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Sample records for tar sand bitumen

  1. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  2. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Characterization and utilization of hydrotreated products produced from the Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen-derived liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.H.; Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.

    1991-12-31

    The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the mined and crushed ore from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor. The purpose was to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variable. A sulfided nickel-molybendum on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in all experiments. Moderately severe operating conditions were employed; that is, high reaction temperature (617--680 K) high reactor pressure (11.0--17.1 MPa) and low liquid feed rate (0.18--0.77 HSV); to achieve the desired reduction in heteroatom content. Detailed chemical structures of the bitumen-derived liquid feedstock and the hydrotreated total liquid products were determined by high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses. The compounds identified in the native bitumen included isoprenoids; bicyclic, tricycle, and tetracyclic terpenoids; steranes; hopanes; and perhydro-{beta}-carotenes. In addition, normal and branched alkanes and alkenes and partially dehydrogenated hydroaromatics were identified in the bitumen-derived liquid. The dominant pyrolysis reactions were: (1) the dealkylation of long alkyl side chains to form {alpha} - and isoolefins; and (2) the cleavage of alkyl chains linking aromatic and hydroaromatic clusters. Olefinic bonds were not observed in the hydrotreated product and monoaromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant aromatic species. The properties of the jet fuel fractions from the hydrotreated products met most of the jet fuel specifications. The cetane indices indicated these fractions would be suitable for use as diesel fuels.

  5. Characterization and utilization of hydrotreated products produced from the Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen-derived liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.H.; Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the mined and crushed ore from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor. The purpose was to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variable. A sulfided nickel-molybendum on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in all experiments. Moderately severe operating conditions were employed; that is, high reaction temperature (617--680 K) high reactor pressure (11.0--17.1 MPa) and low liquid feed rate (0.18--0.77 HSV); to achieve the desired reduction in heteroatom content. Detailed chemical structures of the bitumen-derived liquid feedstock and the hydrotreated total liquid products were determined by high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses. The compounds identified in the native bitumen included isoprenoids; bicyclic, tricycle, and tetracyclic terpenoids; steranes; hopanes; and perhydro-{beta}-carotenes. In addition, normal and branched alkanes and alkenes and partially dehydrogenated hydroaromatics were identified in the bitumen-derived liquid. The dominant pyrolysis reactions were: (1) the dealkylation of long alkyl side chains to form {alpha} - and isoolefins; and (2) the cleavage of alkyl chains linking aromatic and hydroaromatic clusters. Olefinic bonds were not observed in the hydrotreated product and monoaromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant aromatic species. The properties of the jet fuel fractions from the hydrotreated products met most of the jet fuel specifications. The cetane indices indicated these fractions would be suitable for use as diesel fuels.

  6. Chemical modification of a bitumen and its non-fuel uses. [Reactions of tar sand asphaltenes in synthesis of non-fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1974-01-01

    Simple reactions are described whereby tar sand bitumen can be converted to a whole range of materials. Examples are given to illustrate the non-fuel uses of the products. The following reactions of Athabasca asphaltenes are considered: oxidation, halogenation, sulfonation and sulfomethylation, phosphorylation, hydrogenation, reactions with S and O, reactions with metal salts, and miscellaneous chemical conversions. (JGB)

  7. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  8. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Pan Am tar sand bid revealed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, E

    1968-12-16

    Muskeg Oil Co., wholly-owned subsidiary of Pan American Canada Oil Co. Ltd., hopes to expand its proposed initial 8,000 bpd in situ Athabasca tar sand production scheme to an ultimate rate of 60,000 bpd. The Muskeg recovery process involves an in situ combustion technique developed by Pan American and applied successfully in experimental work in the Athabasca area. The underground burning process develops heat in the formation, reduces crude bitumen viscosity, and displaces the bitumen to the producing wells. Core analyses have been used to determine bitumen in place, wherever possible. Values for uncored wells were based on logs, through development of an empirical relationship between formation resistivity measured by focused logging devices and bitumen content determined by core analysis. The proposed recovery process is a 10-acre well spacing with 9-spot configuration. The McMurray Formation will be fractured hydraulically and preheated by a combustion process. The bitumen will be recovered by a combustion displacement process utilizing air and water.

  10. Technology unlocks tar sands energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1967-09-25

    Tar sand processing technology has been developed primarily in the categories of extraction techniques and in-situ processing. In October, a $235 million venture into tar sand processing will be inspected by visitors from many points on the globe. A synthetic crude of premium quality will be flowing through a 16-in. pipeline from the Tar Island plant site of Great Canadian Oil Sands to Edmonton. This processing plant uses an extractive mining technique. The tar sand pay zone in this area averages approximately 150 ft in thickness with a 50-ft overburden. It has been estimated that the tar sands cannot be exploited when the formation thickness is less than 100 ft and overburden exceeds the same amount. This indicates that extraction techniques can only be used to recover approximately 15% of the tar sand deposits. An in-situ recovery technique developed by Shell of Canada is discussed in detail. In essence it is selective hydraulic fracturing, followed by the injection of emulsifying chemicals and steam.

  11. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  12. Research and information needs for management of tar sands development. Interim report Apr-May 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    The report discusses important research and information needs for federal lease management of lands with tar sands resources. Short-term needs include more complete definition and characterization of deposits, hydrology, and regions downwind from tar sands areas. Longer-term needs include demonstration-scale operations to resolve production, waste management, and reclamation problems and to provide opportunities for measurement, analysis, and assessment of mining and processing wastes and emissions. Most of the known federal tar sands resource is in eastern Utah and contains about 25 billion barrels of bitumen. Recent legislation provides that existing mining claims and oil and gas leases may be converted to combined hydrocarbon leases including tar sands. Federal approval, which must be applied for by November 1983, is a condition for conversion.

  13. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  14. Process and apparatus for recovering of oil, bitumen, tar, resins, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-06

    A process for recovering oil, bitumen, tar, and resins from oil shale, oil sands, Fuller's earth, peat, brown coal, mineral coal, and wood, through direct action of superheated steam on the material, is characterized by the fact that superheated steam with or without mixing of inert gases at a temperature, which lies below the decomposition temperature of the material being treated, is passed through the material with a high velocity. It leaves through nozzles, used in steam turbines. A method of carrying out the process in which solution medium is used for action on the material is characterized by the fact that solvents such as benzine and benzol are mixed with steam in different quantities.

  15. Tar sand extraction by steam stimulation and steam drive: measurement of physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linberg, W.R.

    1980-09-10

    The measurement of the following thermophysical properties of Utah tar sands is in progress: thermal conductivity, specific heat relative permeability, and viscosity (of the recovered bitumen). During the report period (October 1, 1978 to November 1, 1979), experimental procedures have been developed and a basic data set has been measured. Additionally, standard core analysis has been performed for four drill sites in the Asphalt Ridge, Utah area.

  16. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. Ranking oil sands bitumen recovery techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, A.; Nobes, D.S.; Lipsett, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The preference ranking organization method (PROMETHEE) was used to assess and rank 3 techniques for in situ bitumen recovery: (1) steam assisted gravity drainage; (2) vapour extraction (VAPEX); and (3) toe-to-heel air injection (THAI). The study used a business scenario where management-type indicators included potential production rates; estimated overall operating costs; energy consumption; facilities requirement; recovery efficiency; and energy loss. Amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were also considered, as well as the production depth, formation thickness, and API gravity of the produced bitumen. The study showed that THAI recovery methods had the most beneficial criteria weighting of the 3 processes, while SAGD was the least favourable choice. However, SAGD processes are the most widely used of the 3 processes, while THAI has only been demonstrated on a limited scale. It was concluded that the maturity of a technology should be weighted more heavily when using the PROMETHEE method. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. A cost comparison of nuclear and fossil power for the Alberta tar sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochaski, R.O.; Smith, D.W.

    1977-04-01

    One technique envisaged for commercial development of the Alberta tar sands is in-situ removal of bitumen by injection of steam into the formation at high temperature and pressure. The 3000 MW of thermal power required for a typical 20 Gg/d plant could be supplied by a nuclear reactor. Accordingly, an economic comparison was made between a CANDU organic-cooled reactor and a conventional coal-fired station, using a variety of financial ground rules. This analysis shows that for debt-financed cases, nuclear power has essentially no economic competition from coal. For equity cases, the competitive position of a coal-fired station is heavily dependent on the cost of coal delivered to the tar sands area, discount rate, amortization period and inflation rate. (author)

  20. Production of oil from Intermountain West tar sands deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassett, J.M.; Glassett, J.A.

    1976-03-01

    Six tar sand deposits in the Intermountain West, each containing more than one billion barrels of oil in place, are identified. All of these deposits are in eastern Utah and contain a total of twenty-eight billion barrels of oil. The names of the six deposits arranged in descending order of desirability for large-scale surface-mining oil recovery operations are as follows: Sunnyside, Tar Sand Triangle, Asphalt Ridge, P.R. Spring, Circle Cliffs, and Hill Creek. An overview of each deposit is presented including geology, surface-mining variables, chemical processing variables, environmental aspects, and economics. A comparison of Utah tar sands and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada tar sands is also presented.

  1. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  2. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, William P.; Frederick, Logan E.; Millington, Mallory R.; Vala, David; Reese, Barbara K.; Freedman, Dina R.; Stenten, Christina J.; Trauscht, Jacob S.; Tingey, Christopher E.; Kip Solomon, D.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2015-01-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen–solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. - Highlights: • The potential water quality impacts of the first US tar sand development are considered. • Analyses of perennial springs in adjacent canyons indicate hydrologic

  3. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William P.; Frederick, Logan E.; Millington, Mallory R. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Vala, David [Murray High School, Murray, UT 84107 (United States); Reese, Barbara K. [Butler Middle School, Cottonwood Heights, UT 84121 (United States); Freedman, Dina R. [Hillside Middle School, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Stenten, Christina J. [Draper Park Middle School, Draper, UT 84020 (United States); Trauscht, Jacob S.; Tingey, Christopher E.; Kip Solomon, D.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Bowen, Gabriel J. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen–solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. - Highlights: • The potential water quality impacts of the first US tar sand development are considered. • Analyses of perennial springs in adjacent canyons indicate hydrologic

  4. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report

  5. Upgrading oil sands bitumen with FLUID COKING and FLEXICOKING technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamienski, P.; Phillips, G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); McKnight, C.; Rumball, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described EMRE's Fluid Coking and Flexicoking technologies that are well suited for upgrading Alberta's heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen into pipelineable crudes or synthetic crudes, which can be further processed into transportation fuels. The Fluid Coking technology uses a fluidized bed reactor that thermally converts the heavy oils into light gases, liquids and coke. The metals and much of the sulphur are concentrated in the coke. Combustion of the coke provides process heat and the remaining coke is sold or stored on site for later recovery. Syncrude Canada currently operates 3 Fluid Coking units in northern Alberta. Flexicoking extends fluid coking by integrating air gasification to produce a carbon monoxide/hydrogen rich fuel gas that helps meet fuel and energy requirements of bitumen recovery and upgrading. The yields of light gas and liquids are similar to those of the Fluid Coking process. The partial combustion of coke provides the process heat for the thermal conversion and gasification steps. The remaining coke is gasified and desulphurized using Flexsorb technology. At present, there are 5 Flexicoking units in operation around the world. Interest in the technology is growing, particularly in locations with large demand for clean fuel or electricity. It is also suitable for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations in Alberta. This presentation outlined the operating principles of the Flexicoking integrated gasification system and compared it with more expensive oxygen gasification processes. tabs., figs.

  6. Athabasca tar sand reservoir properties derived from cores and logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, R.

    1976-01-01

    Log interpretation parameters for the Athabasca Tar Sand Lease No. 24 have been determined by careful correlation with Dean and Stark core analysis data. Significant expansion of Athabasca cores occurs as overburden pressure is removed. In the more shaly sands the core analysis procedures remove adsorbed water from the clays leading to further overestimation of porosity and free water volume. Log interpretation parameters (R/sub w/ = 0.5 ohm . m and m = n = 1.5) were defined by correlation with the weight of tar as a fraction of the weight of rock solids (grain or dry weight fraction of tar). This quantity is independent of the water content of the cores, whereas porosity and the weight of tar as a fraction of the bulk weight of fluids plus solids (bulk weight fraction) are both dependent on water content. Charts are provided for the conversion of bulk weight fraction of fluids to porosity; grain weight fraction of fluids to porosity; log derived porosity and core grain weight tar to water saturation. Example results show that the core analysis grain weight fraction of tar is adequately matched by the log analyses. The log results provide a better representation of the reservoir fluid volumes than the core analysis data

  7. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  8. Analysis of the environmental control technology for tar sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Glenne, B.; Bryner, C.

    1979-06-01

    The environmental technology for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the waste tar sand were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. Currently there are two large-scale plants producing liquid fuels from tar sands in Alberta, Canada which use similar technology involving surface mining, hot water extraction, and surface disposal of waste sand. These projects all meet the Canadian environmental control regulations in force at the time they began. The largest US deposits of tar sands are much smaller than the Canadian; 95 percent are located in the state of Utah. Their economics do not appear as attractive as the Canadian deposits. The environmental control costs are not large enough to make an otherwise economic project uneconomic. The most serious environmental conflict likely to occur over the recovery of liquid fuels from the US deposits of tar sands is that caused by the proximity of the deposits to national parks, national monuments, and a national recreation area in Utah. These areas have very stringent air pollution requirements; and even if the air pollution control requirements can be met, there may still be adequate opposition to large-scale mining ventures in these areas to prevent their commercial exploitation. Another environmental constraint may be water rights availability.Essentially all of the water running in the Colorado river basin is now legally allocated. Barring new interpretations of the legality of water rights purchase, Utah tar sands developments should be able to obtain water by purchasing existing irrigation water rights.

  9. Athabasca tar sands as a source of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D S

    1964-01-01

    A general review is presented of the variable nature of the Athabasca bituminous sand resource, and the chemical composition of the bitumen is given at various stages during the refining from raw material to finished products. The research conducted at the Mines Branch, Ottawa, on vapor-phase hydrogenation of coker distillates is described, emphasizing the effect of hydrogen pressure on the rate of catalyst deactivation. The quality of the hydrogenated products is described in general terms and some observations are made on the reasons why large-scale operation is essential if an economical process is to be achieved.

  10. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  11. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: tar sands oil recovery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to tar sands oil recovery and upgrading. The raw product recovered from the sands is a heavy, sour bitumen; upgrading, which involves coking and hydrodesulfurization, produces a synthetic crude (refinable by current technology) and petroleum coke. Steam and electric power are required for the recovery and upgrading process. Proposed and commercial plants would purchase electric power from local utilities and obtain from boilers fired with coal and with by-product fuels produced by the upgrading. This study shows that an HTGR-PS/C represents a more economical source of steam and electric power

  12. production and cost of cold patch road mats with bitumen extracted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jamiu

    This paper reports the production of bituminous road mats with bitumen sourced from the Nigerian Tar sand, recycled .... scrap tires are produced every year, which makes the disposal of ..... particles will be round or nearly round and will pass.

  13. A Critical Review of the Oil and Tar Sands of the Dahomey Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osundina, A.; Mustapha, A.; Nzewi, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Benin Basin previously referred to as the Dahomey embayment has been designated as a frontier basin within Nigeria due to its potentially high prospects, but comparatively low exploitation campaign to date. The basin offers a promising opportunity for heavy oil exploration in a narrow belt extending westward from Edo State to the republic of Benin; while offshore, there are high prospects for finding more conventional hydrocarbon.The eastern Dahomey embayment is known to have an extensive reserve of hydrocarbons (bitumen and tar sands). The sediments occur in a 5 8 km belt stretching 120km from the fringes of Lagos State through Ogun, Ondo and Edo States. The estimated reserve potentials exceed 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent.Recently acquired seismic data in OPL 309 and 310, and subsequent drilling of 2 wells on the narrow continental shelf, have shown the presence of closed structures over Basement Highs and other related structural styles in the basin and confirm that conventional light oils and condensates hydrocarbons occur in commercial quantity. These hydrocarbons are reservoired in stratigraphic sequences of Albian Cenomanian age.This paper hopes to expose the hidden riches of this Basin and hopefully get the attention of the big players in refocusing their interests in the basin that attracted attention of the early petroleum explorers to Nigeria approximately 100 years ago

  14. A role for nuclear energy in the recovery of oil from the tar sands of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttagunta, V.R.; Sochaski, R.O.; Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-12-01

    Techniques of oil recovery from the tar sands and the energy requirements of this operation are described. Fossil fuels, and CANDU reactors are examined as competitive sources of energy for the tar sands plants. The CANDU-OCR reactor appears to have the necessary flexibility to fit into many of the possible methods of recovering oil from the tar sands. Cost comparisons of fossil and nuclear sources show that, for the supply of process steam, the nuclear source is competitive under the criteria of debt financing or low discount rates on capital, continued escalation, and long plant capital write-off period. (author)

  15. Revegetation and management of tailings sand slopes from tar sand extraction: 1978 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J

    1979-01-01

    The results are reported of research into the revegetation of two areas on a steeply sloping dike composed of tailings sand from tar sand extraction at the Great Canadian Oil Sand Limited plant at Fort McMurray, Alberta. One area was seeded with three pasture grasses and two legumes in 1971 after the slope surface had been mixed with peat to a depth of 15 cm. A second area had been amended with peat or peat and overburden and differing rates of fertilizer added. A mix containing nine grasses, four legumes, and oats, as a companion crop, was seeded in July 1976. The objectives of the research were to study methods for the establishment of a stable vegetative cover that would prevent erosion of the slope and, in time, might become a self maintaining unit. Tillage of soil amendments to a depth of 15 cm and 30 cm were compared in promoting deeper rooting and stabilizing of the slope.

  16. Bitumen extraction from oil sands ore-water slurry using CaO (lime) and or ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babadagli, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Burkus, Z.; Moschopedis, S.E.; Ozum, B. [Apex Engineering Inc., Calvert City, KY (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Reductions in the surface and interfacial tensions in oil sands ore-water slurry systems improve bitumen extraction processes from oil sands ore structures and promote the attachment of air bubbles to liberated bitumen droplets. This study provided details of a non-caustic bitumen extraction process where oil sands slurries were conditioned by bitumen asphaltenes modified to act as surfactants. Oil sands ore-water slurry extraction processes were optimized by adding lime (CaO) and oxidizing bitumen asphaltenes with ozone (O{sub 3}). Experiments were conducted using oil sands ore and process water samples from Alberta. Extraction tests were performed to investigate the effects of various CaO and O{sub 3} dosages and treatment retention times on bitumen extraction efficiency on operating temperatures of 20, 35 and 50 degrees C. A Dean-Stark extraction apparatus was used to determine the amount of bitumen contained in the ore, froth, and in left-over tailings. Process water and release water chemistry were also monitored. Bitumen extraction efficiency was defined as the percentage of bitumen recovered in the resulting froth. Use of the slurries allowed high extraction efficiencies at a temperature of 35 degrees C. Energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were also reduced. The study showed that both additions resulted in significant improvements in bitumen extraction efficiency. Use of the technique also eliminated the accumulation of Na{sup +} ions in produced water. It was concluded that further tests are needed in order to commercialize the CaO and O{sub 3} based techniques. 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Cashing in on Tar Sands. RBS, UK banks and Canada's 'blood oil'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.; Howarth, C.; Kellay, A.; Laboucan, B.J.; Mercredi, M.; Minio-Paluelo, M.; Schling, H.; Smith, K.; Thomas-Muller, C.; Wood, A.

    2010-03-15

    Tar sands extraction in Canada is devastating Indigenous communities, wildlife and vast areas of boreal forests, as well as being many times more carbon-intensive to produce than 'conventional' oil. The higher oil prices in recent years have meant that it's become a more attractive prospect for oil companies to expand their operations in the costly process of obtaining and processing the thick bitumen into a usable form. It's estimated that the industry is looking for a capital investment of 120-220 billion USD over the next 20 years to build the new pipelines, mines, refineries and upgraders that are necessary to sustain the boom. This report looks at the role that UK banks are playing in providing the necessary capital, and how RBS (Royal Bank of Scotland), which is 84% owned by the UK public, has been the bank the most heavily involved in underwriting loans to companies engaging in tar sands extraction.

  18. Coprocessing of biooils from biomass pyrolysis and bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, M.; Daruwalla, S.; Daruwalla, D.D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonia, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Liquid biooils can be produced from the thermochemical treatment of biomass by pyrolysis. However, because of their poor volatility, high viscosity, coking, corrosiveness, and cold flow problems, biooils cannot be used directly as transportation fuel. Biooils can be upgraded into a liquid transportation fuel by hydrodeoxygenation with typical hydrotreating procedure with sulfided cobalt and molybdenum (CoMo) or nickel molybdenum (NiMo) as catalysts in the current oil refinery facilities. Coprocessing of biooils and bitumen from oil sand provides an opportunity to process the two feeds at the same time which can be achieved by injection of pyrolytic biooils and vacuum gas oil (VGO) from bitumen into a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit if the acid number of the biooils is below 35. Typically the biooils are diluted to about 1.5 to 5 per cent in the VGO feed to be processed. For the blends of VGO and biooils, the biooils appear to facilitate the cracking of the VGO and shift yields toward light ends, lower light cycle oil. They also clarify slurry oil, which makes the process more cost effective. This paper briefly reviewed the typical methods for bitumen pretreatment and preliminary upgrading. The paper also discussed the current status of coprocessing of biooils and hydrocarbons, and suggested two possible processes for coprocessing bitumen with biooils and biopitches. The impact on the hydrodesulphurization process conversion of dibenzothiophenic compounds was also studied, showing no differences of the inhibiting effect between these molecules. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. Robotics and automation for oil sands bitumen production and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipsett, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation examined technical challenges and commercial challenges related to robotics and automation processes in the mining and oil sands industries. The oil sands industry has on-going cost pressures. Challenges include the depths to which miners must travel, as well as problems related to equipment reliability and safety. Surface mines must operate in all weather conditions with a variety of complex systems. Barriers for new technologies include high capital and operating expenses. It has also proven difficult to integrate new technologies within established mining practices. However, automation has the potential to improve mineral processing, production, and maintenance processes. Step changes can be placed in locations that are hazardous or inaccessible. Automated sizing, material, and ventilation systems are can also be implemented as well as tele-operated equipment. Prototypes currently being developed include advanced systems for cutting; rock bolting; loose rock detection systems; lump size estimation; unstructured environment sensing; environment modelling; and automatic task execution. Enabling technologies are now being developed for excavation, haulage, material handling systems, mining and reclamation methods, and integrated control and reliability. tabs., figs.

  20. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes' bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating

  1. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Angerer, J.; Pesch, B.; Marczynski, B.; Hahn, J.U.; Spickenheuer, A.; Preuss, R.; Ruhl, R.; Rode, P.; Bruning, T. [Institute at the Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In our research project entitled 'Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways,' 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  2. Reports on 1974 result of Sunshine Project. Research on tar sand and oil shale; 1974 nendo tar sand oyobi oil shale ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-04-04

    The purpose of this research is to grasp the policy of the oil sand resource countries, the properties and existing conditions of the resources, effects of the oil sand resources on a long term energy supply/demand, etc., and to clarify the meaning and position of the researches on the development of oil sand resources in the future energy policy of Japan. The quantities of oil sand resources are mostly in the process of investigation except Alberta province of Canada and are estimated to be two trillion barrels. The quantity for which strip mining is possible is about 90 billion barrels, which are mostly located in the Athabasca region. The oil sand holding countries take a policy of positively developing oil sand. No barriers are particularly provided against the introduction of foreign technology and capital. Where the prospects are possible for the development of oil sand are Canada and Venezuela. R and D should be emphasized on the refining of bitumen and the extraction method within the oil reservoir. The investment per b/d is about 15-20 thousand dollars, which is likely to be more than twice as much as for the North Sea oilfields. The properties and quality of the synthetic crude oil are superior while the risk of exploitation is small; therefore, oil sand will be competitive with crude oil in the future. (NEDO)

  3. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stanecki, John

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  4. Heavy crude and tar sands - the long-term oil reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnea, J

    1984-10-01

    It appears that heavy crude and tar sands occur in many sedimentary areas, and estimates of known world-wide quantities exceed those known for conventional light crude resources. Although there are not precise figures available, production could be as high as three million barrels per day, with Venezuela, the US, and Canada the largest producers. There are different scales to measure the costs of production because of differences in the quality of various types of heavy crude and tar sands. Economic development of these resources should banish fears of oil scarcity in the foreseeable future. A center for information exchange through international meetings and publications is under development.

  5. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future

  6. Tar sands showdown : Canada and the new politics of oil in an age of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, T.

    2009-01-01

    This book outlined the social and environmental issues facing the oil sands industry in Canada, including economic sovereignty, energy security, water rights and free trade. The tar sands have become vital to the Canadian economy, as they have the potential to increase Canada's foreign oil output by 4 to 5 times in the next 15 years. The author discussed the ecological and social impact of the Alberta tar sands and the real cost of development to Albertans and Canadians. Tar sands oil production generates more than 3 times the amount of greenhouse gas emissions than conventional oil production. The industry is also becoming a prime example of the abuse of water sources. The author emphasized the need to build an alternative energy future in an age of global warming. The main objective of this book was to help stimulate a nation-wide public debate about the tar sands and the critical issues at stake regarding Canada's energy future and an environmental strategy for more sustainable development. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the recovery and extraction of crude bitumen from Canada’s oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimana, Balwinder; Canter, Christina; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in oil sands is presented. • The model is developed from fundamental engineering principles. • Cogeneration in the oil sands has the ability to offset GHG emissions. • The effect of key parameters is investigated through a sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: A model – FUNNEL-GHG-OS (FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in the Oil Sands) was developed to estimate project-specific energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in major recovery and extraction processes in the oil sands, namely surface mining and in situ production. This model estimates consumption of diesel (4.4–7.1 MJ/GJ of bitumen), natural gas (52.7–86.4 MJ/GJ of bitumen) and electricity (1.8–2.1 kW h/GJ of bitumen) as fuels in surface mining. The model also estimates the consumption of natural gas (123–462.7 MJ/GJ of bitumen) and electricity (1.2–3.5 kW h/GJ of bitumen) in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), based on fundamental engineering principles. Cogeneration in the oil sands, with excess electricity exported to Alberta’s grid, was also explored. Natural gas consumption forms a major portion of the total energy consumption in surface mining and SAGD and thus is a main contributor to GHG emissions. Emissions in surface mining and SAGD range from 4.4 to 7.4 gCO 2 eq/MJ of bitumen and 8.0 to 34.0 gCO 2 eq/MJ of bitumen, respectively, representing a wide range of variability in oil sands projects. Depending upon the cogeneration technology and the efficiency of the process, emissions in oil sands recovery and extraction can be reduced by 16–25% in surface mining and 33–48% in SAGD. Further, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of key parameters on the GHG emissions in surface mining and SAGD. Temperature and the consumption of warm water in surface mining and the steam-to-oil ratio (SOR) in SAGD are major parameters

  9. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  10. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks

  11. Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenest, T., E-mail: tdebenest@yahoo.fr [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Turcotte, P. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagne, F., E-mail: francois.gagne@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagnon, C.; Blaise, C. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF = 66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF = 64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF = 52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72 h-IC 50% < 1.9%) was 20 times higher than the one of OSW (72 h-IC 50% > 37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50% = 8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<-0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae.

  12. Hydrogen production from wind energy in Western Canada for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olateju, Babatunde; Kumar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced via steam methane reforming (SMR) for bitumen upgrading which results in significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Wind energy based hydrogen can reduce the GHG footprint of the bitumen upgrading industry. This paper is aimed at developing a detailed data-intensive techno-economic model for assessment of hydrogen production from wind energy via the electrolysis of water. The proposed wind/hydrogen plant is based on an expansion of an existing wind farm with unit wind turbine size of 1.8 MW and with a dual functionality of hydrogen production and electricity generation. An electrolyser size of 240 kW (50 Nm 3 H 2 /h) and 360 kW (90 Nm 3 H 2 /h) proved to be the optimal sizes for constant and variable flow rate electrolysers, respectively. The electrolyser sizes aforementioned yielded a minimum hydrogen production price at base case conditions of $10.15/kg H 2 and $7.55/kg H 2 . The inclusion of a Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) of $0.13/kWh renders the production price of hydrogen equal to SMR i.e. $0.96/kg H 2, with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 24%. The minimum hydrogen delivery cost was $4.96/kg H 2 at base case conditions. The life cycle CO 2 emissions is 6.35 kg CO 2 /kg H 2 including hydrogen delivery to the upgrader via compressed gas trucks. -- Highlights: ► This study involves development of a data intensive techno-economic model for estimation cost of hydrogen production from wind energy. ► Wind energy based electricity is used for electrolysis to produce hydrogen in Western Canada for bitumen upgrading for oil sands. ► Several scenarios were developed to study the electricity generation and hydrogen production from wind energy. ► The cost of production of hydrogen is significantly higher than natural based hydrogen in Western Canada.

  13. Literature search on the environmental impacts of tar sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, D.; Prendergast, S.

    1990-09-01

    An extensive review is presented of the literature on the chemistry and biological impacts of current and potential effluents and discharges from oil sands plants on the Athabasca River. The pollutant compounds of interest included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methyl homologues and metabolites, polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles, and naphthenic acids. Topics of interest include chemical methods for identifying and quantitating the above compounds and their metabolites, their sources and release rates, their toxicity to native fish of the Athabasca system, and their degradation in the natural environment. 376 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs

  14. Distribution of clay minerals in the process streams produced by the extraction of bitumen from Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, H.A.W.; Etsell, T.H.; Ivey, D.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Omotoso, O. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CETC

    2009-02-15

    The clay minerals present in the oil sands were studied with particular reference to how they are partitioned in bitumen ore during the extraction process. Bitumen production from surface-mined oil sands accounts for nearly two-thirds of the total bitumen production in Alberta. Every cubic meter of mined ore results in 1.3 cubic meters of mature fine tailings (MFT). The characteristic differences between the clay minerals that report to the froth versus the tailings streams were also examined to determine which minerals could impact different unit operations in the bitumen extraction process. X-ray diffraction and random powder samples were used to quantify the clay minerals. Particle size distribution and clay activity balances were also conducted. The degree of partitioning during the conditioning and flotation stages in a batch extractor was determined by the surface properties of the clay minerals. The water-continuous tailings stream was separated into fine and coarse tailings fractions through sedimentation. The study showed that bitumen-clay interactions may be dominated by kaolinite or iron oxides. Clays are responsible for the poor settling behaviour of MFTs. The clay minerals present in the oil sands include illite, illite-smectite, kaolinite, kaolinite-smectite, and chlorite. The close proximity of the tailings ponds to the Athabasca River and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission require that the ponds be reclaimed to a natural landscape before mine closure. In addition to its impact on fine tailings reclamation, clay mineralogy plays a role in extraction froth flotation and emulsion stability during froth treatment. The mineralogy of the froth solids was found to be different from the mineralogy of the middlings and tailings solids. 39 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  15. Stuck in the tar sands : how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    The credibility of any federal climate change strategy must be measured against its ability to reduce emissions from the tar sands. However, the federal government has proposed a climate change strategy that would allow tar sands producers to double their total emissions over the next decade. This report discussed how the federal government's proposed climate change strategy lets oil companies off the hook. The report discussed the problems and harmful effects associated with tar sands development, including greenhouse gas emissions; water depletion and pollution; toxic air emissions; destruction of the boreal forest; violation of native rights; threat to energy security; and negative socio-economic spin-off from an overheated economy. The federal government's proposed strategy was also assessed in terms of its weak greenhouse gas targets; ignoring the recent growth in tar sands emissions; adopting intensity-based targets instead of hard caps on greenhouse gas pollution, allowing total emissions from the tar sands to keep climbing; putting off critical measures until 2018; awarding oil companies hundreds of millions of dollars in credits for meeting targets they have already adopted voluntarily; lowballing the price of oil and downplaying future growth in tar sands emissions; ignoring huge portions of the oil industry's greenhouse gas pollution; letting oil companies buy their way out at rockbottom prices instead of forcing them to reduce their own emissions; and subsidizing increased tar sands production. It was concluded that the federal government's proposed plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was inadequate, because it failed to crack down on rising greenhouse gas emissions from the tar sands, one of Canada's most carbon intensive and fastest growing industries. 29 refs., 1 appendix

  16. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future

  17. Economic and environmental effects of the FQD on crude oil production from tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; De Buck, A.; Afman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Berg, J.; Otten, G.J. [Carbon Matters, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The production of unconventional crudes in Canada and Venezuela and exports of these crudes to the EU are investigated. In addition the potential economic and environmental impact of the proposed EU FQD measures (Fuel Quality Directive) on the production of crudes from tar sands and on new tar sand exploration projects are examined. CE Delft has analysed the impact by using a dedicated cost model. For existing projects, the model determines the effect on the basis of marginal production costs. For planned projects the model used the net present value (NPV) of proposed investments. The impacts were determined for a range of crude oil prices and FQD price effects. Combined, for existing and new projects together, the maximum effect would be at a price level at 60 USD/bbl, with savings of up to 19 Mt CO2/y at an FQD price differential of 3 euro/bbl. This overall effect would be substantial and come on top of the total emission reduction effect of the FQD of 60 Mt CO2/y, which will be achieved mostly by the blending of low-carbon fuels and reduced flaring and venting. As part of the reduction of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the revised FQD obliges fuel suppliers to reduce these emissions by 6% by 2020 on a well-to-wheel basis. The EU is currently developing a methodology to differentiate fossil fuels on the basis of feedstock and GHG emissions. In the proposal, diesel produced from tar sands, has been given a default emission value of 108.5 gCO2 eq/MJ, while diesel from conventional crude was set at 89.1 gCO2 eq/MJ. The Commission's proposal is currently undergoing an impact assessment and is expected to be resubmitted to the Council later this year (2013)

  18. 1952 : bitumen beginnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In 1952, Imperial Oil used trains to deliver the first volumes of Alberta crude to the west coast. The Trans Mountain crude oil pipeline system was completed in 1953. Even in the early 1950s, the McMurray tar sands were recognized as the world's largest source of petroleum, containing an estimated 100 to 300 billion barrels of bitumen. A group of 10 companies had taken out permit rights on 250,000 acres in Alberta, just west of the Saskatchewan border. They began a core hole drilling program on the leases that are now part of Syncrude Canada and Suncor extraction projects. An experimental extraction operation was also carried out by Swedish Shale Oil Company to determine the economic feasibility of oil sands development. The bitumen extraction process used at the Bitumount plant involved heat. The Sun Oil Company applied for permits covering 100,000 acres on the east side of the Athabasca River, near the Bitumount plant. The leases are currently incorporated into several oilsands development projects, including Syncrude Canada's Aurora mine. At the time, Sun Oil also launched a core hole drilling program with plans to conduct further exploratory and development drilling. Other key events in 1952 included the Bonnie Glen discovery well that produced 240 barrels per day, and approval to export gas from the Peace River region. 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Environmental survey - tar sands in situ processing research program (Vernal, Uintah County, Utah). [Reverse-forward combustion; steam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Q.

    1980-03-01

    Research will be done on the reverse-forward combustion and steam injection for the in-situ recovery of oil from tar sands. This environmental survey will serve as a guideline for the consideration of environmental consequences of such research. It covers the construction phase, operational phase, description of the environment, potential impacts and mitigations, coordination, and alternatives. (DLC)

  20. Geochemistry of radioactive elements in bituminous sands and sandstones of Permian bitumen deposits of Tatarstan (east of the Russian plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullakaev, A. I.; Khasanov, R. R.; Badrutdinov, O. R.; Kamaletdinov, I. R.

    2018-05-01

    The article investigates geochemical features of Permian (Cisuralian, Ufimian Stage and Biarmian, Kazanian Stage of the General Stratigraphic Scale of Russia) bituminous sands and sandstones located on the territory of the Volga-Ural oil and gas province (Republic of Tatarstan). Natural bitumens are extracted using thermal methods as deposits of high-viscosity oils. In the samples studied, the specific activity of natural radionuclides from the 238U (226Ra), 232Th, and 40K series was measured using gamma spectrometry. As a result of the precipitation of uranium and thorium and their subsequent decay, the accumulation of radium (226Ra and 228Ra) has been shown to occur in the bituminous substance. In the process of exploitation of bitumen-bearing rock deposits (as an oil fields) radium in the composition of a water-oil mixture can be extracted to the surface or deposited on sulfate barriers, while being concentrated on the walls of pipes and other equipment. This process requires increased attention to monitoring and inspection the environmental safety of the exploitation procedure.

  1. The influence of moisture content of sand on leach rates from cement and bitumen radioactive waste forms in a shallow ground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovasic, Z.; Torok, J.; Buckley, L.P.

    1992-11-01

    Leaching rates from cement and bitumen-conditioned waste in contact with sand were determined with different water content of the sand up to and including saturation. A cylindrical waste form occupied one end of a column, with sand packed in the remainder. Axial radionuclide concentration profiles in the columns were determined several times during the experiment using an automated system consisting of a gamma spectrometer and an optical bench. The migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 60 Co was determined from concentration profiles with time. The diffusion coefficient for 137 Cs in cement varied more than expected with the change of moisture content of sand. The leaching of bitumen waste forms is complex, and has poor reproducibility. When the water content of the sand was below 0.067 mL/mL, no leaching was determined from bitumen waste forms in all of the specimens except one. No clear relationship could be established between leach rate and the water content of sand above 0.18 mL/mL water content

  2. Impacts and mitigations of in situ bitumen production from Alberta oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, Neil

    2010-09-15

    85% or more of Alberta's oil sands is too deep to mine and will be recovered by in situ methods, i.e. from drill holes. This has been made commercially possible through the development in Alberta of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD). Does this impending development threaten the local ecosystem? A quantitative account is given of the principal impacts of in situ oil sands development in Alberta. Impacts on land (habitats), water, and air are considered in terms of local capacity, global benchmarks, and comparisons to alternative renewable technologies. Improvements due to new solvent-additive technology are highlighted.

  3. Effect of heating rate on thermal cracking characteristics and kinetics of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen by TG-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Zhang, Jinhong; Qiao, Yingyun; Tian, Yuanyu

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to investigate effects of heating rate on thermal cracking behaviors, distribution of gaseous products and activation energy of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang oil sand bitumen (OSB). The thermal cracking experiments of Xinjiang OSB were performed by using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at various heating rates of 10, 20, 50, 80 and 120 K/min. The evolving characteristic of gaseous products produced from the thermal cracking process was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) connected with TG. The kinetic parameters of the thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB at each of heating rate were determined by the Coats-Redfern model. The result show that the temperature intervals of DE volatilization stage and main reaction stage, the ((dw/dt) max and Tmax in thermal cracking process of Xinjiang OSB all increased with the increasing heating rate. While the heating rate has not obvious effect on the coke yield of Xinjiang OSB. Furthermore, the maximum absorbance of gaseous products and corresponding temperature became larger as the heating rate increases. The activation energy of this two stage both presented increasing trend with the rising heating rate, while the increasing content of that of DE volatilization stage was weaker compared to that of main reaction stage.

  4. Canada's oil sands: nuclear power in an integrated energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the role of nuclear power in Canada's oil sands industry. It outlines the oil sands resource in Alberta and the various industrial projects to recover the oil from the tar sands. It points to continuing innovation in technology since the 1930's. The hydrogen required for upgrading bitumen is made from natural gas. Finally, it discusses the next wave of oil sands production technologies.

  5. Application of oxy-fuel CO2 capture for In-situ bitumen extraction from Canada's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Mark; Goold, Scott; Laux, Stefan; Sharma, Apoorva; Aasen, Knut; Neu, Ben

    2010-09-15

    The CO2 Capture Project, along with Praxair, Devon Canada, Cenovus Energy and Statoil are executing a project to demonstrate oxy-fuel combustion as a practical and economic method for CO2 capture from once-through steam generators used in the in-situ production of bitumen in the Canadian Oil Sands. The goal of the project is to develop a reliable, lower cost solution for capturing CO2 that will eliminate up to 90% of the GHG emissions from in-situ operations. The participants will present results of Phase I of this project, and will also outline the future Phases to pilot this technology.

  6. A bitumen compound for pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanadzava, K.; Simagata, R.

    1982-08-17

    A bitumen compound is proposed which is produced through addition of finely ground coal ash to a bituminous material and subsequent homogenization of the mixture. The following may be used as the bituminous material: solid petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 10 to 150), soft petroleum bitumen (a penetration of 150 to 500), a semioxidized bitumen, a mixture of semioxidized and directly distilled bitumen, bitumen diluted by a petroleum distillate, bituminous mixtures which include rubber, tar, synthetic resins and so on. It is best to use wastes from central thermal electric power plants (TETs), which operate on coal, with a great content of oxides of aluminum, iron and calcium, as the coal ash. The ash is added to the bitumen in a volume of 10 to 40 percent. The compound may include a surfactant (PAV), dispersers, additives which increase the stability to layering and others. The compound is marked by increased resistance to softening in the summer, reduced brittleness at low temperatures and good adhesion to a filler.

  7. Modelling and design of undercarriage components of large-scale earthmoving equipment in tar sand operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J.; Frimpong, S.; Sobieski, R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Centre for Advanced Energy and Minerals Research

    2004-07-01

    This presentation described the fundamental and applied research work which has been carried out at the University of Alberta's Centre for Advanced Energy and Minerals Research to improve the undercarriage elements of large scale earthmoving equipment used in oil sands mining operations. A new method has been developed to predict the optimum curvature and blade geometry of earth moving equipment such as bulldozers and motor graders. A mathematical relationship has been found to approximate the optimum blade shape for reducing cutting resistance and fill resistance. The equation is a function of blade geometry and soil properties. It is the first model that can mathematically optimize the shape of a blade on earth moving equipment. A significant saving in undercarriage components can be achieved from reducing the amount of cutting and filling resistance for this type of equipment working on different soils. A Sprocket Carrier Roller for a Tracked Vehicle was also invented to replace the conventional cylindrical carrier roller. The new sprocket type carrier roller offers greater support for the drive track and other components of the undercarriage assembly. A unique retaining pin assembly has also been designed to detach connecting disposable wear parts from earthmoving equipment. The retaining pin assembly is easy to assemble and disassemble and includes reusable parts. 13 figs.

  8. Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification (UCG) in Western Canada with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olateju, Babatunde; Kumar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a techno-economic model for UCG-CCS and SMR-CCS. • Estimation of H 2 production costs with and without CCS for UCG and SMR. • UCG is more economical for H 2 production with CCS. • SMR is more cost efficient for H 2 production without CCS. • Cost competiveness is highly sensitive to the IRR differential between UCG and SMR. - Abstract: This paper examines the techno-economic viability of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification (UCG) in Western Canada, for the servicing of the oil sands bitumen upgrading industry. Hydrogen production for bitumen upgrading is predominantly achieved via steam methane reforming (SMR); which involves significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with considerable feedstock (natural gas) cost volatility. UCG is a formidable candidate for cost-competitive environmentally sustainable hydrogen production; given its negligible feedstock cost, the enormity of deep coal reserves in Western Canada and the favourable CO 2 sequestration characteristics of potential UCG sites in the Western Canadian sedimentary basin (WCSB). Techno-economic models were developed for UCG and SMR with and without CCS, to estimate the cost of hydrogen production including delivery to a bitumen upgrader. In this paper, at base case conditions, a 5% internal rate of return (IRR) differential between UCG and SMR was considered so as to account for the increased investment risk associated with UCG. The cost of UCG hydrogen production without CCS is estimated to be $1.78/kg of H 2 . With CCS, this increases to range of $2.11–$2.70/kg of H 2 , depending on the distance of the site for CO 2 sequestration from the UCG plant. The SMR hydrogen production cost without CCS is estimated to be $1.73/kg of H 2 . In similar fashion to UCG, this rises to a range of $2.14 to $2.41/kg of H 2 with the consideration of CCS. Lastly, for hydrogen production without CCS, UCG has a superior cost competitiveness in comparison to SMR

  9. Oil and gas processing products to obtain polymers modified bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Pyshyev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To obtain modified bitumen with excellent adhesive properties, coumarone-indene resin (CIR was used. However, bitumens modified by CIR have somewhat worse plastic properties. For the improvement of the plastic properties of road bitumen modified by coumarone-indene resin, the paper proposes to use plasticizers. Characterized by a high content of rings (aromatic-naphthenic oils, a range of compounds was used as plasticizers. Of all different plasticizers tested, the tar produced from West-Ukrainian oils has been found to be the most effective one. The optimal ratio between modified bitumen components was determined enabling to obtain the commercial product of polymers modified bitumen of BMP 60/90-52 brand. The complex thermogravimetry and differential-thermal analysis has been used to analyze the initial and modified bitumen. Bitumens modified by CIR have shown by far the highest thermal stability under operation conditions. Keywords: Bitumen, Modifier, Coumarone-indene resin, Plasticizer

  10. Hydrogenate bitumen, says Canmet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruden, B B; Denis, J M

    1977-06-01

    The refining of Canada's heavy oils and in particular oil sand bitumens is complicated by the presence of mineral matter (clay and salt), chemically bound nickel, vanadium, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen. Upgrading is necessary before conventional refining because of the high pitch content of the bitumens. The Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET), of the Department of Energy. Mines and Resources, has developed a thermal hydrocracking process which concentrates all of the metals and mineral matter in a small pitch fraction and produces a high yield of low viscosity distillate for subsequent catalytic hydrorefining. Scientists at CANMET also have been working on the development of catalysts for an alternative direct catalytic hydrocracking process. Hydrocracking processes, when compared to the coking processes now employed or envisaged by industry for the next 5 yr, have several advantages which are listed.

  11. The big bitumen breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing transformation of the oilsands and heavy oil sector from a poor cousin a few years ago into the cornerstone of the Alberta oil industry, was discussed. Much of this change is due to the development of SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology for the underground recovery of heavy oil and tarry bitumens, aided by partly government-funded research, and boosted by a revised provincial royalty regime. The thermal recovery process makes use of a pair of horizontal injection and recovery wells, drilled one above the other. The efficiency of this new technology could produce a shift in the petroleum industry's spending towards oil sands and heavy oil if investors conclude that it is more profitable to produce heavy oil than conventional light oil. Some of the oil sands producers that are poised to invest billions of dollars in various underground bitumen projects in Alberta over the next five years include Suncor, Syncrude, Alberta Energy Co., Amoco Canada, Elan Energy, Imperial Oil Resources, CS Resources, Koch Oil, and Gulf Resources. The ultimate goal is recovery costs of $6 per barrel, which is comparable to the costs of the conventional oil sector. The added advantage of oil sands production is, of course, the virtual elimination of the exploration risk. 3 figs

  12. Selective extraction of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshov, M.; Starshov, I.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed in the field of natural bitumen extraction is aimed at maximum separation of organic phase. On treating bituminous rocks with solvents, the associated metals are extracted together with the organic phase and may further exert a negative effect on refining of natural bitumen. the authors propose a simplified two stage technique for the extraction of bitumen which enables to utilize V and Ni contained in the concentrate of the second stage extraction (Table). At the first stage, negative bitumen is extracted with the summary content of metals not exceeding 0.005%. This allows to avoid de metallization of native bitumen and subject it to treatment by catalytic cracking. during this stage gasoline and kerosene fractions, different oil distillates and condensates can be used as solvents. at the second stage, aromatic and halo id compounds bearing wastes and by-products, i.e. cheap and non deficient reagents, serve as solvents. The technology was tested under laboratory conditions using Tatar bituminous sands. It is also possible to use one solvent only, however, on condition that at first the oil product with the summary metal content below 0.005%, and then the remaining product is extracted. The proposed technology has proved so universal that it can be applied to refining any type of raw material to be found in the territory of the Tatar republic, using surface extraction complexes. (author). 9 refs., tab

  13. Providing floating capabilities in latest-generation sand screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, E.G.; Coronado, M.P. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Alternative production methods are needed for the massive reserves located in the bitumen region of Canada's tar sands. The area has over 100 installations of sand screens/slotted liners in both injection and production legs using steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technology. Multiple wells must be drilled from a single pad because of the sensitive nature of the environment. With significant depths of these wells, a floating sand screen provides assurance that the sand screen will reach the desired depth. Paraffin is generally used to plug the flow access of the screen during installation. This paper discussed a new technology that has been developed to allow for sand screen installations without relying on paraffin wax to withstand differential pressure. The new technology uses a hydro-mechanical valving system incorporated into the screen design to temporarily close off the screen while being run in the hole. The paper described how the technology could provide a reliable, time-saving solution for SAGD installations when floating sand control screens are needed. The paper discussed current technology and its limitations, sand screen installation, screen design for floating applications, and additional applications. It was concluded that this technology solution provides a unique alternative to the methods currently used to install sand screens with SAGD technology in the fast growing Canadian market for bitumen recovery. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Natural zeolite bitumen cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznicki, S.M.; McCaffrey, W.C.; Bian, J.; Wangen, E.; Koenig, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate how low cost heavy oil upgrading in the field could reduce the need for diluents while lowering the cost for pipelining. Low cost field upgrading could also contribute to lowering contaminant levels. The performance of visbreaking processes could be improved by using disposable cracking agents. In turn, the economics of field upgrading of in-situ derived bitumen would be improved. However, in order to be viable, such agents would have to be far less expensive than current commercial cracking catalysts. A platy natural zeolite was selected for modification and testing due to its unique chemical and morphological properties. A catalyst-bearing oil sand was then heat-treated for 1 hour at 400 degrees C in a sealed microreactor. Under these mild cracking conditions, the catalyst-bearing oil sand produced extractable products of much lower viscosity. The products also contained considerably more gas oil and middle distillates than raw oil sand processed under the same conditions as thermal cracking alone. According to model cracking studies using hexadecane, these modified mineral zeolites may be more active cracking agents than undiluted premium commercial FCC catalyst. These materials hold promise for partial upgrading schemes to reduce solvent requirements in the field. tabs., figs.

  15. The need for a marketing strategy for Alberta bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, government and industry have invested heavily in research and development of new technology for extracting bitumen from the Alberta oil sands. The results have been a dramatic increase in the fraction of oil sands deposits that could be economically exploited and a drop in production costs. However, no rapid increase in bitumen recovery has been achieved and most new bitumen production projects have been postponed or cancelled. This is the result of very variable prices for bitumen and the inadequacy of a marketing strategy which relies on the sale of raw bitumen. Options such as transport of bitumen to southern markets are limited by the need to reduce bitumen viscosity for pipelining and by the limited market for emulsified or diluted bitumen. Another possible strategy, conversion of the bitumen to synthetic crude oil, is limited by high costs, product characteristics (too much diesel and not enough gasoline), and a market limited to specialized refineries. A third strategy is to convert and refine bitumen to transportation fuels in Alberta, using inexpensive local natural gas, and transporting the products through existing pipeline facilities. 3 figs

  16. The need for a marketing strategy for Alberta bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, D.A. (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1993-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, government and industry have invested heavily in research and development of new technology for extracting bitumen from the Alberta oil sands. The results have been a dramatic increase in the fraction of oil sands deposits that could be economically exploited and a drop in production costs. However, no rapid increase in bitumen recovery has been achieved and most new bitumen production projects have been postponed or cancelled. This is the result of very variable prices for bitumen and the inadequacy of a marketing strategy which relies on the sale of raw bitumen. Options such as transport of bitumen to southern markets are limited by the need to reduce bitumen viscosity for pipelining and by the limited market for emulsified or diluted bitumen. Another possible strategy, conversion of the bitumen to synthetic crude oil, is limited by high costs, product characteristics (too much diesel and not enough gasoline), and a market limited to specialized refineries. A third strategy is to convert and refine bitumen to transportation fuels in Alberta, using inexpensive local natural gas, and transporting the products through existing pipeline facilities. 3 figs.

  17. Bitumen pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, G.; Noll, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the past bitumen was a preferred matrix for the embedding of low and intermediate level radioactive waste: its geological history promised long term stability in final repositories. A great variety of waste has been embedded: technological waste, spent ion exchange resins, concrete, rubble, etc. Liquid waste like evaporator concentrates can be dried and embedded simultaneously in extruders, allowing simple processes and equipment. Unfortunately, during long term intermediate storage the bituminized waste drums proved out being not as stable as expected: a significant number turned out to be no longer acceptable for final disposal, and some of them even needed repacking to enable further intermediate storage. A method to rework such drums with bituminized radioactive waste seems to be urgently needed. Pyrolysis and pyro-hydrolysis (= pyrolysis with water steam added) have a long history for the treatment of organic waste: spent solvent (TBP), spent ion exchange resins, alpha waste (predominantly PVC), etc. Due to its low process temperature and the endothermic character, such processes offer significant safety advantages, as compared to incineration or dissolving in organic solvents. Results of lab-scale investigations and concepts for facilities are presented. (authors)

  18. Decision 99-8 : Shell Canada Limited application to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader in the Fort Saskatchewan area : Shell Canada Products Limited application to amend refinery approval in the Fort Saskatchewan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader on Shell's property adjoining the existing Scotford refinery in the County of Strathcona. The upgrader would process bitumen from Shell's proposed Muskeg River Mine, located 70 km north of Fort McMurray, and other feedstocks available in the area. The Board also considered an application for an amendment to the existing Scotford refinery approval, Industrial Development Permit 89-10, for the processing of 3.75 million cubic metres per year of sour conversion feedstock. Under a coordinated application process, Shell filed a joint Shell Scotford Upgrader application/Environmental Impact Assessment. Issues considered with respect to these applications were: technology selection, air/health, sulphur recovery, noise/traffic, and land use conflict. Shell stated that its Scotford refinery is the most energy efficient refinery in the Americas and that is has the highest liquid yield per unit volume of crude oil feedstock of any refinery in the world. The refinery's hydrocracking capacity would make it possible to use hydro-conversion technology for its upgrader which is environmentally advantageous. After examining all of the evidence pertaining to the applications, the Board found the projects to be in the public interest and is prepared to approve the Scotford Upgrader and Scotford Refinery modifications assuming that certain prescribed conditions are met

  19. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  20. Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on Polygalacturonase Production by Trichoderma viride (BITRS-1001 Isolated from Tar Sand in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunmolu, F. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the various carbon and nitrogen substrates on the growth and polygalacturonase activity of Trichoderma viride (BITRS-1001 isolated from the tar sand deposit in Gbelejuloda-Irele Ondo State, Nigeria were investigated in submerged cultivation at 30 °C ± 2 °C. The commercial carbon and nitrogen substrates included sucrose, fructose, starch, maltose, lactose and peptone, sodium nitrate, urea and casein respectively. All the carbon substrates used supported the growth of T. viride (0.566 to 0.156 g/50 mL of culture medium with starch supporting the highest biomass yield and sucrose the least biomass yield. Maximum polygalacturonase activity of 3033 U/mL was recorded in maltose medium. Maximum biomass yield on the nitrogen sources was observed in the organic nitrogen namely peptone and casein with values not significantly different from each other at p ≤ 0.05. In the determination of the crude enzyme activity on the nitrogen sources, maximum polygalacturonase activity of 12,400 U/mL was recorded in peptone medium. Hence, a careful manipulation of these nutrient substrates could help to optimise the production of this enzyme on a large scale.

  1. Upgrading of bitumen using supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayukawa, T. [JGC Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation outlined the technical and economic aspects of thermal cracking by supercritical water. Supercritical water (SCW) is a commonly used method for upgrading heavy oil to produce pipeline-transportable oil from high-viscous bitumen. The process uses water and does not require hydrogen nor catalysts. Pre-heated bitumen and water enter a vertical reactor with flows of counter current at the supercritical point of water. The upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) and pitch are obtained from the top of the reactor when the bitumen is thermally cracked. Bench-scale studies have shown that Canadian oil sands bitumen can be converted to 80 volume per cent of SCO and 20 volume per cent of pitch. The SCO has satisfied Canadian pipeline specifications in terms of API gravity and kinetic viscosity. The kinetic viscosity of the pitch has also satisfied boiler fuel specifications. tabs., figs.

  2. Bitumen nanocomposites with improved performance

    KAUST Repository

    Kosma, Vasiliki

    2017-11-29

    Bitumen-clay nanocomposite binders with styrene-butadienestyrene triblock copolymer, SBS, and combinations of SBS and crumb rubber (CR) with different CR/SBS ratios have been synthesized and characterized. In addition to the binder, samples containing the binder and concrete sand (with a weight ratio 1:9) were prepared. The modified binders were studied in terms of filler dispersion, storage stability, mechanical performance and water susceptibility. We demonstrate that the samples containing nanoclays consistently outperform those based only on the polymer additives. We also find that nanocomposite samples based on a combination of SBS and CR are best, since in addition to other improvements they show excellent storage stability. Our work shows that substituting CR with SBS as a bitumen additive and combining it with inexpensive nanoclays leads to new materials with enhanced performance and improved stability for practical asphalt applications.

  3. Effect of illite clay and divalent cations on bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, X. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Repka, C. [Baker Petrolite Corp., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-12-15

    Nearly 35 per cent of Canada's petroleum needs can be met from the Athabasca oil sands, particularly as conventional sources of petroleum decline. The interactions between bitumen and clay minerals play a key role in the recovery process of bitumen because they affect bitumen aeration. The 2 clays minerals found in various oil sands extraction process streams are kaolinite and illite. In this study, doping flotation tests using deionized water and electrokinetic studies were performed to examine the effect of illite clays on bitumen recovery. The effect of magnesium ions was also examined and compared with calcium ions. This paper also discussed the effects of temperature and tailings water chemistry. The negative effect of illite clay on bitumen recovery was found to be associated with its acidity. Denver flotation cell measurements indicated that the addition of calcium or magnesium ions to the flotation deionized water had only a slight effect on bitumen recovery, but the co-addition of illite clay and divalent cations resulted in a dramatic reduction in bitumen recovery. The effect was more significant at lower process temperature and low pH values. Zeta potential distributions of illite suspensions and bitumen emulsions were measured individually and as a mixture to determine the effect of divalent cations on the interaction between bitumen and illite clay. The presence of 1 mM calcium or magnesium ions in deionized water had a pronounced effect on the interactions between bitumen and illite clay. Slime coating of illite onto bitumen was not observed in zeta potential distribution measurements performed in alkaline tailings water. When tests were conducted using plant recycle water, the combination of illite clay and divalent cations did not have an adverse effect on bitumen recovery. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 15 figs.

  4. Estimation of bitumen and clay content in fine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta Cabrera, S.C.; Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fine tailings are the components of tailings ponds and the by-product of the oil sand extraction process, consisting mostly of water with small amounts of bitumen, sand, silts and clays. Because of the large volumes of tailings, an important environmental and production process issue involves the reduction of the remaining bitumen in the tailings stream. This paper presented the results of a study that used low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to estimate the bitumen, clay and water content of synthetic tailings samples. NMR is a non-destructive technique that is utilized to determine compositions of oil and brine emulsions and the viscosity of heavy oil and bitumen as well as in reservoir characterization, measuring properties such as permeability, porosity, mobile and immobile fluids, and fluid saturations. The study prepared and tested numerous samples with variable water, bitumen, sand and clay concentrations in the NMR tool under ambient conditions. Two qualities of water and bitumen were used to prepare the synthetic samples. Each type of water and bitumen was analyzed as a single substance and in a mixture with the typical solids found in tailings composition. These included kaolinite, illite, sodium montmorillonite and sand. These synthetic samples were analyzed using different mixing configurations, as a function of time and in two different NMR tools. It was concluded that NMR is a potential application for on-line determination of tailings streams composition. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

  5. The tar sands of the USA : with permits now in hand, a Calgary company is a cash injection away from producing oil from America's first oilsands mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2010-06-15

    A Canadian company has recently received approval to develop large oil sands mining operations in Utah. Earth Energy Resources is now raising the finances required to commercialize its operations in the state. Utah's oil sands reserves are currently estimated at between 20 to 32 billion barrels. However, the impacts of oil sands operations are of concern to some environmental groups, who worry that Utah will become a duplicate of Alberta's Athabasca region. The planned project is a 2000 barrel-per-day pilot project. Regulators in Utah have received negative responses from the public after advertising the potential project in local newspapers, and demonstrations have been held in the state's capital. Oil sands are already being developed at 2 installations in Utah, with the bitumen currently being sold as asphalt products. The state is also home to significant oil shale reserves. Operators in the region plan to design compact, well-contained mines in order to maintain transportability. 3 figs.

  6. EUB Decision 2006-112 : Suncor Energy Inc. application for expansion of an oil sands mine (North Steepbank mine extension) and a bitumen upgrading facility (Voyageur Upgrader) in the Fort McMurray area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Suncor Energy Inc. filed 2 applications to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for their proposed North Steepbank Mine Extension and Voyageur Upgrading Facility in the Fort McMurray area. This document provided an outline to the board of the location of the proposed projects, along with technical details concerning sulphur recovery, coke gasification, and by-product storage and use. The applications shared a common environmental impact assessment report, which presented details of tailings management programs; environmental effects to air, terrestrial resources, surface water, and groundwater; potential health effects to human populations; and traditional land use and ecological knowledge of the lands in the areas of the proposed upgrades. The social and economic effects of the projects were considered by the board, as well as the efforts of Suncor to engage with public consultation processes. It was noted that the projects are expected to provide $7.1 billion in federal taxes paid over the life of the project, in addition to $3.6 billion in provincial taxes and a further $23 million in municipal taxes. Details of several interventions filed by various First Nations groups were presented. It was noted that the Oil Sands Environmental Coalition (OSEC) has filed interventions stating concerns over consultation practices; cumulative effects; environmental monitoring; water usage; reclamation policies; and socio-economic issues. Various other groups have expressed concerns over the impacts of rapid development in the region and the subsequent strains on public infrastructure, housing and community resources. While the project is expected to provide employment, the current labour shortage in the region means that further development will be a disadvantage rather than a benefit to the communities in the region. Although a number of conditions were placed on Suncor before full acceptance of the project could be given, the board concluded that the Voyageur project was

  7. Naphtha interaction with bitumen and clays : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afara, M.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a preliminary study conducted to characterize naphtha interactions with bitumen and clays. Coarse tailings, fluid-fine tailings, and froth treatment tailings are produced as a result of surface mine oil sands operations. Solvents are used to produce the bitumens, but the actual fraction of the solvent that evaporates and contributes to VOCs from tailing ponds is poorly understood. This study examined the interactions between the solvent, bitumen and mineral components in froth treatment tails. The study was conducted with aim of quantifying the VOC or solvent escaping from the froth treatment tailings. Samples containing bitumen, clay, a bitumen-clay mixture, or MFT were spiked with 3000 ppm of solvent. The amount of naphtha released was monitored by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and flame ionization detection of the evolved gases. The results were expressed as a percentage of the total hydrocarbon peak area of the sample versus a control. Results of the study showed that the naphtha interacted more strongly with the bitumen than with kaolinite and the clay minerals from the oil sands. Although initial solvent evaporation was reduced in the presence of bitumens and clays, long-term solvent releases will need to be quantified. tabs., figs.

  8. Receiving demulsifying agent from the acid tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitina, A.A.; Belyaeva, A.S.; Kunakova, R.V. [FGBIHE ' Ufa State Academy of Economics and Services' , Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E.M. [FGBIHE ' Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ.' , Ufa (Russian Federation); Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    The processing of wastes of petrochemical production makes it possible to reduce the price of produced commodity of petroleum products substantially. Bitumen, fuel oils, tars and other mixture of heavy organic compounds are widely used in road construction, in paint and cable industries, manufacture of roofing materials, are used as boiler and furnace fuel, fuel for marine diesel engines, raw material for the production of modifying additives, fillers, surfaceactive substances, etc. (orig.)

  9. Summary of research and information needs for the management of selected onshore energy minerals: oil shale, tar sands, arctic oil and gas, and uranium. Final report 1982-83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    The report assesses research needs for the management, regulation, reclamation, and conservation of oil shale, tar sands, arctic oil and gas, and uranium deposits currently under federal jurisdiction and concludes that additional research is required to achieve the goals of good management, including conservation, protection of life and property, and minimization of environmental degradation. The report recommends (1) establishment of a standing advisory scientific and engineering committee on onshore minerals management research to influence future research directions and implementation; (2) development of a comprehensive library and data center for research results; and (3) encouragement of the operation of demonstration-scale production facilities where they are lacking. More detailed summaries of current knowledge and perceived research needs are to be found in the four interim reports of the committee.

  10. Bitumen to refined products and petrochemicals : a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purvin and Gertz is an energy consulting firm that provides advise to the energy sector. A review of western Canadian crude oil supply suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), bitumen and diluent. It is expected that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. This presentation reviewed the potential of Alberta's oil sands and presented a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. In particular, the author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. tabs., figs

  11. Centennial review-forecast--oil sands, shales spar for markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamenter, C B

    1967-09-01

    The relationship between possible developments of tar sands and oil shale deposits to the future of the oil and gas industry is examined. The Athabasca tar sands are estimated to contain 85 billion bbl of synthetic crude oil which can be exploited using currently available mining equipment and proven techniques. Another 240 billion bbl of synthetic crude are potentially available through in-situ extraction methods. Great Canadian Oil Sands Ltd. is using an extraction procedure which involves a surface mining operation, extraction and processing of the bitumen, and product shipments via a 266-mile pipeline. This procedure will be used to produce 45,000 bpd of synthetic crude and 300 ton per day of sulfur. Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Shell Canada Ltd. both have applied to the Alberta government for permission to operate 100,000-bpd operations. Syncrudes is a mining operation and Shell plans to use in-situ extraction. A number of companies have conducted research projects concerning shale oil recovery. The majority of these projects have been aimed at improving mining operations. In-situ retorting of kerogen and extraction of oil has also received consideration.

  12. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhning, R.W.; Anand, A.; Blackmore, T.; Lawson, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  13. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  14. Retorting of bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, P E; Ince, R W; Mason, C M

    1872-09-26

    This method of recovering oil from mined tar sands involves forming compacted tar sands pieces by special conditioning treatment that provides low internal permeability. The compacted pieces are then retorted in fixed bed form. The conditioning treatment can involve rolling of preformed pellets, compaction in a mold or pressure extrusion. Substantial collapsing of the bed during retorting is avoided. (9 claims) (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  15. Sedimentological and Scanning Electron Miscroscopic Descriptions of Afowo Oil Sand Deposits, South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinmosin A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and scanning electron microscopic analyses of some shallow reservoir tar sand samples in parts of Southwestern Nigeria were carried out with the aim of characterizing the reservoir properties in relation to bitumen saturation and recovery efficiency. The production of impregnated tar from the sands requires the reservoir to be of good quality. A total of thirty samples were collected at different localities within the tar sand belt (ten out of these samples were selected for various reservoir quality analyses based on their textural homogeneity. The result of particle size distribution study showed that bulk of the sands is medium – coarse grained and moderately sorted. The grain morphologies are of low to high sphericity with shapes generally sub-angular to sub-rounded, implying that the sands have undergone a fairly long transportation history with depositional energy having a moderate to high velocity. The quartz content was made up of about 96% of the total mineralogical components; the sediments of the Afowo Formation can be described to be mineralogically and texturally stable. The result of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis revealed that the oil sands contained minerals which had been precipitated and occurred as pore filling cement; these minerals include sheet kaolinite, block kaolinite, vermiform kaolinite, pyrite crystals and quartz. The SEM images also showed micro-pores ranging from 0.057µm to 0.446µm and fractures. The study showed that the clay minerals contained in the Afowo reservoir rocks were mainly kaolinite. Kaoline unlike some other clays (e.g Montimorillonite does not swell with water, hence it is not expected to have any negative effects on the reservoir quality, especially during enhanced oil recovery operations.

  16. Hydrotreating of heavy gas oil derived from Athabasca bitumen using NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst containing boron and phosphorus : effects of process conditions on the product selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, D.; Dalai, A.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the depletion of conventional oil reserves, there has been much interest in modifying the hydrotreating process for upgrading tar sands and shale oils for producing transportation fuels. Oil sand bitumens and their derived products have a high level of nitrogen which deactivates the catalysts used in fluid catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. A better catalyst is needed to efficiently remove nitrogen from oil sand-derived gas oils. In this study, a trickle-bed reactor containing NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with boron and phosphorous was used to remove the sulfur and nitrogen from heavy gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen. The operating conditions of the reactor in terms of temperature and pressure were described. Sulfur and nitrogen conversion was found to increase substantially with the boron catalysts. Gasoline selectivity also increased with an increase in temperature. However, a change in operating conditions did not significantly affect the net content of the gas oil fraction. This study also compared the results of using either the boron or phosphorous catalyst.

  17. Out on the tar sands mainline : mapping Enbridge's web of pipelines : a corporate profile of pipeline company Enbridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, R.; Davis, T.R. [Polaris Institute, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This document described Enbridge's operations, economic situation, political connections, and its social and environmental track record. It explored the social cost of operating refineries and pipelines in First Nations communities and the environment. It also raised concerns regarding future plans to open up Asian markets to oil sand crude via the Gateway pipeline. This profile included specific details on recurring pipeline leaks that have caused environmental damage; the ongoing expropriation of First Nations land; widespread political lobbying and influence in Canada and the United States; and interference in local community decision-making through financial contributions and projects. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Harji, A.

    2002-01-01

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  19. Irradiation tests on bitumen and bitumen coated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabardel-Brian, R.; Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.

    1969-01-01

    The use of bitumen as a material for coating high-activity products calls for prior study of the resistance of bitumen to irradiation. After giving briefly the methods of preparation of bitumen- coated products, this report lists the equipment which has been used for carrying out the β and γ irradiations of these products, and gives the analytical results obtained as a function of the dose rates chosen and of the total integrated dose. Finally, some conclusions have been drawn concerning the best types of bitumen. It should be stressed that some bitumens apparently underwent no degradation whatsoever nor any volume increase, for a total integrated dose of 1.8 x 10 10 rads. (authors) [fr

  20. Understanding the relationship : bitumen production and the Athabasca River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daughney, S. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed oil sands activities in relation to water use and the Athabasca River. Surface mining uses truck and shovel methods to extract shallow oil sands deposits comprised of bitumen, connate water, coarse sands, and clays. The process involves the use of significant amounts of fresh water. The bitumens are slurried at turbulent conditions in a hydrotransport line which directs the bitumens towards a froth treatment process and diverts coarse sand and fine tailings. The tailings are stored in ponds or used to construct dykes. Water trapped with tailings materials cannot be recycled, and must be replaced from fresh sources. Various consolidate and non-consolidated tailings strategies are being developed to address mature fine tailings (MFT) accumulations. Generic water balance analyses are conducted in order to determine the distribution of site water inputs and losses as well as to determine river water use intensity. A water management framework and tailings performance criteria has been developed for the lower Athabasca River. The framework has been designed to determine cautionary thresholds for the river. River water withdrawals are cumulative for all industries. Intakes may be restricted by 2012. Water from storage must be used to supplement available flow from the river. It was concluded that strategies must also be developed to meet tailings disposal requirements. tabs., figs.

  1. Processing options for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harji, A.N.; Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Meysami, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that 178 billion barrels of oil can be recovered from Alberta's vast heavy oil reserves. The challenge lies in the logistics of recovering, upgrading and transporting the oil to market. The Canadian Energy Research Institute conducted a recent study to determine market potential by 2007 for diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil produced from upgraded bitumen. The viability for a wide range of bitumen feedstocks was assessed along with the sensitivity of refinery demand to their prices. The 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen include PADD 2 in the United States, western Canada, and Ontario. Bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline and cannot be processed by most of the existing refineries. Therefore, in order to develop a mass market for the product, bitumen must undergo the energy intensive upgrading process at existing refineries. The factors impacting which method of upgrading is most suitable were discussed with particular attention to the impact that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may have on Alberta's bitumen resource in terms of costs of complying with greenhouse gas reduction initiatives. The authors emphasized that it is crucial to customize an upgrading project to meet site and market specific factors. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Bitumen based modified substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostolanyi, P.

    1987-01-01

    The necessary amounts of tetrahydrosilicic acid and methyl phenyl silicon oil are added to molten bitumen heated to temperatures of 50 to 200 degC. The mixture is thoroughly mixed and let to cool. The structure of the product comes close to gel and its properties (penetration, softening point, workability time, penetration index) may be changed in dependence on the amount of additions and on the time and temperature of heating. The advantage of the thus prepared modified material is its shorter workability time, its ability to bind materials with a certain water content, and its relatively low price. It may be used for fixing and storing low-and medium-level radioactive organic and thickened waste waters. (E.S.)

  3. Extra heavy crudes and bitumens in the new EST technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, R.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic and market reasons dictate for the diversification of the supply sources. The huge reserves of extra heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen will provide the answer in this direction, but it is mandatory the availability of a suitable technology to process these poor quality feedstocks. EST Technology, developed by Snamprogetti and EniTecnologie, allows to get full conversion to produce high quality distillates [it

  4. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  5. Distilling tar; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brash, P; Young, W

    1866-09-17

    The tarry residue, which separates on treating crude shale oil with sulfuric acid, is redistilled, in the manner described in Specification No. 1278, A.D. 1866, together with shale. Previous to the distillation, the acid is neutralized with lime, or may be separated by blowing steam into the tar and adding salt. The purified tar thus obtained is absorbed by ashes, or is mixed with lime or other alkaline matter, or the shale may be mixed with lime and distilled with the tar, which is allowed to flow over and through the shale during the process. The tar obtained in the purification of natural paraffin may be similarly utilized.

  6. Electro-thermal dynamic stripping process : integrating environmentalism with bitumen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.W.; McDonald, C.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[E-T Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Little, L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presented a new method of in situ oil sands extraction developed by Calgary-based E-T Energy. The Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process (ET-DSP) uses electricity to melt oil sands deposits that are too deep for open pit mining. The energy intensity of production compares favourably with alternative thermal bitumen extraction techniques and water consumption for the process is comparatively low, with all produced water being re-injected into the producing formation without any treatment. With ET-DSP, electrodes are drilled and completed next to the oil sands formation which ensures that the electrical currents are forced to flow to the oil sands formation. The viscosity of the bitumen is lowered by the heat from the current, thereby making the fluid flow more readily into vertical extraction wells. ET-DSP uses electricity directly from the power grid, and does not produce any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of its own. The process has the potential to allow operators to focus on areas of oil sands reservoirs that have remained inaccessible. Field studies confirmed that the production of bitumen using this method was achieved with reduced greenhouse gas emissions as compared to other thermal recovery process. The bitumen had trace amount of sand and no emulsions. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Treatment of lignite tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-08-07

    A process is described for treating tars such as lignite tar, shale tar, or peat tar, and similar tars, characterized by the fact that the tar is rectified to about 240/sup 0/C and the residue brought to a temperature above 50/sup 0/C after diluting with a product of the type of gasoline or ligroin at about 30/sup 0/C and treated with selective solvents preferably low-boiling phenols and eventually with water.

  8. Indian coal tars. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, A N; Bhatnagar, J N; Roy, A K

    1954-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out on these efforts: (1) rank and specific-gravity fractions on tar yield; (2) addition of water to the coal charge, or steam during carbonization, on yield of tar and tar acids; (3) the presence of a cracking agent (shale) with and without steam addition on the yield of tar and tar acids (the particular shale used without steam reduced the yield, and the restricted use of steam brought the yield to the former noncatalyzed level); and (4) catalytic effect of three different samples of shale, firebrick, quartz, coke, and silica-alumina on the cracking of tar acids (the most active were two of the shales, a freshly-prepared coke, and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ catalysts that gave conversion up to 98%). The products were mainly carbon, aromatic hydrocarbons of the naphthalene series and gases (CO and H/sub 2/). The yield of the tar becomes less as coal of lower specific gravity is used or when higher temperatures are used for carbonization. The mineral matter associated with Indian coals acts as a decomposition catalyst for tar acids, as shown by experiments on the decomposition of PhOH at temperatures above 800/sup 0/.

  9. Process of treating tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, C; Hempel, H; Weissenburger, H

    1955-05-05

    A process is described for treating tars or tar oils, especially carbonization tars, characterized in that the tars or tar oils are mixed with benzene or light oils which contain no aromatic material or only slight amounts, or with gas oil in such amounts that the asphalt precipitates, and after separation of the precipitated material the mixture is treated with caustic solution for separation of the phenols, and after separation of the phenolate liquor the mixture is subjected to heating for removal of the dilution medium, then the remaining oil can be used as heating oil or it is submitted to distillation for the purpose of recovering a fuel suitable for diesel motors, while the phenolate liquor is worked up into phenols.

  10. Routine Testing of Bitumen Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holý, Michal; Remišová, Eva

    2017-12-01

    The quality of bituminous binders used in the construction and maintenance of road surfaces is currently assessed by empirical testing based on obtaining one value for specific boundary conditions, which were designed about 100 years ago. Basic empirical tests include the softening point and penetration, but the practice shows that these tests appear to be inadequate. The evaluation of changes of bitumen properties during the production and paving process of bituminous mixture is also important. The paper points out how the "traditional" tests as softening point and penetration and viscosity are sufficient to evaluate properties of bitumen binders.

  11. Production of petroleum bitumen by oxidation of heavy oil residue with sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileuberdi, Ye.; Akkazyn, Ye. A.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Mansurov, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper production of bitumen adding elemental sulfur at oxidation of oil residue are investigated. The objects of research were distilled residue of Karazhanbas crude oil and elemental sulfur. These oil residue characterized by a low output of easy fractions and the high content of tar-asphaltene substances, therefore is the most comprehensible feedstock for producing bitumen. The sulfur is one of the oil product collected in oil extraction regions. Oxidation process of hydrocarbons carried out at temperatures from 180 up to 210 °С without addition of sulfur and with the addition of sulfur (5-10 wt. %) for 4 hours. At 200 °С oxidation of hydrocarbons with 5, 7 and 10 wt.% sulfur within 3-4 h allows receiving paving bitumen on the mark BND 200/300, BND 130/200, BN 90/130 and BN 70/30. Physical and mechanical characteristics of oxidation products with the addition of 5-7 wt. % sulfur corresponds to grade of paving bitumen BND 40/60. At the given temperature oxidized for 2.5-3 h, addition of 10 wt. % sulfur gave the products of oxidation describing on parameters of construction grades of bitumen (BN 90/10).

  12. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Wan Mohamad Ikhwan bin Wan; Okawa, Hirokazu; Kato, Takahiro; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2017-07-01

    Bitumen contains a high percentage of sulfur (about 4.6 wt %). A hydrodesulfurization method is used to remove sulfur from bitumen. The drawback of this method is the requirement for a high temperature of >300 °C. Most of the sulfur in bitumen exists as thiophene. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS), involving oxidizing sulfur using H2O2, then removing it using NaOH, allows the removal of sulfur in thiophene at low temperatures. We removed sulfur from bitumen using ODS treatment under ultrasound irradiation, and 52% of sulfur was successfully removed. Additionally, the physical action of ultrasound assisted the desulfurization of bitumen, even at low H2O2 concentrations.

  13. Process for refining shale bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauson, H

    1920-09-19

    A process is disclosed for refining shale bitumen for use as heavy mineral oil, characterized by mixtures of blown hard shale pitch and heavy mineral oil being blown with hot air at temperatures of 120 to 150/sup 0/ with 1 to 3 percent sulfur, and if necessary with 0.5 to 3 percent of an aldehyde.

  14. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  15. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  16. Bitumen performance and chemistry in solvent refined bitumen blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Glynn; Holleran, Irina; Wilson, Douglas J.

    2017-09-01

    In years gone past most oil companies in Australia and New Zealand (NZ) developed experts that bridged the divide between refining and paving. This was supported by laboratories in Australia and sometimes Asia. This is no longer the case and many refineries have ceased bitumen production or closed. With the market moving towards imports and control to supply companies disconnects on bitumen passing a national specification and performance on the road. This reduces both durability and increases costs. This has been addressed by development in NZ of a performance specification for hot mix asphalt binders (including modified) and work being done on sealing grades. This paper discusses the development of the HMA specification with respect to crude sources and the development of methodologies to assess imported binders for suitability in all applications including emulsion. The conclusion is that bitumen quality may be maintained by use of these methodologies that include, chromatographic analysis, measurement of thermodynamic internal stability (Heithaus), aging, and Dynamic Shear Rheometry testing and mix performance testing in the laboratory. This forms a regime capable of use in any context and this leads to better durability of surfaces and extended service life.

  17. Decreasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission from bitumen using alternative bitumen production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoulzadeh, Y.; Mortazavi, S.B.; Yousefi, A.A.; Khavanin, A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1988, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that bitumen fumes should also be considered a potential occupational carcinogen and management practices such as engineering controls should be implemented. Changing the production process of bitumen, as a source control method, was investigated in our study. For the first time, a novel alternative process was used to produce paving grade bitumen with decreased PAH emissions as well as improved bitumen performance grade (PG). Post-consumer latex and natural bitumen (NB) were used as additives to obtain 60/70 modified bitumen directly from the vacuum bottom (VB) without any need for air-blowing. The emissions were produced by a laboratory fume generation rig and were sampled and analyzed by GC-Mass and GC-FID as described in NIOSH method 5515. The PG of the resulting modified 60/70 bitumen in this study covers a wider range of climatic conditions and has higher total resistance against deformation than conventional 60/70 bitumen. The total PAH emissions from modified 60/70 bitumen (100.2619 ng/g) were decreased approximately to 50% of PAHs emitted from conventional 60/70 bitumen (197.696 ng/g). Therefore, it is possible to obtain modified bitumen with lower PAH emissions and better quality than conventional bitumen via additives and without air-blowing.

  18. Burning test on a storage drum filled with a mixture of sodiumnitrate and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotik, K.; Leichter, P.; Spalek, K.

    1979-01-01

    A burning test on a common storage drum filled with a mixture of sodiumnitrate and bitumen was carried out to show the incinerability of said mixture. A 50 l mild steel drum was filled with 80,7 kg sodiumnitrate/bitumen-mixture. The drum was packed in a 200 l mild steel drum, the remaining space was filled with enough sand to cover the top of the inner drum with 15 cm of sand. The sand packing was then soaked with 70 l of light distillate fuel and ignited. The fuel burned until self-extinguishing occurred. 30 % (22,2 l) of the fuel was burned. 0,7 % of the energy potential was absorbed in the sand layer. The highest measured temperature was 34 0 C at the top of the test drum. It can be concluded, that even under severe external actions the ignition temperature of 400 0 C for bitumen/waste mixtures cannot be reached, providing correct technical storage conditions, which means that the void space in the cavities is filled with unburnable absorbing material like sand or salt. (author)

  19. Occupational coal tar dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde-Salazar, L; Guimaraens, D; Romero, L V; Gonzalez, M A

    1987-04-01

    The paper describes the allergic reaction to coal tar of a man handling it in a factory. The reaction appeared in the form of eczema on his trunk, arms and legs, but his hands were not affected as he had been wearing gloves. 1 ref.

  20. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  1. Proceedings of the 5. NCUT upgrading and refining conference 2009 : bitumen, synthetic crude oil and heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production. It provided a forum to review new developments to exploit oil sands bitumen and extra heavy crudes in terms of production, upgrading and environmental issues facing the industry. This 2009 conference focused on the many existing and emerging technical solutions that will help consolidate the position of the vast reserves in Western Canada as a sustainable source of crudes for North America and other selected markets. Some of the technical challenges that have an effect on upgrading include poor quality bitumen and heavy oils; bitumen and diluent blending; pipeline issues; desalting; fouling and corrosion; high costs; dependence on natural gas for energy; poor middle distillates; and greenhouse gas emissions. The sessions of the conference were entitled: heavy oil and bitumen upgrading technologies; secondary upgrading and refining technologies; bitumen transportation; and bitumen and heavy oil processability. The conference featured a total of 50 presentations and posters, of which 43 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  2. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  3. Rheological testing of crumb rubber modified bitumen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available used to analyse crumb rubber modified (CRM) bitumen is that the specified gap setting in the configuration of the DSR between the upper and lower test platens is too small to accommodate crumb rubber particles. DSR testing of CRM bitumen therefore...

  4. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  5. Estimation of diffusion coefficients in bitumen solvent mixtures as derived from low field NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.; Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    Use of solvents for the extraction of heavy oil and bitumen appears to be an increasingly feasible technology. Both vapour extraction and direct solvent injection are considered for conventional exploration and production schemes, while solvent dilution of bitumen is a standard technique in oil sands mining. Mass transfer between solvent and bitumen is a poorly understood process. In some cases, it is totally ignored compared to viscous force effects. In other cases, phenomenological estimations of diffusion and dispersion coefficients are used. Low field NMR has been used successfully in determining both solvent content and viscosity reduction in heavy oil and bitumen mixtures with various solvents. As a solvent comes into contact with a heavy oil or bitumen sample, the mobility of hydrogen bearing molecules of both solvent and oil changes. These changes are detectable through changes in the NMR relaxation characteristics of both solvent and oil. Relaxation changes can then be correlated to mass flux and concentration changes. Based on Fick's Second Law, a diffusion coefficient, which is independent of concentration, was calculated against three oils and six solvents. (author)

  6. Evaluation of lignite tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossedin, A

    1946-01-01

    Tar from the low-temperature (450/sup 0/) carbonization of lignite from Bouches-du-Rhone was hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst based on MoS/sub 2/ with a 3:1 H:N mixture. Processing (at 470/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) for maximum production of gasoline yielded 86 wt % of a product of boiling 55 to 186/sup 0/ and motor octane number 75. An alternative is to hydrogenate with a view to producing solvents and lubricants. For this purpose the tar was separated by distillation (at 20 millimeters, cutting at 220/sup 0/) into two fractions of equal volume. On hydrogenation (at 300/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) the light part yields a gasoline H/sub 2/O-soluble cut, a highly aromatic solvent fraction, a heavier cut (280/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/) suitable as a plasticizer, and a phenol fraction. The heavier part of the tar is hydrogenated (at 380/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) to give spindle oil and lubricating oil of medium eta (11.2 centistokes at 98.2/sup 0/), moderate eta index (64), good pour point (-7/sup 0/), and good oxidizing characteristics. The overall yield of products from the two portions is 86.9% (gasoline and solvent 32, light phenols 9.7, spindle oil 14.2, medium lubricating oil 25.7, wax, 5.3%).

  7. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  8. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  9. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  10. NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng; Hirasaki, George J

    2008-06-01

    Heavy oil (bitumen) is characterized by its high viscosity and density, which is a major obstacle to both well logging and recovery. Due to the lost information of T2 relaxation time shorter than echo spacing (TE) and interference of water signal, estimation of heavy oil properties from NMR T2 measurements is usually problematic. In this work, a new method has been developed to overcome the echo spacing restriction of NMR spectrometer during the application to heavy oil (bitumen). A FID measurement supplemented the start of CPMG. Constrained by its initial magnetization (M0) estimated from the FID and assuming log normal distribution for bitumen, the corrected T2 relaxation time of bitumen sample can be obtained from the interpretation of CPMG data. This new method successfully overcomes the TE restriction of the NMR spectrometer and is nearly independent on the TE applied in the measurement. This method was applied to the measurement at elevated temperatures (8-90 degrees C). Due to the significant signal-loss within the dead time of FID, the directly extrapolated M0 of bitumen at relatively lower temperatures (viscosity, the extrapolated M0 of bitumen at over 60 degrees C can be reasonably assumed to be the real value. In this manner, based on the extrapolation at higher temperatures (> or = 60 degrees C), the M0 value of bitumen at lower temperatures (index (HI), fluid content and viscosity were evaluated by using corrected T2.

  11. Oil sands: Strategies for future development - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources developed a Task Force in 1993 to promote oil sands development, and to identify and publicize the social and economic benefits of oil sands operations. Formation, mission of the National Task Force, impediments and opportunities for development were summarized. Attributes of oil sands, benefits of their development, impediments to development, strategic development and potential growth scenarios were discussed. Cooperation between government and industry was deemed essential. Recommendations included development of a bitumen pipeline network, provision of incentives to encourage development, encouragement of risk and reward sharing between bitumen producers and up graders, and diversification of products and by-products. 7 figs., 12 refs

  12. Investigation of the Bitumen Modification Process Regime Parameters Influence on Polymer-Bitumen Bonding Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, P. S.; Mishchenko, S. V.; Belyaev, V. P.; Belousov, O. A.; Frolov, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    The objects of this study are petroleum road bitumen and polymeric bituminous binder for road surfaces obtained by polymer materials. The subject of the study is monitoring the polymer-bitumen binder quality changes as a result of varying the bitumen modification process. The purpose of the work is to identify the patterns of the modification process and build a mathematical model that provides the ability to calculate and select technological equipment. It is shown that the polymer-bitumen binder production with specified quality parameters can be ensured in apparatuses with agitators in turbulent mode without the colloidal mills use. Bitumen mix and modifying additives limiting indicators which can be used as restrictions in the form of mathematical model inequalities are defined. A mathematical model for the polymer-bitumen binder preparation has been developed and its adequacy has been confirmed.

  13. Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Athabasca--special report No. 2, sand behavior key to operation size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, W J

    1966-09-01

    Before production of the crude oil from the Athabasca tar sands could be initiated, a feasibility and economic study based on field test work was made. It was concluded that the project was technically feasible and a plant could be constructed for approximately $137 million, but that the engineering design must be preceded by a field test program, laboratory work, and by ground surveys. A test program, using the hot water recovery process and sized to handle 3 tons of sand per hour, was begun in Oct. 1963. As the test program proceeded, the unit was frequently renovated as capacity was increased from 3 tons to finally 10 tons per hour. Included in the tests was the determination of the effect that raw bitumen pools (indicated by the government coring program) would have on production operations. It was determined that no problems would arise from this situation because no such pools could be found and were considered not to be in existence. The test model was successful in clearly illustrating the principles to use in the overall layout, which is approximately 50% complete.

  15. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study. PMID:24526899

  16. Study on tar generated from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Kueh, Soo Chuan; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3) in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC) unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.

  17. Study on Tar Generated from Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Mekbib Atnaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging issues concerning the gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF is the presence of tar and particulates formed during the process considering its high volatile matter content. In this study, a tar sampling train custom built based on standard tar sampling protocols was used to quantify the gravimetric concentration of tar (g/Nm3 in syngas produced from downdraft gasification of OPF. The amount of char, ash, and solid tar produced from the gasification process was measured in order to account for the mass and carbon conversion efficiency. Elemental analysis of the char and solid tar samples was done using ultimate analysis machine, while the relative concentration of the different compounds in the liquid tar was determined making use of a liquid gas chromatography (GC unit. Average tar concentration of 4.928 g/Nm3 and 1.923 g/Nm3 was obtained for raw gas and cleaned gas samples, respectively. Tar concentration in the raw gas sample was found to be higher compared to results for other biomass materials, which could be attributed to the higher volatile matter percentage of OPF. Average cleaning efficiency of 61% which is comparable to that of sand bed filter and venturi scrubber cleaning systems reported in the literature was obtained for the cleaning system proposed in the current study.

  18. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, R.W.; Grajczak, P.; Wilcoxson, J.C.; Webster, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR trademark), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment

  19. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    flint implements, dated from Mousterian times. This discovery, from the Umm El Tlel excavations near El Kown in Syria, was reported in 1996 in Boëda et al. At that time, the origin of the bitumen had not been elucidated due to contamination problems. Last year, a ball of natural oil-stained sands, unearthed from the same archaeological layer, allowed us to determine the source of the bitumen used. This source is regional and located in the Jebel Bichri, nearly 40 km from the archaeological site. The last case history was selected to illustrate another aspect of the investigations carried out. Recent geochemical studies on more than 20 balms from Egyptian mummies from the Intermediate, Ptolemaic and Roman periods have revealed that these balms are composed of various mixtures of bitumen, conifer resins, grease and beeswax. Bitumen occurs with the other ingredients and the balms studied show a great variety of molecular compositions. Bitumen from the Dead Sea area is the most common source but some other sources (Hit in Iraq?) are also revealed by different molecular patterns. The absolute amount of bitumen in balms varies from almost zero to 30% per weight.

  20. Molecular weight distribution of Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, P J; Manolakis, E; Ternan, M

    1985-03-01

    A sample of whole Athabasca bitumen has been fractionated by preparative g.p.c. The weights of the fractions have been determined and their molecular weights measured by several methods. In contras to previously published data, consistent results were obtained using different solvents (THF, benzene/water) and using different techniques (v.p.o., f.p.d. and g.c.-m.s.). This has resulted in a accurate definition of the molecular weight distribution of Athabasca bitumen.

  1. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  2. Determination of phenol in tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierichs, A; Heinichen, G

    1955-01-01

    During low-temperature carbonization of lignite, the phenols and other oxygenated compounds appear both in the aqueous-process liquor and in the tar. Measurements of these oxygenated components resulting from low-temperature carbonization may serve as a parameter for the classification of lignites. However, such measurements are complicated by the instability of the tar and the complex nature of some of the acidic substances. Difficulties with the previous methods of analysis are reviewed. The present method outlines separation of aqueous-process liquor from lignite tar in a Fischer retort, followed by determination of phenols and fatty acids in the tar phase. The jacketed tar receiver is washed with 300 milliliter xylol and treated with aqueous caustic washes. Neutral oils are separated from the aqueous alkali solution. It is then extracted with ether and finally acidified with HCl. Solids are filtered off, and phenols and fatty acids are separated by Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution.

  3. In-situ water vaporization improves bitumen production during electrothermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); McGee, B. [E-T Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Electro-thermal processes are now being considered as an alternative or complementary process to steam injection processes. This study used an in situ vaporized water process to optimize electrothermal processes for steam injection enhanced oil recovery (EOR). A simulation tool was used to model electro-thermal processes in an Athabasca oil sands reservoir. Incremental oil recovery was estimated based on a 3-block conceptual model. A field scale model was then used to investigate the effects of electrode spacing, water injection rates, and electrical heating rates on bitumen recovery. Results of the simulation studies were then analyzed using a statistical tool in order to determine optimal conditions for maximizing bitumen production. Results of the study showed that incremental recovery using the water vaporization technique resulted in oil recovery rates of 25 per cent original oil in place (OOIP). Sensitivity analyses showed that medium electrical heating rates, low water injection rates, and small spacings between electrodes maximized bitumen production rates. It was concluded that the technique can be used alone or combined with other methods to economically produce bitumens. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.; Lauerman, V.; Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  5. Upgrading of hydropyrolysis coal tar by hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, R.; Otterstedt, J.E.; Sterte, J. (Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). 1. Dept. of Engineering Chemistry)

    1991-05-01

    Upgrading of a hydropyrolysis coal tar by hydroprocessing was investigated using different process conditions. The response of the hydropyrolysis tar to hydroprocessing was compared to those of a conventional coal tar and two heavy oil fractions. At comparable conditions, the removal of heteroatoms from the hydropyrolysis tar was more effective than from the conventional tar and, in particular, than from the oil fractions. Using conditions typical for hydroprocessing of heavy oil fractions, the contents of N, O as well as S in the hydropyrolysis tar were reduced by more than 90%. Hydroprocessing also resulted in a considerable increase in the gasoline fraction of the tar. (orig.).

  6. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, T.

    1994-01-01

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km 2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  7. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds in Agbabu natural bitumen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infrared spectral changes and gravimetric analysis from the preliminary biodegradability study carried out on Agbabu Natural Bitumen showed the vulnerability of the bitumen to some bacteria: Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas nigrificans, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas fragi and Achromobacter aerogenes.

  8. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of some Bitumens from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural bitumen resources and potentials for sustained production of bitumen in large quantity, but basic ... Ondo State, and a manufactured type from Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical ..... Policies and Practices in Pavement Design and.

  9. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  10. Process of transforming tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-04-11

    A process is described for treating tars obtained by carbonization, at high or low temperature, of coals, lignites, shales, and other carbonaceous materials or fractions of these tars, for obtaining products of greater value, consisting of polymerizing or saturating the unstable hydrocarbons in the presence of catalyzers by the progressing action particularly of halogenated metals, such as titanium tetrachloride, iron chloride, etc. and applying a known process of recovery, the disclosed process leading to an important reduction of final losses.

  11. EM-SAGD/EM-GD : electromagnetic heating method : sustainable improvement of in-situ bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, B.; Diehl, D.; Huber, N.; Torlak, M.; Koolman, M. [Siemens AG, Munich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described an electro-magnetic heating technology for the in situ recovery of bitumen. Studies have indicated that the technology promises a higher yield of bitumen with a smaller surface footprint than other bitumen production technologies. A laboratory study conducted with an inductor loop embedded in a 1 meter{sup 3} sand-box demonstrated that the technology is technically feasible. A series of field tests were then conducted by Siemens in a conductive subsurface later in Deggendorf, Germany. The field test included remotely operated surface equipment that was tested under down-scaled field conditions over a period of 6 months. New fiber optic sensors were used to obtain underground temperature readings. The field tests demonstrated a rise in temperature caused by the induction of eddy currents through electromagnetic fields in the conductive sub-surface. Results of the study will be used at an oil sands reservoir in 2011. The process can be combined with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Common ground : bitumen and gas producers come together to find gas-over-bitumen solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2005-08-01

    The gas-over-bitumen issue has meant that hundreds of natural gas wells remain closed while regulatory hearings and research activities continue. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board should soon reach a final decision on the status of gas wells considered to be a threat to thermal extraction of underlying oil sands. This article discussed collaborative efforts by oil and gas companies to resolve these issues, including the use of fluid injection technology, low pressure Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and artificial lift. The objective of the Gas Reinjection and Production Experiment (GRIPE) is to reinject gas to displace natural gas being produced. The pilot project, conducted by Paramount Resources Ltd., consists of 2 injector wells, 4 producers and 12 observation wells that measure gas pressure in the reservoir. The project also includes a 2 stage compressor modified to handle flue gas. According to reservoir simulations, Paramount should be able to recover between 50 to 60 per cent of the remaining gas in place. Results from the pilot suggest that the technique could result in more than half the currently shut-in pools being re-opened. It was suggested that gas-by-gas displacement may result in higher recovery rates because there is usually more remaining gas in place. It was noted that EnCana Corporation has also been repressurizing a depleted natural gas pool by injecting compressed air rather than flue gas. Various other projects were reviewed, including the use of electric submersible pumps, low pressure SAGD and new SAGD well pair configurations. It was concluded that the artificial lift and low pressure SAGD technical sub-committee have now filed 10 applications for funding under the Alberta Energy Department's Innovative Energy Technology Program.

  13. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  14. An Embryonic Field of Study: The Aquatic Fate and Toxicity of Diluted Bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, Ftoon; Hodson, Peter V; Langlois, Valerie S

    2018-01-01

    Canada has experienced a significant increase in the transport of diluted bitumen (dilbit), a predominant oil sands product that combines bitumen with diluents derived from oil-gas condensates and other proprietary compounds. The proportion of diluent and the chemical composition of dilbit vary to meet seasonal transport requirements. While the toxic effects of a variety of crude and refined oils are well-studied, the toxicity of dilbit to aquatic species is less well known. This focused review summarizes dilbit production, chemistry, and the few data on toxicity to aquatic species. These data suggest that un-weathered dilbit would cause effects on fish equivalent to those of conventional oils, but its toxicity may be lower, depending on interactions among test conditions, the behavior of dilbit added to water and the species tested.

  15. Experimental study of simultaneous Athabasca bitumen recovery and upgrading using ultradispersed catalysts injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, R.; Pereira, P. [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As the demand for oil is continuously increasing, the need for unconventional resources is rising. Oil extraction from bitumen and heavy oil reservoirs requires advanced techniques in order to decrease the viscosity of the oil. To increase the recovered original oil in place (OOIP) of a reservoir and decrease refining costs, new techniques to upgrade oil in situ are being developed. The current study investigates the use of ultra-dispersed (UD) submicronic catalysts to decrease oil viscosity. The experiment involved the injection of the catalyst and hydrogen gas in a sand pack saturated with Athabasca bitumen. Analysis was carried out by building recovery curves, and by comparing the oil recovery from the catalyzed process with that of catalyst-free processes. The study demonstrated that the oil recovered from the new technique had higher API gravity and lower viscosity, indicating the success of the in situ upgrading process.

  16. Riding out the perfect storm : new technology offers cost-effective solution for bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2007-03-15

    An innovative technology designed to partially upgrade heavy oil and bitumen bottoms was presented. The technology was to produce a lighter oil available for transport by pipeline without the use of a diluent or hydrogen. The process also allows coke byproducts to be burnt as fuel to generate steam. Ivanhoe's HTL process uses a continuous, short contact time thermal conversion process that takes place at moderate temperatures and at atmospheric pressures. A circulating transported bed of sand in the system is used to heat the feedstock of heavy oil or bitumen vacuum tower bottoms. Carbon is rejected in the HTL reactor as the long hydrocarbon chains are cracked and coke is deposited on the sand during thermal conversion. The cracked product is then vaporized. The coke-covered sand, vacuum tower bottoms (VTBs), transport gas, and feed that survive the first pass in the reactor are separated in a high temperature cyclone system. Fluids are quenched and vapors are condensed with light oil to maximize liquid yield and minimize undesirable secondary thermal cracking reactions. The resulting liquid is then sent to the product tank for blending, or is recovered in a product distillation tower for further separation. A percentage of the non-condensable gas is recycled to the reactor system for use as transport gas for the circulating sand. Sorbent is added to the heavy oil feed to the distillation tower section to reduce the total acid number (TAN) of the feed as well as to capture sulphur released in the reactor section. Ivanhoe plans to use the technology to process Athabasca bitumen at its California demonstration plant, which is now processing 1000 bbls a day of California heavy feedstock oil. It was concluded that the technology can be used in heavy oil reservoirs anywhere in the world. 2 figs.

  17. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  18. A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, M.J.; Depree, C.V. [National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments Total PAH ({Sigma}{sub 28}PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ('binder'), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200 000 mg kg{sup -1}(10 000 mg kg{sup -1} in binder + aggregate) Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower Sigma(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene + chrysene), benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene + benzo(e)pyrene)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments ({gt} 15 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments.

  19. Tar bases in low-temperature coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, S; Ueno, H; Yokoyama, H

    1951-01-01

    Tar bases were extracted from three fractions, that boil below 260/sup 0/ at 260/sup 0/ to 280/sup 0/, and 280/sup 0/ to 330/sup 0/, respectively, of the low-temperature tar obtained by the carbonization of Ube coal in a Koppers' vertical retort at approximately 750/sup 0/. These were divided, respectively, into three groups, acetate-forming amine, HCl salt-forming bases (I), and CHCl/sub 3/-soluble bases (II), and further fractionally distilled. From the physical and chemical properties of the fractions thus obtained, it was concluded that low-temperature coal tar contained no low boiling pyridine homologues and that, besides higher homologues of pyridine, nonaromatic, more saturated, and less basic compounds of larger atomic weight and smaller refractive index, such as derivatives of pyrrole and indole, also existed as in crude petroleum.

  20. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-01-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly

  1. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Scheidhauer, J.; Malabre, M.

    1961-01-01

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author) [fr

  2. Process of recovering bitumen from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H D

    1918-03-26

    A step in the recovery of bitumen from solids which consists in digesting the solids with heavy oil under the action of heat and agitation at a temperature insufficiently high to effect substantial distillation of heavy fractions, but high enough to liquefy heavy hydrocarbons contained in the solids, and then separating solid residual matter, substantially as described.

  3. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauerman, V.

    2001-01-01

    The best types of refineries for processing western Canadian bitumen-based feedstock (BBF) were identified and a potential market for these feedstock for year 2007 was calculated. In addition, this power point presentation provided an estimation of potential regional and total demand for BBF. BBF included Athabasca bitumen blend, de-asphalted blend, coked sour crude oil (SCO), coked sweet SCO, hydrocracked SCO and hydrocracked/aromatic saturated SCO (HAS). Refinery prototypes included light and mixed prototypes for primary cracking units, light and heavy prototypes for primary coking units, as well as no coking, coking severe and residuum prototypes for primary hydrocracking units. The presentation included graphs depicting the natural market for Western Canadian crudes as well as U.S. crude oil production forecasts by PADD districts. It was forecasted that the market for bitumen-based feedstock in 2007 will be tight and that the potential demand for bitumen-based blends would be similar to expected production. It was also forecasted that the potential demand for SCO is not as promising relative to the expected production, unless price discounting or HAS will be available. 11 figs

  4. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosi, J.B.; Irvine, G.; Skierszkan, E.K.; Doyle, J.R.; Kimpe, L.E.; Janvier, J.; Blais, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ∼1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies. -- Highlights: •In-situ bitumen extraction linked to rise in alkyl PAHs in one of two study lakes. •Alkyl PAHs elevated in two soil samples. •PAH contamination likely related to effluent sources, not atmospheric deposition. -- PAHs in sediments and soils were generally low in areas adjacent to in-situ bitumen extraction rigs in the Cold Lake Alberta oil sands, but evidence of localized contamination at some sites was evident

  5. Clean energy and hydrogen for oil sands development with CANDU SCWR nuclear reactors and Cu-Cl cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.L.; Naterer, G.F.; Gabriel, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the unique capabilities and advantages of SCWR technology for cleaner oil sands development are discussed from two perspectives: lower temperature steam generation by supercritical water for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), and hydrogen production for oil sands upgrading by coupling SCWR with the thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. The heat requirements for bitumen extraction from the oil sands and the hydrogen requirements for bitumen upgrading are evaluated. A conceptual layout of SCWR coupled with oil sands development is presented. The reduction of CO 2 emissions due to the use of SCWR and thermo chemical hydrogen production cycle is also analyzed. (author)

  6. The Alberta oil sands story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This report serves as a detailed introduction to the Alberta oil sands and their development. It includes a description of the oil sands deposits, an outline of crude bitumen recovery and upgrading processes, the role of Alberta Energy Company in oil sands development, environmental aspects, manpower requirements for oil sands development, research needs, and further oil sands projects. Presently proven recoverable reserves in the oil sands amount to 26.5 billion bbl of synthetic crude. Production from the Syncrude plant (125,000 bbl/d capacity) is expected to begin in 1977, followed by a Shell Canada operation around 1980. The provincial government will participate in the oil sand industry through its joint venture participation in Syncrude and its 50% share in Alberta Energy Company; the latter company participates in related aspects of the Syncrude project, such as pipelines. The result of Alberta's participation in the industry will mean that, directly or indirectly, the province will realize 60% of the total profits. The job creation potential of oil sands projects is estimated to be extensive, with a direct and indirect work force supported by oil sands activities possibly reaching 180,000 persons by the year 2000. Research needs have been identified, particularly in the area of in-situ thermal recovery technology, and the creation of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority has been authorized in order to meet these needs. Although current reserves are sufficient to support 20-30 synthetic crude plants, a number of factors will limit expansion of the industry. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Riddle of the sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolheiser, P

    1998-09-01

    A geological model of the Alberta landscape during the period stretching from about 110 million to 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous period when dinosaurs roamed the earth, was sketched. Today, the region contains the Cold Lake oil sands deposit. Imperial Oil began large-scale production at Cold Lake in 1985. The formations within the area are the source of almost half of Imperial Oil`s daily crude oil production and account for one in every 20 barrels of oil produced daily in Canada. The bitumen is produced using cyclic steam stimulation where steam is injected at high pressure into the underground reservoir, fracturing the sandstone and heating the bitumen it holds to thin it so that it can then flow through well bores to the surface. Conventional geological theory suggested that the Cold Lake reservoir was the remains of a prehistoric river delta. In 1994, Imperial Oil established a Cold Lake sequence stratigraphy project to verify this theory. This highly complex project involves volumes of geophysical well-log data from the 2,500 wells at Cold Lake, core samples cut from more than 600 of these wells and microscopic fossilized remains of 100-million-year-old flora extracted from the core samples, and seismic information. The interpreted data helps to create a three-dimensional model of the reservoir`s structure and help define its boundaries. Results have shown that the Cold Lake deposit was created from at least 13 intersecting river beds. Each of the rivers flowed for a few hundred thousand years and deposited sands of varying quality in different layers and patterns. The oil came about 40 million years later after the plant and animal materials containing hydrogen and carbon were broken down by heat and pressure to form oil. 1 fig.

  8. A DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MEASURING TAR IN A TAR-ENVIRONMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present disclosure describes a device and corresponding method for measuring tar in a tar environment, e.g., a tar producing environment such as a stove or a combustion engine, based on UV absorption spectroscopy. A first measurement along an optical path in the tar environment is performed...

  9. Separating cresote from tars, mineral oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1921-01-07

    Phenolic bodies are extracted from tars such as lignite, shale, peat, coal, producer and low temperature tars, and from tar distillates and residues and from mineral oils and distillates by washing with a mixture of acetone and water. Acetone extracts of the tars etc., may be mixed with water or aqueous acetone to cause the separation of the oils, while the creosote remains in solution.

  10. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1933-02-07

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of pure phenols from brown coal tar, shale tar, or primary tar, characterized in that the raw oil obtained from the tar is carefully fractionated, in a suitable way without or with a slight pressure decrease, or before the fractionation the raw oil is heated to free the prepared phenolate solution from impurities after successful oxidation by passing in steam at a temperature between 100 and 120/sup 0/C.

  11. Shear strength properties of naturally occurring bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available because of the cohesive nature of bitumen contents. However, results from the direct shear tests were comparable to properties of oil sands reported earlier from various other laboratory tests. Based on the direct shear test results, Mohr-Coulomb failure...

  12. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, H.

    1980-10-01

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  13. Modified bitumen for embedding of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, C.

    1984-11-01

    This work describes new possibilities of using polymer modified bitumen as matrix material for embedding of low- and medium level radioactive wastes. Epoxy resins, polyurethane resins and styrene-butadiene-copolymers with 20-40 weight per cent are used as modifying agents. Penetration and softening point (ring and ball) of modified samples have been measured. Further the resistance to toluene and leaching rate in n-heptane have been determined. Within these polymer bitumen combinations investigated, the epoxy resins having a high epoxid equivalent weight with dicarbooxylic acid anhydrid hardeners and tertiary amin accelerators give the most dense network, highest thermodimensional stability and lowest leaching rate in organic solvents. 71 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  15. Managing hydrogen and molecules in bitumen upgrading : technology and research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    An innovative concept in oil sands mining, extraction and upgrading was presented with reference to selectively removing metals. The approach presently used to upgrade bitumen is to drive the properties of slurry mixtures closer to conventional crude oils. However, it is necessary to remove unwanted contaminants and to convert nearly all of the vacuum residues. The yield and value of the final product can be improved by maximizing the hydrogen content of the liquid products. The currently used and proposed upgrading methods are based on technologies developed between 1929 and 1954, including coking, hydrotreating, hydroconversion, and gasification. This study compared the main technologies for upgrading in terms of management of raw materials and hydrogen. The feasibility of improving recovery by using new approaches to separate bitumen was considered. It was concluded that the rejection of large fractions of bitumen as coke or asphaltenes is undesirable. New thermal process face design challenges such as distillation versus cracking coking and fouling. There is much potential for breakthrough in asphaltene precipitation technologies, based on paraffinic froth treatment concepts. tabs., figs.

  16. Laboratory Tests of Bitumen Samples Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, E. R.; Usmanov, S. A.; Khasanov, D. I.; Khamidullina, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the elastic and acoustic properties of bitumen core samples. The travel velocities of the ultrasonic P- and S-waves were determined under in-situ simulation conditions. The resulting data were then used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The authors studied the correlation between the elasticity and the permeability and porosity. In addition, the tests looked into how the acoustic properties had changed with temperature rise.

  17. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, I.

    2000-01-01

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The μ-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  18. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  19. Innovative Additive for Bitumen Based on Processed Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiak, Michał; Kosno, Jacek; Ratajczak, Maria; Zieliński, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Various additives, admixtures and modifiers are used to improve technical properties and strength characteristics of building materials. Manufacturers of waterproofing materials, concrete, ceramics and bitumen have to use innovative, increasingly complex and costly additives, admixtures or modifiers. As a result, simple and inexpensive substances have been replaced by complex, long chain polymers, multi component resins or plastics. For economic and ecological reasons waste materials are more frequently used as additives, admixtures and modifiers. Nowadays the most commonly used physical modifiers of bitumen belong to the group of polymers - large molecular organic compounds of natural origin or being the result of planned chemical synthesis. Polymers are substances that do not chemically react with bitumen, they act as fillers or create a spatial network within bitumen (the so called physical cross-linking). The development of organic chemistry has allowed the synthesis of a number of substances chemically modifying bitumen. The most promising are heterocyclic organic compounds belonging to the group of imidazolines. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to demonstrate the suitability of processed natural and post-refining fat waste (diamidoamine dehydrate) as bitumen modifier. This paper discusses the impact of adding technical imidazoline on selected bitumen characteristics. Samples of bitumen 160/220, which is most commonly used for the production of waterproofing products, were analysed. For base bitumen and bitumen modified with technical imidazoline the following measurements were taken: measurement of the softening point by Ball and Ring method, determination of the breaking point by Fraass method and needle penetration measurement at 25°C. Later the samples were aged using TFOT laboratory method and the basic characteristics were determined again. The results showed that a small amount of imidazoline improved bitumen thermoplastic parameters at

  20. Preliminary fingerprinting analysis of Alberta oil sands and related petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.D.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Yang, Z.Y.; Landriault, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a study that presented a preliminary quantitative chemical characterization of Alberta oil sands and many other related Alberta oils such as oil sand bitumen, Cold Lake bitumen, Albian heavy synthetic crude, and Alberta Mixed sweet blend. The rapid increase in production of the Alberta oil sands has resulted in unprecedented environmental concern. The mining, extraction and production of oil sands such resulted in huge consumption of water resources, huge emission of greenhouse gas and large number of tailings ponds. In addition, accidental spills in the transportation and usage of oil sands will potentially cause considerable impact on the environment. It is therefore essential to have the ability to characterize Alberta oil sands and their oil products. The specific chemical properties of the oil sands bitumen must be known. Therefore, this study collected quantitative data on the concentration and distribution profiles of target compounds in Alberta oil sands and its petroleum products. The chemical fingerprints of 5 Alberta oil sands and their related petroleum products were studied using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The characterized hydrocarbons were n-alkanes; target alkylated PAHs and other EPA priority PAHs; biomarker terpanes and steranes; and bicyclic sesquiterpanes. The information acquired during this study will provide the basis for oil-oil correlation and differentiation in future environmental applications relevant to oil sands. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches

  2. Canadian oil sands : supply and potential for market growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Canadian oil sands recoverable reserves rank second only to Saudi Arabia and present enormous potential, particularly through technological gains. This paper discussed the market potential for oil sands both globally and in North America. It was estimated that oil sands production would eventually surpass declining conventional production, increasing from 42 per cent of Western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. Recoverable reserves were an estimated 174 billion barrels, with cumulative production at 4 billion barrels between 1967 to 2003. Statistics of U.S. and Canadian markets for crude oil were presented to the year 2020. A flow chart of oil sands products and market outlets was presented, as well as details of existing and potential markets for Canadian crude oil. Oil sands product dispositions were outlined, with the prediction that Asia may emerge as an incremental market. World crude oil production statistics were presented by type. World residual supply and demand estimates were presented, including details of conversion capacity and requirements for residual processing capacity in refineries and field upgraders. American refinery feedstocks were presented by type, with the identification of an increase in heavy crude runs. It was noted that recent pricing provided a strong incentive to add refining conversion capacity to process heavy oil. An outline of a study completed for the Alberta government and industry was presented, in which upgrading to light synthetic crude was determined as a base case. The value added to process bitumen beyond upgrading was discussed in relation to the upgrading of American refineries to process bitumen blends and synthetic crude. Potential cases for upgrading bitumen were presented, along with a comparison of capital costs. An overall economic comparison of projects was provided. Various measures to maximize markets for oil sands products in Alberta were presented. It was suggested that U.S. markets should absorb more new

  3. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  4. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  5. Mineral oils, tars. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, A M; Handmarch, E

    1933-08-11

    Hydrocarbon materials such as mineral oils and tars from coal, shale, lignite, or peat are freed from phenols and like oxy-bodies by heating under pressure in a closed vessel to a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect reduction of the oxy-bodies, and then removing the water formed by the reaction. 350/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C. for 30 to 60 minutes is suitable. Any wax-like constituents are converted to liquids of lower viscosity and settling point. The product may be fractionated to give light oils and a residue of aviation Diesel fuel. In an example, oil from the low-temperature distillation of coal and having a tar acid content of 30 per cent is treated in a tubular converter at 380/sup 0/C. and 400 lb. per sq. in for 40 min., and the benzine toluol, and xylol distilled; the residue has a tar acid content of only 7.6 per cent.

  6. INTER-PHASE CONTACTS IN BITUMEN-MINERAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR STRENGTHENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. N. Kovalev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently bitumen-mineral materials (including asphalt-concrete comprise nearly 98 % for construction of expensive road pavement. Large resources of local minerals (quartz sand and industrial wastes in the form of used molding sand (foundry by-product are widely applied for reduction of their cost. Such approach is economically and ecologically reasonable but it requires its justification because an adhesion interaction in the bitumen-quartz substrate system (with SiO2 more than 95 % is rather poor in natural state and due to water action it is still more decreasing. In this connection an objective necessity arises to modify significantly technology of bitumen-mineral compositions for ensuring reliability of road pavements while using silicon components.All the ideas pertaining to strengthening of adhesion bonds in the “quartz mineral substrate - bitumen” system are traditionally of physical and chemical nature and they presuppose mainly usage of colloidal chemistry methods. The paper considers the matter on the basis of molecular kinetic theory of matter taking into account the fact that there is absence of generally accepted calculations for intermolecular interactions of components in the SiO2 - organic matrix material system.As a theoretical supposition the following well-known regulatory principle in physics is used: as every atom or molecular have its own electromagnetic field then action of external electromagnetic fields initiates their interaction that leads to excitement of electrons, deformations and rupture of chemical bonds. Literature analysis shows that the existing electric bonds between components of the SiO2 - organic matrix material system provide the possibility to apply various electro-physical methods having an effect on these components with the purpose to strengthen their adhesion interaction.The paper investigates matters for determination of bond energy during physical adsorption and adhesion in the SiO2 - organic

  7. Changes of Properties of Bitumen Binders by Additives Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remišová, Eva; Holý, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Requirements for properties of bituminous binders are determined in the European standards. The physico-chemical behaviour of bitumen depends on its colloidal structure (asphaltenes dispersed into an oily matrix constituted by saturates, aromatics and resins) that depends primarily on its crude source and processing. Bitumen properties are evaluated by group composition, elementary analysis, but more often conventional or functional tests. Bitumen for road uses is assessed according to the physical characteristics. For the purpose of improving the qualitative properties of bitumen and asphalts the additives are applied e.g. to increase elasticity, improving the heat stability, improving adhesion to aggregate, to decrease viscosity, increasing the resistance to aging, to prevent binder drainage from the aggregate surface, etc. The objective of presented paper is to assess and compare effect of additives on properties of bitumen binders. In paper, the results of bitumen properties, penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity of two paving grade bitumen 35/50, 50/70 and polymer modified bitumen PmB 45/80-75 are analyzed and also the changes of these properties by the application of selected additives (Sasobit, Licomont BS100, Wetfix BE and CWM) to improve adhesion to aggregate and improve workability. Measurements of properties have been performed according to the relevant European standards. The laboratory tests showed significantly increasing the softening point of paving grade bitumen 50/70 and 35/50 by 13 to 45°C. The effect of various additives on bitumen softening point is different. Penetration varies according to type of bitumen and type of used additive. The penetration values of modified bitumen PmB 45/80-75 with additives Sasobit and Licomont BS100 show increase of bitumen stiffness of 16 0.1mm and a shift in the gradation. The changes in penetration and in softening point significantly shown when calculating on Penetration index as a parameter of

  8. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of some Bitumens from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the results vis-a-vis available information on bitumens elsewhere indicate that any clear surface or underground natural bitumen obtainable in the region of Agbabu village in Ondo State, and a manufactured type from Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) in the country are comparable with ...

  9. Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sediment of Agbabu Bitumen deposit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    environmental impact assessment of bitumen exploitation on animal resources of Ode – Irele. (Lameed and Ogunsusi, 2002), compositional analysis of the oil component of the Nigerian bitumen (Oderinde and Olanipekun, 1991),. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and water from the vicinity of Agbabu ...

  10. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  11. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  12. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Thom, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB), designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance. [es

  13. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitumen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Many samples of bitumen mixed with ion exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared to study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms. The resins used in tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/aniocic bead resins. Different bitumen types were assayed: two distilled and two oxidized bitumens. Leached fractions were collected accordingly to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli beckers were used to improve counting efficiency in a Ge(Li) detector. The diffusion coefficients for samples prepared with distilled and oxidized bitumens were obtained. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry was employed to fit experimental data aiming to explain leaching mechanism and predict the long time behavior of immobilized radionuclides. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  15. Analysis of tars produced in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Y.; Kinoshita, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Parametric tests on tar formation, varying temperature, equivalence ratio, and residence time, are performed on a bench-scale, indirectly-heated fluidized bed gasifier. Prepared tar samples are analyzed in a gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector, using a capillary column. Standards containing dominant tar species have been prepared for GC calibration. The identified peaks include single-ring hydrocarbons, such as benzene, to five-ring hydrocarbons, such as perylene; depending on the gasification conditions, the identified species represent about 70 to 90% (mass basis) of the tar constituents. Under all conditions tested, benzene and naphthalene were the most dominant species. Temperature and equivalence ratio have significant effect on tar yield and tar composition. Tar yield decreases with increasing temperature or equivalence ratio. The test results suggest that lower temperature favors the formation of more aromatic tar species with diversified substituent groups, while higher temperature favors the formation of fewer aromatic tar species without substituent groups. Higher temperature or equivalence ratio favors the formation of polyaromatic compounds. Oxygen-containing compounds exist in significant quantities only at temperature below 800{degrees}C and decrease with increasing temperature, equivalence ratio, or residence time.

  16. Natural analogues of bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.-H.

    1989-07-01

    Occurrences of natural bitumen provide possibilities to identify and assess materials, processes, phenomena and conditions in nature which can serve as model cases valid also with respect to a final repository. Natural bitumens meet the basic requirements for use as natural analogues. In natural sites, processes of bitumen formation and degradation often work simultaneously. The major processes are thermal alteration, evaporation, reaction with water, biodegradation, oxidation, weathering and radiation degradation. Progress in analytical organic geochemistry made during recent years has enabled a deeper understanding of the structural and compositional effects of these processes on bitumen. This is necessary in natural analogue applications. The time scales involved in degradation processes, as observed in natural occurrences, exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of most important fission products in low and medium level waste by orders of magnitude. Only exposure to the weather at the surface leads to a more rapid destruction of bitumen. Trace metals in bitumen arenot released until the matrix is completely destroyed. Products of radiation degradation and weathering of bitumen are able, to a certain degree, to delay migration of the metal ions released. Impregnation with bitumen may effectively reduce the microbial decomposition of easily destructable organic waste components, as can be deduced on the basis of the excellent preservation of fossils observed in bitumen. The complexity of all the natural sites described requires extensive understanding of the origin and kind of organic material in bitumen, its maturation, migration, alteration and degradation and of the geological and tectonic evolution of the site. The latter is used for establishing the time scale

  17. Market opportunities and challenges for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    The use of Alberta bitumen as a clean fuel depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The challenges facing the oils sands processing industry include: crude oil prices which affect the producer's market; market expansion options; diluent availability/cost; supply cost competitiveness; and, regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. It was noted that Alberta must retain or increase its share of the Midwest market. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. New pipeline capacity is needed to reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. 13 figs

  18. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  19. Application des fluides supercritiques à la production d'hydrocarbures. Exploitation des gisements par récupération assistée et applications diverses : pétrole, sables, schistes, charbons Application of Supercritical Fluids to Hydrocarbon Production. Enhanced Oi Recovery and Miscellaneous Applications: Oil, Tar Sands, Shales, Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    dioxide. This article briefly describes the ranges of application and the thermodynamic mechanisms involved. Sources of available supercritical fluids in the vicinity of oil fields are quickly reviewed together with various operational problems. In addition to being used for enhanced recovery, supercritical fluids are also involved in various refining and extraction processes. The first industrial application was the process for deasphalting heavy petroleum fractions in 1956, making use of the great variations in the solvent power of a fluid in the vicinity of its critical point. This process has received revived interest in recent years because of the energy saving it entails. Likewise, oil shales, tar sands and coals, which are appreciable hydrocarbon sources for the future, are fields of potential applications for supercritical fluids. Specific processes are reviewed, most of which are undergoing pilot-plant development.

  20. Bitumen pressure cell installation and monitoring procedure: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    A 6-in. (150-mm)-thick bitumen layer will be placed between the upper shaft preliminary concrete lining and the steel lining component of the final lining. The function of this layer is twofold; first, it will act as a compliant sealing layer which, because of the bitumen's fluid properties, will remain effective even if the concrete and steel lining components suffer significant strains; and second, it will help to ensure a uniform transmission of rock or hydrostatic loads to the inner lining components. A type 200--300 penetration grade bitumen (ASTM D946) will be used, with 32% by weight of added limestone flour. The purpose of the limestone flour is to ensure that the bitumen has a density which is greater than that of the formation fluids, resulting in a positive pressure gradient from the bitumen to the ground water. The resulting mixture will have a specific gravity of about 1.25 at 60/degree/F (15/degree/C). Pressure measurements in the bitumen layer are needed in order to determine loads on the inner lining components. Although some initial loading will occur in response to excavation, full rock and hydrostatic loads will not develop until post-construction thawing of the freeze wall is complete. Loads transmitted by the bitumen layer to the other lining components will be those which act radially, i.e., the bitustatic pressure, or the radial stress if deviatoric stresses develop

  1. Comparative analysis of fiscal terms for Alberta oil sands and international heavy and conventional oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    There are considerable differences between international heavy oil and Alberta oil sands projects, notably the high viscosity of the bitumen in the oil sands reservoirs. The oil sands bitumen do not flow to wells without heating the bitumen, thereby adding to the already high cost of Alberta oil sand operations. This report provided an economic comparison of Alberta oil sands and international heavy oil projects. It also included a brief scoping review to compare with conventional oil regimes. Full exploration costs including the costs of dry holes were allocated to conventional oil operations in order to obtain a proper comparison. This investigation included the costs of dry holes. The report was a follow up to an earlier study released on April 12, 2007 on the preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sand terms. The report provided an economic framework and described project selection. It then provided a discussion of production, costs and price data. Four adjusted projects were presented and compared with Alberta. The Venezuelan royalty formula was also discussed. Last, the report provided a detailed fiscal analysis. Comparisons were offered with Cold Lake and Athabasca Mine. A review of some other fiscal systems applicable to conventional oil were also outlined. It was concluded that Alberta oil sands developments are very competitive. It would be possible to modestly increase government revenues, without affecting the international competitive position of Alberta with respect to conventional oil. There is also some possibility to increase the base royalty on the Alberta oil sands without losing competitiveness. tabs., figs

  2. Preparation of pure phenols from tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J

    1929-06-18

    A process is disclosed for preparing pure phenols from brown coal and shale tar, characterized in that the alkaline extract obtained from the tar is oxidized and concurrently the alkaline solution is separated from the existing impurities by heating with steam at high temperature, which finally reaches at least 150/sup 0/C.

  3. Dehydration of hydrated low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T

    1949-01-01

    Yoshida examined the mechanism of the dehydration of hydrated low-temperature tar with a microscope. The tar containing free carbon and coal dust is so stable that the removal of the above substances and water by a physical method is very difficult. Addition of light oil produced by fractionation of low-temperature tar facilitates the operations. Yoshida tried using the separate acid, neutral, and basic components of the light oil; the acid oil proved to be most effective. For many reasons it is convenient to use light oil as it is. In this method the quantity of light oil required is 2 to 3 times that of tar. But in supplementing the centrifugal method, the quantity of light oil needed might be only half the amount of tar.

  4. From oil sands to transportation fuels, to electricity, to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources programs and initiatives on oil sands and heavy oil, and strategies for revitalizing oilsands development in Alberta are described. The regional upgrader and satellite production facilities concept, and technology requirements for mineable oil sands by the year 2010 are discussed. Strategic alliances in furtherence of oil sands research and development and the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies are described. Changes in requirements for transportation fuels due to stricter regulations and environmental initiatives will cause a trend to lighter fuels with more hydrogen content, less aromatics, nitrogen, sulfur and metals. A preferred refinery configuration will be able to process heavier crudes and synthetic crudes, have no heavy fuel oil product, low sulfur products, low aromatics with high octane, and low operating cost. A regional or central facility that combines the processing capabilities of a bitumen upgrader with the process units of a refinery is preferred. Advantages of this concept are: value addition to the feedstock is maximized; dependence on refineries is eliminated; restriction on synthetic crude oil volumes due to capacity limitations at refineries is eliminated; directly marketable finished products are produced; more stringent quality specifications are satisfied; and the synergies between upgrading and refining improve overall economics of processing. It is recommended that the concept of regional upgraders be adopted for Alberta, strategic alliances be encouraged, incentives for bitumen production be provided, and a bitumen pipeline network be developed. 12 refs

  5. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  6. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS).

    OpenAIRE

    Mareike Noah; Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand; Heinz Wilkes

    2012-01-01

    The Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada, is home to deposits of oil sands containing vast amounts (~ 173 billion barrels) of heavily biodegraded petroleum. Oil sands are recovered by surface mining or by in situ steam injection. The extraction of bitumen from oil sands by caustic hot water processing results in large volumes of fluid tailings, which are stored in on-site settling basins. There the tailings undergo a compaction and dewatering process, producing a slowly densifying sus...

  7. Dynamics and structure of water-bitumen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Greenfield, Michael L.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough to counter......Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough...... droplets being more stable at the highest temperature simulated. The droplet is mainly located close to the saturates molecules in bitumen. Finally, it is shown that the water dynamics is much slower in bitumen than in pure water because it is governed by the diffusion of the droplet and not of the single...

  8. Mechanical lifter for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhmanov, R N; Akhunov, A M; Asfandiyarov, Kh A; Maksutov, R A

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical lifter is described for recovering highly viscous oil and bitumens. The lifter differs from the known and has significant advantages over them. The lifter was made and tested on a stand well.

  9. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... utilization of bitumen and production of bitu-oil and gas by a bacterial ... nitrogen and phosphorus, with a consequent limitation on degradation of the ..... concluded that in industrial setting, carbon starvation in anaerobic ...

  10. On the origin of calcite-cemented sandstones in the clearwater formation oil-sands, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colquhoun, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examined the formation of calcite-cemented sandstones in the Clearwater Formation within the Cold Lake and southern Primrose areas of the Alberta oil sands. Three stages of diagenesis have been recognized, both in the calcite-cemented sandstones and reservoir sands. Diagenesis of the Clearwater Formation in the Cold Lake and southern Primrose areas ended once the reservoir filled with hydrocarbons, but in the Cold Lake area, diagenesis of water-saturated sands likely continued after hydrocarbon emplacement. The reservoir sands in the formation contain a diverse clay mineral assemblage. In general, 0.7 nm clays dominate the diagenetic clay mineralogy of the Clearwater sands. Reservoir sands that contain large amounts of detrital clays and early diagenetic, grain-coating chlorite/smectite have significantly reduced bitumen-saturation. The presence of detrital and diagenetic smectitic clays complicates the removal of bitumen from the Clearwater formation using cyclic steam stimulation techniques because they swell during steam stimulation and reduce porosity and permeability of reservoir sands. Reservoir sands that contain kaolinite, feldspar and calcite react to form smectitic clays, which swell upon cyclic steam stimulation and further reduce porosity and permeability of reservoir sands. However, in the Cold Lake and Primrose areas, the dominant clay mineral is berthierine, which is associated with high calcite, which help to preserve porosity, permeability and bitumen saturation. The porous nature of bitumen-saturated, calcite-cemented sandstones that are laterally extensive could possibly provide a preferential path for steam to initiate calcite dissolution and produce significant concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide in injected fluids. It was noted that this may then precipitate as carbonate scale within the reservoir and could cause formation damage or affect production equipment. 207 refs., 9 tabs., 58 figs., 3 appendices.

  11. ELASTICITY OF BITUMEN BINDERS AND THE FACTORS CAUSING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of the initial bitumen penetration grade and different con-centrations of the mineral filler on the elasticity of the polymer-modified bitumen (PMB with 3 and 6 % of SBS type polymer. The dependences of elasticity of the PMB on the test conditions – such as the temperature and the stress state level are shown additionally.

  12. Rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen containing antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A. A; Omar, Husaini; Hamzah, M.O; Ismail, H.

    2009-01-01

    Rheology has become a useful tool in the characterization of the bitumen performance on the pavement. Visco-elastic properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen with antioxidants (CR30) were determined by the means of rheological measurement. This measurement led to a better knowledge of bitumen behavior that occurs when subjected to different thermal and mechanical conditions, as seen during road construction and services in the field. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) was used to characterize the rheology of the binders before and after oven aging. The binders were aged for 3 and 9 days. Results of a compatibility test showed that the addition of CR30 modified bitumen is compatible with the base bitumen. The results of unaged samples indicated that the addition of 1% CR30 and 5% CR30 modified binders caused an increase in G value as a result of the rheological changes. Results showed that aging has significant influence on bitumen rheology, by increasing complex modulus and decreasing phase angle. (author)

  13. Cancer fear over coal tar products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a report by Dutch researchers which suggests that the regular use of coal tar shampoos may significantly increase the risk of cancer due to the high levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the products. The PAH exposure of volunteers using a coal tar anti-dandruff shampoo was studied by measuring the amount of hydroxypyrene, a PAH breakdown product in their urine. Volunteers who had used the shampoo excreted high levels of hydroxypyrene the day after exposure. Excretion by the control group using a non-coal tar anti-dandruff shampoo remained constant. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  14. Coal tar: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thami, G.P.; Sarkar, R. [Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Dermatology & Venerology

    2002-03-01

    Crude coal tar has been used in the treatment of dermatoses for many decades. In the last few years its use has been limited to skin diseases such as psoriasis and chronic dermatitis. Newer topical modalities for psoriasis are being used increasingly for treatment, but have failed to replace crude coal tar as a first-line treatment of psoriasis. The authors review the pharmacology, chemistry and use of crude coal tar in order to reappraise its role as a therapeutic agent in dermatology.

  15. Characterization of acid tar waste from benzol purification | Danha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of concentrated sulphuric acid to purify benzene, toluene and xylene produces acidic waste known as acid tar. The characterization of the acid tar to determine the composition and physical properties to device a way to use the waste was done. There were three acid tars two from benzene (B acid tar), toluene and ...

  16. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  17. Analysis of low-temperature tar fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikkawa, S; Yamada, F

    1952-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study was made on the applicability of the methods commonly used for the type analysis of petroleum products to the low-temperature tar fractions. The usability of chromatography was also studied.

  18. Characterizing resilient behavior of naturally occurring bituminous sands for road construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available large capacity haul trucks and shovels. This paper focuses on determining in laboratory the resilient behavior of three oil sand materials with bitumen contents of 8.5, 13.3, and 14.5% by weight. The resilient modulus MR properties were obtained using a...

  19. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K A; Ikram, S; Evershed, R P

    2016-10-28

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550-1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using (14)C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultraviolet-light (UV resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM. Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  1. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  2. Optimization bitumen-based upgrading and refining schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, M.; Chen, J. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study in which the entire refining scheme for Canadian bitumen as feedstocks was modelled and simulated under different process configurations, operating conditions and product structures. The aim of the study was to optimize the economic benefits, product quality and energy use under a range of operational scenarios. Optimal refining schemes were proposed along with process conditions for existing refinery configurations and objectives. The goal was to provide guidelines and information for upgrading and refining process design and retrofitting. Critical steps were identified with regards to the upgrading process. It was concluded that the information obtained from this study would lead to significant improvement in process performance and operations, and in reducing the capital cost for building new upgraders and refineries. The simulation results provided valuable information for increasing the marketability of bitumen, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts associated with bitumen upgrading and refining. tabs., figs.

  3. The development of polyurethane modified bitumen emulsions for cold mix applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Páez, Virginia; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Bitumen emulsions stand for an alternative paving practice to the traditional hot-mix asphalts. In addition, modified bitumen emulsions show a better performance than unmodified ones. This work studies the feasibility of obtaining polyurethane modified bitumen emulsions, in which an isocyanate-functionalized polyol constitutes the bitumen modifier (in varying concentration from 1 to 4 wt.%). Storage stability and high in-service performance are evaluated by means of evolution of droplet size ...

  4. Investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.S.; Braz, D.; Motta, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Brazil has more than 218,000 km of asphalt-paved highways. Bitumen is a generic term for natural or manufactured black or dark-colored solid, semisolid, or viscous cementitious materials that are composed mainly of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (90-95%). Several papers have shown that the irradiation process has changed the mechanical behavior in some polymers. This work aims to analyze the behavior of Brazilian irradiated Bitumen (CAP 50-70). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation, bitumen samples and cylindrical specimens of asphaltic mixture were tested. The bitumen samples were irradiated 0.1 to 300 kGy, and asphaltic mixture specimen was irradiated 5 to 300 kGy. The cylindrical asphaltic mixture specimen of 10.16 cm diameter used in this study was molded using an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The specimens were irradiated in LIN/UFRJ/Brazil using a Gamma cell Co 60 source of gamma irradiation with an applied dose rate of 29.7 Gy/min. After irradiated, the bitumen samples were subjected to penetration test and the asphaltic mixtures were subjected to indirect tensile strength test (diametral compression) for determination of the resilient modulus, according to ASTM method D 4123. The results of these experiments for each dose were compared with the control (nonirradiated). As expected, the penetration results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) decreases with increasing of irradiation dose for bitumen samples and the resilient modulus results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) increases with increasing of irradiation dose for asphaltic mixture. (author)

  5. Coating of evaporation concentrates with bitumen. Progress Report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Rodi, L.; Cudel, Y.

    1968-01-01

    Laboratory tests have been carried out on the coating by bitumen of evaporation concentrates having a free nitric acidity of 1 N or 2.5 N, and a high mineralization (400 gm/litre). In order to neutralize the free acidity and to trap the radio-elements, these concentrates have been subjected before coating to various treatments designed to decrease the solubility. As a result of these treatments, sludges were obtained which could be coated directly with the bitumen. By measuring the radioactive diffusion factors of the bitumen coated products immersed both in ordinary and sea water, it was possible to compare the efficiency of the processes developed and of the various types of bitumen used. On the whole the radioactive diffusion tests were satisfactory and the process using successive co-precipitations (hydroxides, nickel ferrocyanide, barium sulphate) was chosen. From the bitumens tried out, a straight - asphalt, Mexphalt 40/50 was selected for low and medium activity concentrates as it ensures good isolation of the radio-elements; an air-blowing asphalt, Mexphalte R 90/40, was chosen for concentrates of high activity because of its higher resistance to irradiation. As a result of this work, a simple coating technology was evolved and pilot experiments will soon begin. Briefly, it appears that although a method for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been defined, it will inevitably be necessary to devise a specific decontamination process each time that a new type of concentrate is encountered (composition, nature of the salts, radio-element distribution). (author) [fr

  6. Bitumen still seen as potential anchor on crude prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the Canadian Energy Research Institute have released a 225-page technical report on downstream oil-refining markets entitled 'Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock'. The report claims that 22 of 27 refineries that buy western Canadian production are not planning to improve their ability to process heavy grades of oil any time soon. Instead, investments will focus on complying with environmental requirements for reformulated refined products, particularly to eliminate sulphur impurities in gasoline and diesel fuel. Another focus will be to upgrade raw bitumen output into synthetic crude. It was shown that over the next 7 years, Canadian and U.S. oil markets have the potential to increase growth in bitumen production from 244,000 barrels per day (bpd) to 555,000 bpd. The potential for additional, upgraded synthetic crude oil is even greater, from 450,000 bpd to 806,000 bpd. Increasing the output of synthetic crude oil is considered to be an effective way to reduce North America's reliance on imported oil. Untreated, discount-priced bitumen can replace diminishing Canadian and U.S. production of refinery-ready light oil. The report projects that a US$1-per-barrel discount for Canadian heavy oil would generate sales of 140,000 barrels daily. The effect of a $1 discount would be almost twice as great for synthetic crude oil. Heavy oil sales rely greatly on maintaining a discount off prices for light grades. A $1-per-barrel premium could destroy demand for bitumen-based blends. Moody's Investors Service claims that deep discounting reflects global market conditions, risking Canadian production of heavy oil grades and seasonal lows in demand for bitumen as a raw material for asphalt

  7. Energy infrastructure modeling for the oil sands industry: Current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaroni, Edoardo Filippo; Elsholkami, Mohamed; Arbiv, Itai; Martelli, Emanuele; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation-based modelling of energy demands of oil sands operations is proposed. • Aspen simulations used to simulate delayed coking-based upgrading of bitumen. • The energy infrastructure is simulated using Aspen Plus achieving self-sufficiency. • Various scenarios affecting energy demand intensities are investigated. • Energy and CO_2 emission intensities of integrated SAGD/upgrading are estimated. - Abstract: In this study, the total energy requirements associated with the production of bitumen from oil sands and its upgrading to synthetic crude oil (SCO) are modeled and quantified. The production scheme considered is based on the commercially applied steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for bitumen extraction and delayed coking for bitumen upgrading. In addition, the model quantifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of energy required for these operations from technologies utilized in the currently existing oil sands energy infrastructure. The model is based on fundamental engineering principles, and Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulations. The energy demand results are expressed in terms of heat, power, hydrogen, and process fuel consumption rates for SAGD extraction and bitumen upgrading. Based on the model’s output, a range of overall energy and emission intensity factors are estimated for a bitumen production rate of 112,500 BPD (or 93,272 BPD of SCO), which were determined to be 262.5–368.5 MJ/GJ_S_C_O and 14.17–19.84 gCO_2/MJ_S_C_O, respectively. The results of the model indicate that the majority of GHG emissions are generated during SAGD extraction (up to 60% of total emissions) due to the combustion of natural gas for steam production, and the steam-to-oil ratio is a major parameter affecting total GHG emissions. The developed model can be utilized as a tool to predict the energy demand requirements for integrated SAGD/upgrading projects under different operating conditions, and

  8. The interaction between bitumen matrix and chemical components of radioactive wastes of WWER type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selucky, P.; Sazavsky, P.; Peka, V.; Krupka, M.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction between bitumen matrix and chemical components of WWER type radioactive wastes was studied. So called ''cold'' model bitumen products were prepared and compared with real products using macroDTA method. On the basis of obtained curves, the evaluation of bitumen product fire risks was performed with the aim to minimize risks of bituminization process. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of bitumens for nuclear facilities radioactive waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, Marcia F.R.; Silva, Tania V. da; Loiola, Roberto; Monte, Lauro J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The activities developed at the Nuclear Technology Development Centre, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN/CNEN, include the research and development work of the radioactive wastes immobilization in different kind of bitumen. The present work describes the bituminization of simulated low level wastes of evaporator concentrates.Two types of bitumen are used for incorporation of the simulated wastes generated by nuclear power plants. Studies on rheological properties, leaching data, differential thermoanalysis and water content of the waste-products have been carried out. (author)

  10. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 1 : target pollutants and treatment objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous recycling of tailings pond water in the oil sands industry has contributed to an overall decline in water quality used for bitumen recovery, general water consumption, and remedial activities. This paper reviewed process water quality and toxicity data from 2 long-term oil sands operations. The aim of the study was to determine potential roles for water treatment and provide benchmarks for the selection of candidate water treatment technologies in the oil sands region of Alberta. An overview of the oil sands industry was provided as well as details of bitumen recovery processes. The study examined target pollutants and exceedances identified in environmental and industrial water quality guidelines. The study demonstrated that the salinity of tailings pond water increased at a rate of 75 mg per litre per year between 1980 and 2001. Increases in hardness, chloride, ammonia, and sulphates were also noted. Naphthenic acids released during bitumen extraction activities were determined as the primary cause of tailings pond water toxicity. A summary of recent studies on experimental reclamation ponds and treatment wetlands in the oil sands region was included. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs

  11. Proceedings of the 3. NCUT meeting on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen and synthetic crude oil and the 2. symposium on stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference highlights new developments in refining processes for heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crudes. The oil sands/heavy oil industry in Canada has grown significantly in the last decade and could triple by 2012 to reach 2.6 million barrels per day. Experts from the petroleum industry, government organizations and technology providers attended this conference which identified technology gaps and areas where improvements are needed. The presentations demonstrated that many new technologies associated with heavy oil bitumen upgrading and refining have posed compatibility and stability challenges for pipeliners, upgraders and refiners. One of the issues addressed at the conference was the effect of upgrading technologies on market price due to the expected increase in production. Another important issue is how production of bitumen can be increased without significantly increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the refineries and upgrading facilities. The sessions of the conference were entitled: new technology developments in bitumen upgrading; secondary upgrading developments and expanded product opportunities; environmental issues and expanded oil sands development; and, stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum. Twenty six presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  12. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates...

  13. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement. M P S CHANDRAWAT†, T N OJHA and R N YADAV*. Department of Chemistry, R N Ruia Government College, Ramgarh-Shekhawati (Sikar) 331 024, India. †Department of Chemistry, R R Government College, ...

  14. Epoxy modified bitumen : Chemical hardening and its interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Pipintakos, G.; van de Ven, M.F.C.; Liu, X.; Erkens, Sandra; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy modified bitumen (EMB) is a promising technology for long lasting paving materials ensuring higher resistance to rutting, oxygen- and moisture-induced damage. In this paper, an analysis of the chemical reactions that take place during the chemical hardening process (curing) of epoxy modified

  15. Mechanical properties of millet husk ash bitumen stabilized soil block

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, ...

  16. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find ... eliminating the need for air-conditioning and are warm during the cold ... The mix properties were used in producing soil bricks of ...

  17. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Carbon (iv) oxide. Bromine + gas. Decolourization. Alkene and alkyne suspect. Cold acidified potassium tetraoxomanganate(vii) + gas. Decolourzation. Alkene and alkyne suspect. Silver trioxonitrate (v) + gas. No reaction. Alkene confirmed. Figure 7. The IR analysis of bitumen before biodegradation.

  18. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degradation of bitumen was found to be associated with the production of carbon (IV) oxide, natural gas and oil. As a result of using nitrogen limited and phosphate limited media, 1750 and 1250 cm3 of gas and 0.95 and 0.85 g/l of oil were obtained respectively. Nitrogen and phosphate limitation have profound effect on ...

  19. Rheological, structural and chemical evolution of bitumen under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouazen, M.; Poulesquen, A.; Bart, F.; Masson, J.; Charlot, M.; Vergnes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen derived from crude oil by fractional distillation has been used in the nuclear industry as a radioactive waste encapsulation matrix. When subjected to α, β and γ self-irradiation, this organic matrix undergoes radiolysis, generating hydrogen bubbles and modifying the physical and chemical properties of the material. In this paper, the effects of irradiation on bitumen materials, especially in terms of its physical, chemical, structural and rheological properties, were characterized at radiation doses ranging from 1 to 7 MGy. An increase in the shear viscosity and melt yield stress was observed with increasing doses. Similarly, the elastic and viscous moduli (G' and G'') increase with the dose, with a more pronounced increase for G' that reflects enhanced elasticity arising from radiation-induced cross-linking. In addition, a low-frequency plateau is observed for G', reflecting pseudo-solid behavior and leading to an increase of the complex viscosity. This behavior is due to increased interactions between asphaltene particles, and to aromatization of the bitumen by γ-radiations. Cross-linking of bitumen enhances its strength, as confirmed by various techniques (modulated DSC, DTA/TGA, SEC, FTIR and XRD). (authors)

  20. Improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through advanced froth treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S.H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies Laboratory; Humphries, A. [Albemarle Catalysts Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the dominant refinery conversion process for producing transportation fuels. Feed to the FCC unit is heavy gas oil (HGO). Its quality depends on the crude used and the processes involved. Bitumen-derived crude (BDC), including synthetic crude oil (SCO) is less superior to produce FCC feed than stocks from conventional sources. As a result, North American refiners have limited the use of BDC in their conventional FCC-based operations. This paper examined the improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through an advanced froth treatment process. This involved processing of the bitumen with paraffinic solvent in froth treatment with removal of some asphaltenes, CCR precursors, and metals. The paper discussed the experimental and subsequent results and discussion, including cracking characteristics; product quality; synergetic effect; and economic benefits. It was concluded that the poisoning effect by some deleterious components such as nitrogen compounds in feeds on the catalyst could be reduced or compensated for by higher C/O ratios (more catalyst per unit weight of feed). In addition, as conversion increased, sulfur in gasoline decreased slightly and linearly with more or less the same magnitude for the two bitumens. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  1. Preliminary fiscal evaluation of Alberta oil sands terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Meurs, P.

    2007-01-01

    The cost of oil sands projects varies significantly. While costs have escalated considerably over the past few years, oil prices have gone significantly higher. This report provided an economic evaluation of the current fiscal terms applicable to Alberta oil sands. The analysis was done to evaluate the profitability of oil sand projects to investors under current conditions based on the generic royalty regime based on bitumen values. The objective of the royalty review was to determine whether Albertans received a fair share from their oil and gas resources. It discussed the wide variety of oil sands projects in Alberta using five case studies as examples. Cases involving steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations were assessed for both the Athabasca Mine and Cold Lake. The report provided a discussion of the economic assumptions including economic cases as well as production, costs and price data. It then provided the preliminary results of the economic-fiscal evaluation from the investor perspective including profitability indicators; international comparisons; internal rate of return; and net present value. The government perspective was also discussed with reference to attractiveness indicators; royalties as a percentage of bitumen values; and non-discounted and discounted government take. A royalty and tax feature analysis was also provided. Several issues for possible further review were also presented. tabs

  2. Hydroconversion of coal tars: effect of the temperature of pyrolysis on the reactivity of tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemberton, J.L.; Touzeyidio, M.; Guisnet, M.

    1988-12-01

    The hydroconversion of a low-temperature and of a high-temperature tar was carried out in the presence of a sulfided Ni and Mo on alumina catalyst - pure or mixed with an acid catalyst (HY zeolite). Significant amounts of light products can be obtained from low temperature tar, formed however through a non-catalytic process. On the contrary, there is a slight catalytic effect during the hydroprocessing of high temperature tar, but the yield in light products is very low. These results can be explained by an extensive poisoning of the NiMo on alumina catalyst by coke which is initiated by the O- and N-containing compounds of the tars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Anomalous capillary flow of coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint Romain, J.L.; Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Couderc, P.

    1986-06-01

    Capillary flow of liquid coal tar pitch into a coke bed was studied. Anomalies in the flow could not be attributed to a plugging effect for mesophase content lower than 20 wt%. The flow behaviour of small pitch droplets can be correlated with the change in physicochemical properties, as measured by the glass transition temperature, on penetration into the coke bed. 4 references.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Abdulwahab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of MHA by weight of laterite. The lateritic soil-MHA mixture was later admixed with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 14% cut-back bitumen solution by weight of laterite. Both the natural lateritic soil, lateritic and MHA, and the blend of Soil, MHA and Bitumen were first subjected to physical and chemical analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and Scanning Electromagnetic Machine (SEM to determine their engineering properties followed by the performance test on bricks cast with varying quantities of the additives. A total of one hundred and ninety two (192 cubes were tested for moisture absorption, erodability and compressive strength tests. The result of the test showed that MHA and Bitumen acted as pozzolana in performance test on the soil blocks. Up to 30% MHA – laterite and 20% MHA admixed with 8% laterite were found to give optimum compressive strength of 10.8N/mm2 and 10.9N/mm2 for the bricks produced. The result also showed that about 50% MHA blended with 14% Bitumen solution ensured water tight bricks. Thus the use of MHA as partial replacement of cement will provide an economic use of by-product and consequently produce a cheaper soil block construction without comprising its strength.

  5. Coal tar pitch. Interrelations between properties and utilization of coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G; Koehler, H [Ruetgerswerke A.G., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-06-01

    Coal tar pitch is won as a highly aromatic, thermoplastic residue by destillating coal tar. In this paper the structure as well as the chemical and physical data of this pitch are introduced. In addition to this the actual as well as possible applications are indicated. For example, the pitch can be used for the production of binders, e.g. for electrodes and road construction as well as in combination with plastics for the production of insulating material and corrosion protection material.

  6. Sand consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spain, H H

    1965-01-21

    In a sand consolidation method in which there is injected a mixture of resin-forming liquids comprising an aryl-hydroxy low molecular weight compound, a water- soluble aldehyde, and a catalyst, an improvement is claimed which comprises diluting the resin-forming liquids with a diluent and with water so that the yield of the resin is sufficient to consolidate the sand particles with the minimum desirable pressure. The diluent may be mutually soluble in water and in the resin-forming liquids, and does not affect the setting time of the polymer. The aldehyde and the aryl-hydroxy compound may be in ratio of 5:1, and the diluent, methyl alcohol, is present in a ratio of 2:1 with reference to the water.

  7. Asian interests in Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, D.; Laureshen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The growing Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands and import opportunities was discussed along with the feasibility of marketing bitumen to Asia. Asia is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The basis for Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands is the sustainable secure supply of oil for growing Asian markets; heavy dependence on supplies from the Middle East; the desire to diversify supply sources; and, opportunities to invest in oil sands developments. Examples of Asian (Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China) missions to Alberta were presented along with the challenges of getting products to market with reference to Enbridge's new market access plan, Terasen's staged capacity expansion for heavy crudes and refined products, and sea transport from Prince Rupert. The paper also included graphs depicting world GDP; incremental increase in world primary energy demand by fuel for 2000 to 2020; world oil demand by region; oil demand by region in Asia; oil demand and supply in northeast Asia (Japan, China, Korea) and dependence level on Middle Eastern oil; oil demand and supply in China; China's petroleum production and consumption; refined products market forecast for 2000 to 2020; 2002 crude oil imports to Asia; 2004 refining capacity; product quality comparisons; cost competitive study; and energy policy objectives for China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. 19 figs

  8. Physical and performance properties of coal tar urethanes - pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickney, J.; Hendry, M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review certain physical properties of coal tar extended urethane coatings designed specifically for use in the pipe coatings market. The blend of coal tar and urethane resins provides a novel finished product with properties cumulatively inherent in its constituents. Typically, coal tar and coal tar pitch offer exceptional water resistance and cathodic alkali resistance when blended with other resins. An example is the standard coal tar epoxies used for many years in the marine markets for shipbottoms

  9. Statistically Enhanced Model of In Situ Oil Sands Extraction Operations: An Evaluation of Variability in Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Andrea; Laurenzi, Ian J; MacLean, Heather L; Bergerson, Joule A

    2018-02-06

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with extraction of bitumen from oil sands can vary from project to project and over time. However, the nature and magnitude of this variability have yet to be incorporated into life cycle studies. We present a statistically enhanced life cycle based model (GHOST-SE) for assessing variability of GHG emissions associated with the extraction of bitumen using in situ techniques in Alberta, Canada. It employs publicly available, company-reported operating data, facilitating assessment of inter- and intraproject variability as well as the time evolution of GHG emissions from commercial in situ oil sands projects. We estimate the median GHG emissions associated with bitumen production via cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) to be 77 kg CO 2 eq/bbl bitumen (80% CI: 61-109 kg CO 2 eq/bbl), and via steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) to be 68 kg CO 2 eq/bbl bitumen (80% CI: 49-102 kg CO 2 eq/bbl). We also show that the median emissions intensity of Alberta's CSS and SAGD projects have been relatively stable from 2000 to 2013, despite greater than 6-fold growth in production. Variability between projects is the single largest source of variability (driven in part by reservoir characteristics) but intraproject variability (e.g., startups, interruptions), is also important and must be considered in order to inform research or policy priorities.

  10. Tar dew point analyser as a tool in biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreugdenhil, B.J.; Kuipers, J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    Application of the Tar Dew point Analyzer (TDA) in different biomass based gasification systems and subsequent gas cleaning setups has been proven feasible. Such systems include BFB gasifiers, CFB gasifier and fixed bed gasifiers, with tar crackers or different scrubbers for tar removal. Tar dew points obtained with the TDA give direct insight in the performance of the gas cleaning section and help prevent any tar related problems due to condensation. The current TDA is capable of measuring tar dew points between -20 to 200C. This manuscript will present results from 4 different gasification setups. The range of measured tar dew points is -7 to 164C with comparable results from the calculated dew points based on the SPA measurements. Further detail will be presented on the differences between TDA and SPA results and explanations will be given for deviations that occurred. Improvements for the TDA regarding future work will be presented.

  11. The splitting of P and NG and oil sands rights: an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, F. D. [Alberta Department of Energy, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Changes in the Mines and Minerals Act of Alberta are described to illustrate the evolution of the priorities and thinking over time that led to the present administration of oil sands and natural gas as separate minerals. Natural gas was first excluded from the definition of bituminous sands in 1955. The definition of bituminous sands was changed in 1957 to include natural gas once again. In a further change in 1978, both petroleum and natural gas were excluded from the definition of oil sands. More changes followed in 1984, when petroleum was added back into the definition, leaving natural gas as the only mineral excluded from the definition of oil sands. The 1984 change was triggered by changes in the Oil Sands Conservation Act. It is the current definition, which includes `sands and other rock materials containing crude bitumen, and any other mineral substances, other than natural gas, in association with that crude bitumen`. It was a resource conservation issue in the past, and it is a conservation issue today, although much influenced by changes in technology and increased knowledge and understanding of the relevant factors. 2 tabs.

  12. It's all about the bitumen : oilsands producers have the attention of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-01-01

    Within 10 years, oilsands growth will make Canada the fifth largest oil producing country in the world, thereby greatly increasing Canada's political power. A review of oil sands development was presented, with reference to the way in which Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) has revolutionized the industry. Recent acquisitions have pointed to the growing level of international interest in the oilsands industry. Construction details of the Surmont project were discussed along with Devon Canada's SAGD project at Jackfish where about 100 well-pairs are expected to be drilled. Petrobank Energy and Resources is constructing its Whitesands project, which will employ the first field-scale application of the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) recovery method which has lower operating costs and which uses less water and creates fewer greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The pilot was designed to produce up to 1800 barrels per day of partially upgraded bitumen. Details of CNRI's Horizon project were presented, including construction plans and schedules. Shell Canada's increased budget for the first expansion of the Athabasca Oilsands Project was reviewed with reference to their strategic decision to pre-build infrastructure for future expansions. Details of Suncor Energy's production goals were also reviewed, including details of new upgraders and applications. Syncrude's continuing expansions were discussed, as well as their current production levels. An outline of UTS Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada's plans concerning the Fort Hills Mining Project was presented, with details of the new BITMIN extraction process. It was noted that Imperial Oil has filed regulatory applications for the Kearl Oilsands Project, which have estimated total recoverable bitumen resources of 4.4 billion barrels. Husky Energy's Sunrise Project was discussed, as well as MEG Energy's regulatory approval for the first phase of the Christina Lake Regional Project. The Canadian Association of Petroleum

  13. Cerro Negro bitumen degradation by a consortium of marine benthic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, T.L.; Duval, B. [USDA-ARA, Tifton, GA (USA). Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    Cerro Negro bitumen, separated from an Orimulsion sample, was incubated for up to 120 days with sediments collected at a petroleum-impacted site in Tampa Bay, Florida. Biodegradation conditions were optimized by increasing bitumen surface area, continuous agitation on a shaker apparatus, use of a complete growth medium, and maintenance at 37{degree}C. Aerobic degradation conditions were promoted by maintaining sediment contact with the laboratory atmosphere. Bitumen recovered in solvent extracts when compared to autoclaved controls decreased by up to 40% during the first 56 days. There was no detectable change after this. Molasses addition and use of a culture enriched from the sediments did not change the extent or rate of decrease in bitumen recovery. Chemical fractionation of bitumen control and degraded bitumen showed that aromatic and aliphatic fractions were depleted by {approx} 50%. Accumulation of polars was observed; however, the apparent increase was relatively small when compared to the mass loss of the other fractions. Selected biomarker ratios were not affected by incubation indicating their utility for fingerprinting the source bitumen in environmental samples. PAH distribution in the aromatic fraction favored the higher alkyl-homologues with the relative degree of alkylation increasing as the mass of bitumen recovered decreased with degradation. The study showed that up to 40% of the bitumen was bioaccessible and that bioremediation may be a treatment option for sediments contaminated with bitumen by an Orimulsion spill. 36 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  15. Bituminization process of radioactive liquid wastes by domestic bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, H.L.

    1977-11-01

    A study has been carried out of the incorporation of intermediate level wastes in bitumen. Two kinds of wastes: a) an evaporator concentrate from a PWR (containing boric acid), b) second cycle wastes from the Purex process (containing sodium salts), were satisfactorily incorporated into a mixture of straight and blown domestic bitumen, to yield a product containing 50wt% solids. The products were stable to radiation exposure of 5'8x10 8 rads. Leach rates were measured in both distilled and sea water over periods up to 200 days at 5 0 C and 25 0 C and at both 1 atm and 8 atm pressure. Results confirmed that long term storage of the products would be satisfactory

  16. Recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, etc. , from tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1920-12-25

    A process is described for the recovery of naphthalene, anthracene, and the like from tar oils and similar liquors, characterized in that the oil is treated in a rapidly rotating hammer mill, such as a colloid mill, with water sufficient, in the presence or absence of suitable solvents, for the only portion preferably in the presence of emulsifiers; and is filtered through a filter with fine pores.

  17. Polyfunctional Modifiers for Bitumen and Bituminous Materials with High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Feizrakhmanovich Kemalov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade increase in capacity and the intensity of vehicular traffic has increased manifoldly, including heavy trucks, super singles, and higher tire pressures, resulting in significant increase of dynamic loads on the road surface which in turn lead to high quality requirements for bitumen in order to avoid premature wear and failure of asphalt concrete pavements. One of the possibilities to increase the quality of bitumen is to use special additives and modifiers that can provide a high adhesion to mineral filler and inhibit the aging and degradation processes in the asphalt coating. To achieve this, in the present study composite modifiers based on bisimidazolines derivatives were synthesized. The developed polyfunctional modifier (PFM of complex action provides enhanced thermal stability, significantly improves the adhesion between bitumen binder and aggregates, and also improves the physical-mechanical properties of the asphalt concrete. Based on the test results it is recommended to use the synthesized samples of the PFM additive with complex action in asphalt mixtures for road paving.

  18. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) as a source of high quality process heat for sustainable oil sands expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.; Kuhr, R.

    2008-01-01

    Bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading consumes large quantities of natural gas for production of steam, hot water and hydrogen. Massive expansion of bitumen production is planned in response to energy demands, oil prices, and the desire for energy security. The PBMR in its Process Heat configuration supports applications that compete in a cost effective and environmentally sustainable way with natural gas fired boilers and steam methane reforming. The PBMR has the benefit of size, passive nuclear safety characteristics (encompassing Generation IV safety principles), high reliability, high temperature process heat (750-950 o C) in a modular design suited to the oil sands industry. (author)

  19. Out of the tar pit: a Texas company buys Alberta's Syncrude share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosh, C.

    1995-01-01

    The implications of the recent announcement of Alberta's Energy Minister concerning the sale of the province's last remaining share, 11.74%, of Syncrude Canada Ltd. to Houston's Torch Energy Advisors Inc., were examined. Torch has been famous for imposing fiscal discipline on capital-hungry concerns under-valued by the markets (as Syncrude apparently, is). It is believed that the Syncrude site lies over a deposit containing 1.3 trillion barrels of heavy oil and bitumen, enough to meet the world's current demand for over a decade. Recent progress in cost containment has been instrumental in making the oil sands industry more competitive vis-a-vis the petroleum industry. As part of this cost reduction effort, Syncrude contractor Fording Coal Ltd. and Suncor have been investigating the possible replacement of expensive bucket wheels with the truck-and-shovel method to extract oil sands, at a considerable savings. Syncrude researchers have also been working on hydrotransport, a new method of transporting oil sands from mine to plant. Developments such as these have been attracting foreign investment; it was speculated that in this instance, Torch has picked a winner

  20. Effect of annealing conditions on the molecular properties and wetting of viscoelastic bitumen substrates by liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Typically, in the production of asphalt concrete, bitumen and mineral aggregates are heated and mixed at temperatures above 100 °C. After the mixing process bitumen ideally coats the mineral aggregates and remains in the form of thin films. Because bitumen is highly temperature sensitive, the study of its properties in terms of chemistry, microstructure and rheology as a function of different annealing conditions is very relevant. The resultant molecular properties have a direct correlation to bitumen macroscopic response to liquids such as water, which is of extreme relevance to the understanding of the detrimental effect of water on asphalt pavements. The wetting characteristics play a crucial role on the extension of detachment of bitumen from the mineral aggregates when asphalt is exposed to wet conditions. Therefore, in this work, the effect of the annealing temperature and cooling history on the chemistry, microstructure and wetting of bitumen films was studied. Crystalline microstructures were identified in bulk and on the surface of the bitumen films. Larger crystals presenting higher crystallinity degree were identified when the annealed bitumen films were cooled slowly. Moreover, higher annealing temperatures increased the oxidation level. The change of the rheological properties due to the alterations of the annealing conditions produced changes in the wetting characteristics. For instance, the advancing motion of a liquid drop on the viscoelastic bitumen substrate presented an intermittent behaviour due to the deformation of bitumen at the liquid-bitumen-air contact line. Consequently, changes in the contact angles were also observed. Keywords: Bitumen, Crystallization, Oxidation, Advancing contact angle, Wetting

  1. Study on possible explosive reactions of sodium nitrate-bitumen mixtures initiated by a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Vasseur, C.

    1986-01-01

    Potential hazards of the mixture sodium nitrate-bitumen obtained by embedding in bitumen liquid radioactive effluents concentrated by evaporation are studied in case of accidental shock wave. A theoretical evaluation based on thermodynamical data show a low probability, nevertheless different from zero. No explosion occurred in tests realized in severe conditions. In conclusion there is no risk of detonation of large quantity of bitumen-nitrates stored in 200-liter drum in radioactive waste storage [fr

  2. The development of today's mineable oil sands projects, the key factors influencing economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Many factors influence the perception of economic performance for developing projects. Some of these factors can be controlled by the developer, while some are outside the developer's sphere of influence. Technology selection, management systems, stakeholder involvement, environmental responsiveness and risk management are areas that may be influenced, however interest rates, product prices and currency exchange all have a measurable effect on project economics and are beyond a developer's control. Economic considerations for evaluating mineable oil sand development projects are outlined, focussing on the key factors unique to such developments in general and to the OSLO project in particular. The OSLO project is a proposed $5 billion energy development that entails constructing an open pit oil sands mine and a bitumen extraction facility north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, coupled with a bitumen upgrader in the Redwater area. 7 figs

  3. On indicators of genetic relation between uranium-bearing bitumen with oil-like substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen'kov, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    Mineralogical indicators are considered which confirm that uranium-bearing (containing pitchblende) solid carbon substrates in the process of their formation had a stage of liquid-viscous state, and were sedimented in a close association with solid oil bitumens. The following cases are studied: 1) in concentrated macroextracts of uranium-bearing bitumens fine relicts of coloured oreless bitumens, less oxidated and carbonizated, are found sporadically in the passing light; 2) indicators of the development of black uranium-bearing bitumen along separate extracts or joint agregates of kerito- and asphalt-like substrates are observed in passing light within the veinlets of solid bitumens being in carbonate rocks; 3) linses of solid bitumens of fragmentary rock have zone structure according to the observation in passing light. The direct relation between black uranium-bearing bitumens and solid hydrocarbons which can form out of oil-like substances. Initial substances for them were defferent; resinous bitumens in the first case, kerito- and asphalt-like substances - in the second one, and paraffin substances - in the third one. It shows the nonselective character of the formation out of them of black uranium-bearing bitumens due to the processes of oxidation and carbonization [ru

  4. Effect of different sizes of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) towards physical properties of modified bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Zulkefli, R. N. A.; Yaacob, H.; Putra Jaya, R.; Warid, M. N. M.; Hassan, N.; Hainin, M. R.; Idham, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    In the past decades, numerous numbers of studies have been carried out to find ways enhancing properties of bitumen. Other than using polymer, agricultural waste such as palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is one of the waste products that can be used to modify bitumen. In this study, the physical and rheological properties of POFA modified bitumen were examined based on different grinding hour and different percentage of POFA. The bitumen were mixed with different percentages of POFA (0, 5 and 7%) which passed through 0.075 mm sieve and grinded at different period (1 and 4 hour). The samples were then tested and compared to conventional bitumen. From TEM results, POFA grinded at 1 hour have sizes between 3-7 µm while POFA grinded for 4 hours have finer sizes between 500 nm to 3 µm. The results showed that fineness of POFA affect properties of bitumen significantly. Decreasing in penetration value and decreasing in softening temperature indicates that the modified bitumen becomes harder than conventional bitumen. Modified bitumen gives best results when added with 7% POFA sizes of 500 nm to 3 µm compared to 3 to 7 µm.

  5. Rheological modification of bitumens with new poly-functionalized furfural analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejandro Martinez; Antonio Paez; Nazario Martin [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2008-06-15

    The rheological properties of bitumens modified with different aldehydes show that furfural is a very efficient reagent. An optimization of the reaction conditions involving concentration, acid catalyst, reaction time and temperature has been performed. In order to determine the influence of the furan ring and the formyl groups on the reactivity of bitumens, a series of new organic molecules as chemical reagents bearing up to six furan rings and four formyl groups, have been reacted with a B 80/100 bitumen. The results indicate a remarkably better performance than furfural, leading to harder modified bitumens. 31 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior of the pure bitumen grades 10/20 and 35/50 with macroindentation and finite element computation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah; Guessasma, Sofiane; Bennabi, Abdelkrim

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an identification procedure that allows the determination of the viscoelasticity behavior of different grades of pure bitumen (bitumen 35/50 and bitumen 10/20). The procedure required in the first stage a mechanical

  7. Heavy and hot : bitumen-specific technology fuels growth at Cold Lake-Bonnyville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2008-08-15

    The bitumen corridor between Fort McMurray, Wood Buffalo, and the Cold Lake region is now providing more than half of the province's total crude oil. Growth in the region has been attributed to new technology developments for oil sands drilling and production. Progressive cavity pumps (PCPs) are estimated to have increased production at the Lloyd minister site by 75 per cent. New steel-on-steel pumps have been designed to withstand temperatures of 350 degrees C. The pumps do not require the use of elastomers to line the steel stator. The region's production levels have also been boosted by the use of drilling megapads capable of improving recovery levels by 20 per cent. Many of the region's operators are now using combined steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and cold production technologies. Despite the use of advanced technologies, development in the region is still inhibited by manpower shortages. Oil companies operating in the region are now working to build adequate municipal infrastructure for new employees, and are offering substantial bonuses to entice new workers to relocate to the region. 2 figs.

  8. Saskatchewan's place in Canadian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada); Kramers, J.W. [Owl Ventures Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Isaacs, E.E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The current daily bitumen and synthetic crude production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is 180,000 m{sup 3}, which represents approximately 40 percent of crude oil produced in Canada. In a time of peaking conventional oil production, the search for new oil reserves has led to unconventional in-situ bitumen and heavy oil resources, including shallow in-situ resources. The great difficulty in producing bitumen and managing water flows in such reservoirs will require innovative approaches and increasingly environmentally sustainable practices. This paper presented an overview of shallow in-situ oil sands and the novel recovery technologies that are being developed that will reduce the use of steam and fresh water, and also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Research and development programs are currently underway to develop and demonstrate such new technologies. Promising technologies include the solvent vapour extraction and hybrid thermal solvent extraction processes that are being developed and demonstrated in large-scale three-dimensional scaled physical models and associated numerical simulation models. Electrical heating and gravity stable combustion are other examples of technologies that could play a significant role in developing these resources. 81 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preller, H

    1921-02-24

    A process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, bitumen from oil-chalk, oil-shale, and coal, according to Patent 400,122, is described. It is characterized in that the mined material falling on account of its weight is exposed to the running hot water in circulation through the wash-chamber and the clarifying chamber arranged separate or built on (circulation) being obtained by pumps or injectors in a regulatable motion.

  10. Bioremediation potential of coal-tar-oil-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajoie, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The bioremediation of coal tar oil contaminated soil was investigated in 90 day laboratory simulation experiments. The effect of soil moisture, humic acid amendment, and coal tar oil concentration on the rate of disappearance of individual coal tar oil constituents (PAHs and related compounds) was determined by methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatography. Mass balance experiments determined the fate of both the individual 14 C-labeled PAHs phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene, and the total coal tar oil carbon. Mineralization, volatilization, incorporation into microbial biomass, disappearance of individual coal tar oil constitutents, and the distribution of residual 14 C-activity in different soil fractions were measured. The rate of disappearance of coal tar oil constituents increased with increasing soil moisture over the experimental range. Humic acid amendment initially enhanced the rate of disappearance, but decreased the extent of disappearance. The amount of contamination removed decreased at higher coal tar oil concentrations. The practical limit for biodegradation in the system tested appeared to be between 1.0 and 2.5% coal tar oil. Mineralization accounted for 40 to 50% of the applied coal tar oil. Volatilization was a minor pathway of disappearance

  11. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  12. Sunflower oil in the treatment of hot tar burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türegün, M; Oztürk, S; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-08-01

    Hot tar burns compose a unique class of thermal injury, because removal of this highly sticky compound may be very difficult without inflicting additional tissue damage. Early removal of tar facilitates assessment of the burn and improves patient comfort. Although the use of many substances for the painless removal of tar has been described, we used sunflower oil effectively in the treatment of four tar burn patients. This first report describes the practical and successful use of sunflower oil which was easily obtained from the hospital kitchen.

  13. Sources of atmospheric emissions in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An inventory of emissions for the Athabasca oil sands airshed that can be used as a basis for air quality assessments was presented. This report was prepared for the Suncor Steepbank Mine Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and for the Syncrude Aurora Mine EIA. Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase their crude oil and bitumen production. Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO 2 emissions to the atmosphere and Syncrude will develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs to ensure that environmental quality is not compromised because of atmospheric emissions associated with their operations. Major emission sources are controlled and monitored by regulatory statutes, regulations and guidelines. In this report, the following four types of emission sources were identified and quantified: (1) major industrial sources associated with Suncor's and Syncrude's current oil sands operations, (2) fugitive and area emission sources such as volatilization of hydrocarbons from tanks and tailings ponds, (3) other industrial emission sources in the area, including oil sands and non-oil sands related facilities, and (4) highway and residential emission sources. Emissions associated with mining operations include: SO 2 , NO x , CO, and CO 2 . The overall conclusion was that although there are other smaller sources of emissions that can influence air quality, there is no reason to doubt that Suncor and Syncrude oil sands operations are the major sources of emissions to the atmosphere. 13 refs., 12 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Acid Tar Lagoons: Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohers, Anna; Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents the issue with possibility of definitive removal of dangerous environmental burden in Slovakia - serious historical problem of two acid tar lagoons. In relation to their removal, no technology has been found so far - technologically and economically suitable, what caused problems with its management. Locality Predajná is well known in Slovakia by its character of contrasts: it is situated in the picturesque landscape of National Park buffer zone of Nízke Tatry, on the other site it is contaminated by 229 211m3 of acid tar with its characteristics of toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity and toxicity especially for animals and plants. Acid tar in two landfills with depth of 1m in case of the first lagoon and 9,5m in case of the second lagoon is a waste product derived from operation of Petrochema Dubová - refinery and petrochemical plant whose activity was to process the crude oil through processes of sulfonation and adsorption technology for producing lubricating and special oils, synthetic detergents and special white oils for cosmetic and medical purposes. A part of acid tar was incinerated in two incineration plats. Concentration of SO2 in combustion gases was too high and it was not possible to decrease it under the value of 2000 mg.mn-3 [LADOMERSKÝ, J. - SAMEŠOVÁ, D.: Reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions waste gases of incineration plant. Acta facultatis ecologiae. 1999, p. 217-223]. That is why it was necessary to put them out of operation. Later, because of public opposition it was not possible to build a new incineration plat corresponding to the state of the art. Even though actual Slovak and European legislative for protection of environment against such impacts, neither of tried methods - bio or non-biologic treatment methods - was proved as suitable for processing or for recovery in the reason of different factors admission: i.e. strong aggressivity, difficulty with handling because of its sludgy and

  15. Process from removing benzine, toluene, etc. , from petroleum residues, coal tar, and shale tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlawaty, F

    1888-08-11

    A process is described for the preparation of ligroin and its homologs as well as naphthalene and anthracene consisting in leading superheated water vapor into a mixture of petroleum residues (or mineral coal tar, etc.) heated to about 400/sup 0/C with cellulosic substances as sage shreds, sea grass, or straw, with addition of caustic alkali.

  16. Estimation of particle size distribution in Athabasca oil sands by indirect neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutte, R.; Thompson, G.R.; Donkor, K.K. [New Caledonia College, Prince George, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Duke, M.J.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). SLOWPOKE Nuclear Reactor Facility; Cowles, R. [Syncrude Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Li, X.P.; Kratochvil, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    Knowledge concerning the particle size distribution (PSD) of oil sands is necessary for optimal extraction of bitumen from the sand, and it indicates ore quality, gives a measure of process performance during bitumen extraction, and yields information useful for tailings management. Oil sands with mainly coarse particulates are usually bitumen rich and easy to process in the conventional hot water extraction process. These ores do not require the addition of sodium hydroxide as a process aid, and tailings volumes are minimal in contrast to high fines oil sands. Compared to the methods currently in use for determining the PSD in the oil sand industry, a method is described that is rapid, simple to carry out, and does not involve the use of organic solvents with attendant disposal problems. The principle behind the method is the development of a set of correlations by applying regression analysis to a large set of PSD and elemental analysis data. Predicted PSDs compare favorably with results obtained by existing methods. Each of the three PSD methods currently in use could be simulated by the INAA method. The INAA-based model that predicts hydrometer equivalent data was only applicable above certain lower limits for the amount of the fine size fractions present because of the limited sensitivity of the hydrometer method for PSD determination of fine fractions. For all six particle sizes studied, the INAA model had lower overall uncertainty than the corresponding Microtrac and Coulter instrument methods; the instrument repeatability of the INAA fell between those of Microtrac and Coulter. For Athabasca oil sands, the INAA-based method for PSD determination at and below 44 microm afforded results comparable to current Microtrac and Coulter methods. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. Distillation of tar and tar fractions in the presence of surface-active coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeppelt, A; Klaus, J

    1943-01-01

    The tar obtained by low-temperature carbonization of Upper Silesian gas coke and fractions from this tar were distilled in the presence of different grades of coke dust with varying surface activity; the coke had been activated by steam in the course of its production by low-temperature carbonization. The surface activity of the coke dusts was measured by determining the heat of wetting with C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Tar and coke dust, both anhydrous, were mixed in a kneading machine in such proportions that the capillaries of the dust were saturated and enough ''externally'' bound tar was present to permit briquetting. The briquets were distilled without cracking and with steam as heating medium. The yield and quality of the distillate depended on the magnitude of the internal surface of the coke dust used; a mixture of a very active coke from brown coal and tar yielded a distillate with Conradson carbon residue of 1.34 percent, asphalt content 6.1 percent and eta/sub 20/ 5.4/sup 0/ E. as compared with C residue of 10.95 percent, asphalt content 33.5 percent and eta/sub 20/ 123.6/sup 0/ E. of the distillate obtained in the absence of surface-active coke. Even higher-boiling fractions can be improved by this treatment, although it is preferable to use oils with an initial boiling point below 300/sup 0/. The ratio of oil to adsorbent is not critical, but better results were obtained with higher percentages of added coke dust. The process in its present form is not suited for the conversion of crude creosote to useful phenols.

  18. New method for the exact determination of phenols in low-temperature tar and tar oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambris, G; Haferkorn, H

    1949-01-01

    A 3-gram sample of water-free tar or tar oil containing approximately 50% phenols is dissolved in a mixture of benzene and xylene and a known excess of a 20% KOH solution of known normality saturated with benzene and xylene is added. Weight of the KOH is determined by difference. This mixture is shaken repeatedly in a 300-milliliter separatory funnel. After standing for 0.5 h, the dark or almost black phenolate solution containing the major portion is separated and weighed. Care must be taken to prevent the induction of solids. The phenolate in the residue is extracted with hot water and titrated with 0.2N HCl and 1 ml. Congo red (1:100). If water is present in the tar or tar oil, 100 ml of xylene is added immediately after weighing and the water separated by distillation the weight of which must be determined. Any phenols carried over are dissolved in the small quantity of xylene in the distillate. This quantity is added to the bulk of the xylene. After any remaining phenols are extracted from the tar residue with boiling benzene, the benzene-xylene mixture is treated with KOH as above. The accuracy of the method is estimated to be +-1% as shown by experiments with phenol; o-, m-, and p-cresol; cresol mixture; and pyrocatechol. The weight of the dissolved phenols X is determined by X = c - a + cd/(ab - d) where a = weight of KOH, b = HCl used per gram of KOH, C = weight of major portion of phenolate solution, which is formed by shaking the phenol solution with KOH, d = HCl used for titration of phenolate residue.

  19. TECHNOLOGY OF REPAIRING OPERATIONAL SUITABILITY BITUMEN-RUBEROID CARPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISHUK K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the article is presented the analysis of the existing technologies for the restoration of the operational usability of bitumen-polymeric carpet, which allowed to identify their disadvantages, suggested ways to solve problems and highlighted the results of the studies. Firstly, existing bitumen-ruberoid carpet has a residual hydro insulating capacity that can be effectively used. Secondly, the physical condition of the repaired carpet has different types of defects and damage without the proper removal of which is difficult to ensure the desired outcome. The applying of additional layers in conditions of moistening of the lower layers and other defects contributes to their conservation and accelerated loss of operational integrity.Removal of these impacts can be up to 40-50% of all work, can not provide the required effectiveness outcomes in terms of durability, reliability and cost. Therefore the problem is to find ways to achieve a longer after repairing operation with simultaneous reduction of consumables indicators. Purpose of the study is to develop technological solutions serviceability restoration of roofing using unrolling technologies on the principles to minimize the impact of negative factors and the maximum possible use and strengthen the remaining hydro potential of the insulating coating through the use of special impregnating - saturating compositions. Features such compositions are based on the ability to deeply penetrate the thick bitumen-ruberoid carpet and restore his lost components and provide increased water resistance. Conclusion. The article can be introduced in practice of repair-refurbishable works of soft roofing covering of buildings and constructions.

  20. The energy efficiency of oil sands extraction: Energy return ratios from 1970 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Adam R.; Englander, Jacob; Bharadwaj, Sharad

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that the oil sands industry is not energy efficient: comparatively large energy inputs are required per unit of energy output from oil sands operations. Unfortunately, quantitative work to date in this area has suffered from poor data availability and uncertain methods. We apply a new methodology and new dataset to compute ERRs (energy return ratios) for the oil sands industry. We collected monthly oil sands energy consumption and output data from 1970 to 2010. Current oil sands operations have mine mouth NERs (net energy returns) of about 6 GJ output per GJ of energy consumed and point of use energy returns of about 3 GJ/GJ. Long-term trends show oil sands operations becoming significantly more efficient: point of use NER increased from about 1 GJ/GJ in 1970 to 3 GJ/GJ in 2010. These energy returns are lower than those observed in historical conventional oil operations, but low energy returns are not likely to hinder development of oil sands operations due to the large resource in place and the ability for largely self-fueled pathways to return significant amounts of energy to society for every unit of external energy supplied. - Highlights: • Oil sands operations have become significantly more energy efficient over the history of the industry. • Oil sands production is largely fueled with energy from the bitumen resource itself, making external energy returns high. • Oil sands production is still significantly less efficient than conventional oil production

  1. Isocyanate-functionalized castor oil as a novel bitumen modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from renewable sources in the synthesis of polyurethane-derived polymers is lately receiving great attention from social, environmental and economic standpoints. In this work, prepolymers having different -NCO/-OH ratio were synthesized, by reaction of 4,4´-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with castor oil (CO), to be used as modifying agent of asphaltic bitumen. Reactions between MDI and CO, performed with -NCO/-OH molar ratios of 8:1 and 4:1, have led to suitable bi...

  2. Mixed and chelated waste test programs with bitumen solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, S.I.; Morris, M.; Vidal, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of bitumen solidification tests on mixed wastes and chelated wastes. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) performed demonstration tests on radioactive wastes contaminated with chelating agents for Associated Technologies, Inc. (ATI). The chelated wastes were produced and concentrated by Commonwealth Edison Co. as a result of reactor decontamination at Dresden Nuclear Station, Unit 1. Law Engineering in Charlotte, N. C. produced samples and performed tests on simulated heavy metal laden radioactive waste (mixed) to demonstrate the quality of the bituminous product. The simulation is intended to represent waste produced at Oak Ridge National Labs operated by Martin-Marietta

  3. Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. P.; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-06-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.

  4. Evaluation of bitumen-rubber asphalt manufactured from modified binder at lower viscosity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connell, Johannes S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, crumb tyre-modified bitumen commnly known as bitumen-rubber binder has viscosity limits specified by the current edition of TG1: The Use of Modified Bituminous Binders in Road Construction. As the crumb rubber is 'digested...

  5. Process of extraction in liquid way, of the bitumen from asphaltic and bituminous rocks, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freda, L

    1936-06-04

    A process is described for liquid extraction of the bitumen in asphaltic and bituminous rocks, shales, and the like. The substances impregnated with bitumen are suitably treated for the extraction of pitch with any given solvent derived from ethylene, in a series of apparatuses fixed and rotary at atmospheric pressure or in vacuum with vapor and hot air.

  6. The use of bitumen for storing radioactive waste resulting from oil industry containing Ra-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Shweikani, R.; Abdulhafiz, M.; Salman, M.

    2009-12-01

    The releases of radon gas from NORM waste contained in two different forms of bitumen samples have been investigated. The artificial NORM source samples were made by mixing NORM with bitumen. The sources surrounded by different thickness of bitumen layers to prepare the first form of samples. While, the NORM powder was put inside bitumen samples prepared as a cylindrical shape with different thickness. The results showed that the release of radon from the bitumen samples was different in case of sources and powder. The results illustrated that the release of radon from the bitumen samples was decrees linearly with the samples thicknesses (in both cases source and powder). On the other hand, the release from the cement samples was proportional inversely with the different thickness (for comparison). In addition, many other supporting experiments were performed, as γ-ray spectroscopy measurements showed that the cement is better than the bitumen in shielding process, while the bitumen is better than cement to prevent the releases of radon. (authors)

  7. Effect of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch on bitumen properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chia Chin; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Raman, Noor Azah Abdul; Shukry, Nurul Athma Mohd; Warid, Muhammad Naqiuddin Mohd; Satar, Mohd Khairul Idham Mohd; Ros Ismail, Che; Asmah Hassan, Sitti; Mashros, Nordiana

    2018-04-01

    Bitumen shortage has triggered the exploration of another alternative waste material that can be blended with conventional bitumen. This study presents the performance of pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) as an alternative binder in modified bitumen mixtures. The palm oil EFB was first pyrolyzed using auger pyrolyzer to extract the bio-oil. Conventional bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used as a control sample and compared with samples that were modified with different percentages, i.e., 5% and 10%, of pyrolysis EFB bio-oil. The physical and rheological properties of the control and modified bitumen samples were investigated using penetration, softening point, viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests. Results showed that the addition of EFB bio-oil softened the bitumen with high penetration and a reduction in softening point, penetration index, and viscosity. However, the DSR results showed a comparable rutting resistance between the bitumen samples containing EFB bio-oil and virgin bitumen with a failure temperature achieved greater than 64°C.

  8. Effects of Waste Plastic on the Physical and Rheological Properties of Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Asyiqin Ahmad, Nurul; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Yaacob, Haryati; Rosli Hainin, Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Plastic disposal is one of the major problems for developing countries like Malaysia, at the same time Malaysia needs a large network of roads for its smooth economic and social development. The limited source of bitumen needs a deep thinking to ensure fast road construction. Therefore, the use of plastic waste in road construction not only can help to protect environment but also able to help the road construction industry. The aims of this research are to study the effects of waste plastic on rheological properties of bitumen. Modified bitumen was prepared by using blending techniques. Bitumen was heated and plastic waste was slowly added. Rheological properties of bitumen were performance by penetration, softening point, viscosity and direct shear rheometer test. The results showed that when content of plastic waste increase, the penetration value, softening point and viscosity of bitumen also increase. Generally, plastic waste improves the performance of bitumen when it was added into bitumen. It can be said that the usage helps to improve the performance of the road pavement which also reduces the rutting effect.

  9. Lessons learned from IOR steamflooding in a bitumen-light oil heterogeneous reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Mudhafar, W.J.M.; Hosseini Nasab, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Steamflooding was considered in this research to extract the discontinuous bitumen layers that are located at the oil-water contact for the heterogeneous light oil sandstone reservoir of South Rumaila Field. The reservoir heterogeneity and the bitumen layers impede water aquifer approaching into

  10. Hydrocarbons and oxygen compounds in the bitumens of kukersite oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, R; Klesment, I; Pobul, L

    1979-01-01

    This is a continuation of an earlier work which described commercial batches of kukersite in terms of oxidative kerogen destruction. The low concentration of bitumen in the kerogen and its group composition indicate that this bitumen is syngenetic. The authors studied the way in which the bitumen and kerogen are structurally connected. They also analyzed four commercial batches of kukersite and asphaltite, the organic-rich dark-colored layer found in the middle of the kukersite strate. Whereas American studies of Colorado shales containing 10-20% bitumen from organic matter have indicated, based on the identical structures of the bitumen and kerogen that there is a genetic relationship between them, the present study rarely found such structural elements in the bitumen and kerogen. The kukersite contained little bitumen--0.7% of the total organic matter. The authors believed that the different composition of the bitumen and kerogen does not prove that they are epigenetic. Kukersite also fails to follow the rule that the paraffins of ancient shales have KHapprox.1 and carbon chains shorter than C/sub 22/.

  11. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  12. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Wang, Linbing; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Meng; Liu, Pengfei; Yu, Jianxin

    2017-02-21

    Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  13. Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. P.; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.

  14. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian oil sands: A comparative study of the costs and CO2 emissions of mining and in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méjean, Aurélie; Hope, Chris

    2013-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that before 2035, the most influential parameters are the learning parameter in the case of in-situ bitumen and the depletion parameter in the case of mined bitumen. After 2035, depletion dominates in both cases. The results show that the social cost of CO 2 has a large impact on the total costs of synthetic crude oil, in particular in the case of synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen, due to the carbon intensity of the recovery techniques: taking into account the social cost of CO 2 adds more than half to the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from mined bitumen in 2050 (mean value), while the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen more than doubles. - Highlights: • We model the cost of Canadian synthetic crude oil (SCO) using Monte-Carlo techniques. • We reveal the uncertainty associated with each input parameter. • We quantify the effect of learning, depletion and CO 2 using sensitivity analyses. • Accounting for the social cost of CO 2 doubles the cost of SCO from in-situ bitumen. • CO 2 pricing could have a large effect on the economics of the oil sands

  16. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix ER27DE05.000...

  17. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Gravimetric Tar Determination in Particle Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus; Henriksen, Ulrik B.; Bentzen, Jens Dall

    2000-01-01

    A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles.......A comparison of tar determination of particles from a down-draft gasifier using soxhlet extractions (with anisole, dichloromethane and acetone) and pyrolysis of the particles....

  19. Modeling Tar Recirculation in Biomass Fluidized Bed Gasification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineken, Wolfram; De la Cuesta de Cal, Daniel; Zobel, Nico

    2016-01-01

    A biomass gasification model is proposed and applied to investigate the benefits of tar recirculation within a gasification plant. In the model, tar is represented by the four species phenol, toluene, naphthalene, and benzene. The model is spatially one-dimensional, assuming plug flow for the

  20. Comparative study of modified bitumen binder properties collected from mixing plant and quarry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Kamal, M.; Abu Bakar, R.; Hadithon, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    Quality control and assurance are essential in pavement construction. In general, the properties of bitumen change as it ages in bulk storage, transport, and storage on site. The minimization of bituminous hardening during storing, transportation and mixing depends on careful control of binder temperature. Hence therefore, bitumen should always be stored and handled at the lowest temperature possible, consistent with efficient use. The objective of the work is to monitor the quality of bitumen samples collected from mixing plant and quarry. Results showed that, samples modified bitumen which collected from quarry showed some adverse effects on rheological properties and physical properties after subjecting to high temperature storage within a period of time. The dynamic stiffness, elastic properties and other common binder properties were deteriorated too. The chemical changes that occurred during storage were analysed using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). Thus studies developed an understanding of bitumen ageing in storage.

  1. Loadings of polynuclear aromatic compounds and metals to the Athabasca River watershed by oil sands mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, P.V.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of oil sands operations to pollution in the Athabasca River has not yet been determined. Wastes from oil sands processes include recycled water, sand, silt, clay, bitumen, and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) and metals. Upgrading processes can also release significant quantities of PAC and heavy metals. This paper discussed a study in which PAC and metals in the snow pack and river water of the Athabasca watershed were assessed. The study showed that the oil sands industry is a significant source of contamination. The equivalent of 600 T of bitumen was observed at sites within 50 km of oil sands upgrading facilities. The strongest contamination signals occurred during the summer months, which suggested that the surface run-off of contaminated water was related to recent oil sands developments. Samples taken from tributaries in watersheds with little or no development indicated that increased concentrations of oil sands related contaminants were not caused by natural erosion. The contaminants may contribute to higher levels of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) in the flesh of fish and wildlife and increase toxicity to the embryos of spring-spawning fish.

  2. Microstructure and properties of lignite tar and pitch. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, H

    1954-01-01

    Photomicrographs reveal the presence of crystalline wax which affects the working properties in lignite tars and pitch. The crystals are large needles after slow cooling and small after rapid cooling. The crystals are paraffinic in character. All samples were nonhomogeneous. Thus the properties of lignite tar and pitch are varied by the source of the lignite and history of the specimen, neither softening point nor dropping point seems to satisfactorily characterize these tars. The samples exhibit thixotropic behavior characteristic of a structural viscosity and show hysteresis loops on varying the working rate. The variations have hindered use of lignite tars and pitches except where solubility in a solvent such as coal tar oil can be used to advantage.

  3. Characterization of Tar Deposits, Extraction and Sorption Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryszcz Adrian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to characterize and find a useful solution for the decomposition of tar deposits. For the experimental part, tar deposits, formed by polymerization and condensation reactions, were chosen from a storage tank for tars. At first the initial analyses of tar deposits (elemental, thermogravimetric, and calorimetric analyses were performed. After the characterization, the tar deposits were extracted in the Soxhlet extractor by acetone, toluene, and quinolone and activated with potassium hydroxide. As the final step of this work, the sorption characterization on the 3Flex Surface Characterization Analyzer (Micromeritics was performed. The specific surface area of the samples was evaluated using two methods - a single point measurement at p/p0=0.2 and BET method. Micropore and external surface areas were calculated based on a t-plot analysis (carbon black model.

  4. DECOMPOSITION OF TARS IN MICROWAVE PLASMA – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wnukowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the main problem connected with biomass gasification - a presence of tar in a product gas. This paper presents preliminary results of tar decomposition in a microwave plasma reactor. It gives a basic insight into the construction and work of the plasma reactor. During the experiment, researches were carried out on toluene as a tar surrogate. As a carrier gas for toluene and as a plasma agent, nitrogen was used. Flow rates of the gases and the microwave generator’s power were constant during the whole experiment. Results of the experiment showed that the decomposition process of toluene was effective because the decomposition efficiency attained above 95%. The main products of tar decomposition were light hydrocarbons and soot. The article also gives plans for further research in a matter of tar removal from the product gas.

  5. An introduction to conservation and reclamation at Alberta's mineable oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richens, T. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a balanced view of the conservation and reclamation issues and challenges facing oil sands development in Alberta. Bitumen is recovered by truck and shovel in the shallow oil sands of the Athabasca region. The deeper deposits in the Athabasca, Peace River and Cold Lake regions are accessed primarily using a system of horizontal wells and steam to extract the bitumen from the sand and pump it to the surface. Individual in-situ operations have a smaller environmental impact than mines, and do not produce tailings ponds. However, the footprint of in-situ facilities will accumulate over time because of the potential for extensive future development. The key issues facing conservation and reclamation in the mineable oil sands were discussed. Summary statistics on land disturbed and reclaimed in the region were also provided. The challenges facing reclamation activities include long timeframes; large scale, regional planning and integration; competing land use goals; revegetation; byproduct management; and tailings and process-affected water. Multi-stakeholder forums have proven to be the key to the progression of monitoring, research and development and the sharing of knowledge and information. Frameworks have been developed for the assessment of pre-disturbed and reclaimed soil capability specific to the oil sands region. Additional resources are also available, such as guidelines for the reclamation of terrestrial and wetland habitats that represent the best management practices for reclamation research in revegetation, soil salvage, stockpiling and placement, tailings reclamation, end pit lakes, wetlands and biodiversity. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Examination of oil sands projects : gasification, CO{sub 2} emissions and supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, K. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Non-conventional resources such as Alberta's oil sands are experiencing increased global interest because of the decline in global conventional oil and natural gas reserves. Bitumen extraction and upgrading is an energy intensive process. This paper provided a general discussion of Alberta's oil sands reserves, production and energy requirements. The paper discussed the application of different technologies to the oil sands, and in particular, the use of gasification as a method to produce bitumen-derived synthesis gas. Two oil sands projects currently under construction and implementing gasification technology were briefly described. The paper also provided a comparison of emission intensities from projects that employ gasification leading to a forecast of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from the oil sands. The impact of Alberta's legislation and the federal framework on greenhouse gas emissions were also examined. Last, the paper discussed a supply cost methodology to compare an integrated extraction and upgrading project using gasification versus a similar project using a conventional steam methane reforming process (SMR). It was concluded that after comparing carbon dioxide emission intensities across different types of projects, the type of project that would be most heavily impacted by greenhouse gas emissions penalties was an in-situ extraction with an upgrading project that employed gasification technology. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  7. Considerations when ranking stochastically modeled oil sands resource models for mining applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etris, E.L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Idris, Y.; Hunter, A.C. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Alberta's Athabasca oil sands deposit has been targeted as a major resource for development. Bitumen recovery operations fall into 2 categories, namely mining and in situ operations. Mining recovery is done above ground level and consists of open pit digging, disaggregation of the bitumen-saturated sediment through crushing followed by pipeline transport in a water-based slurry and then separation of oil, water and sediment. In situ recovery consists of drilling wells and stimulating the oil sands in the subsurface with a thermal treatment to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and allow it to come to the surface. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most popular thermal treatment currently in use. Resource models that simulate the recovery process are needed for both mining and in situ recovery operations. Both types can benefit from the advantages of a stochastic modeling process for resource model building and uncertainty evaluation. Stochastic modeling provides a realistic geology and allows for multiple realizations, which mining operations can use to evaluate the variability of recoverable bitumen volumes and develop mine plans accordingly. This paper described the processes of stochastic modelling and of determining the appropriate single realization for mine planning as applied to the Fort Hills oil sands mine which is currently in the early planning stage. The modeling exercise was used to estimate the in-place resource and quantify the uncertainty in resource volumes. The stochastic models were checked against those generated from conventional methods to identify any differences and to make the appropriate adaptations. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  8. Removing tar information from cigarette packages may reduce South Korean smokers' misconceptions about low-tar cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Paek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Many smokers still have misconceptions about “light” or “low tar” cigarettes. In South Korea, low-tar (< 3 mg cigarette sales have increased sharply from 1.8% in 2002 to 49.2% in 2015. Although government regulations forbid cigarette packages from displaying messages such as “mild,” “low-tar,” and “light,” numbers indicating tar amounts are still permitted. This study examines whether removing tar information from packaging altogether reduces people's misconceptions about low tar cigarettes. Methods An online experiment was conducted among 531 smokers who were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the “tar” condition, 271 participants were shown in random order three cigarette packages for three major brands (Esse, The One, Marlboro with different tar amounts. In the “no-tar” condition, 260 participants were shown the same packages without tar information. Next, participants evaluated which type of cigarette was mildest, least harmful, easier for nonsmokers to start smoking, and easier for smokers to quit. After descriptive statistics were checked, twelve sets of chi-square tests were performed. Results Average age of the participants was 26.22 (14 - 62 years; 53.5% were male. All 12 chi-square tests were statistically significant. Participants in the tar condition judged the lowest-tar cigarette to be mildest, least harmful, easier to start, and easier to quit. In the no-tar condition, for the Korean brands Esse and The One, most respondents evaluated all cigarette types to be the same only for harm, ease of starting, and ease of quitting; for Marlboro, judgments were the same as those in the tar condition except that “easier to quit” was judged to be the same across the three types. Conclusions Banning tar information from cigarette packages may help reduce smokers' misconceptions about low-tar cigarettes. People have inconsistent judgments about differently packaged cigarettes when tar

  9. Opportunities for CANDU for the Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Bock, D.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.; Keil, H.; Fiorino, L.; Hau, K.; Zhou, X.; Dunbar, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The Alberta oil sands bitumen deposits comprise of one of the largest sources hydrocarbon in the world, and have emerged as the fastest growing, soon to be dominant, source of crude oil in Canada. The oil industry has made great strides in improving the effectiveness of gathering this resource. In particular, alternatives to open-pit mining have been developed which enable in-site recovery of underground deposits with a minimum of environmental disruption. The main challenge that remains is the large quantity of energy needed in the process of extracting the oil and upgrading it to commercial levels. For a typical in-situ extraction project, about 18% of the energy content of the oil produced is used up in the extraction process, while a further 5% is used in generating hydrogen to upgrade the bitumen to synthetic crude oil. Looking ahead, even as improvements in energy use efficiency, (and hydrocarbon use efficiency) counterbalance the increases in hydrocarbon demand from economic growth (particularly in the developing world), Canada and Alberta recognize that the oil sands resource will be needed, and both support the development of this resource in an environmentally responsible way. The large energy requirement for the oil sands extraction process represents a challenge with regard to both environmental impact and security of supply. The use of natural gas, the current energy supply, has impacts in terms of air quality (via NOX and other emissions) and also represents a large greenhouse gas emissions component. As the oil sands industry expands, the availability of natural gas also becomes a concern, as does price and price stability. With this background, the opportunity for nuclear reactors to provide an economical, reliable, virtually zero-emission source of energy for the oil sands becomes very important. Over the last few years, developments in oil sands extraction technology, and developments in CANDU technology through the Advanced CANDU Reactor, (ACR

  10. Geophysics comes of age in oil sands development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, P. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Birch, R.; Parker, D.; Andrews, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed geophysical techniques developed for oil sands exploration and production applications in Alberta's oil sands region. Geophysical methods are playing an important role in mine planning, tailings containment, water supply, and land reclamation activities. Geophysics techniques are used to estimate the volume of muskeg that needs to be stripped and stored for future reclamation activities as well as to site muskeg piles and delineate the thickness of clay Clearwater formations overlying Cretaceous oil-bearing sands. 2-D electrical resistivity mapping is used to map river-connected deep bedrock Pleistocene paleovalleys in the region. Geophysical studies are also used to investigate the interiors of dikes and berms as well as to monitor salt migration within tailings piles. Sonic and density logs are used to create synthetic seismograms for mapping the Devonian surface in the region. The new applications included the calculation of bitumen saturation from surface sands and shales; muskeg thickness mapping; and non-intrusive monitoring of leachate plumes. Geophysical techniques included 2-D electrical resistivity imaging; transient electromagnetic (EM) technologies; ground penetrating radar; and high-resolution seismic reflections. Polarization, surface nuclear magnetic resonance and push-probe sensing techniques were also discussed. Techniques were discussed in relation to Alberta's Athabasca oil sands deposits. 4 refs.

  11. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Aquin, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations

  12. The use of stable isotopes to trace oil sands constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, A.J.; Nero, V.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biological effects of oil sands mining operations on aquatic ecosystems. The study focused on the Athabasca oil sand deposit, the largest of 4 deposits in northern Alberta. In particular, the study examined the cycling of oil sand constituents in Benthic invertebrates collected from test pits at Syncrude Canada Ltd.. The invertebrates were similar in size, but different in the quantity of process-affected water or mature fine tailings containing residual bitumen. Dragonflies and damselflies in particular, showed trends of depletion for the carbon 13 isotope and enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope in pits where levels of process affected water was high. The depletion of carbon 13 isotope suggests that oil sand constituents assimilate into the benthic food chain. The greatest carbon 13 depletion, which was approximately 27 per cent, was found to be in test pits with high turbidity. This implies that oil sands constituents degrade microbially instead of by photosynthetic production. All benthic invertebrate group demonstrated an incremental enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope from the control pit to the pit with greatest levels of mature fine tailings

  13. Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters

  14. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  15. Ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate oxidation of coal tar DNAPLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Libin; Wang, Li; Hu, Xingting; Wu, Peihui; Wang, Xueqing; Huang, Chumei; Wang, Xiangyang; Deng, Dayi

    2016-11-15

    The feasibility of ultrasound assisted, thermally activated persulfate for effective oxidation of twenty 2-6 ringed coal tar PAHs in a biphasic tar/water system and a triphasic tar/soil/water system were investigated and established. The results indicate that ultrasonic assistance, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature are all required to achieve effective oxidation of coal tar PAHs, while the heating needed can be provided by ultrasonic induced heating as well. Further kinetic analysis reveals that the oxidation of individual PAH in the biphasic tar/water system follows the first-order kinetics, and individual PAH oxidation rate is primary determined by the mass transfer coefficients, tar/water interfacial areas, the aqueous solubility of individual PAH and its concentration in coal tar. Based on the kinetic analysis and experimental results, the contributions of ultrasound, persulfate and elevated reaction temperature to PAHs oxidation were characterized, and the effects of ultrasonic intensity and oxidant dosage on PAHs oxidation efficiency were investigated. In addition, the results indicate that individual PAH degradability is closely related to its reactivity as well, and the high reactivity of 4-6 ringed PAHs substantially improves their degradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Final Safety Assessment of Coal Tar as Used in Cosmetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant-antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  17. Bitumen modified with recycled polyurethane foam for employment in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Salas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of modifiers have been applied to bitumen in order to enhance their properties and performance. Among them, polymers have been mainly used. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of polyurethane foam waste as a bitumen modifier for hot mix asphalts. The polyurethane foam is a by-product of the manufacturing of polyurethane for thermal insulation. From a bitumen with a penetration grade of 50/70, various samples with percentages of waste material in weight ranging from 1% to 5% were produced and tested. Samples with 5% of waste material or more became rough and were refused due to their poor workability. A bituminous mixture with modified bitumen with a 4% of polyurethane was manufactured and compared with a sample with the same aggregates and original bitumen. Results in Marshall test showed that a mix with polymer modified bitumen yielded improvements in stability and a lower deformability. This result suggests that the employment of polyurethane foam waste is a promising bitumen modifier, contributing also to recycle waste materials.

  18. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultravioletlight (UV-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry to reveal the mechanisms of action for LDHs and bitumen. The results showed that within the UV spectra (220–400 nm, the reflectance of Zn-Al-LDHs was larger than that of Mg-Al-LDHs. These two LDHs have different influences on the performance of bitumen. Mg-Al-LDHs had a more obvious influence on the physical and dynamic rheological properties of bitumen than Zn-Al-LDHs. Zn-Al-LDHs improved the UV-aging resistance of bitumen more. The reason can be that the reflectance of the Zn-Al-LDHs to the UV light is larger than that of the Mg-Al-LDHs. The Zn-Al-LDH-modified bitumen had more potential to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service life of asphalt pavement.

  19. It's all about the bitumen : oilsands producers have the attention of the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-09-01

    Within 10 years, oilsands growth will make Canada the fifth largest oil producing country in the world, thereby greatly increasing Canada's political power. A review of oil sands development was presented, with reference to the way in which Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) has revolutionized the industry. Recent acquisitions have pointed to the growing level of international interest in the oilsands industry. Construction details of the Surmont project were discussed along with Devon Canada's SAGD project at Jackfish where about 100 well-pairs are expected to be drilled. Petrobank Energy and Resources is constructing its Whitesands project, which will employ the first field-scale application of the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) recovery method which has lower operating costs and which uses less water and creates fewer greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The pilot was designed to produce up to 1800 barrels per day of partially upgraded bitumen. Details of CNRI's Horizon project were presented, including construction plans and schedules. Shell Canada's increased budget for the first expansion of the Athabasca Oilsands Project was reviewed with reference to their strategic decision to pre-build infrastructure for future expansions. Details of Suncor Energy's production goals were also reviewed, including details of new upgraders and applications. Syncrude's continuing expansions were discussed, as well as their current production levels. An outline of UTS Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada's plans concerning the Fort Hills Mining Project was presented, with details of the new BITMIN extraction process. It was noted that Imperial Oil has filed regulatory applications for the Kearl Oilsands Project, which have estimated total recoverable bitumen resources of 4.4 billion barrels. Husky Energy's Sunrise Project was discussed, as well as MEG Energy's regulatory approval for the first phase of the Christina Lake Regional

  20. THE IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION OF BITUMEN FOR THE ROAD PAVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Belova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The oil (artificial bitumens, got by conversion of the oil cheese, are broadly used in the road construction. The track record of the development road covering, studies, bound with improvement their characteristic and development of the competitions among technology is presented in this article.Methods. Nowdays the modern developments in the field of production bitumen road marks are implemented using such technological-go acceptance as chemical actuated heavy oil cheese, which principles are based on regulation of the energybetween molecular interactions and optimization their dimensionality, allowing raise quality bitumen.Results. Adjusting the depth of recovery of the oxidized product, it is possible to obtain different composition, plasticity and heat resistance of the bitumen. The residual bitumen obtained by two-stage oxidation with subsequent vacuum distillation of the oxidized product comply with GOST 60/90. Vacuum gas oil in the production of residual bitumen corresponds to the motor fuel for marine installations.Conclusion. Today, the bitumen production leaves on positions packed-valuable segment oil processing industry. The Main customer roads - a state. Herewith important role as ideologues of the development of the culture road construction plays the Federal road agency, supporting developing competition amongst leading technology. Introduction new technology at conversion remaining component oils, founded on do active cheese to account physical and chemical of the influence, with using the modern equipment, including equipment, using subject to influence effects, ultrasonic and electro-magnetic fields, and others, allows to get the qualitative road bitumens from majority of the oils, scanned earlier unfit for production bitumen.

  1. Oil sands to the rescue: oil sand microbial communities can degrade recalcitrant alkyl phenyl alkanoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, Corinne [University of Essex (Canada)], email: cwhitby@essex.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    Almost half of all global oil reserves are found as biodegraded heavy oils found in vast tar sand deposits located in North and South America and these account for 47% of Canadian oil production. Oil sand extraction generates large amounts of toxic waste water, known as oil sand process waters (OSPW), that are stored in large tailing ponds that contain toxic compounds like naphthenic acids (NAs). The presence of NAs creates problems like toxicity, corrosion, and the formation of calcium napthenate deposits which block pipelines and other infrastructure and need to be removed. This paper presents oil sand microbial communities that can degrade these NAs. The approach is to apply new aliphatic and aromatic NAs as substrates to supplement and identify NA degrading microbes and also to identify the metabolites produced and explain NA degradation pathways and the functional genes involved. The chemistry and the processes involved are explained. From the results, it is suggested that pure cultures of P. putida KT2440 be used against NAs.

  2. Solid colloidal particles inducing coalescence in bitumen-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, J; Chamerois, M; Placin, F; Poirier, J E; Bibette, J; Leal-Calderon, F

    2005-01-04

    Silica particles are dispersed in the continuous phase of bitumen-in-water emulsions. The mixture remains dispersed in quiescent storage conditions. However, rapid destabilization occurs once a shear is applied. Observations under the microscope reveal that the bitumen droplets form a colloidal gel and coalesce upon application of a shear. We follow the kinetic evolution of the emulsions viscosity, eta, at constant shear rate: eta remains initially constant and exhibits a dramatic increase after a finite time, tau. We study the influence of various parameters on the evolution of tau: bitumen droplet size and volume fraction, silica diameter and concentration, shear rate, etc.

  3. Bitumen-petrolatum hydroinsulation employment in the South-Ukrainian NPP building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donskov, V.A.; Pochepko, V.P.; Ryaboshapko, Yu.I.; Savenkov, V.V.; Chaplygin, L.A.; Chernyavskij, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Method of accomplishment of external hydroinsulation of ferroconcrete constructions by bitumen-petrolatum compositions used in the South-Ukrainian NPP building is described. The speciality of this method lies in establishing the combined cover, which includes concrete layer impregnated by modified petrolatum, and the covering layer from bitumen and petrolatum mixture, and performs not only functions of hydroinsulation but also anticorrosive protection under conditions of highly agressive waters action. Physicomechanical characteristics of bitumen-petrolatum compositions are given and the installation for applying of hydroinsulation compositions is described

  4. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O.

    2013-01-01

    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository

  5. Gasification reactivities of cokes derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1985-10-01

    Gasification reactivities of cokes obtained from Athabasca bitumen by delayed coking and fluid coking were compared in fixed and fluidized bed systems. In both systems the C + O/sub 2/ reaction accounted for the most of converted carbon. The C + H/sub 2/O reaction proceeded to a smaller extent. The bulk reactivity of the fluid coke was higher than that of delayed coke, when comparing -20 to +60 mesh particles in fluidized bed and -14 to +20 mesh particles in fixed bed, respectively. However, the reactivity of the delayed coke expressed per unit of surface area was markedly higher than that of the fluid coke. 9 figs., 7 tabs., 6 refs. (A.V.)

  6. [Research on Oil Sands Spectral Characteristics and Oil Content by Remote Sensing Estimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jin-feng; Xing, Li-xin; Pan, Jun; Shan, Xuan-long; Liang, Li-heng; Fan, Rui-xue

    2015-04-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a proven technology to be widely used in identification and exploration of hydrocarbon energy sources with high spectral resolution for detail diagnostic absorption characteristics of hydrocarbon groups. The most prominent regions for hydrocarbon absorption bands are 1,740-1,780, 2,300-2,340 and 2,340-2,360 nm by the reflectance of oil sands samples. These spectral ranges are dominated by various C-H overlapping overtones and combination bands. Meanwhile, there is relatively weak even or no absorption characteristics in the region from 1,700 to 1,730 nm in the spectra of oil sands samples with low bitumen content. With the increase in oil content, in the spectral range of 1,700-1,730 nm the obvious hydrocarbon absorption begins to appear. The bitumen content is the critical parameter for oil sands reserves estimation. The absorption depth was used to depict the response intensity of the absorption bands controlled by first-order overtones and combinations of the various C-H stretching and bending fundamentals. According to the Pearson and partial correlation relationships of oil content and absorption depth dominated by hydrocarbon groups in 1,740-1,780, 2,300-2,340 and 2,340-2,360 nm wavelength range, the scheme of association mode was established between the intensity of spectral response and bitumen content, and then unary linear regression(ULR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) methods were employed to model the equation between absorption depth attributed to various C-H bond and bitumen content. There were two calibration equations in which ULR method was employed to model the relationship between absorption depth near 2,350 nm region and bitumen content and PLSR method was developed to model the relationship between absorption depth of 1,758, 2,310, 2,350 nm regions and oil content. It turned out that the calibration models had good predictive ability and high robustness and they could provide the scientific

  7. Irradiation tests on bitumen and bitumen coated materials; Essais d'irradiation de bitume et d'enrobes bitumineux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabardel-Brian, R.; Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    The use of bitumen as a material for coating high-activity products calls for prior study of the resistance of bitumen to irradiation. After giving briefly the methods of preparation of bitumen- coated products, this report lists the equipment which has been used for carrying out the {beta} and {gamma} irradiations of these products, and gives the analytical results obtained as a function of the dose rates chosen and of the total integrated dose. Finally, some conclusions have been drawn concerning the best types of bitumen. It should be stressed that some bitumens apparently underwent no degradation whatsoever nor any volume increase, for a total integrated dose of 1.8 x 10{sup 10} rads. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre de l'enrobage par le bitume des produits de haute activite, il est necessaire de verifier au prealable, la tenue du bitume a l'irradiation. Apres un bref rappel de la preparation des enrobes bitumineux, le present rapport regroupe les moyens qui ont ete mis en oeuvre, pour effectuer leurs irradiations sous rayonnement {beta} et sous rayonnement {gamma}, ainsi que les resultats des analyses qui ont ete faites en fonction des debits de doses choisis et de la dose totale integree. Enfin, des conclusions ont ete tirees sur les types de bitume a retenir. On peut souligner que certains bitumes n'ont subi aucune degradation apparente ni augmentation de volume pour une dose totale integree de 1.8 x 10{sup 10} rads. (auteurs)

  8. Flash hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal . III. Research on flash hydropyrolysis tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, M.; Zhu, Z.; He, Y.; Ding, N.; Tang, L. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2000-02-01

    Tar sample obtained by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) from Dongshen coal at high pressure entrained reactor was investigated. An effect of flash hydropyrolysis temperature on the main components in tar was studied and the quality of the tar was compared with high temperature coke oven tar. The results showed that: the yields of liquid hydrocarbon in FHP tar were more than 15%, which is twofold of that in coke oven tar; the FHP tar has high oil fraction and low pitch; high phenol components and pure condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and low aliphatic hydrocarbon. The components of the FHP tar were simpler than that of high temperature coke oven tar. Therefore, FHP has improved the quantity and quality of tar. 11 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, G.R.; LeBlanc, N.; Walden, T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

  10. Biogeochemical gradients above a coal tar DNAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherr, Kerstin E., E-mail: kerstin.brandstaetter-scherr@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Backes, Diana [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department IFA-Tulln, Institute for Environmental Biotechnology, Konrad Lorenz Strasse 20, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Scarlett, Alan G. [University of Plymouth, Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lantschbauer, Wolfgang [Government of Upper Austria, Directorate for Environment and Water Management, Division for Environmental Protection, Kärntner Strasse 10-12, 4021 Linz (Austria); Nahold, Manfred [GUT Gruppe Umwelt und Technik GmbH, Ingenieurbüro für Technischen Umweltschutz, Plesching 15, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    Naturally occurring distribution and attenuation processes can keep hydrocarbon emissions from dense non aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) into the adjacent groundwater at a minimum. In a historically coal tar DNAPL-impacted site, the de facto absence of a plume sparked investigations regarding the character of natural attenuation and DNAPL resolubilization processes at the site. Steep vertical gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microbial community composition, secondary water quality and redox-parameters were found to occur between the DNAPL-proximal and shallow waters. While methanogenic and mixed-electron acceptor conditions prevailed close to the DNAPL, aerobic conditions and very low dissolved contaminant concentrations were identified in three meters vertical distance from the phase. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC × GC–MS) proved to be an efficient tool to characterize the behavior of the present complex contaminant mixture. Medium to low bioavailability of ferric iron and manganese oxides of aquifer samples was detected via incubation with Shewanella alga and evidence for iron and manganese reduction was collected. In contrast, 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis revealed the absence of common iron reducing bacteria. Aerobic hydrocarbon degraders were abundant in shallow horizons, while nitrate reducers were dominating in deeper aquifer regions, in addition to a low relative abundance of methanogenic archaea. Partial Least Squares – Canonical Correspondence Analysis (PLS-CCA) suggested that nitrate and oxygen concentrations had the greatest impact on aquifer community structure in on- and offsite wells, which had a similarly high biodiversity (H’ and Chao1). Overall, slow hydrocarbon dissolution from the DNAPL appears to dominate natural attenuation processes. This site may serve as a model for developing legal and technical strategies for the treatment of DNAPL-impacted sites where contaminant plumes are

  11. Some studies on tar pillets at Veraval coast (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.

    Infrared spectroscopic (IR) analysis indicated that the tar pillets contain saturated hydrocarbons particularly higher homologues of n-paraffins, unsaturated and carbonyl type of polar compounds. Gas chromatographic (GLC) fingerprint pattern...

  12. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A; Rokade, M.A

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  13. UTILIZATION OF AQUEOUS-TAR CONDENSATES FORMED DURING GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kwiecińska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of solid fuels is an alternative process for energy production using conventional and renewable fuels. Apart from desired compounds, i.e. carbon oxide, hydrogen and methane, the produced gas contains complex organic (tars and inorganic (carbonizate, ammonia contaminants. Those substances, together with water vapor, condensate during cooling of the process gas, what results in the formation of aqueous-tar condensate, which requires proper methods of utilization. The management of this stream is crucial for commercialization and application of the gasification technology. In the paper the treatment of aqueous-tar condensates formed during biomass gasification process is discussed. The removal of tars from the stream was based on their spontaneous separation. The aqueous stream was subjected to ultrafiltration operated at different pressures. Such a treatment configuration enabled to obtain highly concentrated retentate, which could be recycled to the gasifier, and filtrate, which could be subjected to further treatment.

  14. Process water treatment in Canada's oil sands industry : 2 : a review of emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    This review was conducted to identify candidate treatment technologies for treating oil sands process water. The oil sands industry in Canada uses large volumes of fresh water in order to extract bitumen deposits. The development of process water treatment technologies has become a critical issue for the industry, particularly as oil sand production is expected to triple in the next decade. However, treatment technologies must be adapted to consider the fouling potential of bitumens and fine clays as well as the effect of alkaline process water on treatment performance. The review included developments in chemical modifications to membranes and adsorbents designed to improve pollutant removal and reduce fouling; hybridization technologies designed to enhance the biological treatment of toxic feedwaters; recent advances in photocatalytic oxidation technologies for organic compounds; and new designs for large-scale treatment wetlands for polluted waste waters. It was concluded that major knowledge gaps must be optimized and preliminary studies must be conducted in order to understand how the treatment technologies will be affected by the chemical and physical characteristics of oil sands process water. 188 refs., 8 tabs

  15. Extraction of low-temperature tar by various alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, N; Osawa, M; Azuma, H

    1948-01-01

    MeOH was the most effective of the alcohols tested (MeOH to pentanol) in extracting acid components from low-temperature tar. The optimum concentrations of MeOH were 70 to 80% for 1 extraction and 70 to 75% for repeated or continuous extractions when the solvent-tar ratio was 1:1. By 2 to 3 extractions neutral oil could be separated in about 90% yield including > 3% acidic oil.

  16. Corrosion test by low-temperature coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S; Yamamoto, S

    1952-01-01

    Corrosive actions of various fractions of low-temperature coal tar against mild steel or Cr 13-steel were compared at their boiling states. Corrosions became severe when the boiling points exceeded 240/sup 0/. The acidic fractions were more corrosive. In all instances, corrosion was excessive at the beginning of immersion testing and then gradually became mild; boiling accelerated the corrosion. Cr 13-steel was corrosion-resistant to low-temperature coal-tar fractions.

  17. Study of the thermal and mechanical sensitivity of bitumen/oxygen salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backof, E.; Diepold, W.

    1975-07-01

    The safe handling characteristics of radioactive wastes containing nitrate salts to be fixed in bitumen for ultimate storage in salt mines according to a process developed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center have been examined with respect to their combustibility and shock sensitivity in tests of inactive bitumen/salt mixtures. Samples containing 40% bitumen and 60% nitrates of alkali, alkaline earth, and heavy metals, organic acids and rare earths were used to determine the thermal sensitivity (ignition temperature, duration of burning, heating under contained conditions), the mechanical sensitivity (shock sensitivity) and, in order to simulate major shock stresses, the sensitivity against detonation stresses. A few basic experiments were also performed on some beta-irradiated inactive samples. It appeared that although the addition of nitrates increased the combustibility of bitumen, neither the high thermal nor the detonation stresses resulted in any explosion-type reaction. (orig.) [de

  18. Characterization and Behavior of Cold Lake Blend and Western Canadian Select Diluted Bitumen Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unconventional diluted bitumen (dilbit) oil products present an increasing environmental concern because of extensive transport in North America, recent spills into aquatic habitats, and limited understanding of environmental fate and toxicity. Dilbits are blends of highly weathe...

  19. Bitumen rubber asphalt mix testing for South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The South Africa National Road Agency Ltd has entered into a research and laboratory testing agreement with the CSIR to support the revision of the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM). The research includes characterising a bitumen...

  20. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.

  1. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryer, Pamela J.; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, and 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. - Coal-tar pavement sealants degrade stream invertebrate communities.

  2. Infrared absorption characteristics of hydroxyl groups in coal tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, S A; Chu, C J; Hange, R H; Margrave, J L

    1987-01-01

    Tar evolution was observed over a temperature range of 150-600 C for four coals. Pittsburgh bituminous, Illinois No.6, Rawhide subbituminous, and Texas lignite. Isolation of the evolved tars in a nitrogen matrix at 15 degrees K produced better resolved infrared spectra than those in a coal matrix, thus enhancing structural characterization of the tar molecules. Two distinct hydroxyl functional groups in the tar molecules free of hydrogen bonding were identified for the first time without interference from H/sub 2/O absorptions. These absorptions at 3626.5 cm/sup -1/ have been assigned to phenolic hydroxyls. It is suggested that carboxylic and aliphatic hydroxyl groups do not survive the vaporization process. Tars from Illinois No.6 were found to contain the largest amount of phenolic hydroxyl; Pittsburgh No. 8 tar contains approximately half of that for Illinois No.6 while Rawhide and Texas lignite contain much less phenolic than either of the other coals. 10 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  3. Catalytic destruction of tar in biomass derived producer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ruiqin; Brown, Robert C.; Suby, Andrew; Cummer, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate catalytic destruction of tar formed during gasification of biomass, with the goal of improving the quality of the producer gas. This work focuses on nickel based catalysts treated with alkali in an effort to promote steam gasification of the coke that deposits on catalyst surfaces. A tar conversion system consisting of a guard bed and catalytic reactor was designed to treat the producer gas from an air blown, fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The guard bed used dolomite to crack the heavy tars. The catalytic reactor was used to evaluate three commercial steam reforming catalysts. These were the ICI46-1 catalyst from Imperial Chemical Industry and Z409 and RZ409 catalysts from Qilu Petrochemical Corp. in China. A 0.5-3 l/min slipstream from a 5 tpd biomass gasifier was used to test the tar conversion system. Gas and tar were sampled before and after the tar conversion system to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Changes in gas composition as functions of catalytic bed temperature, space velocity and steam/TOC (total organic carbon) ratio are presented. Structural changes in the catalysts during the tests are also described

  4. Low-temperature tar and oil: properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, R

    1942-01-01

    In Germany the value of low-temperature tar is largely dependent on its fuel fractions; these vary with the coal and the method of carbonization (external heating or recirculated gases). Brown-coal tars can be processed by distillation, cracking under pressure, hydrogenation under pressure (largest volume of tar is processed by this method) and by solvent extraction, with EtOH, SO/sub 2/, or phenol. Each of these processes is discussed in detail. In the pressure-hydrogenation process, 1.25 kilogram of brown-coal tar yields approximately 1 kilogram of gasoline with an octane number of 60 to 70. Low-temperature tars from bituminous coals can be hydrogenated readily but are not well adapted to solvent extraction. Attempts should be made to produce tar approximating the desired characteristics for fuel directly from the carbonizing apparatus. For laboratory carbonization tests, an approximation to results secured by externally heated retorts is secured by using an insert consisting of a series of perforated trays in the 200-gram Fischer aluminum retort; this reduces the capacity to 100 gram. Fractional condensation is used to separate heavy oil, middle oil, and liquor; low-boiling products are condensed at -20/sup 0/ by solid CO/sub 2/.

  5. Extraction of tar acids with methanol from low-temperature tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funasaka, W; Yokogawa, C; Suga, S

    1948-01-01

    From 20 grams crude middle oil, boiling at 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/, acid content 40%, tar acids were extracted at 20/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/ with MeOH for comparison with EtOH, NMe/sub 3/, and ethylene glycol. When 80% MeOH is used, the oil extracted amounts to 61%, including 9% acids, if the ratio of crude oil and solvent is kept at 1:2. EtOH is inferior to MeOH. The properties of the crude oil and the purified oil extracted with 80% MeOH are described.

  6. Structural Evolution of Kerogen and Bitumen during Thermal Maturation examined by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, P. R.; Le Doan, T. V.; Pomerantz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Kerogen—the organic matter that is solid and insoluble in organic solvents—is a key component of organic-rich mudstones. The composition of kerogen affects the storage and transport of hydrocarbons in these unconventional resources and is known to change with thermal maturity. We report here using FTIR spectroscopy, the compositional characteristics of kerogen as a function of thermal maturity, together with the compositional characteristics of the organic phase, bitumen—the organic matter that is solid, but soluble in organic solvents. Kerogen is consumed during thermal maturation, whereas bitumen is an intermediary formed at low maturity from kerogen and consumed at higher maturities in formation of oil and gas. Bitumen relative to kerogen has higher aliphatic content, lower aromatic content, and lower abundance of oxygenated functions. At low maturity (vitrinite reflectance equivalent VRe ~ 0.5-0.9 %), the average length of aliphatic chains in bitumen increases during bitumen formation. At higher thermal maturities (VRe > 1.0-1.3 %), average aliphatic chain length decreases as bitumen is consumed. This evolution contrasts to that in kerogen, where aliphatic chain lengths shorten during all stages of maturation. Breakdown of kerogen appears to be driven by cleavage of oxygen functions at low maturity and removal of aliphatic carbons at higher maturities. These aliphatic-rich fragments may comprise the bitumen, and may in part explain the solubility of bitumen in organic solvents. Bitumen shows evidence of oxidation at low thermal maturity, a phenonemom not documented for kerogen. Bitumen maturation and degradation at higher thermal maturity is driven by cleavage and loss of aliphatic carbons, and is coincident with the maximum generation of oil and gas. The aromatic content of bitumen and of kerogen both increase during maturation as a consequence of the loss of aliphatic carbon. The oil and gas generation potential of the residual organic matter thus

  7. Mining aspects of hard to access oil sands deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.; Wright, D.; Lukacs, Z. [Norwest Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    While a variety of oil sands mining technologies have been explored since the 1960s, the oil sands industry has generally favoured truck and shovel mining as a proven, low-cost mining solution. However, surface mining economics are affected by the price of bitumen, haul distances, tailings storage and geotechnical constraints. Maintenance, labour and the cost of replacing tires and ground engaging tools also have a significant impact on the economics of surface mining. Large volumes of water are used in surface mining, and remediation of surface mined areas can take hundreds of years. Damage to machinery is common as oil sands are abrasive and adhere to equipment. This presentation examined recent technologies developed to improve the economics of surface mining. Various extraction and tailings technologies were reviewed. Issues concerning the integration of mining and extraction processes were discussed. Various monitoring tools were evaluated. A review of new underground mining options included outlines of: longwall mining; sub-level caving; tunnel boring; and room and pillar extraction techniques. A generalized regional geology was presented. It was concluded that the oil sands surfacing mining industry should concentrate on near-term research needs to improve the performance and economics of proven technologies. Screening studies should also be conducted to determine the focus for the development of underground technologies. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...... will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final...

  9. Effect of black rice husk ash on the physical and rheological properties of bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romastarika, Raissa; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Yaacob, Haryati; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Agussabti, Ichwana, Jayanti, Dewi Sri

    2017-08-01

    Black rice husk ash (BRHA) waste product is inexpensive and can be obtained from rice mills. Reuse of waste product is ideal to reduce pollution, because disposal is decreased or eliminated. The commercial value of BRHA has increased, and it is suitable for use in road construction. In this study, BRHA waste was ground using a grinding ball mill for 120 min to form fine powder. BRHA was then sieved to less than 75 µm. At the laboratory, BRHA was mixed with bitumen to replace 2%, 4%, and 6% of the total weight, whereas 0% represented the control sample. The penetration, softening point, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and rolling thin film oven (RTFO) were investigated in this study. Results showed that bitumen became harder, whereas the rate of penetration decreased when the replacement amount of BRHA increased. Softening point test of bitumen also revealed an increase. The short-term aging test revealed that modification of bitumen could relieve the effect of aging. BRHA waste added into bitumen improved the performance of bitumen. Therefore, the usage of BRHA could help improve the performance of road pavement and reduce the rutting effect.

  10. Effect of waste polymer addition on the rheology of modified bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Garcia-Morales; P. Partal; F.J. Navarro; C. Gallegos [Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales

    2006-05-15

    This paper deals with the modification of petroleum bitumen with four different types of waste polymers. EVA, EVA/LDPE blend, crumb tire rubber and ABS, all of them coming from recycling plants of waste plastic materials, were used as modifying agents of the bitumen employed in the pavement building. Optical microscopy, modulated calorimetry and a set of different rheological tests were developed in order to characterise the modified bitumens. The results obtained reveal that tire rubber as well as its blends with other polymers can be considered as an interesting modifier of the bitumen in a wide range of temperatures. As an elastomer, it endows the pavement a higher flexibility, which makes it more resistant to the traffic loading. The blend composed of EVA and LDPE displays quite promising results at high in-service temperatures, due to the development of a polymer network throughout the modified bitumen. Furthermore, the calorimetry tests carried out demonstrate different degrees of compatibility between the bitumen and the polymers used. 45 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Biological marker distribution in coexisting kerogen, bitumen and asphaltenes in Monterey Formation diatomite, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Ruth, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Organic-rich (18.2%) Monterey Formation diatomite from California was studied. The organic matter consist of 94% bitumen and 6% kerogen. Biological markers from the bitumen and from pyrolysates of the coexisting asphaltenes and kerogen were analyzed in order to elucidate the relationship between the various fractions of the organic matter. While 17 alpha(H), 18 alpha(H), 21 alpha(H)-28,30-bisnorhopane was present in the bitumen and in the pryolysate of the asphaltenes, it was not detected in the pyrolysates of the kerogen. A C40-isoprenoid with "head to head" linkage, however, was present in pyrolysates of both kerogen and asphaltenes, but not in the bitumen from the diatomite. The maturation level of the bitumen, based on the extent of isomerization of steranes and hopanes, was that of a mature oil, whereas the pyrolysate from the kerogen showed a considerably lower maturation level. These relationships indicate that the bitumen may not be indigenous to the diatomite and that it is a mature oil that migrated into the rock. We consider the possibility, however, that some of the 28,30-bisnorhopane-rich Monterey Formation oils have not been generated through thermal degradation of kerogen, but have been expelled from the source rock at an early stage of diagenesis.

  12. Structure and Mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus TarS, the Wall Teichoic Acid β-glycosyltransferase Involved in Methicillin Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Sobhanifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in teichoic acids as targets for antibiotic drug design against major clinical pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, reflecting the disquieting increase in antibiotic resistance and the historical success of bacterial cell wall components as drug targets. It is now becoming clear that β-O-GlcNAcylation of S. aureus wall teichoic acids plays a major role in both pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. Here we present the first structure of S. aureus TarS, the enzyme responsible for polyribitol phosphate β-O-GlcNAcylation. Using a divide and conquer strategy, we obtained crystal structures of various TarS constructs, mapping high resolution overlapping N-terminal and C-terminal structures onto a lower resolution full-length structure that resulted in a high resolution view of the entire enzyme. Using the N-terminal structure that encapsulates the catalytic domain, we furthermore captured several snapshots of TarS, including the native structure, the UDP-GlcNAc donor complex, and the UDP product complex. These structures along with structure-guided mutants allowed us to elucidate various catalytic features and identify key active site residues and catalytic loop rearrangements that provide a valuable platform for anti-MRSA drug design. We furthermore observed for the first time the presence of a trimerization domain composed of stacked carbohydrate binding modules, commonly observed in starch active enzymes, but adapted here for a poly sugar-phosphate glycosyltransferase.

  13. Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

  14. Reaction Mechanism of Tar Evolution in Biomass Steam Gasification for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingo Katayama; Masahiro Suzuki; Atsushi Tsutsumi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction mechanism of tar evolution in steam gasification of biomass was investigated with a continuous cross-flow moving bed type differential reactor, in which tar and gases can be fractionated according to reaction time. We estimated that time profile of tar and gas evolution in the gasification of cellulose, xylan, and lignin, and compared it with experimental product time profile of real biomass gasification. The experimental tar evolution rate is different from estimated tar evolution rate. The estimated tar evolution rate has a peak at 20 s. On the other hand, the experimental tar evolution rate at 20 s is little, and tar at initial stage includes more water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. It can be concluded that in the real biomass steam gasification the evolution of tar from cellulose and lignin component was found to be precipitated by that from hemi-cellulose component. (authors)

  15. Applications in the oil sands industry for Particlear{sup R} silica microgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffett, B. [DuPont Chemical Solutions Enterprise, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation demonstrated the use of Particlear{sup R} silica microgel in the oil sands industry. The silica-based coagulant is an amorphous silicon dioxide microgel solution. The surface area of a football field can be obtained using 2.7 grams of the substance. The coagulation mechanism is achieved by charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging. The microgel is manufactured at the point of use from commodity chemicals, water, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Applications for the microgel include potable water treatment, paper retention, and animal processing wastewater. In the oil sands industry, Particlear{sup R} can be used in tailings flocculation, thickened tailings drying, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water treatment, and enhanced bitumen recovery. It was concluded that the microgel can be used in many oil sands processing and liquid-solid separation processes in order to remove dissolved solids and organics and increase the rate of solids dewatering. tabs., figs.

  16. Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available of the three oil sand samples. Oil Sand ID w [%] wb [%] D10 D30 D50 D60 Cu Cc SE-09 1.4 8.5 0.07 0.12 0.17 0.19 2.9 1.17 SE-14 3.2 13.3 0.08 0.14 0.18 0.21 2.8 1.24 AU-14 2.2 14.5 0.09 0.17 0.22 0.27 3.0 1.19 w = water content; wb = bitumen content; Di... = grain size (mm) corresponding to i-percent passing by mass; Cu = coefficient of uniformity; Cc = coefficient of curvature. Sample Preparation The oil sand samples were prepared for the laboratory testing program using an Industrial Process...

  17. Generation and migration of Bitumen and oil from the oil shale interval of the Eocene Green River formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    The results from the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, based primarily on the Fischer assay method, are applied herein to define areas where the oil shale interval is depleted of some of its petroleum-generating potential along the deep structural trough of the basin and to make: (1) a general estimates of the amount of this depletion, and (2) estimate the total volume of petroleum generated. Oil yields (gallons of oil per ton of rock, GPT) and in-place oil (barrels of oil per acre, BPA) decrease toward the structural trough of the basin, which represents an offshore lacustrine area that is believed to have originally contained greater petroleum-generating potential than is currently indicated by measured Fischer assay oil yields. Although this interval is considered to be largely immature for oil generation based on vitrinite reflectance measurements, the oil shale interval is a likely source for the gilsonite deposits and much of the tar sands in the basin. Early expulsion of petroleum may have occurred due to the very high organic carbon content and oil-prone nature of the Type I kerogen present in Green River oil shale. In order to examine the possible sources and migration pathways for the tar sands and gilsonite deposits, we have created paleogeographic reconstructions of several oil shale zones in the basin as part of this study.

  18. A Primer on Alberta’s Oil sands Royalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fulfilling its campaign promise, the new NDP government announced a review of Alberta’s royalty framework in June 2015. The province receives royalty revenue from three main sources – natural gas, crude oil, and oil sands. Since the 2009-10 fiscal year the largest contributor to Alberta’s royalty revenues has been the oil sands. If you want a sense of how important oil sands royalties have been for Alberta’s finances, consider this: In the 2014–15 fiscal year, the government collected just over $5 billion from oil sands royalties. These royalties covered over 10 per cent of the province’s operational expenses of $48.6 billion in the same fiscal year. Over the last six fiscal years the oil sands have contributed an average of 10 per cent of revenues to provincial coffers. This makes oil sands royalties the fourth largest contributor behind personal income taxes (23 per cent, federal transfers (13 per cent and corporate income taxes (11 per cent. But how many Albertans really understand how the royalty system works? What do we mean when we say “royalty”? How does the Alberta Government calculate royalties on oil sands producers? If the system is going to change, it’s important that Albertans understand how the current system works. That is what this paper is designed to do. For Albertans to properly judge the impact of new policy, they need a solid understanding of the current policy environment. We all know that oil prices have dropped and oil sands producers are losing profitability. As such, changes to the royalty system could have a deep and profound impact on the sector. Here are some of the issues this primer will study: • Pre-payout projects vs. post-payout projects, in other words, the classification of projects for royalty purposes based on whether the cumulative costs of a project exceed its cumulative revenues • Monthly payment of royalties vs. annual payment • Understanding the unit price of bitumen and how that

  19. Polymer and bitumen modified OPC for the immobilisation of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.I.; Worrall, G.; Phillips, D.C.

    1986-05-01

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer:cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for 137 Cs, are obtained at p:c >= 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  20. Directions in refining and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, B.; Parker, R. J.; Flint, L.

    1997-01-01

    The expansion of heavy oil transportation, marketing and refining facilities over the past two decades have been reviewed to show the strides that several Canadian refiners have taken to build up the facilities required to process synthetic crude oil (SCO). Key points made at a conference, convened by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT), held in Edmonton during September 1997 to discuss current and future directions in the refining and marketing of heavy oil, bitumen and SCO, were summarized. Among the key points mentioned were: (1) the high entry barriers faced by centralized upgraders, (2) the advantages of integrating SCO or heavy oil production with downstream refining, (3) the stiff competition from Venezuela and Mexico that both SCO and heavy oil will face in the U.S. PADD II market, (4) the differences between Canadian refiners who have profited from hydrocracking and are better able to handle coker-based SCO, and American refiners who rely chiefly on catalytic cracking and are less able to process the highly aromatic SCO, and (5) the disproportionate cost in the upgrading process represented by the conversion of asphaltenes. Challenges and opportunities for key stakeholders, i.e. producers, refiners, marketers and technology licensors also received much attention at the Edmonton conference

  1. Effect of Waste Plastic as Bitumen Modified in Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Ezree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the engineering properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic at different percentages i.e. 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen. The experimental tests performed in the study were stability, tensile strength, resilient modulus and dynamic creep test. Results showed that the mixture with 4% plastic has the highest stability (184kN. However, the stability slightly decreases with the increase of plastic additive. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength among the modified asphaltic concrete is 1049kPa (8% plastic added. The modified asphalt mixture with 8% plastic has the highest resilient modulus, which is 3422 MPa (25°C and 494Mpa (40°C. Where the highest creep modulus recorded is 73.30Mpa at 8% plastic added. It can be concluded that the addition of 8% plastic gave the highest value properties of asphalt mixture. Finally, it can be said that 8% plastic is the optimum value adding.

  2. Distribution and Thermal Maturity of Devonian Carbonate Reservoir Solid Bitumen in Desheng Area of Guizhong Depression, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of solid bitumen in the Devonian carbonate reservoir from well Desheng 1, Guizhong Depression, was investigated by optical microscope and hydrocarbon inclusions analysis. Vb and chemical structure indexes measured by bitumen reflectance, laser Raman microprobe (LRM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to determine the thermal maturity of solid bitumen. Based on the solid bitumen thermal maturity, the burial and thermal maturity history of Devonian carbonate reservoir were reconstructed by basin modeling. The results indicate that the fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores are the main storage space for the solid bitumen. The equivalent vitrinite reflectance of solid bitumen ranges from 3.42% to 4.43% converted by Vb (% and LRM. The infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests that there are no aliphatic chains detected in the solid bitumen which is rich in aromatics C=C chains (1431–1440 cm−1. The results of Vb (%, LRM, and FTIR analysis demonstrate that the solid bitumen has experienced high temperature and evolved to the residual carbonaceous stage. The thermal evolution of Devonian reservoirs had experienced four stages. The Devonian reservoirs reached the highest reservoir temperature 210–260°C during the second rapid burial-warming stage, which is the main period for the solid bitumen formation.

  3. In situ viscosity of oil sands using low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, J.; Moon, D.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    In heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs, oil viscosity is a vital piece of information that will have great bearing on the chosen EOR scheme and the recovery expected. Prediction of in situ viscosity with a logging tool would he very beneficial in reservoir characterization and exploitation design. Low field NMR is a technology that has shown great potential as a tool for characterizing hydrocarbon properties in heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. An oil viscosity correlation has previously been developed that is capable of providing order of magnitude viscosity estimates for a wide range of oils taken from various fields in Alberta. This paper presents tuning procedures to improve the NMR predictions for different viscosity ranges, and extends the NMR viscosity model to in situ heavy oil in unconsolidated sands. The results of this work show that the NMR oil peak can be de-convoluted from the in situ signals of the oil and water, and the bulk viscosity correlation that was developed for bulk oils can he applied to predict the in situ oil viscosity. These results can be translated to an NMR logging tool algorithm, allowing for in situ measurements of oil viscosity at the proper reservoir conditions. (author)

  4. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryer, P.J.; Scoggins, M.; McClintock, N.L. [Lamar University, Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2010-05-15

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P < 0.0001) between treatments in addition to specific taxa responses, displaying a clear negative relationship with the amount of coal-tar sealant flake. These results support the hypothesis that coal-tar pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments.

  5. Application of forward osmosis membrane technology for oil sands process-affected water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaxin; Liang, Jiaming; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The extraction process used to obtain bitumen from the oil sands produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). As a newly emerging desalination technology, forward osmosis (FO) has shown great promise in saving electrical power requirements, increasing water recovery, and minimizing brine discharge. With the support of this funding, a FO system was constructed using a cellulose triacetate FO membrane to test the feasibility of OSPW desalination and contaminant removal. The FO systems were optimized using different types and concentrations of draw solution. The FO system using 4 M NH4HCO3 as a draw solution achieved 85% water recovery from OSPW, and 80 to 100% contaminant rejection for most metals and ions. A water backwash cleaning method was applied to clean the fouled membrane, and the cleaned membrane achieved 77% water recovery, a performance comparable to that of new FO membranes. This suggests that the membrane fouling was reversible. The FO system developed in this project provides a novel and energy efficient strategy to remediate the tailings waters generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and processing.

  6. Development of a bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments to pike (Esox lucius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pike (Esox lucius) are a commercially sought fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River, which flows through the Athabasca oil sands. The fish are exposed to natural sources of bitumen from the McMurray formation. This study was conducted to design and implement a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands to this fish species and to obtain information regarding the development of pike exposed to bitumen. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild pike captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish, approximately 15 days post-hatch. For the rest of the experiment, brine shrimp were fed to the walleye embryos every day after hatching. The developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length. The research findings indicated that pike is less sensitive than walleye and fathead minnow to the toxicity of oil sands sediments.

  7. Oil sands naphthenic acids: a review of properties, measurement, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa D; Ulrich, Ania C

    2015-05-01

    The Alberta oil sands contain one of the world's largest reserves of oil - over 169 billion barrels of bitumen are economically recoverable with current extraction technologies. Surface mining and subsequent hot water extraction of bitumen from the ore generates about nine cubic meters of raw tailings per cubic meter of oil. Oil sands facilities are required to operate under a policy of zero water discharge, resulting in ponds containing more than one billion cubic meters of tailings, a mixture of sand, fines and process-affected water. Process-affected water contains numerous organic compounds, including naphthenic acids (NAs), which have been identified as the primary source of acute toxicity of process-affected water. Developments in analytical techniques, aerobic biodegradability, and treatment via chemical oxidation (ozone) of NAs are reviewed. The field continues to be challenged by the lack of a cost-effective, accurate analytical technique for NAs or an understanding of all the organic constituents in process-affected water that may be contributing to observed toxicity and thus requiring treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  9. Tar Removal from Biomass Producer Gas by Using Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravenni, Giulia; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The biomass-derived char (biochar) produced in the gasifier as a residue, is a potential solution for removing tars from producer gas. This work investigates the interaction between tar compounds and biochar. Residual biochar from a TwoStage gasifier was tested as bed material in a laboratory setup....... Phenol and naphthalene were chosen as model tars, and entrained in a nitrogen flow. The gaseous stream was sampled before and after the biochar bed to evaluate the extent of conversion. The biochar bed (30g) was tested at 250°C, 500°C and 600°C, with for 3 consecutive hours. The compounds concentration...... in the gas phase was quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis, using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed a significant effect of biochar on the removal of phenol, at all temperatures. Naphthalene was removed less efficiently at higher temperature, and this trend was even more...

  10. Coal tar phototoxicity: characteristics of the smarting reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diette, K.M.; Gange, R.W.; Stern, R.S.; Arndt, K.A.; Parrish, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties and ultraviolet exposure parameters of tar smarts were examined in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms involved. It was show that irradiation with 1 minimal smarting dose (MSD) of UVA immediately following tar removal lowered the MSD for 6 h, demonstrated by subsequent challenge with UVA. Following 3 MSDs this memory effect was demonstrable for 24 h. The smarting reaction was area dependent--smaller areas of exposure require higher doses of UVA to induce smarting. Smarting followed reciprocity over a 6-fold range of irradiances (2-12.5 mW/cm2) but higher irradiances required higher doses of UVA, perhaps due to a delay in the recognition and reporting of smarting. The smarting reaction and delayed erythema due to UVA and tar were equally blocked by sunscreen

  11. Heat-resistant agent used for control sand of steam huff and puff heavy oil well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F. S.; Liu, G. L.; Lu, Y. J.; Xiong, X. C.; Ma, J. H.; Su, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    Heat-resistant agent containing hydroxymethyl group was synthesized from coal tar, which has similar structure with phenolic resin and could improve the heat resistance of phenolic resin sand control agent. The results showed that the heat resistance of the sand control agent was improved by adding 10% to 30% heat-resistant agent, after 280°C high temperature treatment for 7d, the compressive strength of consolidated core was increased to more than 5MPa. The compressive strength of consolidation core was not decreased after immersion in formation water, crude oil, acid or alkaline medium, which showed good resistance to medium immersion. The sand control agent had small core damage and the core permeability damage ratio of sand control agent consolidation was only 18.7%.

  12. Effect of Recycled Waste Polymers, Natural Bitumen and HVS Cut on the Properties of Vacuum Bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rasoulzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neat bitumen, an oil refining by-product, has its own inherent weakness under long-time loading at low and high temperatures. These performance limitations of neat bitumen have led researchers to modify its physical andmechanical properties. According to several studies, polymers can be used to modify the properties of bitumen. Due to much lower production costs and aiming to reduce environmental impacts, recycled waste polymers are preferred as compared with virgin polymers. In this study, the effect of recycled waste polymers including crumb rubber modifier (CRM, polyethylene and latex and non-polymeric materials such as natural bitumen (NB and heavy vacuum slops (HVS cut on physical and mechanical properties of vacuum bottom residue (VB of crude oil distillation was investigat-ed. Based on the results, recycled waste polyethylene and NB can improve the performance grade of VB at high temperatures and CRM, latex and HVS can improve the performance grade of VB at low temperatures. Thus, by designing various blends of these additives with VB, different modified bitumens can be directly obtained from VB without any need to air-blowing process.

  13. On the determination of diffusivities of volatile hydrocarbons in semi-solid bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide, supercritical ethane and propane have been considered as solvents to recover heavy oil. Given that mixing solvent with bitumen is one of the important parameters governing the performance of the solvent extraction processes, good understanding of solvent dispersion is essential for the proper design of the process. Produced bitumen can still contain some residual volatile hydrocarbons after gas flashing off a three-phase separator. When exposed to the air due to a spill or ruptured line, these residual hydrocarbons can escape and create air pollution problems. Consequently, knowledge of the diffusivities of volatile components in bitumen is needed to assess the extent of environmental damage that may result from bitumen spill or working loss of vapour to the atmosphere. This paper discusses the de-coupled transfer model developed by this author (and described in a paper in vol. 78 of this journal) and its limiting solution, and provides a re-intrepretation of the method by Fu and Phillips (1979) which in turn was based on the late-time limiting solution advanced by Tang and Zhang (2000). The analysis indicates that gas purging is a valid method for determining the diffusion coefficients of trace, volatile hydrocarbons in bitumen. However, the assumption of de-coupling may not be appropriate for large diffusion flux and slow gas flow. Furthermore, improper use of the limiting solution theory could lead to a 25 per cent error in calculating the diffusion coefficient. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Monitoring the petroleum bitumen characteristics changes during their interaction with the polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, P. S.; Mishchenko, S. V.; Belyaev, V. P.; Frolov, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    The subject of the study is the characteristics (penetration, softening temperature, ductility and elasticity) of a road binder based on petroleum bitumen. The work purpose is to monitor the changes in the characteristics of petroleum bitumen when it interacting with polymers: thermoplastic elastomer, low-density polyethylene, including the adhesive additive presence. To carry out the research a special laboratory facility was designed and manufactured with two blade mixers providing intensive turbulent mixing and the possibility to effect on the transition process of combining the components in a polymer-bitumen binder. To construct a mathematical model of the polymer-bitumen binder characteristics dependence from the composition, methods of statistical experiments planning were used. The possibility of the expensive thermoplastic elastomers replacement with polyethylene is established while maintaining acceptable polymer-bitumen binder quality parameters. The obtained results are proposed for use in road construction. They allow to reduce the roads construction cost with solving the problem of recycling long-term waste packaging from polyethylene.

  15. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  16. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.A.; Wilson, J.; Mawditt, J.M.; Hurt, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals incorporating adjacent blocks of swelling clay and bitumen. It is shown that the interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents water penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. A review of the swelling properties of highly compacted bentonite and magnesium oxide is presented, and the characteristic sealing properties of bituminous materials are described. On the basis of this review, it is concluded that bentonite is the preferred candidate material for use in composite clay/bitumen seals for intermediate-level radioactive waste repositories. However, it is thought that magnesium oxide may have other sealing applications for high-level waste repositories. A programme of laboratory experiments is described in which relevant swelling and intrusion properties of highly compacted bentonite blocks and the annealing characteristics of oxidised and hard-grade industrial bitumens are examined. The results of composite sealing experiments involving different water penetration routes are reported, and factors governing the mechanism of self-sealing are described. The validation of the sealing concept at a laboratory scale indicates that composite bentonite/bitumen seals could form highly effective barriers for the containment of radioactive wastes. Accordingly, recommendations are made concerning the development of the research, including the implementation of full-scale demonstration experiments to simulate conditions in an underground repository. 13 tabs., 41 figs., 62 refs

  17. Singing Sand Dunes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ble low-frequency (s. 75–105 Hz), that can some- times be heard up to 10 km away. Scientific in- vestigations suggest that the sustained low fre- quency sound of sand dunes that resembles a pure note from a musical instrument, is due to the synchronized motion of well-sorted dry sand grains when they spontaneously ...

  18. Effect of Temperature and Process on Quantity and Composition of Laboratory-generated Bitumen Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliet, Christophe; Kriech, Anthony J; Juery, Catherine; Vaissiere, Mathieu; Brinton, Michael A; Osborn, Linda V

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of temperature on emissions as related to various bitumen applications and processes used in commercial products. Bitumen emissions are very complex and can be influenced in quantity and composition by differences in crude source, refining processes, application temperature, and work practices. This study provided a controlled laboratory environment to study five bitumen test materials from three European refineries; three paving grade, one used for primarily roofing and some paving applications, and one oxidized industrial specialty bitumen. Emissions were generated at temperatures between 140°C and 230°C based on typical application temperatures of each product. Emissions were characterized by aerodynamic particle size, total organic matter (TOM), simulated distillation, 40 individual PACs, and fluorescence (FL-PACs) spectroscopy. Results showed that composition of bitumen emissions is influenced by temperature under studied experimental conditions. A distinction between the oxidized bitumen with flux oil (industrial specialty bitumen) and the remaining bitumens was observed. Under typical temperatures used for paving (150°C-170°C), the TOM and PAC concentrations in the emissions were low. However, bitumen with flux oil produced significantly higher emissions at 230°C, laden with high levels of PACs. Flux oil in this bitumen mixture enhanced release of higher boiling-ranged compounds during application conditions. At 200°C and below, concentrations of 4-6 ring PACs were ≤6.51 μg/m(3) for all test materials, even when flux oil was used. Trends learned about emission temperature-process relationships from this study can be used to guide industry decisions to reduce worker exposure during processing and application of hot bitumen.

  19. Carbon materials for syngas conditioning and tar removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Millán, Lina María; Sierra Vargas, Fabio Emiro

    2017-01-01

    Within the framework of worldwide energy context, the development of technologies and processes for energy production form renewable and non-conventional sources is a priority. According to this, gasification is an interesting process that converts different kinds of organic materials in fuel gases. The main issue related with this process is the fact that the producer gas contains also contaminants and tars that are undesirable for the gas usage in internal combustion motors or turbines. The present work aims to analyze the actual state of the existing methods to remove tars form gasification fuel gases, emphasizing the use of different kinds of carbon materials. (author)

  20. Luminescence monitoring of oil or tar contamination for industrial hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1980-01-01

    Synfuel plants produce potentially carcinogenic oils and tars. Exposure of workers to these tars and oils is difficult to avoid completely and occurs via direct contact with dirty surfaces or condensation of escaped fumes onto or within the body. Surface skin, measurements are made directly with a near-ultraviolet luminoscope employing a fiber optics lightguide and a stethoscopic cap pressed against the skin. This instrument is especially suitable for measuring ng to μg/cm 2 amounts of residual contamination remaining on the surface of the skin after washing. To minimize the potential for carcinogenicity, the excitating ultraviolet light intensity is only 1/100th that of sunlight. (orig.)

  1. Process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preller, H

    1920-07-14

    A process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, bitumen from oil-chalk, oil shale, and coal is characterized in that the material to be separated feeds, by a self-acting feeding arrangement, to a system with slowly rotating drums alternating in different directions and thereby it is exposed to the action of hot water running opposite to the rotation, direction of the drum, with addition of extraction-medium, so that the light material is washed out and rises to the top. It is carried off, while the heavy material sinks to the bottom and, by bucket-conveyor is removed.

  2. Material Properties and Characteristics for Development of an Expert System for Coal-Tar Sealers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoenberger, James

    2001-01-01

    .... Several coal-tar mixtures that varied with source of the coal-tar emulsion, amount of aggregate, and amount of polymer used in the mixtures were evaluated for their field performance and material properties...

  3. 179 Extraction of Coal-tar Pitch by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meyer

    Several extractions of coal-tar pitch were performed using supercritical fluid ..... pressure and temperature, unlike exhaustive extraction, which involves a change in ... mechanism that is operative on extracting coal-tar pitch components with.

  4. Investigation of sulfur-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in coal derived tars of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize sulphur forms in coal derived tars from pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal and lignite. The pyrolysis tars were analyzed for content of polycyclic aromatic sulfur hydrocarbons (PASH). 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Oil-sands giants leaving smaller environmental footprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonehouse, D.

    1999-01-01

    Suncor Energy and Syncrude Canada are both investing billions of dollars to increase production at their mining facilities near Fort McMurray, Alberta. The two oil-sand giants will be spending a good portion of their investment (almost $1 billion) to improve their environmental performance. Both companies are focusing on reducing their energy use to cut production costs and to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Currently, oil-sand mining accounts for the largest industrial use of electricity in Alberta. This produces tremendous amounts of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 which has been linked to global warming. By year 2006, all of Syncrude's processing equipment will be replaced by energy-efficient equipment. Shovel/truck/hydrotransport will replace the dragline/bucket-wheel/conveyor system used in the past. New technology designed to improve bitumen recovery and increase upgrading processing yields is also expected to decrease emissions by 5 million tonnes per year. Syncrude will also construct a $60 million gas turbine generator for its Aurora project. Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions which cause acid rain, are also on the decline at both Syncrude and Suncor. Suncor will reduce its energy use through the construction of a $315 million cogeneration plant which will generate 220 MV of electricity for its operations, along with waste heat that will be used to separate the heavy oil from the sand. The cogeneration plant will be 45 per cent more efficient that current operations. Both companies have planted millions of trees and shrubs to reclaim nearly 3,000 hectares of land. The tailings from oil-sand mining are currently being captured in settling basins. Both companies have long range plans for dealing with tailings. The first is called water capping which involves layering fresh water over tailing deposits to create a lake. The second is called composite tails, which involves mixing the tailings with gypsum and sand to make them settle faster

  6. Recovery of very viscous lubricating oils from shale-tar, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, E

    1918-01-22

    A process is disclosed for the recovery of very viscous lubricating oils from brown-coal tar and shale tar, consisting in driving off from the crude tar or the tar freed from volatile constituents after removal of paraffin by precipitation with a volatile solvent such as acetone or one of its homologs, the light oils more or less completely with superheated steam from about 200 to 250/sup 0/C without any outside heating over a free flame.

  7. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  8. Crustaceans from bitumen clast in Carboniferous glacial diamictite extend fossil record of copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A; Huys, Rony; Stephenson, Michael H; Heward, Alan P; Taylor, Paul N

    2010-08-10

    Copepod crustaceans are extremely abundant but, because of their small size and fragility, they fossilize poorly. Their fossil record consists of one Cretaceous (c. 115 Ma) parasite and a few Miocene (c. 14 Ma) fossils. In this paper, we describe abundant crustacean fragments, including copepods, from a single bitumen clast in a glacial diamictite of late Carboniferous age (c. 303 Ma) from eastern Oman. Geochemistry identifies the source of the bitumen as an oilfield some 100-300 km to the southwest, which is consistent with an ice flow direction from glacial striae. The bitumen likely originated as an oil seep into a subglacial lake. This find extends the fossil record of copepods by some 188 Ma, and of free-living forms by 289 Ma. The copepods include evidence of the extant family Canthocamptidae, believed to have colonized fresh water in Pangaea during Carboniferous times.

  9. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, C. [Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs.

  10. Assessment of dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road paving and mastic crews with an observational method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Fransman, W.; Vocht, F.D.; Joode, B.V.W.D.; Kromhout, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road pavers and indoor mastic workers in multiple crews using a semi-quantitative observational method [DeRmal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM)].Methods: Two skilled observers assessed dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among 85

  11. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnoczi, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  12. The eye of the beholder : oil sands calamity or golden opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, D.

    2009-02-01

    Alberta's oil sands deposits are one of the largest hydrocarbon deposits in the world, and the oil sands industry has become a significant driving force in the Canadian economy. However, development in the region has slowed as a result of the recent economic downturn. This paper discussed the future of the oil sands industry, and argued that excess global oil supplies will need to be consumed before the industry fully recovers. Increased liquidity and higher oil prices are also required in order to help the industry recover. Oil sands data were aggregated and classified according to their various stages of development. Projections of bitumen production were based on the summation of all announced projects. Assumptions were adjusted to reflect current and likely near-term future outlooks for oil sands development. Results of the study indicated that the pace of development is expected to slow. Current leases will be developed at a slower pace. Prices in excess of $70 will be required for the industry to continue expanding as well as to generate a rate of return that can be reinvested into the Canadian economy. It was concluded that opportunities for current oil sands operators and new project proponents should take advantage of lower prices to source materials and equipment. 3 figs

  13. A Canadian perspective on the supply costs, production and economic impacts from oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, D.; Masri, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article provided a synopsis of oil sands research recently conducted at the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The production profiles and capital expenditures that CERI has projected for oil sands projects were explored along with the macroeconomic benefits associated with oil sands development. In addition to rising capital and operating costs, bitumen producers are challenged by labour shortages and environmental concerns. However, CERI warrants continued growth in production from the oil sands industry, given the current high price state of the global oil market and security of supply concerns from oil importing countries. This article also provided background information and analysis to assess the implications of future development. The projected growth in the oil sands industry creates demands for infrastructure, housing, health care, education, and business services. The economic impacts were measured at the local, provincial, national and global levels in terms of changes in gross domestic product; changes in employment; and, changes in government revenues. It was concluded that with continued investment and development, Alberta's oil sands resource is expected to continue to produce oil for decades, and would eventually achieve 6 MMbpd production. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  14. Experimental comparison of biomass chars with other catalysts for tar reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu El-Rub, Ziad; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the potential of using biomass char as a catalyst for tar reduction is discussed. Biomass char is compared with other known catalysts used for tar conversion. Model tar compounds, phenol and naphthalene, were used to test char and other catalysts. Tests were carried out in a fixed bed

  15. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear, in...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1002 - Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1910.1002... Hazardous Substances § 1910.1002 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. As used in § 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the...

  17. Waste reduction algorithm used as the case study of simulated bitumen production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste reduction algorithm - WAR is a tool helping process engineers for environmental impact assessment. WAR algorithm is a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI of a chemical process. In particular, the bitumen production process was analyzed following three stages: a atmospheric distillation unit, b vacuum distillation unit, and c bitumen production unit. Study was developed for the middle sized oil refinery with capacity of 5000000 tones of crude oil per year. Results highlight the most vulnerable aspects of the environmental pollution that arise during the manufacturing process of bitumen. The overall rates of PEI leaving the system (PEI/h - Iout PEI/h are: a 2.14105, b 7.17104 and c 2.36103, respectively. The overall rates of PEI generated within the system - Igen PEI/h are: a 7.75104, b -4.31104 and c -4.32102, respectively. Atmospheric distillation unit have the highest overall rate of PEI while the bitumen production unit have the lowest overall rate of PEI. Comparison of Iout PEI/h and Igen PEI/h values for the atmospheric distillation unit, shows that the overall rate of PEI generated in the system is 36.21% of the overall rate of PEI leaving the system. In the cases of vacuum distillation and bitumen production units, the overall rate of PEI generated in system have negative values, i.e. the overall rate of PEI leaving the system is reduced at 60.11% (in the vacuum distillation unit and at 18.30% (in the bitumen production unit. Analysis of the obtained results for the overall rate of PEI, expressed by weight of the product, confirms conclusions.

  18. Perversities of Extreme Dependence and Unequal Growth in the TAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe official Chinese press recently came out with a series of articles reporting the latest statistics on the phenomenally rapid economic growth that has been taking place in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) since the mid-1990s through sheer force of Central Government subsidies.

  19. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  20. Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S.

    1996-01-01

    A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model

  1. Human papillomavirus and tar hypothesis for squamous cell cervical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Keywords. Cervical cancer; co-factors; human papillomavirus; tar-based vaginal douche; tobacco smoke; wood smoke. Author Affiliations. Christina Bennett1 Allen E Kuhn2 Harry W Haverkos3. Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5149, USA; Suite 300, Hamilton Mason Road ...

  2. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  3. Brown carbon in tar balls from smoldering biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. K. Chakrabarty; H. Moosmuller; L.-W. A. Chen; K. Lewis; W. P. Arnott; C. Mazzoleni; M. K. Dubey; C. E. Wold; W. M. Hao; S. M. Kreidenweis

    2010-01-01

    We report the direct observation of laboratory production of spherical, carbonaceous particles - "tar balls" - from smoldering combustion of two commonly occurring dry mid-latitude fuels. Real-time measurements of spectrally varying absorption Angstrom coefficients (AAC) indicate that a class of light absorbing organic carbon (OC) with wavelength dependent...

  4. Traditional African Religions (TARs): on HIV/AIDS, health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because the moral guidance put forward by. African religions is underestimated; hence making HIV/AIDS more of a moral problem. Rethinking the dialogue with TARs, will help in setting appropriate means of enhancing health in a broad sense and living in human dignity in Africa. Mtafiti Mwafrika Vol. 15 2005: pp.

  5. Advanced CANDU reactor: an optimized energy source of oil sands application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Bock, D.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.; Keil, H.; Fiorino, L.; Duffey, R.; Dunbar, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is developing the ACR-700 TM (Advanced CANDU Reactor-700 TM ) to meet customer needs for reduced capital cost, shorter construction schedule, high capacity factor while retaining the benefits of the CANDU experience base. The ACR-700 is based on the concept of CANDU horizontal fuel channels surrounded by heavy water moderator. The major innovation of this design is the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel in a CANFLEX bundle that is cooled by light water. This ensures: higher main steam pressures and temperatures providing higher thermal efficiency; a compact and simpler reactor design with reduced capital costs and shorter construction schedules; and reduced heavy water inventory compared to existing CANDU reactors. ACR-700 is not only a technically advanced and cost effective solution for electricity generating utilities, but also a low-cost, long-life and sustainable steam source for increasing Alberta's Oil Sand production rates. Currently practiced commercial surface mining and extraction of Oil Sand resources has been well established over the last three decades. But a majority of the available resources are somewhat deeper underground require in-situ extraction. Economic removal of such underground resources is now possible through the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process developed and proto-type tested in-site. SAGD requires the injection of large quantities of high-pressure steam into horizontal wells to form reduced viscosity bitumen and condensate mixture that is then collected at the surface. This paper describes joint AECL studies with CERI (Canadian Energy Research Institute) for the ACR, supplying both electricity and medium-pressure steam to an oil sands facility. The extensive oil sands deposits in northern Alberta are a very large energy resource. Currently, 30% of Canda's oil production is from the oil sands and this is expected to expand greatly over the coming decade. The bitumen deposits in the

  6. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2002-01-01

    % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 mum. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about I gm for the bitumen particles. This size range enables the possibility for far range transport and inhalation by humans. Soil concentrations in the vicinity of a highway...... indicate an approximate exponential decrease with increasing distance from the road. Constant values are reached after about 5 m for the tire particles and 10 m for the bitumen particles. Concentrations in soil that has not been touched for at least 30 years show a decrease in tire concentration...

  7. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.A.; Wilson, J.; Mawditt, J.M.; Hurt, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals comprising juxtaposed blocks of highly compacted bentonite clay and bitumen. It is shown that interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents weather penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. Factors affecting seal performance are examined by means of laboratory experiments, and implications for the design of repository backfilling and sealing systems are discussed. It is concluded that design principles and material specifications should be further developed on the basis of large scale experiments. (author)

  8. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  9. Morphology, Microstructure and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Pasargad Bitumen, Modified by Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer (EVA and Nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Ghaempour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the characteristics such as flexibility, adhesion, hydrophobicity and low price, bitumen is used in different construction and insulation industries. The major problem with the bitumen material is its restricted physico-mechanical properties, mainly high temperature rutting and low temperature cracking. The aim of this work was to modify bitumen, produced in Tabriz Pasargad Oil Company, and evaluation of its different properties to make it suitable for the weather conditions of North West of Iran. The physico-mechanical, morphological and rheological characteristics of EVA/Cloisite 15A modified bitumen were studied.Two different feeding instructions were used in the mixing of bitumen with modifiers.In the first method, EVA and Cloisite 15A nanoclay were simultaneously added into the molten bitumen and in the second method, EVA and Cloisite 15A were premixed in an internal mixer before adding the polymer/nanoclay nanocomposite into the molten bitumen. The results showed that addition of nanoclay and polymer into the bitumen, led increased softening point and a decrease in the penetration of base bitumen, in which the extent of changes, was higher for the samples prepared by masterbatch method. The rheological properties of the pre-mixed samples exhibited more improvement and these samples showed more elastic behavior. The results of optical microscopy showed that the pre-mixing of polymer and nanoclay led to a more uniform distribution of the swollen polymer phase at the base bitumen. These samples also showed higher morphology stability than those samples prepared in single step. These effects were related to the probable localization of nanoclay at the interface of the two phases.

  10. Avoiding tar formation in biocoke production from waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrados, A.; De Marco, I.; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A.; Solar, J.; Caballero, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses in avoiding tar formation and in optimizing pyrolysis gas (maximizing H 2 and CO) in the production of biocoke from waste lignocellulosic biomass. In order to obtain metallurgical grade biochar (biocoke) slow heating rate and high temperature are required. Under such conditions useless pyrolysis liquids, mainly composed of water together with some heavy-sticky tars, are obtained. In order to make biocoke a cost-effective process it is necessary to optimize pyrolysis vapors avoiding tar formation and maximizing the amount and quality of both coke and gases. With this objective, in this work different heating rates (3–20 °C min −1 ) and catalysts (zeolite, Ni/CeO 2 –Al 2 O 3 ) have been tested in a two step pyrolysis process. Olive tree cuttings have been pyrolyzed in a 3.5 L batch reactor at 750 °C and the vapors generated have been thermally and catalytically treated at 900 °C in a second tubular reactor. About 25 wt.% biocoke useful as reducing agent in certain metallurgical processes, ≈57 wt.% gases with near 50 vol.% H 2 , and no tar production has been achieved when a heating rate of 3 °C min −1 and the homemade Ni/CeO 2 –Al 2 O 3 catalyst were used. - Highlights: • Metallurgical grade biochar was obtained by olive waste pyrolysis. • Low heating rates avoid tar formation and increase gas and biochar yields. • Ni/CeO 2 –Al 2 O 3 was better than HZSM5 zeolite for vapor upgrading in a second step. • Ni/CeO 2 –Al 2 O 3 and 3 °C min −1 gave the maximum H 2 , gas and biochar yields

  11. Ensamblajes urbanos: la TAR y el examen de la ciudad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farías

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta nuevas perspectivas de investigación y desafíos analíticos que la teoría del actor-red (TAR abre para los estudios urbanos. En primer lugar, se revisan cómo los principios de relacionalidad híbrida y asociatividad plana de la TAR están siendo adoptados en los estudios urbanos para ampliar simétricamente la ecología urbana a no-humanos e impugnar concepciones escalares del espacio y economías urbanas. A continuación, se propone que la TAR trae consigo un desafío más fundamental relativo a la concepción de la ciudad como objeto de estudio. Mientras su comprensión habitual como objeto espacial, entidad político-económica y/o forma sociocultural subraya su carácter singular, estable y delimitado, la TAR permite pensar la ciudad como un objeto múltiple y decentrado. La noción de ensamblajes urbanos se introduce entonces para dar cuenta de la circulación y devenir de la ciudad en múltiples redes híbridas y translocales. El artículo concluye sopesando algunas de las consecuencias de este exámen de la ciudad, especialmente el reposicionamiento del problema de la complejidad, urbana en este caso, como punto, si no de partida, entonces al menos de llegada para la TAR.

  12. Monitoring of tar contents in gases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Finn [ChimneyLab Europe ApS, Hadsten (Denmark); Houmann Jakobsen, H. [BioSynergi Proces ApS, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test a relative cheap and simple online tar measuring method, which can monitor the tar content in product gas from thermal gasification. The measuring principle is absorption of tar from sample gas in Isopropanol (IPA), and measuring on this solution by UV-spectrophotometer. Continuous sampling of tar containing producer gas turned out to be a larger problem than earlier foreseen. The best solution was decided to be sampling with higher flows, and afterwards cleaning the IPA in activated carbon. The ambitions for continuous sampling had to be decreased to 1 week, where the IPA and the activated carbon is contaminated by tar and has to be replaced. However this requires larger amounts of IPA and activated carbon. For IPA the weekly consumption was 12-15 Litres and for activated carbon 10 Litres. The whole analyzer unit turned out to be more complex than first projected, mainly because of the increased amounts of IPA. The best mist filter, with respect to pressure drop, efficiency and retention time is a combination of glass wool and quarts wool. The unit has been tested on gas; 20 kW pellets burner for 116 hours. Harbooere updraft gasifier for 519 hours. Skive fluid bed gasifier for 879 hours. There have during the project period been several simple practical problems such as bubbles in the IPA, increasing pressure drop over the activated carbon bed, dropout of UV data acquisition program and increasing baseline. The principle showed from the beginning some good results, with the limitation of 1 week continuous operation, but at the 5. period in Skive the baseline was increasing all the time, and it was not possible to solve this problem. (LN)

  13. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  14. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  15. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  16. Chemical and physical characteristics of tar samples from selected Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, J.; Taylor, B.; Mauro, D.; Young, M.

    1993-05-01

    A multiyear, multidisciplinary project concerning the toxicity of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) tarry residues was initiated by EPRI under the Environmental Behavior of Organic Substances (EBOS) Program. This report concerns one portion of that work -- the collection and chemical characterization of tar samples from several former MGP sites. META Environmental, Inc. and Atlantic Environmental Services, Inc. were contracted by EPRI to collect several samples of tarry residues from former MGP sites with varied historical gas production processes and from several parts of the country. The eight tars collected during this program were physically very different. Some tars were fluid and easily pumped from existing wells, while other tars were thicker, semi-solid, or solid. Although care was taken to collect only tar, the nature of the residues at several sites made it impossible not to collect other material, such as soil, gravel, and plant matter. After the samples were collected, they were analyzed for 37 organic compounds, 8 metals, and cyanide. In addition, elemental analysis was performed on the tar samples for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen content and several physical/chemical properties were determined for each tar. The tars were mixed together in different batches and distributed to researchers for use in animal toxicity studies. The results of this work show that, although the tars were produced from different processes and stored in different manners, they had some chemical similarities. All of the tars, with the exception of one unusual solid tar, contained similar relative abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

  17. Effect of water addition in a microwave assisted thermal cracking of biomass tar models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warsita, Aris; Al-attab, K.A.; Zainal, Z.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effective tar thermal treatment with water addition using microwave is proposed. • The reactor temperature of 1200 °C can be reached quickly at bed height 120 mm. • The optimum water to tar ratio W/T was 0.3 for tar models. • Temperature greatly effect tar removal at various W/T rates. - Abstract: Producer gas from biomass gasification is plagued by the presence of tar which causes pipe blockages. Thermal and catalytic treatments in a microwave reactor have been shown to be effective methods in removing tar from producer gas. A question arises as to the possibility of enhancing the removal mechanism by adding water into the reactor. Toluene and naphthalene were used as tar models in the present study with N_2 as the carrier gas followed by the use of simulated producer gas. Thermal treatment with various amount of water was added at temperatures in the range of 800–1200 °C. The tar removal efficiency obtained 95.83% at the optimum temperature of 1200 °C for naphthalene in for toluene 96.32% at 1050 °C at water to tar ratio (W/T) of 0.3. This study shows that the removal of tar by microwave irradiation with water addition is a significant and effective method in tar cracking.

  18. How Thermal Fatigue Cycles Change the Rheological Behavior of Polymer Modified Bitumen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaoui, B.; Merbouh, M.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Chailleux, E.; Youcefi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of thermal fatigue cycles phenomenon, which affects the performance of flexible pavement. The purpose of the paper is to extent the knowledge on the rheology of polymer modified bitumen which was affected by cycles of thermal fatigue. The aim of this research is to

  19. Phase-Separation Characteristics of Bitumen and their Relation to Damage-Healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    During the service life of flexible asphalt pavements, asphalt concrete degrades due to traffic loading and environmental conditions like temperature, rain, oxidation, ultraviolet-radiation from the sun. All these environmental factors have adverse effects on the performance of bitumen, which is the

  20. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...

  1. Rheological Behaviour of a Bitumen Modified with Metal Oxides Obtained by Regeneration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Giuffrè

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one important challenge is to demonstrate an innovative and integrated approach for the sustainable construction of roads considering the whole life cycle of the infrastructure. Road pavements with multiple asphalt layers generally undergo prolonged environmental exposure and the alternation between solar irradiation and low temperatures. As a result, relaxation or progressive removal of the material with a negative impact on the resistance to plastic deformation occur, also leading to the formation of slits and to dimensional variations, which are commonly defined as thermal cracking. This suggests the use of suitable bitumen modifiers. For these, important parameters are the optimal mixing time and mixing temperature, in order to reduce problems related to the stability of the bitumen. Therefore, the behaviour, upon changing the temperature, of bituminous mixtures containing (as fillers a series of metal oxides coming, as secondary products, from spent acid solutions regeneration processes, was investigated. This is intended in order to recover and reuse those otherwise dangerous wastes coming from several industrial (especially, metallurgical processes. The study was aimed at evaluating the properties of bituminous blends by performing rheological tests under dynamic shear regime. More specifically, five different bitumen matrices were prepared (70/100 bitumen and blends with metal oxides and/or SBS copolymer. Results showed that the addition of iron oxides leads to an increase of the softening point and the complex modulus. The increase is even more emphasized when SBS is added to the blend.

  2. Characterization of industrial wastes as raw materials for Emulsified Modified Bitumen (EMB) formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib Razali, Mohd; Isa, Syarifah Nur Ezatie Mohd; Salehan, Noor Adilah Md; Musa, Musfafikri; Aziz, Mohd Aizudin Abd; Nour, Abdurahman Hamid; Yunus, Rosli Mohd

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to characterize industrial wastes for formulation of emulsified modified bitumen (EMB) in relation to their physical characteristic and elemental composition. This analysis will give information either raw materials from industrial wastes can be used for EMB formulation. Bitumen is produced from crude oil that is extracted from the ground which categorizes the crude oil as one of the non-renewable form of product. A vast environmental problem issues arises in Malaysia cause by the excessive manufacturing activity that lead to a miss-management of industrial waste has leads to the used of industrial waste in the EMB formulation. Industrial waste such as polystyrene, polyethylene and used automotive oil can be used as alternative to formulate bitumen. Then a suitable emulsifier needs to be added to produce the final product which is EMB. The emulsifier will yield a charge depends on its properties to bind the oily bitumen with water. Physical characteristic studies were performed by thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), flash point test, density rest and moisture content test. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was measured to determine the material’s molecular composition and structure.

  3. Chemical modification of bitumen heavy ends and their non-fuel uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Bitumen asphaltenes undergo a variety of simple chemical conversions. For example, asphaltenes can be oxidized, sulfonated, sulfomethylated, halogenated, and phosphorylated. The net result is the introduction of functional entities into the asphaltene structure which confers interesting properties on the products for which a variety of uses are proposed.

  4. Effect of processing temperature on the bitumen/MDI-PEG reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Alfonso, M.J.; Partal, P.; Navarro, F.J.; Garcia-Morales, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de ' El Carmen' , Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva (Spain); Bordado, J.C.M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, IBB, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, A.C. [Materials Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    Reactive polymers are lately gaining acceptance to give added value to a residue of the crude oil refining process such as bitumen. The resulting material should display enhanced mechanical properties to be considered for advanced applications in construction. In the present paper, we report the effect of processing temperature on the reaction between bitumen compounds and an isocyanate-based reactive polymer, synthesized by reaction of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) with a low molecular weight polyethylene-glycol (PEG). Rheokinetics experiments, viscosity measurements at 60 C, atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization, thin layer chromatography (TLC-FID) analysis and thermogravimetric studies (TGA) were performed on the reactive polymer and on samples of MDI-PEG modified bitumen containing 2 wt.% of the polymer. Results showed the existence of an optimum processing temperature arisen as a consequence of opposite effects: microstructural availability for the formation of a polymer-bitumen network, reaction ability and polymer thermal degradation. Consequently, this study aims to serve as a guideline for the refining and asphalt industries facing the stage of selecting the optimum processing parameters. (author)

  5. In situ analytical pyrolysis of coal macerals and solid bitumens by laser micropyrolysis GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, P.F.; George, S.C.; Pickel, W. [CSIRO Petroleum, PO Box 136, NSW 1670 N. Ryde (Australia); Zhu, Y. [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, 434102 Hubei (China); Zhong, N. [Applied Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Petroleum, Changping, 102200 Beijing (China)

    2001-04-01

    Specific macerals in coals and distinct solid organic bitumens within limestones from northern China were separately analysed in situ by laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major pyrolysates from the resinite and cutinite macerals included aromatic hydrocarbons such as alkylnaphthalenes, alkylbenzenes, alkyltetralins (in the resinite) and alkylphenols (in the cutinite), and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alk-1-enes, n-alkanes, pristane and phytane. The same classes of hydrocarbons were also detected in co-occurring vitrinites, including very similar relative distributions of alkylnaphthalenes in the case of the resin-rich coal. Several observed quantitative differences are consistent with previous molecular data from maceral concentrates. The qualitative similarity of the maceral data suggest (1) extensive assimilation of free hydrocarbons by all macerals within the coals; or (2) inefficient targeting of the macerals by the laser, although microscopic observation showed that the laser craters were generally constrained within surface boundaries of the maceral. The organic composition of a solid bitumen within a Carboniferous limestone was characterised by a distinctive distribution of C{sub 0}-C{sub 4} alkyldibenzofurans, as well as alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes and a low molecular weight distribution of n-alk-1-enes and n-alkanes. These data suggest the solid bitumen comprises a strongly aromatic matrix with terrestrially-derived oxygen functionality and alkyl linkages. The same aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon products were also detected in the morphologically homogenous carbonates hosting the solid bitumens, indicating the presence of sub-microscopic organic moieties throughout the limestone.

  6. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 10 8 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +60 0 ) to -30 0 C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  7. Laboratory investigation of bitumen based on round robin DSC and AFM tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soenen, H.; Besamusca, J.; Fischer, H.R.; Poulikakos, L.D.; Planche, J.P.; Das, P.K.; Kringos, N.; Grenfell, J.R.A.; Lu, X.; Chailleux, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the past years a wide discussion has been held among asphalt researchers regarding the existence and interpretation of observed microstructures on bitumen surfaces. To investigate this, the RILEM technical committee on nano bituminous materials 231-NBM has conducted a round robin study combining

  8. Environmental impact of Bitumen on soil, water and plant in Lodasa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of bitumen in Lodasa soil is fast eroding soil fertility in the area and has contributed immensely to low yield of Agricultural products. The use of organic fertilizer to boost soil fertility, relocation and resettlement of farmers to areas with high soil fertility and appropriate legislation to protect the rights of the native ...

  9. Solidification of low and medium level wastes in bitumen at Barsebaeck nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfors, C.

    1979-01-01

    Operating experience is presented from 4 years of bitumen solidification of wastes coming from two boiling water reactors. Methods used to sample, analyse and document the wastes are described. Transport and storage methods without remote handling have been adopted. The risk of fire is discussed and a description is given of the measures taken for fire protection. (author)

  10. Incorporation of bitumen and calcium silicate in cement and lime stabilized soil blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, W. H.; Cheah, C. B.; Ramli, M.; Al-Sakkaf, Y. K.

    2017-04-01

    Providing affordable housing is the most critical problem in many of the developing countries. Using earth materials in building construction is one of the feasible methods to address this issue and it can be a way towards sustainable construction as well. However, the published information on the stabilized soil blocks is limited. Therefore, the present study is conducted to examine the characterization of the soils and engineering properties of the stabilized soil blocks. Four types of stabilizer were used in the study, namely; cement, slaked lime, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate. Cement and slaked lime were added at different percentages in the range of 5% to 15%, with interval of 2.5%. The percentage was determined based on weight of soil. Meanwhile, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate were incorporated at various percentages together with 10% of cement. Dosage of bitumen emulsion is in the range of 2% to 10% at interval of 2% while calcium silicate was incorporated at 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%, 1.25%, 1.50% and 2.00%. Results show that cement is the most viable stabilizer for the soil block among all stabilizers in this study. The bulk density, optimum moisture content and compressive strengths were increased with the increasing cement content. The most suitable cement content was 10% added at moisture content of 12%. Lime, bitumen and calcium contents were recommended at 5.0%, 6.0% and 1.25%, respectively.

  11. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.; Rodier, J.; Hullo, R.; Cudel, Y.; Rodi, L.

    1969-01-01

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors) [fr

  12. Technical evaluation of the ATI volume reduction and bitumen solidification topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henscheid, J.W.; Young, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes EG and G Idaho's review of the Associated Technologies Inorporated (ATI) topical report on a Volume Reduction and Bitumen Solidification System. The review evaluated compliance with pertinent codes, standards and regulations. The initial review was discussed with ATI, and all outstanding issues resolved before this final evaluation was made

  13. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low-tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low-tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low-tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low-tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low-tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low-tar theme and was included in the analysis. Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low-tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low-tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low-tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low-tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low-tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low-tar alternative brands. Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low-tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low-tar brands in the mid-1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low-tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low-tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low-tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low-tar cigarettes as a healthier alternative to higher-tar cigarettes has resulted in these brands

  14. The temporal relationship between advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Burns, David M

    2006-01-01

    Objective and hypothesis To determine whether a temporal relationship exists between the advertising and sales of low‐tar cigarettes. It was hypothesised that increases in the advertising of low‐tar cigarettes would precede increases in sales for these cigarettes. Methods The themes of cigarette advertisements were reviewed and coded for 20 low‐tar cigarette brands advertised in 13 widely read magazines in the US between 1960 and 1996. These 20 brands represented most of the low‐tar cigarette advertisements and cigarette sales from 1967 to 1996. Cigarette sales data were obtained from the 1994 Maxwell report that summarises all cigarette sales from 1925 to 1990. If the advertisement referred to the low‐tar attributes of the cigarette advertised, the advertisement was coded as having a low‐tar theme and was included in the analysis. Results Five different graphical presentations of the relationship between the advertising and sales of the 20 low‐tar cigarette brands showed a temporal relationship between low‐tar advertising and sales for these brands. This relationship was observed for brands that introduced a low‐tar alternative into an existing brand family (eg, Marlboro Light) and for new exclusively low‐tar brands (eg, Carlton). Despite large increases in the advertising for the exclusively low‐tar brands, sales of these brands remained low relative to sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. Conclusions Increases in print advertising of 20 of the most popular low‐tar cigarette brands were followed by increases in sales for these cigarettes. Despite increases in the advertising of exclusively low‐tar brands in the mid‐1970s and early 1980s, the sales of these brands never matched the sales of the low‐tar alternative brands. This suggests that it may have been easier to get smokers to switch to low‐tar brands within a brand family compared with entirely new low‐tar brands. Over the past 30 years, the marketing of low‐tar

  15. Oil sands development in a carbon constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, J. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The challenges facing oilsands development in Alberta were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. In 2005, 71 per cent of Alberta's export value was derived from energy and mining. The author addressed the issue that resource based economies have rarely succeeded in the long term. He then demonstrated how such economies could capture value from technology. The primary focus was on the goal to develop and adapt greenhouse gas (GHG) transformational technologies that will break the link between hydrocarbon energy use and GHG emissions. The role of oil sands in this endeavour was also discussed. Alberta's oil sands are the world's largest hydrocarbon resource, with 315 b bbls proven reserves, and 2.5 t bbls potential reserves. As an important economic driver for Alberta, oil sands production is expected to grow significantly in the next 2 decades. Since bitumen production is more energy intensive than conventional oil, the industry is faced with the challenge of sustainable development. Concentrated GHG emissions create opportunities to proceed with long-term oil sands development with a sustainable level of GHG emissions, but technology and infrastructure are needed to take advantage of them. Current carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in Alberta were highlighted. The economic potential of geological storage of CO{sub 2} through acid gas injection or deep disposal was discussed in terms of enhanced oil recovery, enhanced coalbed methane recovery, enhanced gas recovery and cost avoidance of CO{sub 2} per tonne. It was emphasized that a long-term vision and commitment is needed to balance with short term problems solving and longer-term strategic agendas. tabs., figs.

  16. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  17. Presentations of the CONRAD Research Symposium : oil sands water usage workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This symposium provided a forum to exchange ideas regarding water use by the oil sands industry in Canada. The topics of discussion addressed timely issues such as corrosion control in pipelines, cumulative discharge modelling in the oil sands area, waste management schemes, the effects of potential limits on water withdrawal for thermal recovery operations and plant operations, the feasibility of geological sequestration of salts, and the impact of process-affected water on bitumen recovery. Other topics of discussion included tailings ponds management, deoxygenation of water, nanofiltration for water management, water quality for wetlands, water reuse, and water supply security. The conference featured 25 presentations, of which 17 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  18. Investigation on performances of asphalt mixtures made with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: Effects of interaction between virgin and RAP bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Noferini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tonnes of asphalt for road applications in 2014. In the same year, the amount of available RAP was more than 50 mil tonnes. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. Despite the economic and environmental benefits, road authorities tend to limit the use of RAP in asphalt mixes due to uncertainty about field performances. The present study focuses on the interaction between neat and RAP bitumen in asphalt mixes made with different RAP content. The effects of RAP on physical and rheological properties of the final bituminous blend were investigated. This study is part of a wider research, where a specific type of asphalt mixture was produced with different RAP contents being 10%, 20% and 30% by mass of the mix. Bitumen was extracted and recovered from asphalt mixes, then it was subjected to the following laboratory tests: standard characterization, dynamic viscosity and rheological analysis with DSR. Findings showed that the effects of RAP bitumen on the final blend varied in proportion to RAP content. A threshold value of RAP content was found, below which bitumen was not subjected to significant changes in physical and rheological properties. Practical implications on production methods and paving of RAP mixes are also proposed. Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, Recycling, Bitumen blending, Bitumen rheology

  19. Experimental research on accelerated consolidation using filter jackets in fine oil sands tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol van, F.; Yao, Y.; Paaseen van, L.; Everts, B. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Geotechnology

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed prefabricated vertical drains used to enhance the dewatering of fine oil sand tailings. Filtration tests conducted with thickened tailings on standard PVD jackets were presented. Potential clogging mechanisms included clogging of the filter jacket by particles, blinding of the jackets by filter cake, the decreased permeability of consolidated tailings around the drain, and the clogging of the filter jacket with bitumen. Polypropylene and polyester geotextiles were tested in a set-up that replicated conditions observed at 5 to 10 meters below mud level in an oil sand tailings pond. A finite strain consolidation model was used to interpret results obtained in the experimental study. The relationship between the void ratio and hydraulic conductivity was investigated. Results of the study showed that neither the bitumen nor the fines in the sludge cause serious blinding of the filter jackets during the 40 day test period. The consolidation process was adequately simulated with the finite strain consolidation model. tabs., figs.

  20. Complexation of Cu2+, Ni2+ and UO22+ by radiolytic degradation products of bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L.R. Van; Kopajtic, Z.

    1990-05-01

    The radiolytic degradation of bitumen was studied under conditions which reflect those which will exist in the near field of a cementitious radioactive waste repository. The potential complexation capacity of the degradation products was studied and complexation experiments with Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and UO 2 2+ were performed. In general 1:1 complexes with Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and UO 2 2+ , with log K values of between 5.7 and 6.0 for Cu 2+ , 4.2 for Ni 2+ and 6.1 for UO 2 2+ , were produced at an ionic strength of 0.1 M. The composition of the bitumen water was analysed by GC-MS and IC. The major proportion of the bitumen degradation products in solution were monocarboxylic acids (acetic acid, formic acid, myric acid, stearic acid ...), dicarboxylic acids (oxalic acid, phthalic acid) and carbonates. The experimentally derived log K data are in good agreement with the literature and suggest that oxalate determines the speciation of Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and UO 2 2+ in the bitumen water below pH=7. However, under the high pH conditions typical of the near field of a cementitious repository, competition with OH-ligands will be large and oxalate, therefore, will not play a significant role in the speciation of radionuclides. The main conclusion of the study is that the radiolytic degradation products of bitumen will have no influence on radionuclide speciation in a cementitious near field and, as such, need not to be considered in the appropriate safety assessment models. (author) 12 figs., 11 tabs., 31 refs

  1. Constant strain rate experiments and constitutive modeling for a class of bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kommidi Santosh; Umakanthan, S.; Krishnan, J. Murali

    2012-08-01

    The mechanical properties of bitumen vary with the nature of the crude source and the processing methods employed. To understand the role of the processing conditions played in the mechanical properties, bitumen samples derived from the same crude source but processed differently (blown and blended) are investigated. The samples are subjected to constant strain rate experiments in a parallel plate rheometer. The torque applied to realize the prescribed angular velocity for the top plate and the normal force applied to maintain the gap between the top and bottom plate are measured. It is found that when the top plate is held stationary, the time taken by the torque to be reduced by a certain percentage of its maximum value is different from the time taken by the normal force to decrease by the same percentage of its maximum value. Further, the time at which the maximum torque occurs is different from the time at which the maximum normal force occurs. Since the existing constitutive relations for bitumen cannot capture the difference in the relaxation times for the torque and normal force, a new rate type constitutive model, incorporating this response, is proposed. Although the blended and blown bitumen samples used in this study correspond to the same grade, the mechanical responses of the two samples are not the same. This is also reflected in the difference in the values of the material parameters in the model proposed. The differences in the mechanical properties between the differently processed bitumen samples increase further with aging. This has implications for the long-term performance of the pavement.

  2. The adsorption of Cs+, Sr2+ and Ni2+ on bitumen: a mechanistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L.R. Van; Kopajtic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The adsorption of radionuclides on the waste matrix is a positive effect and contributes to the retardation of released radionuclides migrating to the geo-and biosphere. For the safety assessment studies, it is important to know whether or not radionuclides do adsorb on the waste matrix. In the present work the adsorption of 134 Cs + , 85 Sr 2+ and 63 Ni 2+ on bitumen was studied as a function of the pH and ionic strength of the equilibrium solution. Bitumen emulsions with well defined surfaces were used. The surface of bitumen is negatively charged due to the deprotonation of weak acid carboxyl groups at the interface. The functional group density amounts to 1.37.10 18 groups/m 2 and their deprotonation behaviour can be well described by the 'Ionizable Surface Group' model. Cs + , Sr 2+ and Ni 2+ adsorb on the surface by three different processes, i.e. ion exchange, outer sphere complexation and inner sphere surface complexation respectively. The adsorption depends on the pH and the ionic strength of the contact solution. Under near field conditions, Cs + and Sr 2+ do not adsorb on the bitumen due to the competition with Na + , K + and Ca 2+ present in the cement pore water in contact with the bitumen. Ni 2+ adsorption can also be neglected because the formation of neutral and anionic hydroxo complexes in solution competes strongly with the adsorption reaction. Other hydrolysable radionuclides of interest are expected to behave similarly to Ni 2+ . The main conclusion of the study is that the adsorption of radionuclides under near field conditions is expected to be very low. Consequently, this process need not to be considered in safety assessment studies. (author) figs., tabs., 30 refs

  3. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  4. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  5. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  6. Applicability of CO{sub 2}-based Vapex process to recover Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badamchi-Zadeh, A.; Maini, B.B.; Yarranton, H.W. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2008-10-15

    This paper described an experimental apparatus designed to test Vapex process performance in Athabasca bitumen. The study examined the effectiveness of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a carrier gas for propane in the Vapex process. The procedure was designed to provide data on the compositional changes in the vapor chamber and solution gas, as well as to more accurately measure the density and viscosity of produced oil. A total of 4 Vapex experiments were conducted in a model packed with glass beads and saturated with Athabasca bitumen. Pure propane, and 2 different mixtures of CO{sub 2} and propane were used as solvents. The study examined stabilized live oil production rates; average fractions of the solvent in the produced oil, the density and viscosity of the produced oil, and the average composition of the solvent in the test vapor chamber. The compositional changes were mapped using an equations of state (EOS) model. The study demonstrated that the Vapex compositional path follows a multi-contact immiscible process that included condensing compositional gravity drainage. Results indicated that while pure propane is a more effective means of recovering Athabasca bitumens, non-condensable gases such as CO{sub 2} must be mixed with propane in order to ensure that the dew point pressure of the solvent remains above reservoir pressures. The study showed that CO{sub 2} can be used to effectively reduce the viscosity of bitumen in conjunction with propane. However, the phase behavior of solvent and bitumen systems in reservoir conditions must be characterized in order to select appropriate injection gas ratios. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  7. Seismic modeling of fluvial-estuarine deposits in the Athabasca oil sands using ray-tracing techniques, Steepbank River area, northeastern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, C. W.; Hein, F. J. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lawton, D.; Cunningham, J. [Calgary Univ., Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-03-01

    Seismic reflection characteristics of contrasting channel geometries in a five-section portion of the Steepbank River are modeled using ray-tracing techniques. Outcrop lithofacies associations are used to create a seismic model that can be used as a subsurface analog of other similar oil-sands successions. At least four channel complexes based on stratal bounding surfaces, arrangement of lithofacies, and consistent paleoflow patterns have been identified. The lower part of each channel complex contains trough crossbedded sandstone, exhibiting high porosity and permeability. These sandstones were deposited in channel axes and are the highest grade bitumen deposits in the area. The upper parts of the channels contain significantly lower bitumen saturation values due to common interbedded mudstone. Nearby wells contain cored and logged intervals that are similar to exposed outcrops in the riverbank. Overall modeling results indicate that channel complexes can be imaged seismically, given data of sufficient quality and frequency. Bitumen grade may be predicted in these seismic lines, which has important consequences for bitumen exploration and extraction in the Steepbank River region. 64 refs., 26 figs.

  8. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC, Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals. The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Nearly twenty-five phenols were identified in the samples and nine of them were also quantified. The results showed that coal tar has large quantities of phenolic compounds of industrial interest.

  10. Hydrogen production from biomass tar by catalytic steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Jun; Choi, Young-Chan; Lee, Jae-Goo

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic steam reforming of model biomass tar, toluene being a major component, was performed at various conditions of temperature, steam injection rate, catalyst size, and space time. Two kinds of nickel-based commercial catalyst, the Katalco 46-3Q and the Katalco 46-6Q, were evaluated and compared with dolomite catalyst. Production of hydrogen generally increased with reaction temperature, steam injection rate and space time and decreased with catalyst size. In particular, zirconia-promoted nickel-based catalyst, Katalco 46-6Q, showed a higher tar conversion efficiency and shows 100% conversion even relatively lower temperature conditions of 600 deg. C. Apparent activation energy was estimated to 94 and 57 kJ/mol for dolomite and nickel-based catalyst respectively.

  11. Sulphur output from oil sands : dramatically changing Alberta's sulphur balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aquin, G. [Con-Sul Inc., Bigfork, MT (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed sulphur production from Alberta's gas and oil sands industries. While sulfur derived from natural gas production in the province is expected to decline as natural gas reserves diminish, Alberta's oil sands contain high amounts of sulphur. It is not yet known how much sulphur will be produced from the province's oil sands facilities. Alberta had considerable stockpiles of sulphur in the 1970s. By 1980, inventories began to decline. By 1996, output had increased to 7.1 million tonnes. Alberta's sulphur inventory reached 9.7 million tonnes following the collapse of the Soviet Union's government mandated fertilizer industry. In 2006, sulphur supplies in Alberta reached 12 million tonnes. Reduced global output has now lowered sulphur stockpiles. Increases in sulphur prices tend to reduce market demand, and lower prices will not typically change the volume of sulphur produced as a byproduct of oil and gas operations. Bitumen-derived sulphur output is expected to exceed gas-derived sulphur output in the near future. Sulphur from oil sands processing is expected to increase by 5 million tonnes by 2017. Increased sulphur production levels in Alberta will present a significant challenge for all sectors of the hydrocarbon industry. It was concluded that developing a plan for storing, selling or disposing of the sulphur will help to ensure the profitability of oil sands operations.

  12. Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin N.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Ma, Mingsheng; Kwan, Alvin K.; Fortin, Barbra L.

    2009-01-01

    For over a decade, the contribution of oil sands mining and processing to the pollution of the Athabasca River has been controversial. We show that the oil sands development is a greater source of contamination than previously realized. In 2008, within 50 km of oil sands upgrading facilities, the loading to the snowpack of airborne particulates was 11,400 T over 4 months and included 391 kg of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), equivalent to 600 T of bitumen, while 168 kg of dissolved PAC was also deposited. Dissolved PAC concentrations in tributaries to the Athabasca increased from 0.009 μg/L upstream of oil sands development to 0.023 μg/L in winter and to 0.202 μg/L in summer downstream. In the Athabasca, dissolved PAC concentrations were mostly snow, dissolved PAC concentrations were up to 4.8 μg/L, thus, spring snowmelt and washout during rain events are important unknowns. These results indicate that major changes are needed to the way that environmental impacts of oil sands development are monitored and managed. PMID:19995964

  13. Canada's oil sands: nuclear power in an integrated energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Alberta (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    At a time of the expansive global growth in energy demand and the peaking of conventional oil, the Canadian Oil Sands have emerged as the largest new reserves to supply oil to world markets. Bitumen production in 2006 averaged 1.25 million barrels per day (an increase of 13% over 2005 and an 88% increase since 2000). If this trend continues Canada will be positioned as one of the world's premier suppliers of oil for many decades to come. The Oil Sands are one of the world's most challenging and complex oil resources. They require considerable amount of energy, water and land area to produce, resulting in contaminated tailings ponds, air emissions of concern and copious greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As the need to protect the environment and reduce GHG emissions moves higher on the public agenda Canada's ability to grow the energy supplies from oil sands will be severely tested. This paper focuses on the current and emerging methods and innovations that can be applied to produce these unconventional resources to value-added products with a decreasing impact on the environment. The paper will also describe the benefits and challenges for nuclear energy in the oil sands as a solution to the need for substitutes for natural gas in oil sands production and upgrading and in meeting Canada's GHG emission targets. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the oil sands and heavy oil technologies conference and exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for oil sands industry leaders to review the current and future state of technology in this frontier environment. Presentations were delivered by key personnel involved in groundbreaking projects with a renewed focus on oil sands technology and equipment, viewed from the strategic level with case studies and reports on application technologies designed to optimize oil sands operations. The presentations addressed a wide range of issues related to the environmental impacts of oil sands processing facilities, including innovative water and wastewater solutions for heavy oil producers for bitumen mining, in-situ and upgrading facilities. New advances in sulphur treatment technologies were highlighted along with technologies designed to increase the energy efficiency and energy consumption rates of upgrader and processing facilities. Advances in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage systems were also discussed along with geopolitical and economic evaluations of the future of the oil sands industry. The conference featured 59 presentations, of which 48 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Tar ball concentrations in the ocean around the Cape of Good Hope before and after a major oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagle, G A; Green, A; Williams, J

    1979-11-01

    From August 1977 to August 1978, tar ball concentrations around the southwestern coast of South Africa were sampled. Prior to a tanker collision on December 16, 1977, the area was relatively free of floating tar. Following the collision, tar ball concentrations increased; tar was transported by wind and currents, at average speeds of about 1 km/hr. In areas of slack currents, tar was observed for as long as 8 months after the spill. Results provided information about surface current trends.

  16. Evaluation of different oxygen carriers for biomass tar reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiara, Teresa; Johansen, Joakim Myung; Utrilla, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    , in a concentration of 600–2000ppmv, was chosen as a tar model compound. Experiments were performed in a TGA apparatus and a fixed bed reactor. Four oxygen carriers (60% NiO/MgAl2O4 (Ni60), 40% NiO/NiAl2O4 (Ni40), 40% Mn3O4/Mg–ZrO2 (Mn40) and FeTiO3 (Fe)) were tested under alternating reducing/oxidizing cycles...

  17. Treatment of low-temperature tar-gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, F

    1928-07-04

    Process for the treating and conversion of low-temperature tar-vapor and gas mixtures in the presence of metals or metal oxides as well as bodies of large surface, without previous condensation of the liquid material to be treated, characterized by the treatment taking place with a mixture of desulfurizing metals and metal oxides which, if necessary, are precipitated on carriers and large surface nonmetal cracking catalysts, such as active carbon and silica gel.

  18. Cold Preparation of Heroin in a Black Tar Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Armenta, Richard F; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldshear, Jesse L; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S

    2017-07-29

    Black tar heroin is typically prepared for injection with heat which decreases the risk of HIV transmission by inactivating the virus. We received reports that persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, a black tar heroin market, were using only water to dissolve heroin. Because Tijuana abuts San Diego County, CA, United States, we undertook the present analyses to determine the prevalence of this practice among PWID in San Diego, California. PWID completed quarterly behavioral assessments and serological testing for blood-borne viruses. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess for individual, social, and structural correlates of preparing heroin without heat within the preceding 6 months. Nearly half of black tar heroin users (149/305) reported they had prepared heroin without heat within 6 months. In multivariable analysis, cold preparation was independently associated with younger age (10 year decrease; AOR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.03, 1.53), more drug injecting acquaintances (per 5 acquaintance increase; AOR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01, 1.09) and prefilled syringe use (injecting drugs from syringes that are already filled with drugs before purchase; AOR = 1.86; 95% CI 1.14, 3.02). Conclusions/Importance: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report that PWID living in a black tar heroin market are preparing heroin without heat. Additional research is needed to determine whether this is an endemic practice or PWID are engaging in new forms of drug preparation in response to changes in the environment.

  19. Coal-tar based pavement sealant toxicity to freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryer, Pamela J; Scoggins, Mateo; McClintock, Nancy L

    2010-05-01

    Non-point-source pollution is a major source of ecological impairment in urban stream systems. Recent work suggests that coal-tar pavement sealants, used extensively to protect parking areas, may be contributing a large portion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) loading seen in urban stream sediments. The hypothesis that dried coal-tar pavement sealant flake could alter the macroinvertebrate communities native to streams in Austin, TX was tested using a controlled outdoor laboratory type approach. The treatment groups were: control, low, medium, and high with total PAH concentrations (TPAH = sum of 16 EPA priority pollutant PAHs) of 0.1, 7.5, 18.4, & 300 mg/kg respectively. The low, medium, and high treatments were created via the addition of dried coal-tar pavement sealant to a sterile soil. At the start of the 24-day exposure, sediment from a minimally impacted local reference site containing a community of live sediment-dwelling benthic macroinvertebrates was added to each replicate. An exposure-dependent response was found for several stream health measures and for several individual taxa. There were community differences in abundance (P = 0.0004) and richness (P pavement sealants contain bioavailable PAHs that may harm aquatic environments. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solvent refining of low-temperature tar with liquid ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K

    1953-01-01

    The middle fractions of low-temperature tar were treated with mixed solutions of H/sub 2/O and liquid NH/sub 3/ at 0/sup 0/ and 20/sup 0/, and with liquid NH/sub 3/ at -10, 0, + 10, and 20/sup 0/, and phase equilibrium between tar acids, neutral oil, and solvents were studied. The distribution ratio ranged from less than 1 to greater than 1 when the solvent contained about 20 percent (by weight) H/sub 2/O. When the solvent contained less than 85 percent (by weight) NH/sub 3/, the yield of extract was small but the purity of phenols in the extracted oil was above 90 percent. Solvent containing about 85 percent NH/sub 3/ (by weight) is considered optimum for separating tar acids from oils. A novel definition is proposed for solvent selectivity as the difference between the concentration of the solute in the extract layer, on a solvent-free basis, and the concentration in the raffinate layer.

  1. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO 2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  2. Composition of coal tar from pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of Shenmu coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Chen, H.; Li, B. [Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2005-08-15

    To understand the relationship of the tar compositions and the coal macerals, the tars obtained from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of Shenmu coal macerals in a fixed-bed reactor were analysed using GC-MS. And the effects of petrographic component, atmosphere and pressure on the yield of aromatic hydrocarbon, phenols, hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing heterocycle and PAHs were systematically investigated. The results show that there is great difference in the composition and the relative content of long chain hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, oxygen-containing heterocycle and PAHs in tars from vitrinite and inertinite pyrolysis. Vitrinite tar contains high content of hydrocarbon with long chain, and inertinite tar contains high content of aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, oxygen-containing heterocycle and PAHs. It suggests that vitrinite has lower aromaticity and longer chain in its structure than inertinite, which is in well agreement with the result from {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR test. The tar yield of hydropyrolysis is higher than that of pyrolysis. With increasing the hydrogen pressure, the yield of tar increases greatly. The content of phenols and naphthalene in vitrinite tar form hydropyrolysis under 0.1 MPa is much lower than that form pyrolysis, while that of inertinite tar changes a little. The difference of tar compositions and relative content during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis reflects the effect of hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions and the structure characteristics of the macerals. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  4. The future of water quality and the regulatory environment for the oil sands and coalbed methane development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, K.; Mikula, R.

    2004-01-01

    The use of consolidated tailings in recent years for the surface mined oil sands bitumen extraction process has resulted in major improvements in water consumption because materials are transported more efficiently in a slurry form. Water storage requirements will be reduced as the cost of handling tailings in the conventional manner becomes clearer. Future improvements may be in the form of mine face sand rejection, more advanced tailings treatment, or the use of clays for continuous reclamation. Sand filtering or stacking technologies can improve tailings properties and reduce the amount of water needed per unit of bitumen. It was noted that although the technologies will minimize land disturbance and fresh water consumption, water chemistries will be driven to the point where extraction recovery is impaired and water treatment will be required. The volumes and quality of water that is pumped out to produce coalbed methane (CBM) was also discussed with reference to the origin of water in coal beds, water resource depletion, water disposal, direct land applications, and surface evaporation. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and Alberta Environment are responsible for regulating CBM water issues in the province, including water disposal from CBM production. 41 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  5. Quality of bitumens in asphalt hot-mixes with emphasis on the durability of constructed premix surfacings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Assen, EJ

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available time. Asphalt technologists' ultimate quest is for performance-related specifications that will ensure the procurement of quality bitumens which could produce asphalts with desirable performance during construction, and which will resist physical...

  6. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  7. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  8. Pelagic tar and plastic in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea: 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, D G

    1977-07-01

    Seventy-one tows of 740 m/sup 2/ each were made in search of pelagic tar and plastics in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea during the period October 1974 to October 1975. Tar was observed on nine occasions while plastics were found six times. The arithmetic mean value of tar abundance, 3.3 x 10/sup -3/ mg/m/sup 2/, is considerably lower than most other oceanic areas for which values have been reported. Gas chromatographic analysis of this tar indicates that it is more extensively weathered than tar from the north Atlantic. An estimate of the abundance of tar lumps too small to be sampled by net tows is made based on the assumption that there are equal weights of particles in logarithmetically equal size intervals. The abundance of pelagic plastics is also low.

  9. Effect of hydrated lime and cement on moisture damage of recycled mixtures with foamed bitumen and emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Nosetti, R.A.; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo; Martínez Reguero, Adriana Haydée; Miró Recasens, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Cold recycling with foamed bitumen can be used as a sustainable and cost-effective rehabilitation technique. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the resistance to the water action in mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and foamed bitumen by means of indirect tensile test, comparing the effect of two active fillers: cement and hydrated lime. Additionally, mixtures recycled with RAP and asphalt emulsions were also tested in order to compare the response of both technologies. Resu...

  10. Contact sensitivity to newsprint: a rare manifestation of coal tar allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illchyshyn, A; Cartwright, P H; Smith, A G

    1987-07-01

    Contact dermatitis due to coal tar is infrequently reported in spite of the fact that it consists of a mixture of 10,000 constituents, and is still often used to treat both eczema and psoriasis. Discusses patient with coal tar sensitivity in whom the source of exacerbation of her dermatitis is shown to be newsprint, a common product containing coal tar-derived material. 6 refs.

  11. Modelling the low-tar BIG process; Modellering af low-tar BIG processen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Lars Henrik

    2002-09-15

    This report describes the possibilities of integrating a biomass gasifier in a combined heat and power plant. The purpose of the study is, among others, to see if the gasification technology can challenge existing heat and power production methods. A research programme dealing with the construction of a low far gasifier (LT-BIG), which easily can be scaled to large gasification plants, is in progress. This report also contains a model formulation and implementation for this suggested low tar gasifier. All the models are created by the use of the energy simulation tool DNA. For some cases it has been necessary to develop new components or to alter existing components in DNA. Three different systems are considered; Gas Engine, Simple Cycle Gas Turbine and Combined Cycle. When biomass with and lower heating value of 19 MJ/kg and a moisture content of 50% is employed the subsequent results and designs are achieved: 1) The Engine plant utilizes the hot flue-gas to dry the biomass, but has difficulties taking advantage of the potential energy from the cooling of the syngas. An engine with a net electric efficiency of 40% at full load is computed to convert 38,5% of the energy content in the biomass to electricity. 2) The Simple Cycle Gas Turbine plant has good potential for integration with a gasifier. It dries the biomass by means of the flue-gas and recuperates the energy from the hot syngas to preheat the pressurised gas before it enters the combustion chamber. With an isentropic efficiency of 89% and a pressure ratio of 20, an electric efficiency of 38% is computed. 3) The Combined Cycle plant almost reach a computed efficiency of 45%. It utilises the cooling of the hot syngas to produce extra steam for the cycle, which results in a very steady efficiency, even when the moisture content of the fuel is changed. A grand parametric and sensitivity study of the LT-BIG model is carried out. The study includes estimates of the air demand for the gasifier and the partial

  12. Development of paraffin and paraffin/bitumen composites with additions of B2O3 for thermal neutron shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyen, Donruedee; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak

    2017-01-01

    In this work, paraffin and paraffin/bitumen composites with additions of boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ) were prepared to evaluate the viscosity, flexural, and thermal neutron shielding properties for uses as thermal neutron shielding materials. The results showed that the addition of 3 wt% or 9 wt% bitumen to paraffin increased the overall flexural properties with the content of 9 wt% bitumen having the highest values. The improvement in flexural properties made the composites less brittle, stiffer, and longer-lasting. Furthermore, different contents of B 2 O 3 (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 wt%) were added to paraffin and paraffin/bitumen composites to investigate the effects of the B 2 O 3 contents. The results indicated that an increase in B 2 O 3 contents improved the shielding properties but slightly reduced the flexural properties. Specifically for 5-mm paraffin and 5-mm paraffin/bitumen samples with 35 wt% of B 2 O 3 , both samples could reduce neutron flux by more than 70%. The overall results suggested that the paraffin and paraffin/bitumen composites with additions of B 2 O 3 showed improved properties for utilization as effective thermal neutron shielding materials. (author)

  13. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  14. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  15. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after hairwash with coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooten, F.-J. van; Moonen, E.J.C.; Rhijnsburger, E.; Agen, B. van; Thijssen, H.H.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S. [University of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1994-11-26

    Describes an experiment to assess the dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after hairwashing with coal tar antidandruff shampoo. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P), a PAH metabolile was used to assess internal dose of PAH. A single use of coal tar shampoo resulted in increased 1-OH-P excretion in all members of the experimental group compared with the control group using a non-coal tar antidandruff shampoo. It is suggested that repeated use of coal tar shampoo would result in a high internal dose of carcinogenic PAH. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Identification of sources of tar balls deposited along the Goa coast, India, using fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Zakaria, M.P.; Naik, B.G.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This is first fingerprinting study in India on identification of source of tar balls. ► Tar balls were formed from tanker-wash spills and they resemble floating tar ball. ► δ 13 C values of Bombay High crude oil and the present tar balls do not match. ► Compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis confirmed the source of tar balls. ► Source is confirmed as the South East Asian Crude Oil and not the Bombay High crude. -- Abstract: Deposition of tar balls along the coast of Goa, India is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon. Representative tar ball samples collected from various beaches of Goa and one Bombay High (BH) crude oil sample were subjected to fingerprint analysis based on diagnostic ratios of n-alkane, biomarkers of pentacyclic tri-terpanes and compound specific stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) analysis to confirm the source. The results were compared with the published data of Middle East Crude Oil (MECO) and South East Asian Crude Oil (SEACO). The results revealed that the tar balls were from tanker-wash derived spills. The study also confirmed that the source is not the BH, but SEACO. The present study suggests that the biomarkers of alkanes and hopanes coupled with stable carbon isotope analysis act as a powerful tool for tracing the source of tar balls, particularly when the source specific biomarkers fail to distinguish the source

  17. Influence of the association of the EVA and NBR on the characteristics of modified bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaada, A.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.

    2015-03-01

    Durability and the performance of pavement depend mainly on the characteristics of materials which change over time like all other organic substances. They are subject to significant changes due to environmental conditions during the different phases of use. In the present work we investigated experimentally the influence of the association of ethyl vinyl acetate polymer (EVA) with an industrial waste, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) on the modification of bitumen AC 35-50 and its rheological behavior. The incorporation of NBR and EVA in the bitumen improved its intrinsic characteristics (softening point, penetration and ductility). In addition to improving the characteristics of bituminous binders that will affect the durability of bituminous structures, the environment will be preserved by the recycling of industrial waste.

  18. RADIATION CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF OIL DERIVED FROM OIL-BITUMEN ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Jabbarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil–bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43–216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment.

  19. Influence of bitumen type on cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures used in pavement overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, P.; Szydlowski, C.; Stienss, M.

    2018-05-01

    Cracking is one of the predominant distresses occurring in flexible pavements, especially in old pavements that were rehabilitated with an asphalt overlay. In such cases asphalt mixtures should be designed to ensure high resistance to reflective cracking because new asphalt layers are exposed to existing cracks of the old pavement. The nature of these cracks can be various (transverse, longitudinal as well as crazy cracking). One factor that minimizes this type of distress is the proper mix design process, which should involve selection of specific bitumen binder and mineral mix gradation. However, still there is no universally adopted laboratory test method that would allow to clearly assess resistance of asphalt mixtures to reflective cracking. This paper describes the usage of one of the devices developed to test asphalt mixtures in terms of such distress – Texas Overlay Tester. For this test, samples prepared in laboratory conditions (i.e. compacted with the use of Superpave Gyratory Compactor) as well as obtained in the field (by core drilling) can be used. The results are obtained not only quickly and easily, but also with sufficient repeatability. The described method characterizes both crack initiation and crack propagation properties of asphalt mixtures. In this work one type of mineral mixture was tested with 4 different types of bitumen (one neat bitumen, two ordinary polymer-modified and one polymer-modified with high polymer content). For selected cases extra additives (rubber and loose fibres) were also tested. In total, six asphalt mixtures were tested. A ranking of the used binders was created on the basis of the results in order to conclude which bitumen would ensure the best performance characteristics in terms of reflective cracking. The results have clearly shown that deliberate choice of the binder used in the asphalt mixture for the overlay will significantly improve its reflective cracking resistance or even fatigue resistance.

  20. Analysis of some aromatic hydrocarbons in a benzene-soluble bitumen from Green River shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrocarbon content of an aromatic fraction, isolated from the bitumen of Green River shale, was studied by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectrometry, gas chromatography and a dehydrogenation technique. The hydrocarbon types and their distribution in this aromatic fraction, as determined by mass spectrometry, are presented. The carbon-number range, empirical formulas and quantity of each compound in the major types are reported. Mass spectra of several compounds and homologous mixtures of compounds isolated from the aromatic fraction are also given.

  1. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  2. Structural and dynamic characterization of the upper part of the HIV-1 cTAR DNA hairpin

    OpenAIRE

    Zargarian, Loussin?; Kanevsky, Igor; Bazzi, Ali; Boynard, Jonathan; Chaminade, Fran?oise; Foss?, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    First strand transfer is essential for HIV-1 reverse transcription. During this step, the TAR RNA hairpin anneals to the cTAR DNA hairpin; this annealing reaction is promoted by the nucleocapsid protein and involves an initial loop?loop interaction between the apical loops of TAR and cTAR. Using NMR and probing methods, we investigated the structural and dynamic properties of the top half of the cTAR DNA (mini-cTAR). We show that the upper stem located between the apical and the internal loop...

  3. Experimental data on compressive strength and durability of sulfur concrete modified by styrene and bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehestani, M; Teimortashlu, E; Molaei, M; Ghomian, M; Firoozi, S; Aghili, S

    2017-08-01

    In this data article experimental data on the compressive strength, and the durability of styrene and bitumen modified sulfur concrete against acidic water and ignition are presented. The percent of the sulfur cement and the gradation of the aggregates used are according to the ACI 548.2R-93 and ASTM 3515 respectively. For the styrene modified sulfur concrete different percentages of styrene are used. Also for the bitumen modified sulfur concrete, different percentages of bitumen and the emulsifying agent (triton X-100) are utilized. From each batch three 10×10×10 cm cubic samples were casted. One of the samples was used for the compressive strength on the second day of casting, and one on the twenty-eighth day. Then the two samples were put under the high pressure flame of the burning liquid gas for thirty seconds and their ignition resistances were observed. The third sample was put into the acidic water and after twenty eight days immersion in water was dried in the ambient temperature. After drying its compressive strength has been evaluated.

  4. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  5. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  6. General toxic effects of shale tars on the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, H; Sillam, A

    1972-01-01

    Of 115 workers in close contact with oil shale tars, 80 percent complained of headache, fatigue, and stomach aches. Vegetative dystonia, asthenovegetative, or asthenic syndromes were diagnosed in 32 percent of the cases. An excessive excretion of free phenols was found in the urine of 13 percent of the patients and an excess of sulfates and coproporphyrin in 27 and 29 percent, respectively. The statistical analysis of clinical data indicates a relation to biochemical changes. The immunological reactivity studies showed that in 60 percent of the cases the immunological resistance decreased markedly.

  7. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada, is home to deposits of oil sands containing vast amounts (~ 173 billion barrels) of heavily biodegraded petroleum. Oil sands are recovered by surface mining or by in situ steam injection. The extraction of bitumen from oil sands by caustic hot water processing results in large volumes of fluid tailings, which are stored in on-site settling basins. There the tailings undergo a compaction and dewatering process, producing a slowly densifying suspension. The released water is recycled for extraction. The fine tailings will be reclaimed as either dry or wet landscapes. [1] To produce 1 barrel of crude oil, 2 tons of oil sand and 2 - 3 tons of water (including recycled water) are required. [2] Open pit mining and the extraction of the bitumen from the oil sands create large and intense disturbances of different landscapes. The area currently disturbed by mining operations covers about 530 km2 and the area of tailing ponds surpasses 130 km2. An issue of increasing importance is the land remediation and reclamation of oil sand areas in Canada and the reconstruction of these disturbed landscapes back to working ecosystems similar to those existing prior to mining operations. An important issue in this context is the identification of oil sand-derived organic compounds in the tailings, their environmental behaviour and the resulting chances and limitations with respect to land reclamation. Furthermore the biodegradation processes that occur in the tailings and that could lead to a decrease in hazardous organic compounds are important challenges, which need to be investigated. This presentation will give a detailed overview of our compositional and quantitative characterisation of the organic matter in oil sand, unprocessed and processed mature fine tailings samples as well as in tailings sands used as part of land reclamation. The analytical characterisation is based on the extraction of the soluble organic matter, its

  8. Microbial communities involved in methane production from hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Klassen, Jonathan; Nesbø, Camilla; Foght, Julia M

    2012-09-04

    Microbial metabolism of residual hydrocarbons, primarily short-chain n-alkanes and certain monoaromatic hydrocarbons, in oil sands tailings ponds produces large volumes of CH(4) in situ. We characterized the microbial communities involved in methanogenic biodegradation of whole naphtha (a bitumen extraction solvent) and its short-chain n-alkane (C(6)-C(10)) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) components using primary enrichment cultures derived from oil sands tailings. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes amplified from these enrichments showed increased proportions of two orders of Bacteria: Clostridiales and Syntrophobacterales, with Desulfotomaculum and Syntrophus/Smithella as the closest named relatives, respectively. In parallel archaeal clone libraries, sequences affiliated with cultivated acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaetaceae) were enriched in cultures amended with n-alkanes, whereas hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales) were enriched with BTEX. Naphtha-amended cultures harbored a blend of these two archaeal communities. The results imply syntrophic oxidation of hydrocarbons in oil sands tailings, with the activities of different carbon flow pathways to CH(4) being influenced by the primary hydrocarbon substrate. These results have implications for predicting greenhouse gas emissions from oil sands tailings repositories.

  9. Investing for the future : Athabasca Oil Sands Trust 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sand Trust was created in 1995 when a subsidiary of the Trust, Athabasca Oil Sands Investment Inc., acquired Alberta's 11.74 per cent working interest in the Syncrude Project, which is a joint venture involved in the mining and upgrading of bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. The Trust is a closed-end investment trust which was created to provide an opportunity for direct public investment in Syncrude and oil sands development in northern Alberta. Syncrude, produced a record 76.7 million barrels of Syncrude Sweet Blend (SSB), and shipped its one billionth barrel on April 16, 1998. Another key achievement in 1998 was the investment the Syncrude Joint Venture Partners of almost half a billion dollars to maintain Syncrude's operations and pursue the Business Plan growth targets outlined in last year's report. By aggressively pursuing this capital investment program despite the current low oil prices, the Syncrude Joint Venture Partners expect to double SSB production to 155 million barrels per year by 2007. The Athabasca Trust's share of these capital expenditures to fuel the projected growth in production is about $ 70 million this year and the next. The report provides operating statistics on production, financial highlights and consolidated balance sheets for 1998, including operating expenditures, capital expenditures, and the usual notes to the consolidated financial statement. 10 tabs., 2 figs

  10. BioTiger{sup TM} : a natural microbial product for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Berry, C.J.; Milliken, C.E.; Jones, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the feasibility of using BioTiger{sup TM} technology to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery processes was initially developed and used by the United States Department of Energy for bioremediation of soils contaminated with oil, but it may also be used to optimize bitumen separation. BioTiger was described as being a unique microbial consortia that has resulted from nearly a decade of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from an old waste lagoon. The technology offers rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and produces new surfactants. It is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and has good activity at high temperatures at extreme pH levels. A flotation test protocol with oil sands from Fort McMurray, Alberta was used for the BioTiger evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/flotation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger showed a 50 per cent improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis. BioTiger is well suited for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands because it performs well at high temperatures. 8 figs.

  11. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  12. Mature fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse methanogenic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, T.J.; Foght, J.M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-06-15

    Syncrude's bitumen extraction process produces a fine tailings slurry consisting of water, sand, fines, residual bitumen and naphtha diluent. Following rapid settling of the sand fraction, the tailings are stored in large settling ponds to form a thick mature fine tailings (MFT). This paper discussed the potential benefits of methane production on management of the settling basins. Enhanced methanogenesis accelerates densification and improves the rheological properties of MFT. In this study molecular techniques were used to characterize the methanogenic communities in uncultivated MFT samples to determine the diversity present in the Mildred Lake Settling Basin (MLSB) and West In-Pit tailings deposit. The flux of methane is currently estimated at about 40 million L/day at the MLSB. Clone libraries of amplified archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes were created in order to analyze the methanogenic consortia in MFT samples from depth profiles in the 2 tailings deposits. The archaeal sequences, whose closest matches were primarily cultivated methanogens, were comparable within and between basins and were mostly affiliated with acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. However, bacterial clone libraries were diverse, with most sequences relating to Proteobacteria, including some presumptive nitrate-, iron-, or sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-degrading genera. The study showed that MFT consists of a diverse community of prokaryotes that may be responsible for producing methane from substrates indigenous to the MFT. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the biogenesis of methane and densification of MFT in oil sands tailings deposits. The results from this study will help determine strategies to control and exploit microbial activities in these large systems and improve the understanding of methanogenic environments. 43 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  14. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  15. Development and utilization of bitumen immobilizing process for radioactive waste materials; Razvoj i primena procesa imobilizacije radioaktivnog otpadnog materijala bitumenskim postupkom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peric, A; Plecas, I; Kostadinovic, A [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Bitumenization is one of the relevant methods for solidification of radioactive waste materials in nuclear technology, today. Bitumenization of R.A. wastes can be obtained either with batch or continual process. In 'IBK', mixer-evaporator vessel for batch process, with continual feeder of process influents, was developed. From the several R.A. materials, that can be solidified into bitumen, ion-exchanged resins, used in NPP Krsko, were chosen and treated, at the various ranges of pH and T. Researches and experiments pointed and verified on use of Yugoslav produced bitumens, as a matrix media for immobilizing the solid R.A. (author)

  16. Acute toxicity of birch tar oil on aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HAGNER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch tar oil (BTO is a by-product of processing birch wood in a pyrolysis system. Accumulating evidence suggests the suitability of BTO as a biocide or repellent in terrestrial environments for the control of weeds, insects, molluscs and rodents. Once applied as biocide, BTO may end up, either through run-off or leaching, in aquatic systems and may have adverse effects on non-target organisms. As very little is known about the toxicity of BTO to aquatic organisms, the present study investigated acute toxicity (LC50/EC50 of BTO for eight aquatic organisms. Bioassays with the Asellus aquaticus (crustacean, Lumbriculus variegatus (oligochaeta worm, Daphnia magna (crustacean, Lymnea sp. (mollusc, Lemna minor (vascular plant, Danio rerio (fish, Scenedesmus gracilis (algae, and Vibrio fischeri (bacterium were performed according to ISO, OECD or USEPA-guidelines. The results indicated that BTO was practically nontoxic to most aquatic organisms as the median effective BTO concentrations against most organisms were >150 mg L-1. In conclusion, our toxicity tests showed that aquatic organisms are to some extent, invariably sensitive to birch tar oil, but suggest that BTO does not pose a severe hazard to aquatic biota. We deduce that, unless BTOs are not applied in the immediate vicinity of water bodies, no special precaution is required.;

  17. No Increased Risk of Cancer after Coal Tar Treatment in Patients with Psoriasis or Eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofzen, Judith H. J.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Oldenhof, Ursula T. H.; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Alkemade, Hans A.; van de Kerkhof, Peter C. M.; van der Valk, Pieter G. M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.

    Coal tar is an effective treatment for psoriasis and eczema, but it contains several carcinogenic compounds. Occupational and animal studies have shown an increased risk of cancer after exposure to coal tar. Many dermatologists have abandoned this treatment for safety reasons, although the risk of

  18. 77 FR 48431 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... near the Pamlico and Tar Rivers to commemorate Beaufort County's 300th anniversary. The temporary... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Pamlico and Tar Rivers; Washington, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on...

  19. Biomass Gasifier ''Tars'': Their Nature, Formation, and Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Abatzaglou, N. (Kemestrie, Inc.)

    1998-11-01

    The main purpose of this review is to update the information on gasification tar, the most cumbersome and problematic parameter in any gasification commercialization effort. The work aims to present to the community the scientific and practical aspects of tar formation and conversion (removal) during gasification as a function of the various technological and technical parameters and variables.

  20. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption