topic in the fields of linguistics, mathematics, computer science, ecology, and other disciplines. Currently, there are several problems in the research on language competition modeling. First, comprehensive mathematical analysis is absent in most studies of language competition models. Next, most language competition models are based on the assumption that one language in the model is stronger than the other. These studies tend to ignore cases where there is a balance of power in the competition. The competition between two well-matched languages is more practical, because it can facilitate the co-development of two languages. A third issue with current studies is that many studies have an evolution result where the weaker language inevitably goes extinct. From the integrated point of view of ecology and sociology, this paper improves the Lotka-Volterra model and basic reaction-diffusion model to propose an "ecology-society" computational model for describing language competition. Furthermore, a strict and comprehensive mathematical analysis was made for the stability of the equilibria. Two languages in competition may be either well-matched or greatly different in strength, which was reflected in the experimental design. The results revealed that language coexistence, and even co-development, are likely to occur during language competition.

  12. A conversion development program to LEU targets for medical isotope production in the MAPLE Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    Historically, the production of molybdenum-99 in the NRU research reactors at Chalk River, Canada has been extracted from reactor targets employing highly enriched uranium (HEU). The molybdenum extraction process from the HEU targets provided predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume molybdenum production process. A reliable supply of HEU for the NRU research reactor targets has enabled MDS Nordion to develop a secure chain of medical isotope supply for the international nuclear medicine community. Each link of the isotope supply chain, from isotope production to patient application, has been established on a proven method of HEU target irradiation and processing. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, the design of the MAPLE facilities was based on our established process - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. However, in concert with the global trend to utilize low enriched uranium (LEU) in research reactors, MDS Nordion has launched a program to convert the MAPLE facilities to LEU targets. An initial feasibility study was initiated to identify the technical issues to convert the MAPLE targets from HEU to LEU. This paper will present the results of the feasibility study. It will also describe future challenges and opportunities in converting the MAPLE facilities to LEU targets for large scale, commercial medical isotope production. (author)

  13. Development of dissolution process for metal foil target containing low enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.; Hutter, J.C.; Johnson, G.K.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    About six times more low enriched uranium (LEU) metal is needed to produce the same quantity of 99 Mo as from a high enriched uranium (HEU) oxide target, under similar conditions of neutron irradiation. In view of this, the post-irradiation processing procedures of the LEU target are likely to be different from the Cintichem process procedures now in use for the HEU target. The authors have begun a systematic study to develop modified procedures for LEU target dissolution and 99 Mo separation. The dissolution studies include determination of the dissolution rate, chemical state of uranium in the solution, and the heat evolved in the dissolution reaction. From these results the authors conclude that a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid is a suitable dissolver solution, albeit at higher concentration of nitric acid than in use for the HEU targets. Also, the dissolver vessel now in use for HEU targets is inadequate for the LEU target, since higher temperature and higher pressure will be encountered in the dissolution of LEU targets. The desire is to keep the modifications to the Cintichem process to a minimum, so that the switch from HEU to LEU can be achieved easily

  14. Developed Countries 2020 Pledges Fall Short of IPCC Target What can we do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, E.; Colombier, M.

    2009-01-01

    With the recent announcement by President Obama of the US emission reduction target, the map of developed countries pledges is now full. The US will come to Copenhagen with a -17% target in 2020 compared to 2005 levels that translates into a -4% compared to 1990 levels (together with a -42% target in 2030 that translates into a -33% compared to 1990. Some countries have put forward multiple pledges. They will only commit to the highest pledge if the Copenhagen agreement is deemed satisfactory. For example, the European Union (EU) stated it would move from -20% (the lower pledge) to -30% (the higher pledge) in 2020 compared to 1990 levels if developed countries undertake comparable emission cuts and if major developing countries undertake adequate mitigation actions. Countries also choose different base years in quantifying their pledges. These mitigation pledges by developed countries result in aggregate emissions of -14 to -19% in 2020 compared to 1990 levels, which fall well below the range established by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change). According to the IPCC, developed countries need to reduce their emissions by -25 to -40% in 2020 compared to 1990 levels to have approximately a 50% chance to limit the temperature increase to 2 deg. C above pre-industrial levels. It should be noted that some targets presented here (such as EU and US pledges) account for international offsets. To be consistent with IPCC figures, this fraction of expected reductions should not be accounted for. Only the domestic component should be considered. But as specified now, certain pledges are expected to fall further below target. For example, the EU's -20% target translates into -15%, with offsets excluded. This is quite problematic. First, from a climate point of view: developed countries are not making the emission reduction commitments necessary for stabilizing global temperatures at a level that averts dangerous climate change. Second, from a negotiation point of

  15. Development of a cryogenic target delivery system for HiPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, J.P. [CEA, DRFMC, Serv Basses Temp, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Perlado, M. [Univ Politecn Madrid, Inst Fus Nucl DENIM, ETSII, Madrid, (Spain); Tolley, M. [Rutherford Appleton Lab, Cent Laser Facil, Rutherford, NJ (United States)

    2009-07-01

    For the future, we have to develop new sources of energy. These new sources may be based on nuclear fusion with magnetic confinement (as with the ITER experiment) or with a new concept based on inertial confinement. The European community plans to build a facility (HiPER project) which is dedicated to reaching high gain with cryogenic targets, and to test the concepts of target mass production and rep rate shots. The cryogenic system for the first phase experiments in HiPER is based on the cryogenic system developed for the French facility Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). The latter must be modified and upgraded for direct drive targets. In particular the target must be protected from the radiation flux from the vacuum vessel by a thermal shroud In addition, the LMJ system must be equipped with a thermal system to allow layering of the fusion fuel to take place. (authors)

  16. Present status of spallation target development. JAERI/KEK Joint Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, R.; Kaminaga, M.; Haga, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct a neutron scattering facility under the JAERI/KEK Joint Project. Design and R and D works are being carried out vigorously for realizing the mercury target system consisting of the mercury target, moderators and reflectors working as a spallation neutron source, as well as a remote handling system for exchanging such components which will be highly irradiated. This report introduces an outline of the present status of design and development activities on the spallation target system. (author)

  17. Full development. Women need to be empowered and their status raised for the advancement and development of the whole society. Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolah, H K

    1998-01-01

    This article briefly touches on the issues of the changing nature of development, sustainable approaches to development, and women's role in development. The article discusses and identifies social and cultural factors that constrain women's social development: son preference, inequality in education, poverty, nonrecognition of women's multiple roles, lack of information, discriminatory social practices and customary laws, and nonrecognition of women's rights as human rights. It is suggested that appropriate strategies for empowering women are the provision of adequate and better access to resources, alleviation of urban poverty through a holistic approach, advancement of girl's education, promotion of women in development, more mass media support, and male support. The government of Nigeria is working to actualize democracy, but more attention should be paid to involve women and to advance women by eliminating constraints that discourage women's development and empowerment. An institutional framework must be in place in the private and public sector in order to ensure that women's rights are not denied. Action should come from partnerships between government, nongovernmental organizations, and men and women themselves. Policies relating to women should be relevant, effective, acceptable, and sustainable to all parties. The government has a moral duty to raise, allocate, and reorganize public resources and to mobilize people to act in the interests and betterment of women and society. In Nigeria, the legislative framework should support equal participation of women in socioeconomic and political areas.

  18. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Condom Promotion Program Targeting Sexually Active Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstead, Mark; Campsmith, Michael; Halley, Carolyn Swope; Hartfield, Karen; Goldblum, Gary; Wood, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of an HIV prevention program promoting condom use among sexually active adolescents. It mobilized target communities to guide program development and implementation; created a mass media campaign to promote correct condom use; and recruited public agencies and organizations to distribute…

  19. Development of highly heat-resistant target elements for fusion reactors; Entwicklung hochwaermebestaendiger Targetelemente fuer Fusionsreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, Jean; Stadler, R.; Greuner, H.; Smirnow, M.; Drescher, N.; Boeswirth, B.; Tretter, J.; Mendelevitch, B.

    2016-06-15

    The following topics are dealt with: Scientific and technical results for divertor components (''target elements'') of the Wendelstein 7-X facility, development of nondestructive test procedures at the cooling structures, development of an automatized procedure for the visual inspection, the ''scraper''-element. (HSI)

  20. Targeted Programs and Career Pathways within Workforce Development Policies. ECS Education Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lexi

    2015-01-01

    States are introducing and enacting an increasing number of bills targeted toward workforce development and career and technical education. The increase in legislation illustrates a shift toward creating collaborations between higher education institutions and employers in the state as one strategy to enhance workforce development and…

  1. MET targeted therapy for lung cancer: clinical development and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yan Feng,1,2 Patrick C Ma1–31Translational Hematology and Oncology Research, 2Solid Tumor Oncology, 3Aerodigestive Oncology Translational Research, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, has been identified as a novel promising target in various human malignancies, including lung cancer. Research studies have demonstrated that MET signaling plays important physiologic roles in embryogenesis and early development, whereas its deregulation from an otherwise quiescent signaling state in mature adult tissues can lead to upregulated cell proliferation, survival, scattering, motility and migration, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The MET pathway can be activated through ligand (hepatocyte growth factor, HGF or MET receptor overexpression, genomic amplification, MET mutations, and alternative splicing. A number of novel therapeutic agents that target the MET/hepatocyte growth factor pathway have been tested in early-phase clinical studies with promising results. Phase III studies of MET targeting agents have recently been initiated. This paper will review the MET signaling pathway and biology in lung cancer, and the recent clinical development and advances of MET/hepatocyte growth factor targeting agents. Emphasis will be placed on discussing various unanswered issues and key strategies needed to optimize further clinical development of MET targeting personalized lung cancer therapy.Keywords: MET, HGF, lung cancer, targeted therapy

  2. Influence networks based on coexpression improve drug target discovery for the development of novel cancer therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The demand for novel molecularly targeted drugs will continue to rise as we move forward toward the goal of personalizing cancer treatment to the molecular signature of individual tumors. However, the identification of targets and combinations of targets that can be safely and effectively modulated is one of the greatest challenges facing the drug discovery process. A promising approach is to use biological networks to prioritize targets based on their relative positions to one another, a property that affects their ability to maintain network integrity and propagate information-flow. Here, we introduce influence networks and demonstrate how they can be used to generate influence scores as a network-based metric to rank genes as potential drug targets. Results We use this approach to prioritize genes as drug target candidates in a set of ER + breast tumor samples collected during the course of neoadjuvant treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. We show that influential genes, those with high influence scores, tend to be essential and include a higher proportion of essential genes than those prioritized based on their position (i.e. hubs or bottlenecks) within the same network. Additionally, we show that influential genes represent novel biologically relevant drug targets for the treatment of ER + breast cancers. Moreover, we demonstrate that gene influence differs between untreated tumors and residual tumors that have adapted to drug treatment. In this way, influence scores capture the context-dependent functions of genes and present the opportunity to design combination treatment strategies that take advantage of the tumor adaptation process. Conclusions Influence networks efficiently find essential genes as promising drug targets and combinations of targets to inform the development of molecularly targeted drugs and their use. PMID:24495353

  3. Development of environmental conservation technology and its transfer to society. The report of the subcommittee on material development, the research committee for frontier radiation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2006-07-01

    The promotion of the collaboration among industries, government and universities on exchanges of information and technologies on the environmental conservation is strongly required for the acceleration of the R and D on environmental conservation technology and its transfer to society. The subcommittee on Material Development, the Research Committee for Frontier Radiation Application of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, from Oct. 2005) organized subcommittee meetings six times in the four years from 2002. The discussion on the research plan of the environmental conservation processing using ionizing radiation such as decomposition technology for pollutants at the solid waste incineration facilities like dioxins, purification technology for the ventilation gas containing toxic volatile organic compounds, absorbent and removal technology for toxic metals in water using radiation grafting polymers, decomposition technology for endocrine disrupter chemicals in waste water, as well as the information exchange of the present status on R and D on environmental conservation such as monitoring and purification treatment technologies for pollutants were performed in the subcommittee activities. The present report on such activities should contribute the acceleration of the R and D on environmental conservation technology and its transfer to society by the further collaboration among industries, government and universities. (author)

  4. [Demography and society. An analysis of the goals of the State Development Plan (Sinaloa) 1987-1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1991-01-01

    The State Development Plan for Sinaloa, Mexico, for 1987-1992 contains 7 important goals in its section on Demography and Society that have met with considerable success. Data from the 1990 general population census and projections by the state population council are the basis for an evaluation of progress. To contribute to lowering the fertility rate, the State Population Council for Sinaloa (CONEPOSIN), in coordination with the educational and health sectors, has developed family planning activities for all levels of care throughout the state. The emphasis is on population education, and a program to evaluate IEC programs has been underway since 1987. The crude birth rate declined from 51.9/1000 in 1970 to 39.8 in 1980 and 28.6 in 1990. In the area of regulating population growth and bringing it into balance with economic and social development, the 1st step was consideration of a population policy in the 1987-1992 state development plan. During the past 4 years, the gross state product increased by 2.9% annually, while population increased at 1.8% annually. Economic projections indicate improvement with the culmination of some major infrastructural projects. But demographic growth reduces the speed of economic and social improvement. The goal of reducing population concentration in the municipio of Culiacan will be furthered by a continuing decline in the natural increase rate and a gradual improvement in social development. The population of the municipio for the year 2000 is projected at slightly over 718,000 and the growth rate at about 1.8%. Even if the growth goal is achieved there will still be strong demand for employment because of the young age structure. The 4th plan goal is generating development strategies that will contribute to rationalizing population distribution in the state. The proportion of the population living in localities of over 15,000 increased from 33% in 1970 to 42% in 1980 and around 50% in 1990. 90% of the urban population and 45

  5. Rethinking international education through the concept of capabilities: a bridge to development in Asia's emergent knowledge societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Pham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls for rethinking international education towards a transformative agenda to engender international students’ self-determination, self-reflection, agency and citizenship that would enable them to make valuable personal and social change for them and their communities when they return to their homeland. It argues for a reconceptualisation of the vision of international education to include both the instrumental objectives of skills development and jobs procurement, as well as the intrinsic value of creating substantive opportunities for people to live the lives they value. It further argues that there is a need to move research from institutional perspectives of international education providers to those of international students and graduates focussing on their personal and civic commitment within their home communities. In the context of this paper, the terms "West" and "Western" generally refer to countries in the geographical regions of Europe including the United Kingdom, North America, and Australia and New Zealand in the Pacific region. The terms "Anglo-West" and "Euro-America" are also used interchangeably with the same meaning. The terms "Asia" and "Asian" generally refer to countries in the geographical regions of East and South East Asia, and South Asia. This paper has four parts. The first part sketches the current discourses on international education in the emerging knowledge societies of Asia. It critiques the parochial Anglo-Western values in international education discourses and calls for contending viewpoints that consider diversity of students' cultural and social values. The second part presents Amartya Sen's Capability Approach (CA as an alternative framework for viewing and evaluating international education. The third part discusses the operationalising aspects of the CA in the practical contexts of its philosophical status and considers the potential of its epistemological benefits. The last part concludes

  6. Cryptozoology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  7. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century.......Strategic communication needs a thorough understanding of the social forms of interaction, organization and social structure, it works within and through. Success is a scarce resource, and organizations compete to fulfill their mission and advance toward specific goals. In this chapter, we present...

  8. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Strategic communication needs a thorough understanding of the social forms of interaction, organization and social structure, it works within and through. Success is a scarce resource, and organizations compete to fulfill their mission and advance toward specific goals. In this chapter, we present...... the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  9. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Strategic communication needs a thorough understanding of the social forms of interaction, organization and social structure, it works within and through. Success is a scarce resource, and organizations compete to fulfill their mission and advance toward specific goals. In this chapter, we present...... the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  10. Development of a software for quantitative evaluation radiotherapy target and organ-at-risk segmentation comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Awan, Musaddiq; Bedrick, Steven; Rasch, Coen R N; Rosenthal, David I; Fuller, Clifton D

    2014-02-01

    Modern radiotherapy requires accurate region of interest (ROI) inputs for plan optimization and delivery. Target delineation, however, remains operator-dependent and potentially serves as a major source of treatment delivery error. In order to optimize this critical, yet observer-driven process, a flexible web-based platform for individual and cooperative target delineation analysis and instruction was developed in order to meet the following unmet needs: (1) an open-source/open-access platform for automated/semiautomated quantitative interobserver and intraobserver ROI analysis and comparison, (2) a real-time interface for radiation oncology trainee online self-education in ROI definition, and (3) a source for pilot data to develop and validate quality metrics for institutional and cooperative group quality assurance efforts. The resultant software, Target Contour Testing/Instructional Computer Software (TaCTICS), developed using Ruby on Rails, has since been implemented and proven flexible, feasible, and useful in several distinct analytical and research applications.

  11. Academic Ambitions and Library Development: The American Bureau of Industrial Research and the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1904-18. Occasional Paper Number 159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John Calvin

    Intended to contribute to a better understanding of research library development in the United States, this report describes the history of the development of the library of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin from 1904 to 1918. It is based on records of the relationships between three principals--John R. Commons and Richard T. Ely (members…

  12. Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Conference RSIS (The role of science in the information society) - Contributions to Economic Development - Building 40 S2 - B01 - Mr. John Dryden, Chairman, Deputy Director, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

  13. Mechanical design and development of a high power target system for the SLC Positron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, E.; Mansour, D.; Porter, T.; Sax, W.; Szumillo, A.

    1991-12-01

    In order to bring the SLC Positron Source luminosity up to design specifications, the previous (stationary) positron target had to be replaced with a version which could reliably dissipate the higher power levels and cyclic pulsed thermal stresses of the high intensity 33GeV electron beam. In addition to this basic requirement, the new target system had to meet SLAC's specifications for Ultra High Vacuum, be remotely controllable, ''radiation hard,'' and designed in such a way that it could be removed and replaced quickly and easily with minimum personnel exposure to radiation. It was also desirable to integrate the target and collection components into a compact, easily manufacturable, and easily maintainable module. This paper briefly summarize the mechanical design and development of the new modular target system, its associated controls and software, alignment, and the quick removal system. Operational experience gained with the new system over the first running cycle is also summarized

  14. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and citiz......The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...

  15. Perspective on the pipeline of drugs being developed with modulation of DNA damage as a target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Ruth

    2010-09-15

    Inhibitors of various elements of the DNA repair pathways have entered clinical development or are in late preclinical stages of drug development. It was initially considered that agents targeting DNA repair would act to overcome tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. More recent data have shown that targeting DNA repair pathways can be effective in selected tumors via a synthetically lethal route, with single agent activity having been shown with poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. An increased understanding of the biology and interaction of the DNA repair pathways also means that rational combination of DNA repair inhibitors may also give great benefit in the clinic. ©2010 AACR.

  16. Development of a target-site based regional frequency model using historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear power facilities in France were designed to withstand extreme environmental conditions with a very low probability of failure. Nevertheless, some exceptional surges considered as outliers are not properly addressed by classical frequency analysis models. If available data at the site of interest (target-site) is sufficiently complete on a long period and not characterized by the presence of an outlier, at-site frequency analysis can be used to estimate quantiles with acceptable uncertainties. Otherwise, regional and historical information (HI) may be used to mitigate the lack of data and the influence of the outlier by increasing its representativeness in the sample. several models have been proposed over the last years for regional extreme surges frequency analysis in France to take into account these outliers in the frequency analysis. However, these models do not give a specific weight to the target site and cannot take into account HI. The objective of the present work is to develop a regional frequency model (RFM) centered on a target-site and using HI. The neighborhood between sites is measured by a degree of physical and statistical dependence between observations (with a prior confidence level). Unlike existing models, the obtained region around the target site (and constituting the neighboring sites) is sliding from a target-site to another. In other words, the developed model assigns a region for each target site. The idea behind the construction of a frequency model favoring target sites and the principle of moving regions around these target-sites is the original key point of the developed model. A related issue regards the estimation of missed and/or ungauged surges at target-sites from those of gauged potential neighboring sites, a multiple linear regression (MLR) is used and it can be extended to other reconstitutions models. MLR analysis can be considered conclusive only if available observations at neighboring sites are informative enough

  17. The LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of isotope grade, Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU), from the United States for use in the manufacture of targets for molybdenum-99 production in AECL's NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a reliable, secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets is a proven and established method that has reliably produced medical isotopes for several decades. The HEU process provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume, molybdenum-99 production. Other medical isotopes such as I-131 and Xe-133, which play an important role in nuclear medicine applications, are also produced from irradiated HEU targets as a by-product of the molybdenum-99 process. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the commissioning of two MAPLE reactors and an associated isotope processing facility (the New Processing Facility). The new MAPLE facilities, which will be dedicated exclusively to medical isotope production, will provide an essential contribution to a secure, robust global healthcare system. Design and construction of these facilities has been based on a life cycle management philosophy for the isotope production process. This includes target irradiation, isotope extraction and waste management. The MAPLE reactors will operate with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel, a significant contribution to the objectives of the RERTR program. The design of the isotope production process in the MAPLE facilities is based on an established process - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. This is a proven technology that has been demonstrated over more than three decades of operation. However, in support of the RERTR program and in compliance with U.S. legislation, MDS Nordion has undertaken a LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. This paper will provide an

  18. Development of a polarized deuterium target to measure T/sub 20/ in electron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, L.; Coulter, K.; Gilman, R.A.; Holt, R.J.; Kinney, E.R.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Napolitano, J.; Potterveld, D.; Lasarenko, B.A.; Mishnev, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a polarized deuterium target to measure the analyzing power in electron scattering from the deuteron at the highest possible momentum transfer is described. Two areas of research have been simultaneously pursued: the development of a storage cell for polarized atoms (ANL and INP) and the development of a high-flux laser-driven source of polarized deuterium (ANL). The successful combination of these two technological developments will produce a polarized target having a figure of merit of np/sub zz//sup 2/ approx. np/sub z//sup 2/ approx. 10/sup 14/ cm/sup /minus/2/. The progress to date, including, feasibility tests of the storage cell concept, design of a high-density storage cell ad the development of the laser-driven source will be described. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Target fabrication and development in the Centre d'Etudes de Limeil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1983-10-01

    The present state of research in Limeil laboratory for the production of inertial confinement fusion targets is described in this communication. A summary of typical areas, previously investigated, including new developments, is as follows: - production of hollow glass microspheres, having wide outside diameter range and aspect-ratio, using dried-alcogels, - preparation and fabrication of low density foams having plane or hemispherical shape, - deposition of a wide range of conductive materials as well as silicon and organic polymers, - development of laser and spark erosion machining which are useful tools for producing minute parts of complex targets, - characterization and analysis of plastic or coal metal coated targets, are done by using interferometry techniques and X-ray image analysis as well as X-ray absorption measurements

  20. Formulation of Policy and Strategy in Developing Creativity Education in Four Asian Chinese Societies: A Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Anna N. N.; Lau, Sing

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to compare and contrast educational policies on creativity education in four Asian Chinese societies, namely mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan. It establishes five criteria on creativity education policy, including policies regarding legislation on creativity education, definitions of creativity, standard…

  1. [Maintenance and health promotion of adolescent--pledge of sustainable development of society and state (current status of the issue)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Il'in, A G

    2014-01-01

    The article presents submitted data of population dynamics of adolescent (10-17 years old) in Russian Federation over the period of 1995-2012 In the presence of reduction by 8.2 million of adolescent population the top-priority task of adolescent health and life maintenance was declared. The article deals with physical growth and development statistics of schoolchildren of 15-19 years old: as opposed to peers of 80-es increase of length, body weight and circumference of chest as well as reduction of muscle strength is observed. On the ground of the data analysis of authoritative statistical reporting the increase of morbidity rate by factor of 1.4 was detected over the last 10 years. It has been established that the true morbidity level is above the authoritative by the factor of 1.5. The number of adolescent at the age of 10-15 referred to 1st and 2nd health groups decreased almost on 20%, at the same time pathological processes become chronic. The reproductive and mental health of adolescent at the age of 15-17 years was analyzed over the last 10 years. The rate of mental health disorders in adolescent living in country is more than in the peers living in cities by the factor of 1.2-1.4. The rate of period disorders, salpingitis and oothecitis increased in girls under 10 years and ones at the age of 15-17. The rate and structure of child disability was analyzed. It was fixed that leading causes of adolescent disability are mental disorders, diseases of nervous system, congenital anomalies. The most commonly encountered seed of physical dysfunction is capacity to study. It is demonstrated that there is misreporting on both child disability in totally and adolescent disability in Russian Federation. After the analysis of particular provisions of legislation concerning medical and social issues of child disability the week points were detected. The morbidity rate of adolescent was studied: primary cause of death in adolescent is extrinsic factor (more than 70%), the

  2. How rich is the 2000 Watt society? Impact of energy conservation policy measures on innovation, investment and long-term development of the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschger, L.; Ramer, R.; Schwark, F.

    2010-01-01

    The project has integrated endogenous growth theory into a multi-sector numerical model to evaluate the long-run effects of energy and climate policies in Switzerland. The continuous and sector-specific growth, has provided a successful foundation for predicting the development of the Swiss economy over the long and very long run. We have studied the effects of various measures aiming at realizing the goals of the 2000 Watt society and the carbon reduction commitments of the Copenhagen Accord. We find that these policies cause moderate but not negligible welfare costs, provided that we take development without consideration of climate change as a reference case. However, the reference case with considerable economic costs of undamped climate change is more likely. Compared to such a development, the costs of energy and carbon policies appear to be lower, even when the adopted measures are strict. However, to avoid the costs of climate change, international coordination of climate policies is needed. Specifically, we have to assume that the world as a whole will act according to the Copenhagen Accord; only this will lead to the desired effect on global emissions. Sectoral differences in the simulated growth rates are significant; they reflect energy intensities, sectoral linkages, and distinct specialization in capital goods. Under the considered conditions, all the sectors (except oil) will be able to grow in the future, though not with uniform, but rather sector-specific rates. The targets of the 2000 Watt society for 2035 entail somewhat lower welfare losses than the Copenhagen policy for 2050, because the required CO 2 reductions are larger in the second case. The distribution of tax revenues has an impact on consumption and welfare, which depends on the considered time horizon: in the shorter run, research subsidies cannot develop their full advantages for the economy, while in the long run, these subsidies are superior to the redistribution of revenues to

  3. Frizzled3 controls axonal polarity and intermediate target entry during striatal pathway development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morello, Francesca; Prasad, Asheeta A.; Rehberg, Kati; Baptista Vieira de Sá, Renata; Antón-Bolaños, Noelia; Leyva-Diaz, Eduardo; Adolfs, Youri; Tissir, Fadel; López-Bendito, Guillermina; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is a large brain nucleus with an important role in the control of movement and emotions.Mediumspiny neurons (MSNs) are striatal output neurons forming prominent descending axon tracts that target different brain nuclei. However, how MSN axon tracts in the forebrain develop remains

  4. Learning Communities Faculty Scholars: An Online, Targeted Faculty Development Course to Promote Scholarly Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Hillary H.

    2016-01-01

    Many learning communities instructors seek professional development opportunities that foster their growth as teacher-scholars. Learning communities programs, therefore, have an opportunity to provide targeted, "just in time" training that allows for the immediate application of knowledge to a learning community setting, maximizing…

  5. Mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is required for cartilage development

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Yingjie; Yang, Xu; Yang, Wentian; Charbonneau, Cherie; Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical stress regulates development by modulating cell signaling and gene expression. However, the cytoplasmic components mediating mechanotransduction remain unclear. In this study, elimination of muscle contraction during chicken embryonic development resulted in a reduction in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the cartilaginous growth plate. Inhibition of mTOR activity led to significant inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation, cartilage tissue growth, and express...

  6. Identification of miRNAs and their target genes in developing soybean seeds by deep sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shou-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression by mediating gene silencing at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in higher plants. miRNAs and related target genes have been widely studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice; however, the number of identified miRNAs in soybean (Glycine max is limited, and global identification of the related miRNA targets has not been reported in previous research. Results In our study, a small RNA library and a degradome library were constructed from developing soybean seeds for deep sequencing. We identified 26 new miRNAs in soybean by bioinformatic analysis and further confirmed their expression by stem-loop RT-PCR. The miRNA star sequences of 38 known miRNAs and 8 new miRNAs were also discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Through degradome sequencing, 145 and 25 genes were identified as targets of annotated miRNAs and new miRNAs, respectively. GO analysis indicated that many of the identified miRNA targets may function in soybean seed development. Additionally, a soybean homolog of Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SLIENCING 3 (AtSGS3 was detected as a target of the newly identified miRNA Soy_25, suggesting the presence of feedback control of miRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library and a degradome library. Our study provides more information about the regulatory network of miRNAs in soybean and advances our understanding of miRNA functions during seed development.

  7. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  8. The potential of PVs in developing countries: maintaining an equitable society in the face of fossil fuel depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The availability of an adequate electrical supply to the whole population is essential for the wellbeing and equity of a society. However, for those countries that are largely dependent on fossil fuels for generating electricity, peak oil and gas threaten energy security and the ability to provide an uninterrupted supply of electricity on an equitable basis. This paper will review future energy demand and supply in Malaysia and implications for its electricity supply. It will demonstrate ...

  9. In silico tools used for compound selection during target-based drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Gary W

    2015-01-01

    The target-based drug discovery process, including target selection, screening, hit-to-lead (H2L) and lead optimization stage gates, is the most common approach used in drug development. The full integration of in vitro and/or in vivo data with in silico tools across the entire process would be beneficial to R&D productivity by developing effective selection criteria and drug-design optimization strategies. This review focuses on understanding the impact and extent in the past 5 years of in silico tools on the various stage gates of the target-based drug discovery approach. There are a large number of in silico tools available for establishing selection criteria and drug-design optimization strategies in the target-based approach. However, the inconsistent use of in vitro and/or in vivo data integrated with predictive in silico multiparameter models throughout the process is contributing to R&D productivity issues. In particular, the lack of reliable in silico tools at the H2L stage gate is contributing to the suboptimal selection of viable lead compounds. It is suggested that further development of in silico multiparameter models and organizing biologists, medicinal and computational chemists into one team with a single accountable objective to expand the utilization of in silico tools in all phases of drug discovery would improve R&D productivity.

  10. Feasible climate targets. The roles of economic growth, coalition development and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Richels, Richard G.; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis presented here follows the design specified by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) Transition Scenarios study on achieving climate stabilization goals with delayed participation by developing countries. We use the MERGE model to evaluate the core EMF scenarios for both the international and the US-specific studies. Our results indicate that a radiative forcing target equivalent to 450 ppmv CO 2 -e cannot be met even allowing for full participation and overshoot during the entire 21st century. With delayed participation of developing countries, a target of 550 ppmv CO 2 -e is only attainable with pessimistic assumptions about economic growth, and even then only at very high cost. A target of 650 ppmv CO 2 -e can be met with delayed participation for a more affordable cost. We highlight sensitivities to the core scenarios in two key dimensions: (1) the effect of the unfolding global financial crisis on the rate of economic growth and (2) the willingness of initially non-participating countries to agree at the beginning of the next commitment period (i.e. 2012) to join the coalition at a pre-specified date in the future. We find that while the recession does not fundamentally change the crucial role of developing country involvement, advance agreement on their part to future targets could substantially reduce costs for all countries. (author)

  11. Educational Administration: Approaches to Professional Development. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the British Educational Administration Society (7th, London, England, September 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Royston, Ed.

    This book contains proceedings of the annual conference of the British Educational Administration Society (BEAS) held in September 1978 in London. The theme of the conference was approaches to the professional development of educational administrators and the future role of the BEAS in that process. Three speeches are included, covering the…

  12. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Madeira, Portugal, July 1-4, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2016, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, 1-3 July, 2016. This conference is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2016, 1-4 July. The e-Learning (EL) 2016 conference aims…

  13. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (12th, Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2016, which was organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, April 9-11, 2016. The Mobile Learning 2016 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  14. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Educational Technologies (5th, Sydney, Australia, December 11-13, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.; Hol, Ana, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 5th International Conference on Educational Technologies 2017 (ICEduTech 2017), which has been organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and co-organised by the Western Sydney University, held in Sydney, Australia, 11-13 December 2017. ICEduTech is…

  15. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on E-Learning (Lisbon, Portugal, July 20-22, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.; Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2017, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, 20-22 July, 2017. This conference is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2017, 20-23 July, which had a total of 652 submissions.…

  16. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference on Mobile Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Lisbon, Portugal, March 14-16, 2013. The Mobile Learning 2013 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  17. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  18. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (11th, Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 11th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2015, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madeira, Portugal, March 14-16, 2015. The Mobile Learning 2015 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of…

  19. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Mobile Learning (13th, Budapest, Hungary, April 10-12, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 13th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2017, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), in Budapest, Hungary, April 10-12, 2017. The Mobile Learning 2017 Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and…

  20. The Earth Charter and the ESDinds Initiative: Developing Indicators and Assessment Tools for Civil Society Organisations to Examine the Values Dimensions of Sustainability Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podger, Dimity; Piggot, Georgia; Zahradnik, Martin; Janouskova, Svatava; Velasco, Ismael; Hak, Tomas; Dahl, Arthur; Jimenez, Alicia; Harder, Marie K.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive report outlines an innovative project in which Earth Charter International is actively involved. The project aims to develop approaches, indicators and tools for Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) to be able to measure values-based aspects and impacts of their work at the project level. Many CSOs have an intuitive feeling that…

  1. Revisioning Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) at the Comparative & International Education Society (CIES): A Five-Year Account (2009-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has evolved as a key topic and research area at the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) conference. The past five years' CIES conference papers with an ICT component are reviewed for common development trends, opportunities,…

  2. O primado da sociedade e as falhas do Direito e Desenvolvimento The primary of society and the failures of Law and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Z. Tamanaha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa os frutos dos esforços de Direito e Desenvolvimento para mostrar como seus resultados são discutíveis. também examina o conjunto de conhecimentos acumulados acerca daquilo que funciona em Direito e Desenvolvimento para mostrar como ele é inconclusivo. para fazer isso, extrai as implicações do primado da sociedade para o Direito e Desenvolvimento, abordagem que afirma estar o direito interconectado com tudo na sociedade, de tal modo que tudo importa. essa é a percepção fundamental da investigação conduzida pela escola do Law & Society, morada original do trabalho que, agora, é conduzido sob o rótulo de Direito e Desenvolvimento.The paper examines the fruits of the efforts of Law & Development to show how their results are debatable. it also examines the accumulated body of knowledge about what works in Law & Development to show how it is inconclusive. to do this, it draws the implications of the primacy of the society for Law & Development, an approach that asserts that law is interconnected with everything else in society, so everything matters. this is the fundamental insight of the investigation conducted by Law & Society, original home of the work that now is conducted under the label of law & development.

  3. A Synthetic Biology Project - Developing a single-molecule device for screening drug-target interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Keith; Evans, Luke; Youell, James

    2012-07-16

    This review describes a European-funded project in the area of Synthetic Biology. The project seeks to demonstrate the application of engineering techniques and methodologies to the design and construction of a biosensor for detecting drug-target interactions at the single-molecule level. Production of the proteins required for the system followed the principle of previously described "bioparts" concepts (a system where a database of biological parts - promoters, genes, terminators, linking tags and cleavage sequences - is used to construct novel gene assemblies) and cassette-type assembly of gene expression systems (the concept of linking different "bioparts" to produce functional "cassettes"), but problems were quickly identified with these approaches. DNA substrates for the device were also constructed using a cassette-system. Finally, micro-engineering was used to build a magnetoresistive Magnetic Tweezer device for detection of single molecule DNA modifying enzymes (motors), while the possibility of constructing a Hall Effect version of this device was explored. The device is currently being used to study helicases from Plasmodium as potential targets for anti-malarial drugs, but we also suggest other potential uses for the device. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent developments of target and ion sources to produce ISOL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this review on target and ion sources for ISOL (Isotope Separation OnLine) beams, important develop- ments from the past five years are highlighted. While at precedent EMIS conferences, a particular focus was given to a single topics, for instance specifically on ion sources or on chemical purification tech- niques, here each of the important elements present in an ISOL production unit is discussed. Fast diffus- ing nanomaterials, uranium-based targets, high power targets for next generation facilities, purification by selective adsorption, new ion sources are all part of this review. For each of these selected topics, the reported results lead to significant gains in intensity, purity, or quality of the delivered beam, or in the production of new isotope beams. Often the outcome resulted from the combination of original ideas with state-of-the-art investigations; this was carried out using very different scientific disciplines, lead- ing to understanding of the underlying chemical or physical mechanisms a...

  5. Yeast-based assay identifies novel Shh/Gli target genes in vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of developmental events and molecular mechanisms associated with the Hedgehog (Hh pathway from Drosophila to vertebrates, suggest that gene regulation is crucial for diverse cellular responses, including target genes not yet described. Although several high-throughput, genome-wide approaches have yielded information at the genomic, transcriptional and proteomic levels, the specificity of Gli binding sites related to direct target gene activation still remain elusive. This study aims to identify novel putative targets of Gli transcription factors through a protein-DNA binding assay using yeast, and validating a subset of targets both in-vitro and in-vivo. Testing in different Hh/Gli gain- and loss-of-function scenarios we here identified known (e.g., ptc1 and novel Hh-regulated genes in zebrafish embryos. Results The combined yeast-based screening and MEME/MAST analysis were able to predict Gli transcription factor binding sites, and position mapping of these sequences upstream or in the first intron of promoters served to identify new putative target genes of Gli regulation. These candidates were validated by qPCR in combination with either the pharmacological Hh/Gli antagonist cyc or the agonist pur in Hh-responsive C3H10T1/2 cells. We also used small-hairpin RNAs against Gli proteins to evaluate targets and confirm specific Gli regulation their expression. Taking advantage of mutants that have been identified affecting different components of the Hh/Gli signaling system in the zebrafish model, we further analyzed specific novel candidates. Studying Hh function with pharmacological inhibition or activation complemented these genetic loss-of-function approaches. We provide evidence that in zebrafish embryos, Hh signaling regulates sfrp2, neo1, and c-myc expression in-vivo. Conclusion A recently described yeast-based screening allowed us to identify new Hh/Gli target genes, functionally important in

  6. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Cost Analysis for a Proposed Development Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Karel, Samec; Kadi, Yacine; Noah, Etam; Lettry, Jacques; Wagner, Werner; Thomsen, Knud; Patorski, Jacek; Dementevjs, Sergej; Zik, Anatoli; Platacis, Erik

    The EURISOL Design Study has reached final completion and the three institutes, CERN, IPUL and PSI, participating in the development of the Multi-Megawatt target station have met the objective of a reliable, affordable and credible design. The costs involved in the full development of such a target are forecast to reach 200 million €, approximately 15% of the total costs of the EURISOL facility.A breakdown of the costs is presented as well as an outline of future possible R&D efforts aimed at improving reliability and safety of the facility. Another important goal of the proposed R&D is to minimise development risk by focusing resources, early on in the project, on areas identified as presenting a particular risk. An example clearly identified in the study would be the conditioning of the contaminated Mercury, both during the lifetime of the facility and after decommissioning.

  7. Overcoming Chemical, Biological, and Computational Challenges in the Development of Inhibitors Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Luca; McKenzie, Grahame; Spring, David R.; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.; Huggins, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) underlie the majority of biological processes, signaling, and disease. Approaches to modulate PPIs with small molecules have therefore attracted increasing interest over the past decade. However, there are a number of challenges inherent in developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors that have prevented these approaches from reaching their full potential. From target validation to small-molecule screening and lead optimization, identifying therapeutically relevant PPIs that can be successfully modulated by small molecules is not a simple task. Following the recent review by Arkin et al., which summarized the lessons learnt from prior successes, we focus in this article on the specific challenges of developing PPI inhibitors and detail the recent advances in chemistry, biology, and computation that facilitate overcoming them. We conclude by providing a perspective on the field and outlining four innovations that we see as key enabling steps for successful development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PPIs. PMID:26091166

  8. Developing Internet interventions to target the individual impact of stigma in health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of health problems are associated with significant stigma, a social phenomenon in which individuals become the object of negative stereotypes. In addition to experiencing negative reactions from others, stigmatised individuals and groups can experience harmful consequences when they internalise these negative prevailing attitudes. The objective of this paper was to consider the potential to develop Internet-based health-related interventions explicitly targeting the effects of stigma on the individual. A review of the literature was conducted to synthesise current conceptualisations of stigma and self-stigma across a number of groups, and to identify current intervention developments. Self-stigma reduction strategies developed for in-person services include cognitive reframing, myth busting, contact with other members of the stigmatised group, and disclosure promotion. The development and provision of interventions targeting self-stigma within an online environment is in its infancy. Our review considers there to be particular potential of online interventions for this target, associated with the capacity of the Internet to promote having contact with peers within one’s stigmatised group, and for user interaction and empowerment. We conclude that self-stigma is a domain in which there is significant potential for innovation with health-related interventions, and provide a number of recommendations for online intervention development.

  9. Oligodendrocyte Development in the Absence of Their Target Axons In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocytes form myelin around axons of the central nervous system, enabling saltatory conduction. Recent work has established that axons can regulate certain aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination, yet remarkably oligodendrocytes in culture retain the ability to differentiate in the absence of axons and elaborate myelin sheaths around synthetic axon-like substrates. It remains unclear the extent to which the life-course of oligodendrocytes requires the presence of, or signals derived from axons in vivo. In particular, it is unclear whether the specific axons fated for myelination regulate the oligodendrocyte population in a living organism, and if so, which precise steps of oligodendrocyte-cell lineage progression are regulated by target axons. Here, we use live-imaging of zebrafish larvae carrying transgenic reporters that label oligodendrocyte-lineage cells to investigate which aspects of oligodendrocyte development, from specification to differentiation, are affected when we manipulate the target axonal environment. To drastically reduce the number of axons targeted for myelination, we use a previously identified kinesin-binding protein (kbp mutant, in which the first myelinated axons in the spinal cord, reticulospinal axons, do not fully grow in length, creating a region in the posterior spinal cord where most initial targets for myelination are absent. We find that a 73% reduction of reticulospinal axon surface in the posterior spinal cord of kbp mutants results in a 27% reduction in the number of oligodendrocytes. By time-lapse analysis of transgenic OPC reporters, we find that the reduction in oligodendrocyte number is explained by a reduction in OPC proliferation and survival. Interestingly, OPC specification and migration are unaltered in the near absence of normal axonal targets. Finally, we find that timely differentiation of OPCs into oligodendrocytes does not depend at all on the presence of target axons

  10. Assessing the universal health coverage target in the Sustainable Development Goals from a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2016-12-15

    The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in September 2015, include a comprehensive health goal, "to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being at all ages." The health goal (SDG 3) has nine substantive targets and four additional targets which are identified as a means of implementation. One of these commitments, to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), has been acknowledged as central to the achievement of all of the other health targets. As defined in the SDGs, UHC includes financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services, and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all. This article evaluates the extent to which the UHC target in the SDGs conforms with the requirements of the right to health enumerated in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and other international human rights instruments and interpreted by international human rights bodies. It does so as a means to identify strengths and weaknesses in the framing of the UHC target that are likely to affect its implementation. While UHC as defined in the SDGs overlaps with human rights standards, there are important human rights omissions that will likely weaken the implementation and reduce the potential benefits of the UHC target. The most important of these is the failure to confer priority to providing access to health services to poor and disadvantaged communities in the process of expanding health coverage and in determining which health services to provide. Unless the furthest behind are given priority and strategies adopted to secure their participation in the development of national health plans, the SDGs, like the MDGs, are likely to leave the most disadvantaged and vulnerable communities behind.

  11. Axonal wiring in neural development: Target-independent mechanisms help to establish precision and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Milan; Schmucker, Dietmar

    2015-09-01

    The connectivity patterns of many neural circuits are highly ordered and often impressively complex. The intricate order and complexity of neuronal wiring remain not only a challenge for questions related to circuit functions but also for our understanding of how they develop with such an apparent precision. The chemotropic guidance of the growing axon by target-derived cues represents a central paradigm for how neurons get connected with the correct target cells. However, many studies reveal a remarkable variety of important target-independent wiring mechanisms. These mechanisms include axonal sorting, axonal tiling, growth cone polarization, as well as cell-intrinsic mechanisms underlying growth cone sprouting, and neurite branching. Our review focuses on target independent wiring mechanisms and in particular on recent progress emerging from studies on three different sensory systems: olfactory, visual, and somatosensory. We discuss molecular mechanisms that operate during axon-axon interactions or constitute axon-intrinsic functions and outline how they complement the well-known target-dependent wiring mechanisms. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  12. New developments in cryo-targets for the external COSY experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Samad, S; Kilian, K

    2002-01-01

    For cooling the liquid hydrogen/deuterium target from room temperature to the operating temperature (15 K/19 K) until recently a long solid copper heat conductor and a short heat pipe was used between cooling machine and the target cell. Recently, a new target version with metallic heat conductor of minimal length and a long gravity-assisted heat pipe section was constructed. The target material is used as a heat transport medium and high heat transfer is achieved by liquid-gas circulation. This design drastically reduces the weight of the system to less than 10 g in the 32 cm long standard geometry as compared with the previous copper heat conductors of 600 g. Uncontrollable secondary interactions are thus avoided. The cycle time of cooling down or heating up is reduced. The characteristics at steady-state operating conditions of the new 32 cm heat pipe-target system have been measured for hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen and methane as the working fluids. Also successful was the development of a 2 m long heat ...

  13. Recent Developments in the VISRAD 3-D Target Design and Radiation Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Joseph; Golovkin, Igor; Sebald, James

    2017-10-01

    The 3-D view factor code VISRAD is widely used in designing HEDP experiments at major laser and pulsed-power facilities, including NIF, OMEGA, OMEGA-EP, ORION, Z, and LMJ. It simulates target designs by generating a 3-D grid of surface elements, utilizing a variety of 3-D primitives and surface removal algorithms, and can be used to compute the radiation flux throughout the surface element grid by computing element-to-element view factors and solving power balance equations. Target set-up and beam pointing are facilitated by allowing users to specify positions and angular orientations using a variety of coordinates systems (e.g., that of any laser beam, target component, or diagnostic port). Analytic modeling for laser beam spatial profiles for OMEGA DPPs and NIF CPPs is used to compute laser intensity profiles throughout the grid of surface elements. VISRAD includes a variety of user-friendly graphics for setting up targets and displaying results, can readily display views from any point in space, and can be used to generate image sequences for animations. We will discuss recent improvements to conveniently assess beam capture on target and beam clearance of diagnostic components, as well as plans for future developments.

  14. Development of antibody-based c-Met inhibitors for targeted cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dongheon Lee, Eun-Sil Sung, Jin-Hyung Ahn, Sungwon An, Jiwon Huh, Weon-Kyoo You Hanwha Chemical R&D Center, Biologics Business Unit, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Signaling pathways mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs and their ligands play important roles in the development and progression of human cancers, which makes RTK-mediated signaling pathways promising therapeutic targets in the treatment of cancer. Compared with small-molecule compounds, antibody-based therapeutics can more specifically recognize and bind to ligands and RTKs. Several antibody inhibitors of RTK-mediated signaling pathways, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, have been developed and are widely used to treat cancer patients. However, since the therapeutic options are still limited in terms of therapeutic efficacy and types of cancers that can be treated, efforts are being made to identify and evaluate novel RTK-mediated signaling pathways as targets for more efficacious cancer treatment. The hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway has come into the spotlight as a promising target for development of potent cancer therapeutic agents. Multiple antibody-based therapeutics targeting hepatocyte growth factor or c-Met are currently in preclinical or clinical development. This review focuses on the development of inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway for cancer treatment, including critical issues in clinical development and future perspectives for antibody-based therapeutics. Keywords: hepatocyte growth factor, ligands, receptor tyrosine kinase, signaling pathway, therapeutic agent

  15. Status of SINQ, the only MW spallation neutron source-highlighting target development and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Werner; Dai, Yong; Glasbrenner, Heike; Grosse, Mirco; Lehmann, Eberhard

    2006-01-01

    SINQ is a continuous spallation neutron source, driven by PSI's 590 MeV proton accelerator. Receiving a stable proton current of 1.3 mA, SINQ is the presently most powerful accelerator-driven facility worldwide. Besides the primary designation of SINQ to serve as user facility for neutron scattering and neutron imaging, PSI seeks to play a leading role in the development of the facility, focusing on spallation targets and materials research for high-dose radiation environments. Accompanying these activities, SINQ has established several projects serving a more general, profound development towards high-power spallation targets: the most prominent ones being SINQ Target Irradiation Program (STIP) and megawatt pilot experiment for a liquid metal target (MEGAPIE), complemented by LiSoR and VIMOS. Within the user program, SINQ is aspiring to attract an appropriate contingent of industrial applications. The paper highlights the potential for industrial applications by means of selected examples from strain mapping and neutron imaging

  16. The Bacterial Type III Secretion System as a Target for Developing New Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens requires new targets for developing novel antibacterials. The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an attractive target for developing antibacterials as it is essential in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS consists of structural proteins, effectors and chaperones. Over 20 different structural proteins assemble into a complex nanoinjector that punctures a hole on the eukaryotic cell membrane to allow the delivery of effectors directly into the host cell cytoplasm. Defects in the assembly and function of the T3SS render bacteria non-infective. Two major classes of small molecules, salicylidene acylhydrazides and thiazolidinones, have been shown to inhibit multiple genera of bacteria through the T3SS. Many additional chemically and structurally diverse classes of small molecule inhibitors of the T3SS have been identified as well. While specific targets within the T3SS of a few inhibitors have been suggested, the vast majority of specific protein targets within the T3SS remain to be identified or characterized. Other T3SS inhibitors include polymers, proteins and polypeptides mimics. In addition, T3SS activity is regulated by its interaction with biologically relevant molecules, such as bile salts and sterols, which could serve as scaffolds for drug design. PMID:25521643

  17. Development of Industrial-Scale Fission 99Mo Production Process Using Low Enriched Uranium Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kon Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-99 (99Mo is the most important isotope because its daughter isotope, technetium-99m (99mTc, has been the most widely used medical radioisotope for more than 50 years, accounting for > 80% of total nuclear diagnostics worldwide. In this review, radiochemical routes for the production of 99Mo, and the aspects for selecting a suitable process strategy are discussed from the historical viewpoint of 99Mo technology developments. Most of the industrial-scale 99Mo processes have been based on the fission of 235U. Recently, important issues have been raised for the conversion of fission 99Mo targets from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (LEU. The development of new LEU targets with higher density was requested to compensate for the loss of 99Mo yield, caused by a significant reduction of 235U enrichment, from the conversion. As the dramatic increment of intermediate level liquid waste is also expected from the conversion, an effective strategy to reduce the waste generation from the fission 99Mo production is required. The mitigation of radioxenon emission from medical radioisotope production facilities is discussed in relation with the monitoring of nuclear explosions and comprehensive nuclear test ban. Lastly, the 99Mo production process paired with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's own LEU target is proposed as one of the most suitable processes for the LEU target.

  18. An update on anticancer drug development and delivery targeting carbonic anhydrase IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Kazokaitė

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX is up-regulated in many types of solid tumors in humans under hypoxic and acidic microenvironment. Inhibition of CA IX enzymatic activity with selective inhibitors, antibodies or labeled probes has been shown to reverse the acidic environment of solid tumors and reduce the tumor growth establishing the significant role of CA IX in tumorigenesis. Thus, the development of potent antitumor drugs targeting CA IX with minimal toxic effects is important for the target-specific tumor therapy. Recently, several promising antitumor agents against CA IX have been developed to treat certain types of cancers in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Here we review the inhibition of CA IX by small molecule compounds and monoclonal antibodies. The methods of enzymatic assays, biophysical methods, animal models including zebrafish and Xenopus oocytes, and techniques of diagnostic imaging to detect hypoxic tumors using CA IX-targeted conjugates are discussed with the aim to overview the recent progress related to novel therapeutic agents that target CA IX in hypoxic tumors.

  19. Enhancement of the efficiency of magnetic targeting for drug delivery: Development and evaluation of magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Quanliang; Han Xiaotao; Li Liang

    2011-01-01

    Deep magnetic capture and clinical application are the current trends for magnetic targeted drug delivery system. More promising and possible strategies are needed to overcome the current limitations and further improve the magnetic targeting technique. Recent advances in the development of targeting magnet system show promise in progressing this technology from the laboratory to the clinic. Starting from well-known basic concepts, current limitations of magnetic targeted drug delivery system are analyzed. Meanwhile, the design concepts and evaluations of some effective improvements in magnet system are discussed and reviewed with reference to (i) reasonable design of magnet system; (ii) control modes of magnet system used to generate dynamical magnetic fields; and (iii) magnetic field driving types. - Research Highlights: → The current limitations of MTDDS for deep capture and clinical application are analyzed. → The development of magnet system shows promise in progressing MTDDS to clinical application. → The design concepts and evaluations of improvements in magnet system are reviewed and discussed. → The key to improve magnet system lies in controllable magnets and different excitations.

  20. Development of industrial-scale fission {sup 99}Mo production process using low enriched uranium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Kon; Lee, Jun Sig [Radioisotope Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Beyer, Gerd J. [Grunicke Strasse 15, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) is the most important isotope because its daughter isotope, technetium-99m ({sup 99}mTc), has been the most widely used medical radioisotope for more than 50 years, accounting for > 80% of total nuclear diagnostics worldwide. In this review, radiochemical routes for the production of {sup 99}Mo, and the aspects for selecting a suitable process strategy are discussed from the historical viewpoint of {sup 99}Mo technology developments. Most of the industrial-scale {sup 99}Mo processes have been based on the fission of {sup 235}U. Recently, important issues have been raised for the conversion of fission {sup 99}Mo targets from highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium (LEU). The development of new LEU targets with higher density was requested to compensate for the loss of {sup 99}Mo yield, caused by a significant reduction of {sup 235}U enrichment, from the conversion. As the dramatic increment of intermediate level liquid waste is also expected from the conversion, an effective strategy to reduce the waste generation from the fission {sup 99}Mo production is required. The mitigation of radioxenon emission from medical radioisotope production facilities is discussed in relation with the monitoring of nuclear explosions and comprehensive nuclear test ban. Lastly, the {sup 99}Mo production process paired with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's own LEU target is proposed as one of the most suitable processes for the LEU target.

  1. Development of Targeted, Enzyme-Activated Nano-Conjugates for Hepatic Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Sibu Philip

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most commonly-occurring cancer worldwide and the 2nd highest cause for cancer-related deaths globally. The current treatment strategy is the direct injection of a chemotherapeutic agent (e.g. doxorubicin; DOX) into the hepatic artery, through a process called hepatic arterial infusion (HAI). Unfortunately, HAI is severely hindered by limited therapeutic efficacy against the tumor and high systemic toxicity to surrounding organs (e.g. cardiotoxicity). This thesis focuses on the development of a targeted, nanoparticle-based drug delivery system aimed to improve the clinical treatment of HCC. In particular, we employ generation 5 (G5) poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers targeted to hepatic cancer cells via N-acetylgalactosamine (NAcGal) ligands attached to the surface through a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush. DOX is attached to the G5 surface through two different enzyme-sensitive linkages, L3 or L4, to achieve controllable release of the drug inside hepatic cancer cells. The combination of NAcGal-PEG targeting branches with either L3- or L4-DOX linkages led to the development of P1 and P2 particles, respectively. In Part 1, we discuss the development of these particles and measure their ability to target and kill hepatic cancer cells in vitro. In Part 2, we investigate the antitumor activity of P1 and P2 particles in tumor-bearing mice in comparison to the free drug, and we measure the cardiac function of mice undergoing treatment to assess differences in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Finally, in Part 3, we explore multi-valent targeting of G5 dendrimers in pursuit of further improving their specificity to hepatic cancer cells. Ultimately, this thesis provides insight into the utility of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems that can potentially be translated to the clinic to improve cancer therapy.

  2. Axonal cleaved caspase-3 regulates axon targeting and morphogenesis in the developing auditory brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Rotschafer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease that is most commonly associated with cell death. Recent studies have shown additional roles in mediating cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and development of cell morphology. We investigated the role of caspase-3 in the development of chick auditory brainstem nuclei during embryogenesis. Immunofluorescence from embryonic days E6-13 revealed that the temporal expression of cleaved caspase-3 follows the ascending anatomical pathway. Expression is first seen in the auditory portion of VIIIth nerve including central axonal regions projecting to nucleus magnocellularis (NM, then later in NM axons projecting to nucleus laminaris (NL, and subsequently in NL dendrites. To examine the function of cleaved caspase-3 in chick auditory brainstem development, we blocked caspase-3 cleavage in developing chick embryos with the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK from E6 to E9, then examined NM and NL morphology and NM axonal targeting on E10. NL lamination in treated embryos was disorganized and the neuropil around NL contained a significant number of glial cells normally excluded from this region. Additionally, NM axons projected into inappropriate portions of NL in Z-DEVD-FMK treated embyros. We found that the presence of misrouted axons was associated with more severe NL disorganization. The effects of axonal caspase-3 inhibition on both NL morphogenesis and NM axon targeting suggest that these developmental processes are coordinated, likely through communication between axons and their targets.

  3. MARX EMBRYOLOGY OF SOCIETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUTERS, A

    This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's

  4. Epigenomic and transcriptomic approaches in the post-genomic era: path to novel targets for diagnosis and therapy of the ischaemic heart? Position Paper of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cellular Biology of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Cinzia; Barabási, Albert-Laszló; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Davidson, Sean Michael; De Windt, Leon; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Engel, Felix Benedikt; Hausenloy, Derek John; Hill, Joseph Addison; Van Laake, Linda Wilhelmina; Lecour, Sandrine; Leor, Jonathan; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mayr, Manuel; Prunier, Fabrice; Sluijter, Joost Petrus Geradus; Schulz, Rainer; Thum, Thomas; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-06-01

    Despite advances in myocardial reperfusion therapies, acute myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and consequent ischaemic heart failure represent the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized societies. Although different therapeutic interventions have been shown beneficial in preclinical settings, an effective cardioprotective or regenerative therapy has yet to be successfully introduced in the clinical arena. Given the complex pathophysiology of the ischaemic heart, large scale, unbiased, global approaches capable of identifying multiple branches of the signalling networks activated in the ischaemic/reperfused heart might be more successful in the search for novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets. High-throughput techniques allow high-resolution, genome-wide investigation of genetic variants, epigenetic modifications, and associated gene expression profiles. Platforms such as proteomics and metabolomics (not described here in detail) also offer simultaneous readouts of hundreds of proteins and metabolites. Isolated omics analyses usually provide Big Data requiring large data storage, advanced computational resources and complex bioinformatics tools. The possibility of integrating different omics approaches gives new hope to better understand the molecular circuitry activated by myocardial ischaemia, putting it in the context of the human 'diseasome'. Since modifications of cardiac gene expression have been consistently linked to pathophysiology of the ischaemic heart, the integration of epigenomic and transcriptomic data seems a promising approach to identify crucial disease networks. Thus, the scope of this Position Paper will be to highlight potentials and limitations of these approaches, and to provide recommendations to optimize the search for novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets for acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury and ischaemic heart failure in the post-genomic era. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on

  5. Inhibition of protein synthesis and malaria parasite development by drug targeting of methionyl-tRNA synthetases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tahir; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are housekeeping enzymes that couple cognate tRNAs with amino acids to transmit genomic information for protein translation. The Plasmodium falciparum nuclear genome encodes two P. falciparum methionyl-tRNA synthetases (PfMRS), termed PfMRS(cyt) and PfMRS(api). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the two proteins are of primitive origin and are related to heterokonts (PfMRS(cyt)) or proteobacteria/primitive bacteria (PfMRS(api)). We show that PfMRS(cyt) localizes in parasite cytoplasm, while PfMRS(api) localizes to apicoplasts in asexual stages of malaria parasites. Two known bacterial MRS inhibitors, REP3123 and REP8839, hampered Plasmodium growth very effectively in the early and late stages of parasite development. Small-molecule drug-like libraries were screened against modeled PfMRS structures, and several "hit" compounds showed significant effects on parasite growth. We then tested the effects of the hit compounds on protein translation by labeling nascent proteins with (35)S-labeled cysteine and methionine. Three of the tested compounds reduced protein synthesis and also blocked parasite growth progression from the ring stage to the trophozoite stage. Drug docking studies suggested distinct modes of binding for the three compounds, compared with the enzyme product methionyl adenylate. Therefore, this study provides new targets (PfMRSs) and hit compounds that can be explored for development as antimalarial drugs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Exploiting the proteomics revolution in biotechnology: from disease and antibody targets to optimizing bioprocess development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Kelley M; Hizal, Deniz Baycin; Kumar, Amit; Shiloach, Joseph; Zhu, Jie; Bowen, Michael A; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Recent advancements in proteomics have enabled the generation of high-quality data sets useful for applications ranging from target and monoclonal antibody (mAB) discovery to bioprocess optimization. Comparative proteomics approaches have recently been used to identify novel disease targets in oncology and other disease conditions. Proteomics has also been applied as a new avenue for mAb discovery. Finally, CHO and Escherichia coli cells represent the dominant production hosts for biopharmaceutical development, yet the physiology of these cells types has yet to be fully established. Proteomics approaches can provide new insights into these cell types, aiding in recombinant protein production, cell growth regulation, and medium formulation. Optimization of sample preparations and protein database developments are enhancing the quantity and accuracy of proteomic results. In these ways, innovations in proteomics are enriching biotechnology and bioprocessing research across a wide spectrum of applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of uranium foil farication technology utilizing twin roll method for Mo-99 irradiation target

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C K; Park, H D

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion in Canada, occupying about 75% of global supply of Mo-99 isotope, has provided the irradiation target of Mo-99 using the rod-type UAl sub x alloys with HEU(High Enrichment Uranium). ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) through co-operation with BATAN in Indonesia, leading RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program substantially for nuclear non-proliferation, has designed and fabricated the annular cylinder of uranium targets, and successfully performed irradiation test, in order to develop the fabrication technology of fission Mo-99 using LEU(Low Enrichment Uranium). As the uranium foils could be fabricated in laboratory scale, not in commercialized scale by hot rolling method due to significant problems in foil quality, productivity and economic efficiency, attention has shifted to the development of new technology. Under these circumstances, the invention of uranium foil fabrication technology utilizing twin-roll casting method in KAERI is found to be able to fabricate LEU or...

  8. ANL progress in developing an LEU target and process for Mo-99 production: Cooperation with CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelis, A.V.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Aase, S.B.; Bakel, A.J.; Falkenberg, J.R.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Quigley, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The primary mission of the Reduced Enrichment in Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program is to facilitate the conversion of research and test-reactor fuel and targets from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). One of the current goals at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to assist the Argentine Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) in developing an LEU foil target and a process for 99 Mo production. Specifically addressed in this paper is ANL R and D related to this conversion: (1) designing a prototype production vessel for digesting irradiated LEU foils in alkaline solutions and (2) developing a new digestion method to address all issues related to HEU to LEU conversion. (author)

  9. Development of Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for In Vivo Targeted Delivery of Imaging Agents into Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    targeted therapy. Targeted delivery of a combined imaging and therapy agent to cancer cells is an avenue to develop a new generation of effective and...ligands for targeting HER-2/neu on breast cancer cells . In near future we will test these nanoparticles with SK-BR-3 (HER-2/neu+) and MDA-MD-468 (HER-2/neu-) breast cancer cell lines.

  10. Rural society

    OpenAIRE

    Kümin, Beat A.

    2016-01-01

    This essay surveys the long-term negotiation of religious reform in European villages. Following an account of institutional developments and popular religion in late medieval parishes, it traces the—selective—reception of the Lutheran, Zwinglian, and Calvinist messages, especially in the Holy Roman Empire, Scandinavia, the British Isles, Eastern Europe, and the Swiss Confederation, including the latter’s bi-confessional areas. Alongside personal piety, princely interests, and clerical leader...

  11. Multiple functions of CREB-binding protein during postembryonic development: identification of target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amit; George, Smitha; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2017-12-29

    Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysteroids control postembryonic development in insects. They serve as valuable targets for pest management. Hence, understanding the molecular mechanisms of their action is of crucial importance. CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a universal transcriptional co-regulator. It controls the expression of several genes including those from hormone signaling pathways through co-activation of many transcription factors. However, the role of CBP during postembryonic development in insects is not well understood. Therefore, we have studied the role of CBP in postembryonic development in Tribolium, a model coleopteran insect. CBP is ubiquitously expressed in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated knockdown of CBP resulted in a decrease in JH induction of Kr-h1 gene expression in Tribolium larvae and led to a block in their development. Moreover, the injection of CBP double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) showed lethal phenotypes within 8 days of injection. RNA-seq and subsequent differential gene expression analysis identified CBP target genes in Tribolium. Knockdown of CBP caused a decrease in the expression of 1306 genes coding for transcription factors and other proteins associated with growth and development. Depletion of CBP impaired the expression of several JH response genes (e.g., Kr-h1, Hairy, early trypsin) and ecdysone response genes (EcR, E74, E75, and broad complex). Further, GO enrichment analyses of the downregulated genes showed enrichment in different functions including developmental processes, pigmentation, anatomical structure development, regulation of biological and cellular processes, etc. These data suggest diverse but crucial roles for CBP during postembryonic development in the coleopteran model insect, Tribolium. It can serve as a target for RNAi mediated pest management of this stored product pest.

  12. Targeted therapies in development for non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyanan Reungwetwattana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The iterative discovery in various malignancies during the past decades that a number of aberrant tumorigenic processes and signal transduction pathways are mediated by "druggable" protein kinases has led to a revolutionary change in drug development. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, the ErbB family of receptors (e.g., EGFR [epidermal growth factor receptor], HER2 [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2], RAS (rat sarcoma gene, BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1, MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase c-MET (c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition, FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor, DDR2 (discoidin domain receptor 2, PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog, AKT (protein kinase B, ALK (anaplastic lym phoma kinase, RET (rearranged during transfection, ROS1 (reactive oxygen species 1 and EPH (erythropoietin-producing hepatoma are key targets of various agents currently in clinical development. These oncogenic targets exert their selective growth advantage through various intercommunicating pathways, such as through RAS/RAF/MEK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin and SRC-signal transduction and transcription signaling. The recent clinical studies, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and crizotinib were considered as strongly effective targeted therapies in metastatic NSCLC. Currently, five molecular targeted agents were approved for treatment of advanced NSCLC: Gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib for positive EGFR mutation, crizotinib for positive echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4-ALK translocation and bevacizumab. Moreover, oncogenic mutant proteins are subject to regulation by protein trafficking pathways, specifically through the heat shock protein 90 system. Drug combinations affecting various nodes in these signaling and intracellular processes are predicted and demonstrated to be synergistic and

  13. Targeted therapies in development for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reungwetwattana, Thanyanan; Dy, Grace Kho

    2013-01-01

    The iterative discovery in various malignancies during the past decades that a number of aberrant tumorigenic processes and signal transduction pathways are mediated by "druggable" protein kinases has led to a revolutionary change in drug development. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the ErbB family of receptors (e.g., EGFR [epidermal growth factor receptor], HER2 [human epidermal growth factor receptor 2]), RAS (rat sarcoma gene), BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1), MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) c-MET (c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition), FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor), DDR2 (discoidin domain receptor 2), PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha)), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), AKT (protein kinase B), ALK (anaplastic lym phoma kinase), RET (rearranged during transfection), ROS1 (reactive oxygen species 1) and EPH (erythropoietin-producing hepatoma) are key targets of various agents currently in clinical development. These oncogenic targets exert their selective growth advantage through various intercommunicating pathways, such as through RAS/RAF/MEK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin and SRC-signal transduction and transcription signaling. The recent clinical studies, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and crizotinib were considered as strongly effective targeted therapies in metastatic NSCLC. Currently, five molecular targeted agents were approved for treatment of advanced NSCLC: Gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib for positive EGFR mutation, crizotinib for positive echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK translocation and bevacizumab. Moreover, oncogenic mutant proteins are subject to regulation by protein trafficking pathways, specifically through the heat shock protein 90 system. Drug combinations affecting various nodes in these signaling and intracellular processes are predicted and demonstrated to be synergistic and

  14. Using Qualitative Research to Inform Development of Professional Guidelines: A Case Study of the Society of Critical Care Medicine Family-Centered Care Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Maureen A; Davidson, Judy E; Nunnally, Mark E; Wickline, Mary A; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-08-01

    To explore the importance, challenges, and opportunities using qualitative research to enhance development of clinical practice guidelines, using recent guidelines for family-centered care in the ICU as an example. In developing the Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines for family-centered care in the neonatal ICU, PICU, and adult ICU, we developed an innovative adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development and Evaluations approach to explicitly incorporate qualitative research. Using Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development and Evaluations and the Council of Medical Specialty Societies principles, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to establish family-centered domains and outcomes. Thematic analyses were undertaken on study findings and used to support Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome question development. We identified and employed three approaches using qualitative research in these guidelines. First, previously published qualitative research was used to identify important domains for the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome questions. Second, this qualitative research was used to identify and prioritize key outcomes to be evaluated. Finally, we used qualitative methods, member checking with patients and families, to validate the process and outcome of the guideline development. In this, a novel report, we provide direction for standardizing the use of qualitative evidence in future guidelines. Recommendations are made to incorporate qualitative literature review and appraisal, include qualitative methodologists in guideline taskforce teams, and develop training for evaluation of qualitative research into guideline development procedures. Effective methods of involving patients and families as members of guideline development represent opportunities for future work.

  15. DISC1 pathway in brain development: exploring therapeutic targets for major psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eKamiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic risk factors for major psychiatric disorders play key roles in neurodevelopment. Thus, exploring the molecular pathways of risk genes is important not only for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying brain development, but also to decipher how genetic disturbances affect brain maturation and functioning relevant to major mental illnesses. During the last decade, there has been significant progress in determining the mechanisms whereby risk genes impact brain development. Nonetheless, given that the majority of psychiatric disorders have etiological complexities encompassing multiple risk genes and environmental factors, the biological mechanisms of these diseases remain poorly understood. How can we move forward in our research for discovery of the biological markers and novel therapeutic targets for major mental disorders? Here we review recent progress in the neurobiology of Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1, a major risk gene for major mental disorders, with a particular focus on its roles in cerebral cortex development. Convergent findings implicate DISC1 as part of a large, multi-step pathway implicated in various cellular processes and signal transduction. We discuss links between the DISC1 pathway and environmental factors, such as immune/inflammatory responses, which may suggest novel therapeutic targets. Existing treatments for major mental disorders are hampered by a limited number of pharmacological targets. Consequently, elucidation of the DISC1 pathway, and its association with neuropsychiatric disorders, may offer hope for novel treatment interventions.

  16. Development of colloids for cell and tissue targeting: bisphosphonate-functionalized gold nanoparticles for the investigation of bone targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Zayed, Gamal

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) possess a great potential as model systems for the investigation of nanoparticulate drug delivery due to their ease of production, low toxicity and also the high stability of the noble metal in biological fluids. Due to their unique surface chemistry, they can be used as building platform for stable self assembled monolayers of thioalkylated poly(ethylene glycol)s with different surface functionalities, allowing the investigation of different drug targeting principle...

  17. Developing Culturally Targeted Diabetes Educational Materials for Older Russian-Speaking Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Son, Catherine R

    2014-07-01

    Older adults who immigrate late in life face many challenges adapting to a new country. Immigrants bring their cultural beliefs and behaviors with them, which can influence their ability to make dietary changes required when they have type 2 diabetes. Culturally targeted patient education materials are needed to improve immigrants' health literacy and abilities to self-manage diabetes. Currently, there is a scarcity of diabetes patient education materials to meet the educational needs of the Russian-speaking immigrant group. The purpose of this article is to describe a project in which culturally targeted diabetes education materials for older Russian-speaking immigrants were designed and developed. Culturally targeted patient education materials are essential if they are to be accepted and used by clients from different ethnic minority populations. The creation of culturally relevant materials requires a team effort and community stakeholder input. The availability of materials on the internet facilitates access and use by health care providers. Culturally targeted education materials are an important component in addressing health literacy in ethnic minority populations. Next steps require that these materials be evaluated to test their impact on diabetes self-management behaviors and clinical outcomes such as adherence, amount of physical activity, and blood glucose levels. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Recent progress in the development of a polarized proton target for reactions with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrego-Blanco, J.P.; Bingham, C.R.; Brandt, B. van den; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Schmelzbach, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Polarization observables in nuclear reactions with stable beams have provided important information concerning structural properties of nuclei and reaction mechanisms and hold great promise in the context of exotic nuclei. We report on the development of a polarized target based on plastic foils of 20-200 μm thickness to be used with radioactive ion beams. The operation of such a target requires a moderately high magnetic field and very low temperatures. The plastic foil is placed inside a chamber attached to the mixing chamber of a 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator. Cooling of the foil is achieved via a superfluid film of 4 He that can be supplied through two capillaries. The chamber has two thin, highly uniform silicon nitride windows. An NMR coil is attached to the target to monitor the polarization. Results of a first test to characterize the target system, using the elastic scattering of 38 MeV 12 C by protons in inverse kinematics are presented

  19. Meeting targets or saving lives: maternal health policy and Millennium Development Goal 5 in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvernflaten, Birgit

    2013-11-01

    In support of maternal health, disease-specific and target-oriented global policy initiatives, such as in Millennium Development Goal 5, have led to a prioritisation of narrow indicators at the expense of more comprehensive approaches. In line with global policy, Nicaragua has made skilled attendants and institutionalised delivery central to its efforts to achieving MDG5 on maternal health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Nicaragua, involving participant observation and interviews with hospital and community health workers, and women and their families, this paper critically discusses how target-oriented maternal health strategies were manifested in local realities. It shows that Nicaragua's brigadistas (community health workers) and parteras (traditional birth attendants) have been driven to narrowing their own roles to identifying pregnant women and advocating that they have an institutional delivery as one their most important tasks, making them agents of MDG 5 target achievement. This has engendered fear among brigadistas and parteras of being held individually responsible in the event of a maternal death, creating dissatisfaction with their role and reducing their motivation. While intended to improve maternal health, the pressure to reach targets has unintended negative implications for the relationship between women, the local volunteers and the formal health system, which needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudwaleit, M; van der Heijde, D; Landewé, R

    2009-01-01

    A was diagnosed in 60.2% of the cohort. Of these, 70% did not fulfil modified New York criteria and, therefore, were classified as having "non-radiographic" axial SpA. Refinement of the candidate criteria resulted in new ASAS classification criteria that are defined as: the presence of sacroiliitis by radiography......OBJECTIVE: To validate and refine two sets of candidate criteria for the classification/diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: All Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) members were invited to include consecutively new patients with chronic (> or =3 months) back...... pain of unknown origin that began before 45 years of age. The candidate criteria were first tested in the entire cohort of 649 patients from 25 centres, and then refined in a random selection of 40% of cases and thereafter validated in the remaining 60%. RESULTS: Upon diagnostic work-up, axial Sp...

  1. Guidelines to PET measurements of the target occupancy in the brain for drug development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Akihiro; Varrone, Andrea; Gulyas, Balazs; Halldin, Christer [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Salvadori, Piero [CNR Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Pisa (Italy); Gee, Antony [Kings College London, Department of Chemistry and Biology, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Windhorst, Albert; Lammertsma, Adriaan A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vercouillie, Johnny [Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, UMR Inserm U930, Tours (France); Bormans, Guy [KU Leuven, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-11-15

    This guideline summarizes the current view of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Drug Development Committee. The purpose of this guideline is to guarantee a high standard of PET studies that are aimed at measuring target occupancy in the brain within the framework of development programs of drugs that act within the central nervous system (CNS drugs). This guideline is intended to present information specifically adapted to European practice. The information provided should be applied within the context of local conditions and regulations. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic expression of Lgr5, a Wnt target gene, in the developing and mature mouse cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Renjie; Xia, Anping; Wang, Tian; Jan, Taha Adnan; Hayashi, Toshinori; Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia; Cheng, Alan Gi-Lun

    2011-08-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is a recurring theme in tissue development and homeostasis. Its specific roles during inner ear development are just emerging, but few studies have characterized Wnt target genes. Lgr5, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, is a Wnt target in the gastrointestinal and integumentary systems. Although its function is unknown, its deficiency leads to perinatal lethality due to gastrointestinal distension. In this study, we used a knock-in reporter mouse to examine the spatiotemporal expression of Lgr5 in the cochlear duct during embryonic and postnatal periods. In the embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5) cochlear duct, Lgr5-EGFP is expressed in the floor epithelium and overlapped with the prosensory markers Sox2, Jagged1, and p27(Kip1). Nascent hair cells and supporting cells in the apical turn of the E18.5 cochlear duct express Lgr5-EGFP, which becomes downregulated in hair cells and subsets of supporting cells in more mature stages. In situ hybridization experiments validated the reporter expression, which gradually decreases until the second postnatal week. Only the third row of Deiters' cells expresses Lgr5-EGFP in the mature organ of Corti. Normal cochlear development was observed in Lgr5(EGFP/EGFP) and Lgr5(EGFP/+) mice, which exhibited normal auditory thresholds. The expression pattern of Lgr5 contrasts with another Wnt target gene, Axin2, a feedback inhibitor of the Wnt pathway. Robust Axin2 expression was found in cells surrounding the embryonic cochlear duct and becomes restricted to tympanic border cells below the basilar membrane in the postnatal cochlea. Both Lgr5 and Axin2 act as Wnt targets in the cochlea because purified Wnt3a promoted and Wnt antagonist suppressed their expression. Their differential expression among cell populations highlights the dynamic but complex distribution of Wnt-activated cells in and around the embryonic and postnatal cochlea.

  3. Nuclear technology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Tanaka, Yutaka; Taniguchi, Taketoshi; Oyama, Kosuke

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan deals with the relation between nuclear technology and society, and is composed of four papers: (1) Nuclear energy and international politics - sociotechnics around plutonium utilization; (2) Risk recognition and benefit recognition of nuclear facilities and social acceptance; (3) Environmental risk management and radioactive waste problem; and, (4) Public administration around the relation between nuclear energy and society. (1) describes the historical development of nuclear energy since its birth, focusing on how the leading countries tried to control nuclear proliferation. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy is closely connected with the Non-proliferation problem. (1) also discusses the relation of plutonium utilization of Japan with international society. (2) discusses how nuclear facilities can be accepted by society, analyzing the background of risk recognition, in particular, of psychological character of mass society. (3) introduces an new approach (risk-based or risk-informed regulation) of environmental risk management for radioactive waste disposal problem, focusing on HLW (high-level waste). (4) explains the approach from public administration to nuclear energy and general energy policy and introduces PPA (participatory policy analysis) as a means for policy making. (M.M.)

  4. Target and Non-Target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. Populations from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2 and one susceptible (S were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and EPSPS gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser, and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world.

  5. Target and Non-target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) Populations from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Ozuna, Carmen V; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo E; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José A; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 hairy beggarticks ( Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14 C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14 C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser), and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser) mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world.

  6. Developing Targeted Health Service Interventions Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model: Two Australian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. This paper provides an overview of the applicability of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to the development of targeted nursing led chronic illness interventions. Background. Changing health care practice is a complex and dynamic process that requires consideration of social, political, economic, and organisational factors. An understanding of the characteristics of the target population, health professionals, and organizations plus identification of the determinants for change are also required. Synthesizing this data to guide the development of an effective intervention is a challenging process. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model has been used in global health care settings to guide the identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation of various health improvement initiatives. Design. Using a reflective case study approach, this paper examines the applicability of the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model to the development of targeted chronic care improvement interventions for two distinct Australian populations: a rapidly expanding and aging rural population with unmet palliative care needs and a disadvantaged urban community at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Results. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model approach demonstrated utility across diverse health settings in a systematic planning process. In environments characterized by increasing health care needs, limited resources, and growing community expectations, adopting planning tools such as PRECEDE-PROCEED Model at a local level can facilitate the development of the most effective interventions. Relevance to Clinical Practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model is a strong theoretical model that guides the development of realistic nursing led interventions with the best chance of being successful in existing health care environments.

  7. Temporal interplay between efflux pumps and target mutations in development of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Renu; Swick, Michelle C; Ledesma, Kimberly R; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Ming; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Tam, Vincent H

    2012-04-01

    The emergence of resistance presents a debilitating change in the management of infectious diseases. Currently, the temporal relationship and interplay between various mechanisms of drug resistance are not well understood. A thorough understanding of the resistance development process is needed to facilitate rational design of countermeasure strategies. Using an in vitro hollow-fiber infection model that simulates human drug treatment, we examined the appearance of efflux pump (acrAB) overexpression and target topoisomerase gene (gyrA and parC) mutations over time in the emergence of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. Drug-resistant isolates recovered early (24 h) had 2- to 8-fold elevation in the MIC due to acrAB overexpression, but no point mutations were noted. In contrast, high-level (≥ 64× MIC) resistant isolates with target site mutations (gyrA S83L with or without parC E84K) were selected more readily after 120 h, and regression of acrAB overexpression was observed at 240 h. Using a similar dosing selection pressure, the emergence of levofloxacin resistance was delayed in a strain with acrAB deleted compared to the isogenic parent. The role of efflux pumps in bacterial resistance development may have been underappreciated. Our data revealed the interplay between two mechanisms of quinolone resistance and provided a new mechanistic framework in the development of high-level resistance. Early low-level levofloxacin resistance conferred by acrAB overexpression preceded and facilitated high-level resistance development mediated by target site mutation(s). If this interpretation is correct, then these findings represent a paradigm shift in the way quinolone resistance is thought to develop.

  8. Interpreting adjoint and ensemble sensitivity toward the development of optimal observation targeting strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancell, B.C.; Hakim, G.J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Two general methods, adjoint or singular vector methods, and ensemble-based methods, have been previously investigated to identify locations where observations would have a significant positive impact on a numerical weather model forecast. In this paper, we perform a basic comparison of targeting regions chosen to reduce the expected variance of a chosen forecast response function within an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) based on both an adjoint method and an ensemble method. Ensemble sensitivity is defined by linear regressions of a chosen forecast response function onto the model initial-time state variables, and is used to calculate variance reduction fields to provide targeting guidance for the ensemble-based method. Adjoint sensitivity is used to provide targeting guidance for the adjoint-based method. 90 ensemble forecasts are considered over a 24-hour forecast period, and the response function is chosen to represent the sea-level pressure at a single point in the Pacific Northwest United States. Targeting by ensemble guidance is shown to be a function of ensemble sensitivity and both the initial-time model state and observation variance. We find that large areas of variance reduction exist away from regions of large ensemble sensitivity, adjoint sensitivity, and the initial-time variance of the model state. For hypothetical aircraft observations, ensemble guidance is superior to adjoint guidance for 850 hPa temperature observations in a single case. This advantage increases as the number of flight tracks increases. In all cases, as more flight tracks are considered, diminishing returns on response function variance reduction are realized. Implications of these results for the development of targeting strategies are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  10. International Youth Justice Systems: Promoting Youth Development and Alternative Approaches: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Youth incarceration is an international public health concern among developed and developing countries. Worldwide, youth are held in incarceration, detention, and other secure settings that are inappropriate for their age and developmental stages, jeopardizing their prosocial development, and reintegration into society. Youth incarceration lacks evidence and cost-effectiveness. The well-being of youth is a key indicator of the welfare of families, communities, and society at large; therefore, the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) supports a paradigm shift in the role of the justice system as it relates to treatment of youth. SAHM recommends justice systems focus greater attention and resources on identifying and reducing the antecedents of high-risk and criminal behaviors, recognizing the rights and freedom of young persons, and prioritizing the well-being of youth over punitive measures that may harm and disrupt healthy adolescent development. SAHM supports the following positions: (1) incarceration is a last option for selected offenders who have committed the most serious violent crimes and are unable to remain safely in the community; (2) youth justice policies, programs, and practices affecting youth be evidence based and trauma informed; (3) youth justice policies, programs, and practices must incorporate research and ongoing program evaluation; (4) youth justice policies shall protect the privacy and dignity of children younger than 18 years; and (5) health care professionals and media will promote positive portrayals of youth in healthy relationships within their communities and reduce representations and images of youth that are negative, violent, deviant, and threatening. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and optimization of targeted radionuclide tumor therapy using folate based radiopharmaceuticals

    CERN Document Server

    Reber, Josefine Astrid

    The folate receptor (FR) has been used for a quarter of a century as a tumor-associated target for selective delivery of drugs and imaging agents to cancer cells. While several folic acid radioconjugates have been successfully employed for imaging purposes in (pre)clinical studies, a therapeutic application of folic acid radioconjugates has not yet reached the critical stage which would allow a clinical translation. Due to a substantial expression of the FR in the proximal tubule cells, radiofolates accumulate in the kidneys which are at risk of damage by particle-radiation. To improve this situation, we aimed to develop and evaluate strategies for the performance of FR-targeted radionuclide therapy by decreasing the renal uptake of radiofolates and thereby reducing potential nephrotoxic effects. Two different strategies were investigated. First, the combination of radiofolates with chemotherapeutic agents such as pemetrexed (PMX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and secondly, an approach based on radioiodinated fol...

  12. Stem cell-derived neurons in the development of targeted treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Bradley; Liu, Bangyan; Karmacharya, Rakesh

    2017-04-01

    The recent advent of induced pluripotent stem cells has enabled the study of patient-specific and disease-related neurons in vitro and has facilitated new directions of inquiry into disease mechanisms. With these approaches, we now have the possibility of correlating ex vivo cellular phenotypes with individual patient response to treatment and/or side effects, which makes targeted treatments for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder a distinct prospect in the coming years. Here, we briefly review the current state of stem cell-based models and explore studies that are providing new insights into the disease biology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which are laying the foundations for the development of novel targeted therapies.

  13. GPCR homomers and heteromers: a better choice as targets for drug development than GPCR monomers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadó, Vicent; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Ferré, Sergi; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael; Canela, Enric I

    2009-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are targeted by many therapeutic drugs marketed to fight against a variety of diseases. Selection of novel lead compounds are based on pharmacological parameters obtained assuming that GPCR are monomers. However, many GPCR are expressed as dimers/oligomers. Therefore, drug development may consider GPCR as homo- and hetero-oligomers. A two-state dimer receptor model is now available to understand GPCR operation and to interpret data obtained from drugs interacting with dimers, and even from mixtures of monomers and dimers. Heteromers are distinct entities and therefore a given drug is expected to have different affinities and different efficacies depending on the heteromer. All these concepts would lead to broaden the therapeutic potential of drugs targeting GPCRs, including receptor heteromer-selective drugs with a lower incidence of side effects, or to identify novel pharmacological profiles using cell models expressing receptor heteromers.

  14. Development and Testing of a 212Pb/212Bi Peptide for Targeting Metastatic Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop a new radiolabeled peptide for imaging and treating metastatic melanoma. The immunoconjugate consists of a receptor-specific peptide that targets melanoma cells. The beta-emitter lead-212 (half-life = 10.4 hours) is linked by coordination chemistry to the peptide. After injection, the peptide targets melanoma receptors on the surfaces of melanoma cells. Lead-212 decays to the alpha-emitter bismuth-212 (half-life = 60 minutes). Alpha-particles that hit melanoma cell nuclei are likely to kill the melanoma cell. For cancer cell imaging, the lead-212 is replaced by lead-203 (half-life = 52 hours). Lead-203 emits 279 keV photons (80.1% abundance) that can be imaged and measured for biodistribution analysis, cancer imaging, and quantitative dosimetry.

  15. Target development for 67Cu, 82Sr radionuclide production at the RIC-80 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleev, V. N.; Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Krotov, S. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2018-01-01

    A high-current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 μA has been constructed and commissioned at PNPI (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute). One of the main goals of cyclotron C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. To date, the project development of a radioisotope facility RIC-80 (radioisotopes at cyclotron C-80) has been completed. The feature of the project is the use of a mass-separator combined with the ion-target device for obtaining ion beams of radioisotopes with a high purity of separation that is especially important for medical applications. The first results of a new high-temperature method for extracting 82Sr and 67Cu radioisotopes from irradiated targets have been presented.

  16. EFTTRA, a European collaboration for the development of fuels and targets for the transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babelot, J.F. [Commission of the European Communities, Karlsruhe (Germany). European Inst. for Transuranium Elements; Gruppelaar, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Muehling, G. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Prunier, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France); Rome, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 -Villeurbanne (France). Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires; Salvatores, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 -Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France)

    1994-12-01

    In the frame of the research programmes on the transmutation of long lived nuclides, many experimental or theoretical investigations have to be carried out within European collaborations, owing mainly to the costs of such studies. Therefore, a group named `Experimental Feasibility of Targets for Transmutation` (EFTTRA), has been formed, with participants from CEA (France). ECN (The Netherlands), EDF (France), KFK (Germany) and ITU (European Commission), to organise joint experiments for the study of materials for the transmutation. So far, it was decided to focus the work on the transmutation of {sup 99}Tc (metal), of {sup 129}I (compound), and of Am (in an inert matrix). Irradiations will take place in parallel in the Phenix fast reactor in France, and in the high flux thermal reactor HFR in the Netherlands. These experiments, together with the related post-irradiation examinations, constitute the first phase of the EFTTRA collaboration. In subsequent phases, EFTTRA will contribute to the development of fuels and targets. (orig.).

  17. Should Society Encourage The Development Of 3D Printing Particularly 3D Bioprinting Of Tissues And Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviana Pavlovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available My aim is to discover moral and ethical sides of 3D printing which is a new technology and paradoxically a new phenomenon of the twenty-first century. Particularly 3D bioprinted organs and tissues is a controversial issue because this technological advancement may be viewed by society as a servant or it can even potentially become its master. For example in the health care system doctors may change their attitude to patients by using 3D bioprinted organs and tissues whenever it is needed also taking away responsibility from patients. Thus there can be great social and psychological consequences from 3D bioprinting in a long term. Furthermore Pete Basiliere an analyst in a worlds leading information technology research company suggests that 3D printing can also bring economic consequences resulting in the loss of at least 100 billion in intellectual property theft per year by 2018 globally. By analysing the economic psychological and social impact of the 3D printing technologies I want to research whether anyone is going be responsible for the 3D printing production and who is going to give a right to 3D bioprint.

  18. Libraries in society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura Henriette Christine

    2008-01-01

    brought about by the boom of the internet and the advent of the post-modern globalised knowledge-based and network-organised society. Finally, the paper outlines how theoretical and strategic library development can benefit from academic considerations on the dialectics between openness and restrictedness...

  19. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  20. Developing a Peace Course in Police Studies: How a Culture of Peace Can Enhance Police Legitimacy in a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects my experiences developing a course within the Criminal Justice Technology Associates of Science degree program at Valencia College that fuses topics unique to peace and police studies. The key challenge in developing this course was in confronting the paradox of the police as instruments of both peace and conflict. In dealing…

  1. Russian Observations of European Experience in Agricultural Development in 1840s (based on the printed output of the Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the nineteenth century, agriculture in Russia had reached the new level of development. The Imperial Agricultural Societies paid much attention to establishing relations with the foreign agricultural societies and kept up with their periodicals, issuing translations and abridgements of texts, which could be interesting to the Russian readers. This paper examines the articles on farming industry in Great Britain, France, German countries, Italy, and the USA, released in journals and transactions of Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia in 1840s. The research draws on both reviews of European congresses or exhibitions, written by members of agricultural societies, and the articles written by foreign authors and published in translation. Such approach made it possible to specify the certain topics appealing to Russian farmers. Moreover, the study of the articles contributed by the Imperial Agricultural Societies helped to build a complete picture representing knowledge on history, theory and practice of foreign and Russian husbandry, shared by the Russian farmers in 1840s. It is also worth to mention that the effective work of agricultural journals in fact integrated Russian farming communities into the broad network of contacts, experience and knowledge exchange, which had been functioning in Europe in the first half of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, the research revealed that the articles in question almost lacked comparisons between Russian and European agriculture. The papers dealing with comparative analysis of the different European farming systems are characterized by noticeably restrained reaction of the editors and authors to the published information. They tended to show the advantages and disadvantages of the foreign farming without furnishing the Russian reader or the Russian authorities with any specific recommendations.

  2. Overview on materials and technological developments for the LMJ cryogenic target assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneaume, B.; Allegre, G.; Botrel, R.; Bourcier, H.; Bourdenet, R.; Breton, O.; Collier, R.; Dauteuil, C.; Durut, F.; Faivre, A.; Fleury, E.; Geoffray, I.; Geoffray, G.; Jeannot, L.; Jehanno, L.; Legaie, O.; Legay, G.; Meux, S.; Schunk, J.; Theobald, M.; Vasselin, C.; Perin, J.P.; Viargues, F.; Paquignon, G.

    2011-01-01

    The cryogenic target assemblies (CTAs) designed for Laser Megajoule (LMJ) experiments have many functions and have to meet severe specifications imposed by implosion physics, the CTA thermal environment, and the CTA interfaces with the Megajoule laser cryogenic target positioner. Therefore, CTA fabrication uses many challenging materials and requires several technological studies. During the last 2 years, many developments have enabled better collection of comprehensive data on target constitutive materials and improvements in the fabrication of the CTA base, hohlraum, and aluminum turret. Studies have been carried out (a) to better characterize thermal properties of materials allowing optimization of the thermal simulation of the hohlraum, (b) to improve the CTA base fabrication process in order optimize thermal studies of the LMJ experimental filling station (EFS), and (c) to determine coatings on the polyimide membrane that may limit the 300 K thermal effect on the micro-shell and increase the deuterium-tritium fuel lifetime. CTAs have been produced to evaluate fabrication knowledge, to characterize CTAs, to study air tightness, and to study filling and D 2 ice layering on the EFS. An overview of the results that have been obtained during the past 2 years is presented in this paper. (authors)

  3. Putting together the psoriasis puzzle: an update on developing targeted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne M. Johnson-Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic, debilitating skin disease that affects millions of people worldwide. There is no mouse model that accurately reproduces all facets of the disease, but the accessibility of skin tissue from patients has facilitated the elucidation of many pathways involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and highlighted the importance of the immune system in the disease. The pathophysiological relevance of these findings has been supported by genetic studies that identified polymorphisms in genes associated with NFκB activation, IL-23 signaling and T helper 17 (Th17-cell adaptive immune responses, and in genes associated with the epidermal barrier. Recently developed biologic agents that selectively target specific components of the immune system are highly effective for treating psoriasis. In particular, emerging therapeutics are focused on targeting the IL-23–Th17-cell axis, and several agents that block IL-17 signaling have shown promising results in early-phase clinical trials. This review discusses lessons learned about the pathogenesis of psoriasis from mouse-and patient-based studies, emphasizing how the outcomes of clinical trials with T-cell-targeted and cytokine-blocking therapies have clarified our understanding of the disease.

  4. Development of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Caltech jet-target experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byong Hoon; Greig, Amelia; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for studying the Caltech jet-target impact experiment. This experiment has a high-speed MHD-driven jet impact a dense, high-mass target cloud. The compression of the jet upon impact simulates the compression of an imploding liner. A preliminary bench top system consisting of a low power laser, lenses, a beam rotator, a monochromator, and a PMT is being used for measuring the Rayleigh and eventually Raman scattering signals from atmospheric pressure N2 and O2. The laser is modulated at 500 Hz to 1 kHz and lock-in techniques are used to recover the low-amplitude signal. For the actual pulsed plasma experiment, the low-power laser will be replaced by a high power Nd:YAG laser. The detector will consist of a double monochromator consisting of two single monochromators separated by a mask in the focal plane to block Rayleigh scattered light; detection will be by an intensified, gated camera. The diagnostic will be used to study the compression and heating that occurs when the jet plasma collides with a dense, high mass target cloud. Supported by USDOE Grant DE-AR0000565.

  5. Advances in the Development of Molecularly Targeted Agents in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, Saoirse O; Collins, Dearbhaile C; Sundar, Raghav; Popat, Sanjay; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-05-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a significant global health challenge and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The traditional 'one-size-fits-all' treatment approach has now evolved into one that involves personalized strategies based on histological and molecular subtypes. The molecular era has revolutionized the treatment of patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 gene aberrations. In the appropriately selected population, anti-tumor agents against these molecular targets can significantly improve progression-free survival. However, the emergence of acquired resistance is inevitable. Novel potent compounds with much improved and rational selectivity profiles, such as third-generation EGFR T790M resistance mutation-specific inhibitors, have been developed and added to the NSCLC armamentarium. To date, attempts to overcome resistance bypass pathways through downstream signaling blockade has had limited success. Furthermore, the majority of patients still do not harbor known driver genetic or epigenetic alterations and/or have no new available treatment options, with chemotherapy remaining their standard of care. Several potentially actionable driver aberrations have recently been identified, with the early clinical development of multiple inhibitors against these promising targets currently in progress. The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors has led to significant benefit for advanced NSCLC patients with durable responses observed. Further interrogation of the underlying biology of NSCLC, coupled with modern clinical trial designs, is now required to develop novel targeted therapeutics rationally matched with predictive biomarkers of response, so as to further advance NSCLC therapeutics through the next decade.

  6. [Development of multi-target multi-spectral high-speed pyrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peng; Dai, Jing-Min; Wang, Qing-Wei

    2008-11-01

    The plume temperature of a solid propellant rocket engine (SPRE) is a fundamental parameter in denoting combustion status. It is necessary to measure the temperature along both the axis and the radius of the engine. In order to measure the plume temperature distribution of a solid propellant rocket engine, the multi-spectral thermometry has been approved. Previously the pyrometer was developed in the Harbin Institute of Technology of China in 1999, which completed the measurement of SPRE plume temperature and its distribution with multi-spectral technique in aerospace model development for the first time. Following this experience, a new type of multi-target multi-spectral high-speed pyrometer used in the ground experiments of SPRE plume temperature measurement was developed. The main features of the instrument include the use of a dispersing prism and a photo-diode array to cover the entire spectral band of 0.4 to 1.1 microm. The optic fibers are used in order to collect and transmit the thermal radiation fluxes. The instrument can measure simultaneously the temperature and emissivity of eight spectra for six uniformly distributed points on the target surface, which are well defined by the hole on the field stop lens. A specially designed S/H (Sample/Hold) circuit, with 48 sample and hold units that were triggered with a signal, measures the multi-spectral and multi-target outputs. It can sample 48 signals with a less than 10ns time difference which is most important for the temperature calculation.

  7. Mammalian target of rapamycin is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and heart development in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liang, Xinrong; Deng, Changyan; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • mTOR is a critical regulator of many biological processes yet its function in heart is not well understood. • MCK-Cre/Mtor flox/flox mice were established to delete Mtor in cardiomyocytes. • The mTOR-mKO mice developed normally but die prematurely within 5 weeks after birth due to heart disease. • The mTOR-mKO mice had dilated myocardium and increased cell death. • mTOR-mKO hearts had reduced expression of metabolic genes and activation of mTOR target proteins. - Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive knockout of Mtor leads to embryonic lethality, the in vivo function of mTOR in perinatal development and postnatal growth of heart is not well defined. In this study, we established a muscle-specific mTOR conditional knockout mouse model (mTOR-mKO) by crossing MCK-Cre and Mtor flox/flox mice. Although the mTOR-mKO mice survived embryonic and perinatal development, they exhibited severe postnatal growth retardation, cardiac muscle pathology and premature death. At the cellular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice had fewer cardiomyocytes due to apoptosis and necrosis, leading to dilated cardiomyopathy. At the molecular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice expressed lower levels of fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis related genes compared to the WT littermates. In addition, the mTOR-mKO cardiac muscle had reduced Myh6 but elevated Myh7 expression, indicating cardiac muscle degeneration. Furthermore, deletion of Mtor dramatically decreased the phosphorylation of S6 and AKT, two key targets downstream of mTORC1 and mTORC2 mediating the normal function of mTOR. These results demonstrate that mTOR is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and cardiac muscle function

  8. The role of sensory perception in the development and targeting of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-01-01

    To examine tobacco industry research on smoking-related sensory effects, including differences in sensory perception across smoker groups, and to determine whether this research informed targeted product development and impacted the development of commercial tobacco products. We searched previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available online through document databases housed at Tobacco Documents Online, the British American Tobacco Document Archive and the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. We identified relevant documents using a snowball sampling method to first search the databases using an initial set of key words and to then establish further search terms. Sensory research is a priority within the tobacco industry directly impacting commercial markets both in the United States and internationally. Sensory factors contribute to smoker satisfaction and product acceptance, and play an important role in controlling puffing behavior. Cigarette manufacturers have capitalized on distinct sensory preferences across gender, age and ethnic groups by tailoring products for specific populations. Regulation of tobacco products is needed to address product changes that are used to reinforce or contribute to tobacco dependence; for instance, the incorporation of additives that target attributes such as smoothness, harshness and aftertaste. Greater understanding of the role of sensory effects on smoking behavior may also help to inform the development of tobacco treatment options that support long-term tobacco abstinence.

  9. HAND2 Target Gene Regulatory Networks Control Atrioventricular Canal and Cardiac Valve Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Frédéric; Girdziusaite, Ausra; Gamart, Julie; Barozzi, Iros; Osterwalder, Marco; Akiyama, Jennifer A; Lincoln, Joy; Lopez-Rios, Javier; Visel, Axel; Zuniga, Aimée; Zeller, Rolf

    2017-05-23

    The HAND2 transcriptional regulator controls cardiac development, and we uncover additional essential functions in the endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) underlying cardiac cushion development in the atrioventricular canal (AVC). In Hand2-deficient mouse embryos, the EMT underlying AVC cardiac cushion formation is disrupted, and we combined ChIP-seq of embryonic hearts with transcriptome analysis of wild-type and mutants AVCs to identify the functionally relevant HAND2 target genes. The HAND2 target gene regulatory network (GRN) includes most genes with known functions in EMT processes and AVC cardiac cushion formation. One of these is Snai1, an EMT master regulator whose expression is lost from Hand2-deficient AVCs. Re-expression of Snai1 in mutant AVC explants partially restores this EMT and mesenchymal cell migration. Furthermore, the HAND2-interacting enhancers in the Snai1 genomic landscape are active in embryonic hearts and other Snai1-expressing tissues. These results show that HAND2 directly regulates the molecular cascades initiating AVC cardiac valve development. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting Bacterial Dsb Proteins for the Development of Anti-Virulence Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne P. Smith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in bacterial antimicrobial resistance and a decline in the development of novel antibiotics. New therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to combat the growing threat posed by multidrug resistant bacterial infections. The Dsb disulfide bond forming pathways are potential targets for the development of antimicrobial agents because they play a central role in bacterial pathogenesis. In particular, the DsbA/DsbB system catalyses disulfide bond formation in a wide array of virulence factors, which are essential for many pathogens to establish infections and cause disease. These redox enzymes are well placed as antimicrobial targets because they are taxonomically widespread, share low sequence identity with human proteins, and many years of basic research have provided a deep molecular understanding of these systems in bacteria. In this review, we discuss disulfide bond catalytic pathways in bacteria and their significance in pathogenesis. We also review the use of different approaches to develop inhibitors against Dsb proteins as potential anti-virulence agents, including fragment-based drug discovery, high-throughput screening and other structure-based drug discovery methods.

  11. Development of vaccines by the defense which benefits the entire society. Vaccinutveckling inom foersvaret: till gagn foer det civila samhaellet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, G.

    1993-09-01

    The document is a brief survey of the proposed Vaccines for Peace, which has become the Bisenthal Vaccine Initiative. Appendices include: (1) Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction; and (2) The Program of the Workshop Vaccines for Peace': An International Program for the Development and Use of Vaccines Against Dual-Threat Agents.

  12. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology annual meeting symposium: Impact of early life experiences on brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2006-11-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, a juvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism's developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Development of a Near-Field Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar for Complex Target Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a description of the design, construction, and characterization of a small electromagnetic anechoic chamber, developed specifically to house a bistatic ISAR system for the analysis of rock samples. Particular emphasis is given to the practicalities of construction, with the intention of assisting those in a similar position, wishing to build an anechoic chamber on a tight budget. The second part of the paper outlines efficient algorithms that may be applied to the tomographic and topographic reconstruction of complex targets within the viewing geometry of this ISAR system.

  14. THE ORIGINS OF THE CASHLESS SOCIETY: CASH DISPENSERS, DIRECT TO ACCOUNT PAYMENTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE REAL-TIME NETWORKS, C.1965-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the technological choices made at the dawn of the massification of retail finance. We describe and analyze the early development of electronic banking and the foundations of the cashless society through the experiences of organizations with similar governance in two different competitive environments — Swedish and British savings banks. We document how the adoption of direct-to-account wage deposits and the subsequent deployment of networks of cash dispensers interacted with the adoption of on-line real-time (OLRT computing, and distinguish on- line and OLRT communication as distinct stages in the evolution of computer networks. We emphasize the role of middle managers in the selection of alternative technologies and show how delivering a cashless society proved more difficult than anticipated.

  15. The International society for developmental psychobiology 39th annual meeting symposium: Alcohol and development: beyond fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Spear, Linda P; Mennella, Julie A; Lewis, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    As has been repeatedly demonstrated, alcohol can exert deleterious morphological and physiological effects during early stages in development. The present review examines nonteratological links existing between alcohol and ontogeny. Human and animal studies are taken into consideration for the analysis of fetal, neonatal, infantile, adolescent, and adult responsiveness to the drug. Sensitivity to alcohol's chemosensory and postabsorptive properties, as well as learning and memory processes mediated by such properties, are examined from this developmental perspective. The studies under discussion indicate that, within each stage in development, we can trace alcohol-related experiences capable of determining or modulating alcohol seeking and intake patterns. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a

  17. Overexpression of miR-19b Impairs Cardiac Development in Zebrafish by Targeting ctnnb1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: MicroRNAs are broadly accepted as crucial regulators of cardiovascular development, and dysregulation of their expression has been linked to cardiac disease. MicroRNA cluster miR-17-92 has been implicated in cardiac development and function, yet its defined mechanisms of action in this context are uncertain. Here, we focused on miR-19b, a key component of the miR-17-92 cluster proven to induce cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro. We aimed to identify the biological significance of miR-19b in cardiac development and its underlying molecular mechanism of action in vivo. Methods: We micro-injected zebrafish embryos with different concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 8 μm of miR-19b mimics or a negative control, and assessed the embryo malformation rate, mortality rate, hatching rate and heart abnormalities at 72 hours post-fertilization (72 hpf. Results: We found that overexpression of miR-19b impacted left-right symmetry and cardiac development of zebrafish embryos, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and cardiac looping defects in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, several important signaling molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway were abnormally expressed, suggesting that overexpression of miR-19b induces the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway by directly targeting ctnnb1. Interestingly, the deformed cardiac phenotype was partially rescued by treatment with the GSK3β inhibitor lithium chloride. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that miR-19b regulates laterality development and heart looping in zebrafish embryos by targeting ctnnb1.

  18. Targeting DNA Replication and Repair for the Development of Novel Therapeutics against Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Reiche

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB, an infectious disease which results in approximately 10 million incident cases and 1.4 million deaths globally each year, making it the leading cause of mortality from infection. An effective frontline combination chemotherapy exists for TB; however, this regimen requires the administration of four drugs in a 2 month long intensive phase followed by a continuation phase of a further 4 months with two of the original drugs, and is only effective for the treatment of drug-sensitive TB. The emergence and global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR as well as extensively drug-resistant (XDR strains of M. tuberculosis, and the complications posed by co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and other co-morbidities such as diabetes, have prompted urgent efforts to develop shorter regimens comprising new compounds with novel mechanisms of action. This demands that researchers re-visit cellular pathways and functions that are essential to M. tuberculosis survival and replication in the host but which are inadequately represented amongst the targets of current anti-mycobacterial agents. Here, we consider the DNA replication and repair machinery as a source of new targets for anti-TB drug development. Like most bacteria, M. tuberculosis encodes a complex array of proteins which ensure faithful and accurate replication and repair of the chromosomal DNA. Many of these are essential; so, too, are enzymes in the ancillary pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis, salvage, and re-cycling, suggesting the potential to inhibit replication and repair functions at multiple stages. To this end, we provide an update on the state of chemotherapeutic inhibition of DNA synthesis and related pathways in M. tuberculosis. Given the established links between genotoxicity and mutagenesis, we also consider the potential implications of targeting DNA metabolic pathways implicated in the

  19. Targeting DNA Replication and Repair for the Development of Novel Therapeutics against Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiche, Michael A; Warner, Digby F; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease which results in approximately 10 million incident cases and 1.4 million deaths globally each year, making it the leading cause of mortality from infection. An effective frontline combination chemotherapy exists for TB; however, this regimen requires the administration of four drugs in a 2 month long intensive phase followed by a continuation phase of a further 4 months with two of the original drugs, and is only effective for the treatment of drug-sensitive TB. The emergence and global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) as well as extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis , and the complications posed by co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other co-morbidities such as diabetes, have prompted urgent efforts to develop shorter regimens comprising new compounds with novel mechanisms of action. This demands that researchers re-visit cellular pathways and functions that are essential to M. tuberculosis survival and replication in the host but which are inadequately represented amongst the targets of current anti-mycobacterial agents. Here, we consider the DNA replication and repair machinery as a source of new targets for anti-TB drug development. Like most bacteria, M. tuberculosis encodes a complex array of proteins which ensure faithful and accurate replication and repair of the chromosomal DNA. Many of these are essential; so, too, are enzymes in the ancillary pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis, salvage, and re-cycling, suggesting the potential to inhibit replication and repair functions at multiple stages. To this end, we provide an update on the state of chemotherapeutic inhibition of DNA synthesis and related pathways in M. tuberculosis . Given the established links between genotoxicity and mutagenesis, we also consider the potential implications of targeting DNA metabolic pathways implicated in the development of drug

  20. Boyfriend, Girlfriend in a Traditional Society: Parenting Styles and Development of Intimate Friendships among Arabs in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabany, Ruth; Eshel, Yohanan; Hakim, Caesar

    2008-01-01

    The development of intimate same- and other-sex friendships in Arab children and adolescents in Israel was investigated in relation to their perceived parenting styles. It was hypothesized that girls would show higher levels of intimacy than boys, and that cross-sex intimacy in both groups would increase with age, whereas same-sex intimate…

  1. Educational Policy and Rural Re-development in Post-industrial Society: The Case of the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Walter L.

    Recent emphasis on industrial and urban development is described as a factor contributing to the greatly accelerated flight from the land. The concept of rural redevelopment is examined along with educational policy changes needed for rural redevelopment. The author's stated opinion is that rural redevelopment in the United States and other…

  2. Decolonization, Educational Language Policy and Nation Building in Plural Societies: The Development of Chinese Education in Malaysia, 1950-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2013-01-01

    The two decades from 1950 to 1970 were a crucial period of educational reorganization in Malaysia that stemmed from the decolonization after the Second World War. This educational reorganization sought to address the perennial issue of nation building via educational language policy. The development of Chinese education was under severe threat as…

  3. Developing Students (K-5) Understanding through the Paideia System of the Contributions Made by Ancient Cultures to Modern Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Janet Sue

    A classical Greek elementary magnet school in a large urban school district has identified the need for a multicultural fine arts program reflecting the contributions of ancient cultures to modern man. The author and teachers (K-5) of this school developed a multicultural program using classical literature, visual and performing arts, history, and…

  4. Development of technology for producing nickel-gallium cyclotron targets by galvanic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umerov, R.A.; Kim, A.A.; Tushakov, S.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Khudaybergenov, U.; Tahirova, M.N.; Uzakov, Ya.M.

    2006-01-01

    deposition, in many cases, it is possible to achieve very high-purity of some settled metals. This effect has a huge technological value as allows to avoid some additional impurities of undesirable isotopes. In turn the effect of refining of superimposed metals allows to a yield a radionuclide with very high radiochemical purity. 3. The electrochemical method allows to adjust very precisely both thickness of a covering, and physical properties of covering - density of a settled covering and its crystal structure. Besides, it is necessary to underline that on the contrary to other methods of producing of cyclotron targets, the electrochemical method does not require the complex of expensive instrumentation. We had explored various systems for gallium - nickel cyclotron targets productions. Systems for deposition of two-layer gallium - nickel targets, and conditions of deposition of gallium basic layer and coating nickel layer were selected. The requirements for reliable production of the two-layer cyclotron target with adjustable thickness of gallium and nickel layers were determined. Received results allow to develop technological parameters for production of gallium - nickel cyclotron targets. (author)

  5. The capsule of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus is a target for attenuation in vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zigong; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Yaosheng; Cong, Peiqing; Xiao, Shuqi; Mo, Delin; He, Zhuyong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2012-06-29

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is an important pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases in many mammalian species. The development of novel effective vaccines would be beneficial to control SEZ infection. In the present study, the importance of the SEZ capsule was examined using a newly constructed capsule-deficient mutant ΔhasB strain. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed a decrease in the abundance of extracellular capsular polysaccharide on the mutant SEZ. Compared to the parental wild-type SEZ, the ΔhasB mutant was highly attenuated in mice and provided 100% protection against lethal challenge when administered as a live vaccine. Real-time PCR analysis showed a marked increased in the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ mRNA in immunized mice. The role that the capsule plays in SEZ pathogenicity was also explored with respect to the mechanistic design of an attenuated vaccine target. The capsule could resist complement C3 deposition on the surface of SEZ cells and aid in preventing complement-mediated opsonization and phagocytosis by cultured macrophages. These results suggest that the capsule of SEZ plays an important role in pathogenicity and may serve as a target for attenuation in vaccine development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE PROGRAM-TARGET PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marichev Pavel Aleksandrovich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subject: study of the Park of Measuring Equipment (PME that includes hundreds of thousands of standard samples, measuring instruments, control and measuring devices and other measuring mechanisms with different areas of application, levels of reliability, service life, levels of technical perfection and levels of technical condition. Research objectives: 1. Development of a complex of mathematical models to simulate the processes of development of PME, control indicators of PME performance as a whole, purposefully control the stages of life cycle of measuring equipment samples. 2. Development of the method which, with a sufficient degree of validity and objectivity, would solve the tasks of management of procurement and repairs both in preparation of proposals for preliminary long-term plan documents (LTPD and to ensure control over the implementation of adopted plans. Thus, the method being developed should be fairly simple to use, easily adjustable for solving problems of different dimensions, suitable for solving the optimal control problem for PME as a whole, for a part of PME, and also suitable for solving a generalized problem for certain “aggregated objects” such as the Metrology Centers. Materials and methods: the methods of mathematical simulation, methods of comparative analysis, simplex method for solving linear programming problem, methods of program-target planning were used. Results: an approach to the solution of problems of program-target planning based on solving a series of linear programming problems has been developed. The results have been presented of using the approach both for formulation of proposals into the preliminary LTPD and also for introducing revisions (amendments to annual plans, which are implemented in the framework of the state defense order. Conclusions: the described method and algorithms constitute an effective tool for solving practical problems of target-oriented management of PME performance

  7. Development of surface perturbation target and thin silicon foil target used to research Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bin; Sun Qi; Huang Yaodong; Shen Jun; Wu Guangming; Wang Jue

    2004-01-01

    The developments of the surface perturbation target and the thin silicon foil target used to research Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the resolved experiments of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are carried out. Based on the laser interference process combined with the figure-transfer process, the surface perturbation target with sine modulated perturbation is gotten, the wavelength is in the range of 20-100 μm and the amplitude is several micrometers. The thin silicon foil within the thickness about 3-4 μm is prepared by semiconductor process together with heavy-doped self-stop etching. Combined with ion beam etching, the check or the stripe patterns are transferred to the surface of thin silicon foils, and then the silicon grating foil is obtained

  8. Going nuclear. Some implications of the introduction of nuclear energy as the basic primary energy supply of a developped society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.; Sassin, W.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of nuclear energy as primary energy source, the future development potentialities of secondary energies are considered; these energy forms are coal gaseification, process heat for industrial uses and district heating, and mainly hydrogen production which represents 60% of the future secondary energy demands. By using decision tree method, the eventuality of using nuclear energy as unique energy source is examined, and the successive options implied in this approach are analyzed [fr

  9. Political participation of civil society and world e-democracy development: to the problem of effective implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mikheichenko

    2016-06-01

    The development of e-government is usually thought to consist of a sequence of distinct steps. A number of models exist next to each other, but all agree that the first two steps consist of presence of government or governmental institutions on the web followed by the possibility of transactions with government by citizens and businesses, whereas the third (and further step(s involve(s interactive government.

  10. Methodology for developing evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines: Joint recommendations by Korea society of radiology and national evidence-based healthcare collaborating agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sol Ji; Jo, Ae Jeong; Choi, Jin A [Div. for Healthcare Technology Assessment Research, National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    This paper is a summary of the methodology including protocol used to develop evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) in Korea, led by the Korean Society of Radiology and the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This is the first protocol to reflect the process of developing diagnostic guidelines in Korea. The development protocol is largely divided into the following sections: set-up, process of adaptation, and finalization. The working group is composed of clinical imaging experts, and the developmental committee is composed of multidisciplinary experts to validate the methodology. The Korean CIGs will continue to develop based on this protocol, and these guidelines will act for decision supporting tools for clinicians as well as reduce medical radiation exposure.

  11. Persistent Requirement and Alteration of the Key Targets of PRDM1 During Primordial Germ Cell Development in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Chika; Hirota, Takayuki; Kurimoto, Kazuki; Nakamura, Tomonori; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Nagaoka, So I; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Saitou, Mitinori

    2016-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the foundation of totipotency and vital for reproduction and heredity. PGCs in mice arise from the epiblast around Embryonic Day (E) 7.0, migrate through the hindgut endoderm, and colonize and proliferate in the embryonic gonads until around E13.5 prior to their differentiation either into prospermatogonia or oogonia. PRDM1, a transcriptional repressor, plays an essential role in PGC specification that includes robustly repressing a somatic mesodermal program. Using an inducible conditional knockout system, we show here that PRDM1 is critically required throughout PGC development. When Prdm1 was deleted in migrating PGCs at E9.5 or E10.5, or in male gonadal PGCs at E11.5, PGCs were eliminated by apoptosis from around E10.5, E11.5, or E13.5, respectively. When Prdm1 was deleted in female gonadal PGCs at E11.5, PGCs progressed into the first meiotic prophase in an apparently normal fashion, but the oogonia exhibited an aberrant pachytene phenotype, undergoing abrupt apoptosis from around E16.5. The escape of a fraction of PGCs (∼10%) from the Prdm1 deletion was sufficient to recover fairly normal germ cell pools, both in male and female adults. The key targets of PRDM1 in migrating and/or gonadal PGCs, including genes for development, apoptosis, and prospermatogonial differentiation, showed only a modest overlap with those upon PGC specification, and were enriched with histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Our findings provide critical insight into the mechanism for maintaining the transcriptional integrity of PGCs. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  12. Identification of estrogen target genes during zebrafish embryonic development through transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixin Hao

    Full Text Available Estrogen signaling is important for vertebrate embryonic development. Here we have used zebrafish (Danio rerio as a vertebrate model to analyze estrogen signaling during development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1 µM 17β-estradiol (E2 or vehicle from 3 hours to 4 days post fertilization (dpf, harvested at 1, 2, 3 and 4 dpf, and subjected to RNA extraction for transcriptome analysis using microarrays. Differentially expressed genes by E2-treatment were analyzed with hierarchical clustering followed by biological process and tissue enrichment analysis. Markedly distinct sets of genes were up and down-regulated by E2 at the four different time points. Among these genes, only the well-known estrogenic marker vtg1 was co-regulated at all time points. Despite this, the biological functional categories targeted by E2 were relatively similar throughout zebrafish development. According to knowledge-based tissue enrichment, estrogen responsive genes were clustered mainly in the liver, pancreas and brain. This was in line with the developmental dynamics of estrogen-target tissues that were visualized using transgenic zebrafish containing estrogen responsive elements driving the expression of GFP (Tg(5xERE:GFP. Finally, the identified embryonic estrogen-responsive genes were compared to already published estrogen-responsive genes identified in male adult zebrafish (Gene Expression Omnibus database. The expressions of a few genes were co-regulated by E2 in both embryonic and adult zebrafish. These could potentially be used as estrogenic biomarkers for exposure to estrogens or estrogenic endocrine disruptors in zebrafish. In conclusion, our data suggests that estrogen effects on early embryonic zebrafish development are stage- and tissue- specific.

  13. Thymidylate synthase expression determines pemetrexed targets and resistance development in tumour cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber Buqué

    Full Text Available Although treatment options for cancer patients are increasing every year, the drug resistance problem remains very present. It is very difficult to find a drug that acts equally on tumours of the same histology as the individual's genetic characteristics often determine the response to treatment. Furthermore, tumours that initially respond to anti-tumour therapy are able to adapt and develop resistance to the drug, while others do not. In addition, this usually implies resistance development to agents to which the cells have not been exposed, a phenomenon called cross-resistance or multidrug resistance. Given this situation, it has been suggested that the most appropriate treatment would be able to act in parallel on multiple pathways constitutively altered in tumour cells. Pemetrexed is a multitargeted antifolate that exerts its activity against folate-dependent enzymes involved in de novo pyrimidine and purine synthesis. It is currently in use in combination with cisplatin against malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer with favourable results. By real-time RT-PCR gene expression assays and restoration viability assays we demonstrated that Pemetrexed targets folate-dependent enzymes involved in de novo biosynthesis of purines differently depending on the intrinsic genetic characteristics of the tumour. These differences did not, however, interfere either with the initial response to the drug or with the activation of apoptotic pathways. In addition, these genetic fingerprints can differentiate two groups of tumours: those capable of developing resistance to antifolate, and not capable. These results may be useful to employ targets gene expression as resistance markers, a valuable tool for identifying patients likely to receive combination therapy to prevent the development of resistance.

  14. Development of a PVD-based manufacturing process of monolithic LEU irradiation targets for {sup 99}Mo production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmer, Tobias

    2015-08-03

    {sup 99}Mo is the most important radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It is produced by fission of uranium in irradiation targets. The usage of cylindrical monolithic targets can ensure a safe supply of {sup 99}Mo and at the same reduce the amount of highly radioactive waste generated during production. To manufacture these targets, a novel PVD-based technique was developed. Both the feasibility and the high efficiency of this process were demonstrated in a prototype apparatus.

  15. An update on the LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Eng, B.Sc; Eng, P.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the production of molybdenum-99 in the NRU research reactors at Chalk River, Canada, has been extracted from reactor targets employing highly enriched uranium (HEU). A reliable supply of HEU metal from the United States used in the manufacture of targets for the NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume molybdenum production process. Each link of the isotope supply chain, from isotope production to ultimate use by the physician, has been established using this proven and established method of HEU target irradiation and processing to extract molybdenum-99. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the construction of two MAPLE reactors and a New Processing Facility. The design of the MAPLE facilities was based on an established process developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL)-extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. However, in concert with the global trend to utilize low enriched uranium (LEU) in research reactors, MDS Nordion has launched a three phase LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. Phase 1, the Initial Feasibility Study, which identified the technical issues to convert the MAPLE reactor targets from HEU to LEU for large scale commercial production was reported on at the RERTR-2000 conference. The second phase of the LEU Target Development and Conversion Program was developed with extensive consultation and involvement of experts knowledgeable in target development, process system design, enriched uranium conversion chemistry and commercial scale reactor operations and molybdenum production. This paper will provide an overview of the Phase 2 Conversion Development Program, report on progress to date, and further

  16. Plasma Membrane-Targeted PIN Proteins Drive Shoot Development in a Moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom A.; Liu, Maureen M.; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Bierfreund, Nicole M.; Braun, Marion; Coudert, Yoan; Dennis, Ross J.; O’Connor, Devin; Wang, Xiao Y.; White, Chris D.; Decker, Eva L.; Reski, Ralf; Harrison, C. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Plant body plans arise by the activity of meristematic growing tips during development and radiated independently in the gametophyte (n) and sporophyte (2n) stages of the life cycle during evolution. Although auxin and its intercellular transport by PIN family efflux carriers are primary regulators of sporophytic shoot development in flowering plants, the extent of conservation in PIN function within the land plants and the mechanisms regulating bryophyte gametophytic shoot development are largely unknown. Results We have found that treating gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens with exogenous auxins and auxin transport inhibitors disrupts apical function and leaf development. Two plasma membrane-targeted PIN proteins are expressed in leafy shoots, and pin mutants resemble plants treated with auxins or auxin transport inhibitors. PIN-mediated auxin transport regulates apical cell function, leaf initiation, leaf shape, and shoot tropisms in moss gametophytes. pin mutant sporophytes are sometimes branched, reproducing a phenotype only previously seen in the fossil record and in rare natural moss variants. Conclusions Our results show that PIN-mediated auxin transport is an ancient, conserved regulator of shoot development. PMID:25448003

  17. Hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase - Target of current antiviral therapy and future drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel N; Hu, Jianming

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections rely on the proper functioning of the viral polymerase enzyme, a specialized reverse transcriptase (RT) with multiple activities. All currently approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, except for interferon, target the RT and belong to the same chemical class - they are all nucleoside analogs. Viral DNA synthesis is carried out by the RT enzyme in several different steps, each with distinct RT conformational requirements. In principle, each stage may be targeted by distinct antiviral drugs. In particular, the HBV RT has the unique ability to initiate viral DNA synthesis using itself as a protein primer in a novel protein priming reaction. In order to help identify RT inhibitors and study their mechanisms of action, a number of experimental systems have been developed, each varying in its ability to dissect the protein priming stage and subsequent stages of viral DNA synthesis at the molecular level. Two of the most effective drugs to date, entecavir and tenofovir, can inhibit both the protein priming and the subsequent DNA elongation stages of HBV DNA synthesis. Interestingly, clevudine, a thymidine analog, can inhibit both protein priming and DNA elongation in a non-competitive manner and without being incorporated into the viral DNA. Thus, a nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) can functionally mimic a non-NRTI (NNRTI) in its inhibition of the HBV RT. Therefore, novel NRTIs as well as NNRTIs may be developed to inhibit the DNA synthesis activity of the HBV RT. Furthermore, additional activities of the RT that are also essential to HBV replication, including specific recognition of the viral RNA and its packaging into viral nucleocapsids, may be exploited for antiviral development. To achieve a more potent inhibition of viral replication and ultimately cure chronic HBV infection, the next generation of anti-HBV therapies will likely need to include NRTIs, NNRTIs, and other agents that target the viral RT as

  18. CERN & Society launches donation portal

    CERN Multimedia

    Cian O'Luanaigh

    2014-01-01

    The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN.   "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...

  19. Targeted disruption of fibrinogen like protein-1 accelerates hepatocellular carcinoma development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamed; Desai, Anal; Demchev, Valeriy [Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine. Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Bronson, Roderick T. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hornick, Jason L. [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Cohen, David E. [Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine. Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ukomadu, Chinweike, E-mail: cukomadu@partners.org [Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine. Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Fibrinogen like protein-1 (Fgl1) is a predominantly liver expressed protein that has been implicated as both a hepatoprotectant and a hepatocyte mitogen. Fgl1 expression is decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its loss correlates with a poorly differentiated phenotype. To better elucidate the role of Fgl1 in hepatocarcinogenesis, we treated mice wild type or null for Fgl1 with diethyl nitrosamine and monitored for incidence of hepatocellular cancer. We find that mice lacking Fgl1 develop HCC at more than twice the rate of wild type mice. We show that hepatocellular cancers from Fgl1 null mice are molecularly distinct from those of the wild type mice. In tumors from Fgl1 null mice there is enhanced activation of Akt and downstream targets of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In addition, there is paradoxical up regulation of putative hepatocellular cancer tumor suppressors; tripartite motif-containing protein 35 (Trim35) and tumor necrosis factor super family 10b (Tnfrsf10b). Taken together, these findings suggest that Fgl1 acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular cancer through an Akt dependent mechanism and supports its role as a potential therapeutic target in HCC. - Highlights: • Fgl1 knockout mice (Fgl1KO) are more prone to carcinogen-induced liver cancer compared to wild type (WT) mates. • Tumors from the Fgl1KO are molecularly distinct with enhanced Akt and mTOR activity in comparison with Fgl1WT tumors. • Tumors from the Fgl1KO have enhanced expression of Trim35 and Tnfrsf10b, putative HCC tumor suppressors.

  20. Development and in vivo evaluation of functionalized ritonavir proliposomes for lymphatic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, Vasif; Narayan, Reema; Paul, John; Nayak, Yogendra; Roy, Bisakha; Shavi, Gopal V; Nayak, Usha Y

    2017-08-15

    The aim of the present work was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate proliposomes containing lipophilic prodrug ritonavir for targeting towards CD4+ T cells in the lymphatic system. The liposomes were prepared by lipid thin film hydration method and lyophilized in the presence of cryoprotectant mannitol to obtain proliposomes. The optimized proliposomes by Central Composite Design, were surface modified with biotin. The proliposomes were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies. The mean particle size was found to be in the range of 126.6 to 306.2nm with PDI of 0.340-1.00. The entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 18.9 to 86.2%. The formulations showed a zeta potential in the range of -18.1 to -20.2mv. Biotinylated proliposomes (LIP-5B) were in the size of 149.8±6.8nm with entrapment efficiency 61.6%. The % CDR of pure drug, conventional, biotinylated proliposome in 3h was found to be 58.3, 82.04, and 95.9% respectively. In vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the pure drug, optimized conventional proliposomes (LIP-5) and biotin proliposomes (LIP-5B) were executed. The AUC for the liposomes were found to be much higher in the spleen and thymus compared to that in the plasma which indicated that the developed formulations enhance the bioavailability and target specificity compared to that of the pure drug thereby enhancing bioavailability at target site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reflection About the Relation Between Internet and State in Contemporary Societies: The Importance of a Proper Regulation that Comprehends the Dynamic of Technological Development and Appreciates Fundamental Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fernando de Arruda e Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article makes a reflection, of transdisciplinary character and hypothetic-deductive reasoning line, about the relation between Internet and State in contemporary societies. The objective is to demonstrate that the Internet is not a simply mean of mass dissemination of information and needs a proper regulation, in view of the dynamics of technological development and emphasis on appreciating the Fundamental Rights, already provided in both the domestic and international legal system, in a way to avoid a regulation that can configure a meaning of exception state that admits the violation of the users’ rights on behalf of State sovereignty.

  2. Modified egg as a nutritional supplement during peak brain development: a new target for fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2009-01-01

    Though eggs have the unique capacity, like breastmilk, to concentrate essential nutrients required for early growth and brain development of offspring - i.e. n-3 PUFA, increasingly deficient and sources contaminated - cholesterol and allergy concerns often exclude them from perinatal recommendations. Egg's potential contribution of key nutrients required for peak brain development are re-evaluated vis-à-vis fortification, accessibility, and risks. Contributions of standard (USDA) and fortified (selected market-available) egg compositions to perinatal requirements for critical brain-supporting nutrients were compared to human and cow milks, and risks and recommendations evaluated. Standard egg has already higher concentrations/kcal of iron, selenium, zinc, choline, vitamins B12 and E, and essential amino acids (plus taurine) than human milk. Fortified egg could further yield significant n-3 PUFA % recommendations for pregnancy-lactation (total n-3 69.6-75.0% [DRI=1400-1300 mg/day]), including DHA (120.1-129.3%, mostly approximately 80% [calculated DRI=140-130 mg/day]), plus antioxidant vitamins A (9.0-15.2%) and E (51.6-65.3%), and minerals iodine (33.6-44.5%) and selenium (33.7-39.3%); % recommendations for children (1-3 y) even more. Cholesterol, important for nerve membranes and learning, may not be generally contraindicated in childbearing-aged women (approximately 10.5% hypercholesterolemia), and early-life egg exposure may increase tolerance. Egg-inclusive perinatal nutrition programs have shown significant contributions. Eggs, especially target-fortified, may provide a unique nutritional supplement for peak brain development continously during pregnancy, nursing, and infancy (from 6 months), especially vs. insufficiencies. Missing nutritional opportunities by egg exclusion vs. concerns of hypercholesterolemia or allergy could be addressed individually, rather than as general recommendations, warranting further research and targeted egg design.

  3. Twist1 transcriptional targets in the developing atrio-ventricular canal of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Vrljicak

    Full Text Available Malformations of the cardiovascular system are the most common type of birth defect in humans, frequently affecting the formation of valves and septa. During heart valve and septa formation, cells from the atrio-ventricular canal (AVC and outflow tract (OFT regions of the heart undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT and invade the underlying extracellular matrix to give rise to endocardial cushions. Subsequent maturation of newly formed mesenchyme cells leads to thin stress-resistant leaflets. TWIST1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in newly formed mesenchyme cells of the AVC and OFT that has been shown to play roles in cell survival, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the downstream targets of TWIST1 during heart valve formation remain unclear. To identify genes important for heart valve development downstream of TWIST1, we performed global gene expression profiling of AVC, OFT, atria and ventricles of the embryonic day 10.5 mouse heart by tag-sequencing (Tag-seq. Using this resource we identified a novel set of 939 genes, including 123 regulators of transcription, enriched in the valve forming regions of the heart. We compared these genes to a Tag-seq library from the Twist1 null developing valves revealing significant gene expression changes. These changes were consistent with a role of TWIST1 in controlling differentiation of mesenchymal cells following their transformation from endothelium in the mouse. To study the role of TWIST1 at the DNA level we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and identified novel direct targets of TWIST1 in the developing heart valves. Our findings support a role for TWIST1 in the differentiation of AVC mesenchyme post-EMT in the mouse, and suggest that TWIST1 can exert its function by direct DNA binding to activate valve specific gene expression.

  4. Twist1 transcriptional targets in the developing atrio-ventricular canal of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrljicak, Pavle; Cullum, Rebecca; Xu, Eric; Chang, Alex C Y; Wederell, Elizabeth D; Bilenky, Mikhail; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Karsan, Aly; Hoodless, Pamela A

    2012-01-01

    Malformations of the cardiovascular system are the most common type of birth defect in humans, frequently affecting the formation of valves and septa. During heart valve and septa formation, cells from the atrio-ventricular canal (AVC) and outflow tract (OFT) regions of the heart undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) and invade the underlying extracellular matrix to give rise to endocardial cushions. Subsequent maturation of newly formed mesenchyme cells leads to thin stress-resistant leaflets. TWIST1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in newly formed mesenchyme cells of the AVC and OFT that has been shown to play roles in cell survival, cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the downstream targets of TWIST1 during heart valve formation remain unclear. To identify genes important for heart valve development downstream of TWIST1, we performed global gene expression profiling of AVC, OFT, atria and ventricles of the embryonic day 10.5 mouse heart by tag-sequencing (Tag-seq). Using this resource we identified a novel set of 939 genes, including 123 regulators of transcription, enriched in the valve forming regions of the heart. We compared these genes to a Tag-seq library from the Twist1 null developing valves revealing significant gene expression changes. These changes were consistent with a role of TWIST1 in controlling differentiation of mesenchymal cells following their transformation from endothelium in the mouse. To study the role of TWIST1 at the DNA level we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and identified novel direct targets of TWIST1 in the developing heart valves. Our findings support a role for TWIST1 in the differentiation of AVC mesenchyme post-EMT in the mouse, and suggest that TWIST1 can exert its function by direct DNA binding to activate valve specific gene expression.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase a is dispensable and not a drug target during erythrocytic development

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Storm, Janet

    2011-07-14

    Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum contains three genes encoding potential glutamate dehydrogenases. The protein encoded by gdha has previously been biochemically and structurally characterized. It was suggested that it is important for the supply of reducing equivalents during intra-erythrocytic development of Plasmodium and, therefore, a suitable drug target. Methods The gene encoding the NADP(H)-dependent GDHa has been disrupted by reverse genetics in P. falciparum and the effect on the antioxidant and metabolic capacities of the resulting mutant parasites was investigated. Results No growth defect under low and elevated oxygen tension, no up- or down-regulation of a number of antioxidant and NADP(H)-generating proteins or mRNAs and no increased levels of GSH were detected in the D10Δgdha parasite lines. Further, the fate of the carbon skeleton of [13C] labelled glutamine was assessed by metabolomic studies, revealing no differences in the labelling of α-ketoglutarate and other TCA pathway intermediates between wild type and mutant parasites. Conclusions First, the data support the conclusion that D10Δgdha parasites are not experiencing enhanced oxidative stress and that GDHa function may not be the provision of NADP(H) for reductive reactions. Second, the results imply that the cytosolic, NADP(H)-dependent GDHa protein is not involved in the oxidative deamination of glutamate but that the protein may play a role in ammonia assimilation as has been described for other NADP(H)-dependent GDH from plants and fungi. The lack of an obvious phenotype in the absence of GDHa may point to a regulatory role of the protein providing glutamate (as nitrogen storage molecule) in situations where the parasites experience a limiting supply of carbon sources and, therefore, under in vitro conditions the enzyme is unlikely to be of significant importance. The data imply that the protein is not a suitable target for future drug development against intra

  6. Mammalian target of rapamycin is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and heart development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengpeng [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Shan, Tizhong; Liang, Xinrong [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Deng, Changyan [Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kuang, Shihuan, E-mail: skuang@purdue.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • mTOR is a critical regulator of many biological processes yet its function in heart is not well understood. • MCK-Cre/Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice were established to delete Mtor in cardiomyocytes. • The mTOR-mKO mice developed normally but die prematurely within 5 weeks after birth due to heart disease. • The mTOR-mKO mice had dilated myocardium and increased cell death. • mTOR-mKO hearts had reduced expression of metabolic genes and activation of mTOR target proteins. - Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive knockout of Mtor leads to embryonic lethality, the in vivo function of mTOR in perinatal development and postnatal growth of heart is not well defined. In this study, we established a muscle-specific mTOR conditional knockout mouse model (mTOR-mKO) by crossing MCK-Cre and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Although the mTOR-mKO mice survived embryonic and perinatal development, they exhibited severe postnatal growth retardation, cardiac muscle pathology and premature death. At the cellular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice had fewer cardiomyocytes due to apoptosis and necrosis, leading to dilated cardiomyopathy. At the molecular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice expressed lower levels of fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis related genes compared to the WT littermates. In addition, the mTOR-mKO cardiac muscle had reduced Myh6 but elevated Myh7 expression, indicating cardiac muscle degeneration. Furthermore, deletion of Mtor dramatically decreased the phosphorylation of S6 and AKT, two key targets downstream of mTORC1 and mTORC2 mediating the normal function of mTOR. These results demonstrate that mTOR is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and cardiac muscle function.

  7. Inhibiting the Mammalian target of rapamycin blocks the development of experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Emile B; Hart, Geoffrey T; Tran, Tuan M; Waisberg, Michael; Akkaya, Munir; Skinner, Jeff; Zinöcker, Severin; Pena, Mirna; Yazew, Takele; Qi, Chen-Feng; Miller, Louis H; Pierce, Susan K

    2015-06-02

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites of several Plasmodium spp. Cerebral malaria (CM) is a common form of severe malaria resulting in nearly 700,000 deaths each year in Africa alone. At present, there is no adjunctive therapy for CM. Although the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of CM are incompletely understood, it is likely that both intrinsic features of the parasite and the human host's immune response contribute to disease. The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of immune responses, and drugs that inhibit the mTOR pathway have been shown to be antiparasitic. In a mouse model of CM, experimental CM (ECM), we show that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin protects against ECM when administered within the first 4 days of infection. Treatment with rapamycin increased survival, blocked breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and brain hemorrhaging, decreased the influx of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells into the brain and the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells in the brain. Rapamycin induced marked transcriptional changes in the brains of infected mice, and analysis of transcription profiles predicted that rapamycin blocked leukocyte trafficking to and proliferation in the brain. Remarkably, animals were protected against ECM even though rapamycin treatment significantly increased the inflammatory response induced by infection in both the brain and spleen. These results open a new avenue for the development of highly selective adjunctive therapies for CM by targeting pathways that regulate host and parasite metabolism. Malaria is a highly prevalent infectious disease caused by parasites of several Plasmodium spp. Malaria is usually uncomplicated and resolves with time; however, in about 1% of cases, almost exclusively among young children, malaria becomes severe and life threatening, resulting in nearly 700,000 deaths each year in Africa alone. Among the most severe complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection

  8. Development of New Drugs for an Old Target — The Penicillin Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luxen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to the worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains. Bacteria have developed resistance to β-lactams by two main mechanisms: the production of β-lactamases, sometimes accompanied by a decrease of outer membrane permeability, and the production of low-affinity, drug resistant Penicillin Binding Proteins (PBPs. PBPs remain attractive targets for developing new antibiotic agents because they catalyse the last steps of the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, which is unique to bacteria, and lies outside the cytoplasmic membrane. Here we summarize the “current state of the art” of non-β-lactam inhibitors of PBPs, which have being developed in an attempt to counter the emergence of β-lactam resistance. These molecules are not susceptible to hydrolysis by β-lactamases and thus present a real alternative to β-lactams. We present transition state analogs such as boronic acids, which can covalently bind to the active serine residue in the catalytic site. Molecules containing ring structures different from the β-lactam-ring like lactivicin are able to acylate the active serine residue. High throughput screening methods, in combination with virtual screening methods and structure based design, have allowed the development of new molecules. Some of these novel inhibitors are active against major pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and thus open avenues new for the discovery of novel antibiotics.

  9. A New Development in Audiovisual Translation Studies: Focus on Target Audience Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Denton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual translation is now a well-established sub-discipline of Translation Studies (TS: a position that it has reached over the last twenty years or so. Italian scholars and professionals in the field have made a substantial contribution to this successful development, a brief overview of which will be given in the first part of this article, inevitably concentrating on dubbing in the Italian context. Special attention will be devoted to the question of target audience perception, an area where researchers in the University of Bologna at Forlì have excelled. The second part of the article applies the methodology followed by the above mentioned researchers in a case study of how Italian end users perceive the dubbed version of the British film The History Boys (2006, which contains a plethora of culture-specific verbal and visual references to the English education system. The aim of the study was to ascertain: a whether translation/adaptation allows the transmission in this admittedly constrained medium of all the intended culture-bound issues, only too well known to the source audience, and, if so, to what extent, and b whether the target audience respondents to the e-questionnaire used were aware that they were missing information. The linked, albeit controversial, issue of quality assessment will also be addressed.

  10. Targeting acute myeloid leukemia stem cells: a review and principles for the development of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollyea, Daniel A; Gutman, Jonathan A; Gore, Lia; Smith, Clayton A; Jordan, Craig T

    2014-08-01

    Despite an increasingly rich understanding of its pathogenesis, acute myeloid leukemia remains a disease with poor outcomes, overwhelmingly due to disease relapse. In recent years, work to characterize the leukemia stem cell population, the disease compartment most difficult to eliminate with conventional therapy and most responsible for relapse, has been undertaken. This, in conjunction with advances in drug development that have allowed for increasingly targeted therapies to be engineered, raises the hope that we are entering an era in which the leukemia stem cell population can be eliminated, resulting in therapeutic cures for acute myeloid leukemia patients. For these therapies to become available, they must be tested in the setting of clinical trials. A long-established clinical trials infrastructure has been employed to shepherd new therapies from proof-of-concept to approval. However, due to the unique features of leukemia stem cells, drugs that are designed to specifically eliminate this population may not be adequately tested when applied to this model. Therefore, in this review article, we seek to identify the relevant features of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells for clinical trialists, discuss potential strategies to target leukemia stem cells, and propose a set of guidelines outlining the necessary elements of clinical trials to allow for the successful testing of stem cell-directed therapies. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. MEDICI: Mining Essentiality Data to Identify Critical Interactions for Cancer Drug Target Discovery and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Sahar; Cooper, Lee A D; Moran, Josue D; Giuste, Felipe O; Du, Yuhong; Ivanov, Andrei A; Johns, Margaret A; Khuri, Fadlo R; Fu, Haian; Moreno, Carlos S

    2017-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the transmission and regulation of oncogenic signals that are essential to cellular proliferation and survival, and thus represent potential targets for anti-cancer therapeutic discovery. Despite their significance, there is no method to experimentally disrupt and interrogate the essentiality of individual endogenous PPIs. The ability to computationally predict or infer PPI essentiality would help prioritize PPIs for drug discovery and help advance understanding of cancer biology. Here we introduce a computational method (MEDICI) to predict PPI essentiality by combining gene knockdown studies with network models of protein interaction pathways in an analytic framework. Our method uses network topology to model how gene silencing can disrupt PPIs, relating the unknown essentialities of individual PPIs to experimentally observed protein essentialities. This model is then deconvolved to recover the unknown essentialities of individual PPIs. We demonstrate the validity of our approach via prediction of sensitivities to compounds based on PPI essentiality and differences in essentiality based on genetic mutations. We further show that lung cancer patients have improved overall survival when specific PPIs are no longer present, suggesting that these PPIs may be potentially new targets for therapeutic development. Software is freely available at https://github.com/cooperlab/MEDICI. Datasets are available at https://ctd2.nci.nih.gov/dataPortal.

  12. Non-Target Gene Mutations in the Development of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, W. V.; Oethinger, M.; Jellen-Ritter, A. S.; Levy, S. B.

    2000-01-01

    Mutations in loci other than genes for the target topoisomerases of fluoroquinolones, gyrA and parC, may play a role in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. A series of mutants with increasing resistance to ofloxacin was obtained from an E. coli K-12 strain and five clinical isolates. First-step mutants acquired a gyrA mutation. Second-step mutants reproducibly acquired a phenotype of multiple antibiotic resistance (Mar) and organic solvent tolerance and showed enhanced fluoroquinolone efflux. None of the second-step mutants showed additional topoisomerase mutations. All second-step mutants showed constitutive expression of marA and/or overexpressed soxS. In some third-step mutants, fluoroquinolone efflux was further enhanced compared to that for second-step mutants, even when the mutant had acquired additional topoisomerase mutations. Attempts to circumvent the second-step Mar mutation by induction of the mar locus with sodium salicylate and thus to select for pure topoisomerase mutants at the second step were not successful. At least in vitro, non-target gene mutations accumulate in second- and third-step mutants upon exposure to a fluoroquinolone and typically include, but do not appear to be limited to, mutations in the mar or sox regulons with consequent increased drug efflux. PMID:10722475

  13. Morocco in transition: Democracy, civil society and human development / Marruecos en transición: democracia, sociedad civil y desarrollo humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mª Dorado Nogueras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects an overview of the current socio-political situation in Morocco, a country with great relationship and link with Spain he has played, plays and will play an important role in the current geopolitical map. It provides a generic touch on developments in this country in recent years after the death of Hassan II, until the reign of Mohammed VI, and a new way to understand and address the political situation in the country. After a brief overview of the concepts and important events in recent years, will deepen the important role of civil society in all its manifestations and the importance of human development in this context and its relationship to democracy, to really reflect on whether human development in Morocco is producing the most appropriate according to the parameters in the theoretical and practical underpinning.

  14. Optimal electricity development by increasing solar resources in diesel-based micro grid of island society in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachuab Peerapong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated grid diesel-based systems have been a basic electricity system in islands in developing countries. Nevertheless, the increasing diesel price and the higher cost of diesel transport to a long distance to the remote islands make the diesel-based systems unsustainable. This study analyzes the viability to increase solar photovoltaic (PV resources in the existing diesel-based systems. The hybrid PV/diesel system is not only reducing the cost of electricity generation but also decreasing the harmful emissions from fossil fuels. This study uses net present cost (NPC to evaluate the optimum PV/diesel system configurations for installation in isolated island in Thailand. The results of analyses show that the optimal case PV/diesel system can decrease COE from $0.429/kWh to $0.374/kWh when compared to the existing diesel-based system and can decrease emissions both carbon dioxide of 796.61 tons/yr and other gases of 21.47 tons/yr. The hybrid PV/diesel system also reduces diesel fuel consumption of 302,510 liters per year as a result from an optimal of 41% PV resource shares in this system.

  15. Exploratory of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  16. Creativity In Conscience Society

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Gh. Rosca; Dumitru Todoroi

    2011-01-01

    Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, and for Society in general. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence Creativity should be devel...

  17. The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) for efficient target analysis and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Meik; Liang, Chunguang; Nilla, Santosh; Cecil, Alexander; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) has been designed to provide fast, tailored information on drugs and their protein networks including indications, protein targets and side-targets. Starting queries include compound, target and protein interactions and organism-specific protein families. Furthermore, drug name, chemical structures and their SMILES notation, affected proteins (potential drug targets), organisms as well as diseases can be queried including various combinations and refinement of searches. Drugs and protein interactions are analyzed in detail with reference to protein structures and catalytic domains, related compound structures as well as potential targets in other organisms. DrumPID considers drug functionality, compound similarity, target structure, interactome analysis and organismic range for a compound, useful for drug development, predicting drug side-effects and structure-activity relationships.Database URL:http://drumpid.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Transition from the recycle to the recirculation based society. Development of hydrothermally solidified soil / earth ceramics; Recycle kara recirculation e. Tsuchi no suinetsukokatai / soil ceramics no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, H. [INAX Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-07-25

    A recirculation type society is indispensable to establish a durable society. The conventional society that exploits law materials from the nature and throws them back is condemned and a fundamental idea of using soil as a building material and the development of hydrothermally solidified soil that the author has been flinging himself since 1992 are introduced. The soil is solidified at temperatures below 200degC and used as earth ceramics which is returned to the natural ecological system when it is disposed. In the case of earth ceramics produced by INAX Co., A production line has been set up as a closed system where 80% of the waste disposal in volume was cut since 1992 and the exhaust of CO2 was cut 12% in volume as compared to that of 1996. Details of the hydrothermal technique development as well as the mineral composition in respect to various properties of the earth ceramics are examined. It is proved that the latter has a bending strength of 4 to 6MPa that is equal to that of the concrete and the humidity regulatory property equal to that of wood. The solidified soil has actually been applied to a floor area about 35m{sup 2} of a living room in a highly air-proof apartment house and one year later, experimental results are obtained about its regulatory properties in terms of seasonal temperature and humidity variations, together with its favorable effect for controlling proliferation of Acarina and other living organisms. 27 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Development of low enrichment technologies for high density fuels and for isotope production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio; Gonzalez, Alfredo G.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than twenty years ago, CNEA has carried out RERTR activities. Main goals are to convert the RA 6 reactor core from HEU to LEU, to get a comprehensive understanding of U-Mo/Al compounds phase formation in dispersed and monolithic fuels, to develop possible solutions to VHD dispersed and monolithic fuels technical problems, and to optimize techniques to recover U from silicide scrap samples. The future plans include: 1) Completion the RA 6 reactor conversion to LEU; 2) Qualification by irradiation of the promising solutions found for the high density fuels; 3) Irradiation of mini plates and full scale fuel assemblies at the RA 3 reactor and at higher flux and temperature reactors; 4) Optimization of LEU target and radiochemical techniques for radioisotope production. (author) [es

  20. Diverse targets of phytoplasma effectors: from plant development to defense against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; MacLean, Allyson M; Kingdom, Heather N; Grieve, Victoria M; Manimekalai, R; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasma research begins to bloom (75). Indeed, this review shows that substantial progress has been made with the identification of phytoplasma effectors that alter flower development, induce witches' broom, affect leaf shape, and modify plant-insect interactions. Phytoplasmas have a unique life cycle among pathogens, as they invade organisms of two distinct kingdoms, namely plants (Plantae) and insects (Animalia), and replicate intracellularly in both. Phytoplasmas release effectors into host cells of plants and insects to target host molecules, and in plants these effectors unload from the phloem to access distal tissues and alter basic developmental processes. The effectors provide phytoplasmas with a fitness advantage by modulating their plant and insect hosts. We expect that further research on the functional characterization of phytoplasma effectors will generate new knowledge that is relevant to fundamental aspects of plant sciences and entomology, and for agriculture by improving yields of crops affected by phytoplasma diseases. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and utilization of ``Plate Changer'' system for neutrino interaction locations in OPERA emulsion target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, J.; Ariga, A.; Ban, T.; Hoshino, K.; Ishiguro, K.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Koshiba, S.; Matsuo, T.; Miyanishi, K.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Natsume, M.; Narita, K.; Omura, T.; Oya, M.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T.; Suzuki, K.; Kose, U.; Yoon, C. S.; Zama, Y.

    2013-02-01

    In the OPERA experiment, so-called Scan Back method is used to locate neutrino interaction vertices in the emulsion target named ECC (Emulsion Cloud Chamber). In Scan Back method, tracks detected in the most downstream emulsion plate in ECCs are followed to upstream plate by plate until it reaches to the interaction points. In order to treat a number of neutrino interactions recorded in OPERA, dedicated systems called Plate Changer has been developed and utilized to neutrino event location in Japan. The details of the system have been described in this report. Until the end of November 2012, 6223 Scan Back trials have been performed using this system, and strongly contributed to the detection of tau neutrino appearance.

  2. Development and utilization of ''Plate Changer'' system for neutrino interaction locations in OPERA emulsion target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, J; Ariga, A; Ban, T; Hoshino, K; Ishiguro, K; Kazuyama, M; Kitagawa, N; Komatsu, M; Koshiba, S; Miyanishi, K; Morishima, K; Naganawa, N; Naka, T; Nakano, T; Nakatsuka, Y; Natsume, M; Narita, K; Kim, S H; Kodama, K; Matsuo, T

    2013-01-01

    In the OPERA experiment, so-called Scan Back method is used to locate neutrino interaction vertices in the emulsion target named ECC (Emulsion Cloud Chamber). In Scan Back method, tracks detected in the most downstream emulsion plate in ECCs are followed to upstream plate by plate until it reaches to the interaction points. In order to treat a number of neutrino interactions recorded in OPERA, dedicated systems called Plate Changer has been developed and utilized to neutrino event location in Japan. The details of the system have been described in this report. Until the end of November 2012, 6223 Scan Back trials have been performed using this system, and strongly contributed to the detection of tau neutrino appearance.

  3. Development and performance evaluation of a dynamic phantom for biological dosimetry of moving targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, A.; Bert, C.; Saito, N.; von Neubeck, C.; Iancu, G.; K-Weyrather, W.; Durante, M.; Rietzel, E.

    2010-06-01

    A dynamic phantom has been developed to allow for measurement of 3D cell survival distributions and the corresponding distributions of the RBE-weighted dose (RBED) in the presence of motion. The phantom consists of two 96-microwell plates holding Chinese hamster ovary cells inside a container filled with culture medium and is placed on a movable stage. Basic biological properties of the phantom were investigated without irradiation and after irradiation with a carbon ion beam, using both a stationary (reference) exposure and exposure during motion of the phantom perpendicular to the beam with beam tracking. There was no statistically significant difference between plating efficiency measured in the microwells with and without motion (0.75) and values reported in the literature. Mean differences between measured and calculated cell survival for these two irradiation modes were within ±5% of the target dose of 6 Gy (RBE).

  4. Latest developments in our understanding of the pathogenesis of mesothelioma and the design of targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Angela; Napolitano, Andrea; Pass, Harvey I; Yang, Haining; Carbone, Michele

    2015-10-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer whose pathogenesis is causally linked to occupational exposure to asbestos. Familial clusters of mesotheliomas have been observed in settings of genetic predisposition. Mesothelioma incidence is anticipated to increase worldwide in the next two decades. Novel treatments are needed, as current treatment modalities may improve the quality of life, but have shown modest effects in improving overall survival. Increasing knowledge on the molecular characteristics of mesothelioma has led to the development of novel potential therapeutic strategies, including: molecular targeted approaches, that is the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor with bevacizumab; immunotherapy with chimeric monoclonal antibody, immunotoxin, antibody drug conjugate, vaccine and viruses; inhibition of asbestos-induced inflammation, that is aspirin inhibition of HMGB1 activity may decrease or delay mesothelioma onset and/or growth. We elaborate on the rationale behind new therapeutic strategies, and summarize available preclinical and clinical results, as well as efforts still ongoing.

  5. [Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberli, W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the following topics: the Wisconsin test facility for storage cells; results of target tests; the new UHV target test system; funding request for a new atomic beam system; and planning of storage ring experiments

  6. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  7. Development of a hydrogen and deuterium polarized gas target for application in storage rings. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1992-02-01

    Polarized gas targets of atomic hydrogen and deuterium have significant advantages over conventional polarized targets, e.g. chemical and isotopic purity, large polarization including deuteron tensor polarization, absence of strong magnetic fields, rapid polarization reversal. While in principle the beam of polarized atoms from an atomic beam source (Stern-Gerlach spin separation) can be used as a polarized target, the target thickness achieved is too small for most applications. We propose to increase the target thickness by injecting the polarized atoms into a storage cell. Provided the atoms survive several hundred wall collisions without losing their polarization, it will be possible to achieve a target thickness of 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} by injection of polarized atoms from an atomic-beam source into suitable cells. Such targets are very attractive as internal targets in storage rings.

  8. An in vivo reporter of BMP signaling in organogenesis reveals targets in the developing kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolak Michele J

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate essential processes during organogenesis, and a functional understanding of these secreted proteins depends on identification of their target cells. In this study, we generate a transgenic reporter for organogenesis studies that we use to define BMP pathway activation in the developing kidney. Results Mouse strains reporting on BMP pathway activation were generated by transgenically expressing β-galactosidase under the control of BMP responsive elements from Id1. Reporter expression corresponds well with immunoassays for pathway activation in all organs studied, validating the model. Using these reporters we have generated a detailed map of cellular targets of BMP signaling in the developing kidney. We find that SMAD dependent BMP signaling is active in collecting duct trunks, but not tips. Furthermore, glomerular endothelial cells, and proximal nephron tubules from the renal vesicle stage onward show pathway activation. Surprisingly, little activation is detected in the nephrogenic zone of the kidney, and in organ culture BMP treatment fails to activate SMAD dependent BMP signaling in nephron progenitor cells. In contrast, signaling is efficiently induced in collecting duct tips. Conclusion Transgenic reporters driven by control elements from BMP responsive genes such as Id1 offer significant advantages in sensitivity and consistency over immunostaining for studies of BMP pathway activation. They also provide opportunities for analysis of BMP signaling in organ and primary cell cultures subjected to experimental manipulation. Using such a reporter, we made the surprising finding that SMAD dependent BMP signaling is inactive in nephron progenitors, and that these cells are refractory to activation by applied growth factors. Furthermore, we find that the BMP pathway is not normally active in collecting duct tips, but that it can be ectopically activated by BMP treatment, offering a

  9. Development of a methodology for defining whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 2, Development Concept Stage Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, H.N. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, NY (USA)); Deringer, J.J. (American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC (USA)); Jones, J.W. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Hall, J.D. (Deringer Group, Riva, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report documents eight tasks performed as part of the Whole-Building Energy Design Targets project, in which detailed conceptual approaches were produced for each element of the proposed Targets model. The eight task reports together describe the important modules proposed for inclusion in the Targets model: input module, energy module, characteristic development moduel, building cost module, analysis control module, energy cost module, search routines module, and economic analysis module. 16 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is required for cartilage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yingjie; Yang, Xu; Yang, Wentian; Charbonneau, Cherie; Chen, Qian

    2014-10-01

    Mechanical stress regulates development by modulating cell signaling and gene expression. However, the cytoplasmic components mediating mechanotransduction remain unclear. In this study, elimination of muscle contraction during chicken embryonic development resulted in a reduction in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the cartilaginous growth plate. Inhibition of mTOR activity led to significant inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation, cartilage tissue growth, and expression of chondrogenic genes, including Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a critical mediator of mechanotransduction. Conversely, cyclic loading (1 Hz, 5% matrix deformation) of embryonic chicken growth plate chondrocytes in 3-dimensional (3D) collagen scaffolding induced sustained activation of mTOR. Mechanical activation of mTOR occurred in serum-free medium, indicating that it is independent of growth factor or nutrients. Treatment of chondrocytes with Rapa abolished mechanical activation of cell proliferation and Ihh gene expression. Cyclic loading of chondroprogenitor cells deficient in SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) further enhanced mechanical activation of mTOR, cell proliferation, and chondrogenic gene expression. This result suggests that Shp2 is an antagonist of mechanotransduction through inhibition of mTOR activity. Our data demonstrate that mechanical activation of mTOR is necessary for cell proliferation, chondrogenesis, and cartilage growth during bone development, and that mTOR is an essential mechanotransduction component modulated by Shp2 in the cytoplasm. © FASEB.

  11. Development of a Targeted Smoking Relapse-Prevention Intervention for Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lauren R.; Meade, Cathy D.; Diaz, Diana B.; Carrington, Monica S.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Haura, Eric B.; Simmons, Vani N.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the series of iterative steps used to develop a smoking relapse-prevention intervention customized to the needs of cancer patients. Informed by relevant literature and a series of preliminary studies, an educational tool (DVD) was developed to target the unique smoking relapse risk factors among cancer patients. Learner verification interviews were conducted with 10 cancer patients who recently quit smoking to elicit feedback and inform the development of the DVD. The DVD was then refined using iterative processes and feedback from the learner verification interviews. Major changes focused on visual appeal, and the inclusion of additional testimonials and graphics to increase comprehension of key points and further emphasize the message that the patient is in control of their ability to maintain their smoking abstinence. Together, these steps resulted in the creation of a DVD titled Surviving Smokefree®, which represents the first smoking relapse-prevention intervention for cancer patients. If found effective, the Surviving Smokefree® DVD is an easily disseminable and low-cost portable intervention which can assist cancer patients in maintaining smoking abstinence. PMID:27476432

  12. Development of a Targeted Smoking Relapse-Prevention Intervention for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lauren R; Meade, Cathy D; Diaz, Diana B; Carrington, Monica S; Brandon, Thomas H; Jacobsen, Paul B; McCaffrey, Judith C; Haura, Eric B; Simmons, Vani N

    2018-04-01

    We describe the series of iterative steps used to develop a smoking relapse-prevention intervention customized to the needs of cancer patients. Informed by relevant literature and a series of preliminary studies, an educational tool (DVD) was developed to target the unique smoking relapse risk factors among cancer patients. Learner verification interviews were conducted with 10 cancer patients who recently quit smoking to elicit feedback and inform the development of the DVD. The DVD was then refined using iterative processes and feedback from the learner verification interviews. Major changes focused on visual appeal, and the inclusion of additional testimonials and graphics to increase comprehension of key points and further emphasize the message that the patient is in control of their ability to maintain their smoking abstinence. Together, these steps resulted in the creation of a DVD titled Surviving Smokefree®, which represents the first smoking relapse-prevention intervention for cancer patients. If found effective, the Surviving Smokefree® DVD is an easily disseminable and low-cost portable intervention which can assist cancer patients in maintaining smoking abstinence.

  13. Essential proteins and possible therapeutic targets of Wolbachia endosymbiont and development of FiloBase--a comprehensive drug target database for Lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2016-01-25

    Lymphatic filariasis (Lf) is one of the oldest and most debilitating tropical diseases. Millions of people are suffering from this prevalent disease. It is estimated to infect over 120 million people in at least 80 nations of the world through the tropical and subtropical regions. More than one billion people are in danger of getting affected with this life-threatening disease. Several studies were suggested its emerging limitations and resistance towards the available drugs and therapeutic targets for Lf. Therefore, better medicine and drug targets are in demand. We took an initiative to identify the essential proteins of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi, which are indispensable for their survival and non-homologous to human host proteins. In this current study, we have used proteome subtractive approach to screen the possible therapeutic targets for wBm. In addition, numerous literatures were mined in the hunt for potential drug targets, drugs, epitopes, crystal structures, and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences for filarial causing nematodes. Data obtained from our study were presented in a user friendly database named FiloBase. We hope that information stored in this database may be used for further research and drug development process against filariasis. URL: http://filobase.bicpu.edu.in.

  14. The miR-30 microRNA family targets smoothened to regulate hedgehog signalling in zebrafish early muscle development

    OpenAIRE

    Ketley, Ami; Warren, Anne; Holmes, Emily; Gering, Martin; Aboobaker, A. Aziz; Brook, J. David

    2013-01-01

    The importance of microRNAs in development is now widely accepted. However, identifying the specific targets of individual microRNAs and understanding their biological significance remains a major challenge. We have used the zebrafish model system to evaluate the expression and function of microRNAs potentially involved in muscle development and study their interaction with predicted target genes. We altered expression of the miR-30 microRNA family and generated phenotypes that mimicked misre...

  15. Modern condition and possibilities of development of a moral component in a target orientation of the teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shylova Nina Ihorivna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic criteria of a moral component in a target orientation of the teenager, whose level of development being defined through the testing of pupils in Mykolaiv city. The article present the results given by the usage of two techniques, defines the ways and prospects of the further development of a moral component in a target orientation of teenagers.

  16. Accelerating drug development for neuroblastoma - New Drug Development Strategy: an Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer, European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents and International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lucas; Caron, Hubert; Geoerger, Birgit; Eggert, Angelika; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Brock, Penelope; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Chesler, Louis; Schulte, Johannes H; De Preter, Katleen; Molenaar, Jan; Schramm, Alexander; Eilers, Martin; Van Maerken, Tom; Johnsen, John Inge; Garrett, Michelle; George, Sally L; Tweddle, Deborah A; Kogner, Per; Berthold, Frank; Koster, Jan; Barone, Giuseppe; Tucker, Elizabeth R; Marshall, Lynley; Herold, Ralf; Sterba, Jaroslav; Norga, Koen; Vassal, Gilles; Pearson, Andrew Dj

    2017-08-01

    Neuroblastoma, the commonest paediatric extra-cranial tumour, remains a leading cause of death from cancer in children. There is an urgent need to develop new drugs to improve cure rates and reduce long-term toxicity and to incorporate molecularly targeted therapies into treatment. Many potential drugs are becoming available, but have to be prioritised for clinical trials due to the relatively small numbers of patients. Areas covered: The current drug development model has been slow, associated with significant attrition, and few new drugs have been developed for neuroblastoma. The Neuroblastoma New Drug Development Strategy (NDDS) has: 1) established a group with expertise in drug development; 2) prioritised targets and drugs according to tumour biology (target expression, dependency, pre-clinical data; potential combinations; biomarkers), identifying as priority targets ALK, MEK, CDK4/6, MDM2, MYCN (druggable by BET bromodomain, aurora kinase, mTORC1/2) BIRC5 and checkpoint kinase 1; 3) promoted clinical trials with target-prioritised drugs. Drugs showing activity can be rapidly transitioned via parallel randomised trials into front-line studies. Expert opinion: The Neuroblastoma NDDS is based on the premise that optimal drug development is reliant on knowledge of tumour biology and prioritisation. This approach will accelerate neuroblastoma drug development and other poor prognosis childhood malignancies.

  17. Development of The Students' Learning Process and Meta cognitive Strategies in Science on Nuclear Energy through Science, Technology and Society (STS) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriuthen, Warawun; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2009-07-01

    Full text: This research aimed to develop 48 Grade 10 students' learning process and meta cognitive strategies in the 'Nuclear Energy' topic through the Science, Technology and Society (STS) approach, which consists of five teaching stages: identification of social issues; identification of potential solutions; need for knowledge; decision-making; and socialization. The data were analyzed through rubric score of learning process and meta cognitive strategies, which consists of five strategies: recalling, planning, monitoring and maintaining, evaluating, and relating. The findings revealed that most students used learning process in a high level. However, they performed a very low level in almost all of the meta cognitive strategies. The factors potentially impeded their development of awareness about learning process and meta cognitive strategies were characteristics of content and students, learning processes, and student habit

  18. Mechanisms of developing post-traumatic stress disorder: new targets for drug development and other potential interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2014-01-01

    amygdala and hippocampus, which are characteristics of patients with PTSD. Considering these abnormalities, neuroendocrine system needs to be considered as a key target for new drug development for prevention and treatment of PTSD.

  19. Role of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in infectious diseases and targets for therapeutic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Varun; Reader, John; Forsyth, Karin-Musier

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) play a pivotal role in protein synthesis and cell viability. These 22 "housekeeping" enzymes (1 for each standard amino acid plus pyrrolysine and o-phosphoserine) are specifically involved in recognizing and aminoacylating their cognate tRNAs in the cellular pool with the correct amino acid prior to delivery of the charged tRNA to the protein synthesis machinery. Besides serving this canonical function, higher eukaryotic AARSs, some of which are organized in the cytoplasm as a multisynthetase complex of nine enzymes plus additional cellular factors, have also been implicated in a variety of non-canonical roles. AARSs are involved in the regulation of transcription, translation, and various signaling pathways, thereby ensuring cell survival. Based in part on their versatility, AARSs have been recruited by viruses to perform essential functions. For example, host synthetases are packaged into some retroviruses and are required for their replication. Other viruses mimic tRNA-like structures in their genomes, and these motifs are aminoacylated by the host synthetase as part of the viral replication cycle. More recently, it has been shown that certain large DNA viruses infecting animals and other diverse unicellular eukaryotes encode tRNAs, AARSs, and additional components of the protein-synthesis machinery. This chapter will review our current understanding of the role of host AARSs and tRNA-like structures in viruses and discuss their potential as anti-viral drug targets. The identification and development of compounds that target bacterial AARSs, thereby serving as novel antibiotics, will also be discussed. Particular attention will be given to recent work on a number of tRNA-dependent AARS inhibitors and to advances in a new class of natural "pro-drug" antibiotics called Trojan Horse inhibitors. Finally, we will explore how bacteria that naturally produce AARS-targeting antibiotics must protect themselves against cell suicide using

  20. Sex-Specificity of Mineralocorticoid Target Gene Expression during Renal Development, and Long-Term Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Dumeige

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences have been identified in various biological processes, including hypertension. The mineralocorticoid signaling pathway is an important contributor to early arterial hypertension, however its sex-specific expression has been scarcely studied, particularly with respect to the kidney. Basal systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR were measured in adult male and female mice. Renal gene expression studies of major players of mineralocorticoid signaling were performed at different developmental stages in male and female mice using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR, and were compared to those of the same genes in the lung, another mineralocorticoid epithelial target tissue that regulates ion exchange and electrolyte balance. The role of sex hormones in the regulation of these genes was also investigated in differentiated KC3AC1 renal cells. Additionally, renal expression of the 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2 protein, a regulator of mineralocorticoid specificity, was measured by immunoblotting and its activity was indirectly assessed in the plasma using liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (LC-MSMS method. SBP and HR were found to be significantly lower in females compared to males. This was accompanied by a sex- and tissue-specific expression profile throughout renal development of the mineralocorticoid target genes serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1 and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (Gilz, together with Hsd11b2, Finally, the implication of sex hormones in this sex-specific expression profile was demonstrated in vitro, most notably for Gilz mRNA expression. We demonstrate a tissue-specific, sex-dependent and developmentally-regulated pattern of expression of the mineralocorticoid pathway that could have important implications in physiology and pathology.