WorldWideScience

Sample records for tanker ships 1995-2004

  1. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  2. Aerodynamic Efficiency Analysis on Modified Drag Generator of Tanker-Ship Using Symmetrical Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moranova, Starida; Rahmat Hadiyatul A., S. T.; Indra Permana S., S. T.

    2018-04-01

    Time reduction of tanker ship spent in the sea should be applied for solving problems occured in oil and gas distribution, such as the unpunctuality of the distribution and oil spilling. The aerodynamic design for some parts that considered as drag generators is presumed to be one of the solution, utilizing our demand of the increasing speed. This paper suggests two examples of the more-aerodynamic design of a part in the tanker that is considered a drag generator, and reports the value of drag generated from the basic and the suggested aerodynamic designs. The new designs are made by adding the NACA airfoil to the cross section of the drag generator. The scenario is assumed with a 39 km/hour speed of tanker, neglecting the hydrodynamic effects occured in the tanker by cutting it at the waterline which separated the drag between air and water. The results of produced drag in each design are calculated by Computational Fluid Dynamic method.

  3. A new arrangement with nonlinear sidewalls for tanker ship storage panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabdari, M. J.; Saghi, H.

    2013-03-01

    Sloshing phenomenon in a moving container is a complicated free surface flow problem. It has a wide range of engineering applications, especially in tanker ships and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carriers. When the tank in these vehicles is partially filled, it is essential to be able to evaluate the fluid dynamic loads on tank perimeter. Different geometric shapes such as rectangular, cylindrical, elliptical, spherical and circular conical have been suggested for ship storage tanks by previous researchers. In this paper a numerical model is developed based on incompressible and inviscid fluid motion for the liquid sloshing phenomenon. The coupled BEM-FEM is used to solve the governing equations and nonlinear free surface boundary conditions. The results are validated for rectangular container using data obtained for a horizontal periodic sway motion. Using the results of this model a new arrangement of trapezoidal shapes with quadratic sidewalls is suggested for tanker ship storage panels. The suggested geometric shape not only has a maximum surrounded tank volume to the constant available volume, but also reduces the sloshing effects more efficiently than the existing geometric shapes.

  4. Wind turbine concept market penetration over 10 years (1995-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Hansen, Lars H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the market penetration and share of different wind turbine concepts during the years 1995-2004, a period that represents the maturational era of the modern wind power industry. A detailed overview is given based on suppliers' market data and concept evaluation for each individual wind turbine type sold by the Top Ten suppliers over the selected decade. The investigation is processing information on approximately 160 wind turbine types from 22 different manufacturers that have featured in the Top Ten list of wind turbine suppliers during 1995-2004. The analysis is based on comprehensive data covering approximately 97% of the cumulative wind power installed worldwide at the end of 2004. The article also provides an overall perspective on contemporary wind turbine concepts, classified with respect to both their speed control ability and power control type. Current and future trends for wind turbine concepts are discussed. (Author)

  5. Tanker traffic off Newfoundland worries fishermen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2002-01-01

    Tanker traffic offshore in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland has increased considerably, where approximately 300 tankers show up yearly to load up at the oil refinery located in the nearby village of Come By Chance. On numerous occasions, fishermen busy pulling gear over the gunwales looked up only to be faced with an approaching superstructure just emerging from the fog, leaving barely enough time for the fishermen to get out of the way. Fog does not help the situation, often reducing visibility to less than one kilometre approximately 187 days yearly. Fishermen are reluctant to avoid shipping lanes, as some of the best grounds are located in the vicinity. A few close calls and one accident were briefly described. Requests have been made for the pilots bringing large ships into dock to board farther out at sea to avoid the danger of collision. It was mentioned that another factor could be crew members on some ships unable to speak English. Fishermen are not happy that results from ship inspections are not posted on the Web as is the case in the United States. An environmentalist has also requested that an ocean-going-tug be used for towing tankers in trouble out of the way to prevent an ecological disaster

  6. Trends in Canadian Sociology Master's Theses in Relation to Research Ethics Review, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoonaard, Will C

    2006-12-01

    THIS PAPER EXAMINES TRENDS IN CANADIAN Master's theses in sociology, 1995-2004, in the course the implementation of Canada's national research-ethics guidelines (2001), using data available from ProQuest Dissertations. While there has been no decline in the number of theses completed during this period, nearly 1/4 fewer theses now involve research participants. The proportion of theses using quantitative methods shows decline; theses using qualitative methods, however, have increased significantly over time. A closer inspection qualitative theses shows an impressive increase in the proportion of theses using interviews, while the decrease in theses using field work is even more dramatic, from 40% to 5%. The decrease of theses involving field work is particularly alarming for a significant segment of sociology that must derive its material mainly from field work. Data drawn from a larger study supplement the findings in this article.

  7. Double hull oil tankers - how effective are they?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    The groundings of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, spilling more than 10 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude, and the American Trader off Huntington Beach, spilling almost 400,000 gallons of Alaska North Slope crude, suggest that the construction of oil tankers be re-examined with respect to a design which could reduce both the number and magnitude of oil spills. This paper discusses state-of-the-art tanker technology with respect to spill prevention, effectiveness, and cost. The design features include double hulls, centralized bunker tankers, vacuum-retaining valves, cargo control systems, auxiliary thrusters, electronic charting, and the retransmission of the ship's position. Double hulls provide the highest probability of surviving damage, either from a collision or grounding, with no loss of cargo. Use of double hulls can reduce oil spill incidence by 90 percent in grounding situations and by 75 percent in collisions. The oil spill from the AmericanTrader could have been completely avoided by double hull construction. The arrangement provides spaces below the cargo tanks and on the vessel's sides solely for the carriage of ballast water when the tanker is in ballast condition. These tanks are empty when the tanker is loaded and then also act as the first line of defense in the event of structural damage to the cargo tanks. Tanker design is integrated with port safety measures, including vessel monitoring systems, in this total spill prevention analysis. All aspects of the tanker transportation system are considered

  8. Global results of the participation of ARN Argentina in the quality assessment program, EML-DOE since 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo E.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.; Fernandez, Jorge A.; Gavini, Ricardo M.; Grinman, Ana. D. R.; Lewis, Esther C.; Palacios, Miguel A.; Bonino, Nestor O.; Diodati, Jorge M.; Medici, Marcela A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report, the results obtained by the laboratories of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in measurements of alpha, beta and gamma emitters in four types of matrix are presented, in the frame of the Quality Assessment Program organized for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the United States of America corresponding to 19 exercises of the period 1995-2004. (author) [es

  9. Postgraduate Educational Research on Violence, Gender, and HIV/AIDS in and around Schools (1995-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.

    2011-01-01

    Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…

  10. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  11. Environmental tanker design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laan, M.

    1997-01-01

    Accidental oil spills from crude oil tankers have resulted in large changes in the tanker industry. New international regulations have been issued and a large variety of environmental tanker design concepts has been developed to reduce accidental outflow. A systematic analysis of these concepts results in a number of practical principles of outflow reduction. For instance after tank penetration a large portion of the cargo can be kept inside the tank by simple principles; the author has added a new concept in this area: the so-called ECO-Bulkhead. In this dissertation the various principles are combined effectively into one single design methodology, which helps to improve existing tanker concepts and to develop new ones. Both an improved double hull concept (IDH) and a new comprehensive concept, the COBO (Combination Of Basic Objectives) are developed. Their performance is compared to that of a base double hull (BDH) design. Further a mid-deck (MD) design concept is added as a representative of alternative designs. In total, four Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC) concepts are developed and the results compared: (1) BDH, (2) IDH with smaller wing tanks, (3) MD and (4) COBO. The main differences are found inside the tank region and are related to the different arrangement of cargo and ballast tanks and internal bulkheads. The investigation shows that the accidental outflow is reduced in the Improved DH, and considerably reduced in the COBO design. This result is more remarkable as the building costs of the COBO are lower. The appendices are published in a separate publication. refs

  12. Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at the universities in Delft and Bergen. As with our lectures, we draw upon quite a va ried material, from research studies at a high academic level to lower level student work and purely descriptive ...

  13. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... in the present study were (i) developing a framework for the collision design procedure for double hull tanker structures, (ii) experimental investigation of the structural crashworthiness of the collided vessels in collision or stranding, using double skinned structural models, (iii) validation of the special...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  14. Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuning, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship designed for use at high speed and heavy seas having a single long and slender hull with a narrow beam and a more or less vertical bow, whereby the front half of the hull has more or less vertical sides, minimal flare in the bow sections and towards the bow an increase in draught at its center line combined with a more or less similar increase of freeboard and whereby the aft end of the hull has a flat or slightly V-shaped bottom with one or more propellers and/o...

  15. Oil coastal tanker maintenance and availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsztejn, Eduardo; Gomez Haedo, Juan Carlos [Government' s Oil Company of Uruguay (ANCAP), Montivideo (Uruguay)

    2008-07-01

    ANCAP (Government's Oil Company of Uruguay) owns a 4000 DWT oil coastal tanker which is mainly used for oil transport in the River Plate, Uruguay and Parana rivers. Availability of the ship is critical because of shortage of available vessels in the region. Full maximum draught of the vessel is 4m , so it can navigate in very shallow waters as it is the case of some places in the Uruguay and Parana rivers. Although the ship was built in 1979, it is a complete double hull, powered by two twin main engines and propellers. Since 1994, several changes in maintenance management have been introduced, in order to increase the availability, thus increasing the total oil volume yearly transported. These changes affected several maintenance items and they also included a modification in the design of part of the cargo tank floors of the ship. As a result of these changes, an increase of 60% of the oil derivatives volume transported yearly was achieved. In this paper, some of the important improvements on maintenance practises and management are described, together with a quantification of their influence on vessel's availability and overall maintenance costs. (author)

  16. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  17. Gun control and suicide: the impact of state firearm regulations in the United States, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Andrés, Antonio; Hempstead, Katherine

    2011-06-01

    To empirically assess the impact of firearm regulation on male suicides. A negative binomial regression model was applied by using a panel of state level data for the years 1995-2004. The model was used to identify the association between several firearm regulations and male suicide rates. Our empirical analysis suggest that firearms regulations which function to reduce overall gun availability have a significant deterrent effect on male suicide, while regulations that seek to prohibit high risk individuals from owning firearms have a lesser effect. Restricting access to lethal means has been identified as an effective approach to suicide prevention, and firearms regulations are one way to reduce gun availability. The analysis suggests that gun control measures such as permit and licensing requirements have a negative effect on suicide rates among males. Since there is considerable heterogeneity among states with regard to gun control, these results suggest that there are opportunities for many states to reduce suicide by expanding their firearms regulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  19. Transport of liquefied natural gas by tankers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, Y N; Mkrtychan, Y S; Tregubov, I A; Belyaev, I G

    1979-03-01

    A survey conducted by the USSR's VNIIgaz indicates that the number of LNG tankers in use and under construction presently exceeds 100, ranging in capacity from 600 to 130,000 m/sup 3/. The annual volume of LNG transported by tanker is expected to reach 50 to 60 billion m/sup 3/ by 1980. VNIIgaz examines (1) the design of present tankers, (2) the differences in gas-transport temperature, insulation, and engines, (3) transport recommendations of various LNG-tanker companies around the world, (4) parameters of some types of commercial diesel engines used for tanker propulsion (fueled by gas and/or heavy fuel oil), (5) relative advantages and disadvantages of diesel engines, and (6) the control system for the main gas diesel of an LNG tanker.

  20. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, K.E.; Kumm, W.H.; O'Callaghan, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars

  1. The market and the economics of large oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomer, O.

    1996-01-01

    The document aims to assist decision makers in the tanker industry to make effective management strategies for the future deployment of Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC) in a time of financial uncertainty and environmental awareness. The VLCC market is described and the factors influencing decision-makers are discussed. Financial considerations including shipping assets and company financial security are reviewed together with the financial implications of operating VLCCs. Environmental pressures, such as international regulations an oil pollution reduction measures are then discussed. The document closes with a review of decision-making for shipowning companies in this complex milieu. (UK)

  2. Review of health research on indigenous populations in Latin America, 1995-2004 Revisión de la investigación en salud en poblaciones indígenas de Latinoamérica, 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel San Sebastián

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review health research conducted among indigenous populations in Latin America during the period 1995-2004. Material and methods. The search strategy was purposely broad to ensure the identification of all relevant studies indexed in the PubMed and Lilacs databases. RESULTS: Six-hundred ninety citations were included. One hundred fifty-nine (23.0% papers dealt with indigenous populations in Central America and 509 (73.8% papers with South American populations. Three hundred two (43.8% of the studies were quantitative, 39 (5.7% qualitative, 259 (37.5% mainly based on laboratory work and 24 (3.5% dealt with policy analyses. The most common researched theme was human biology with 200 (29.0 % papers, followed by communicable diseases (150 papers, 21.7 %. CONCLUSIONS: There is a special need for policy studies in the field of indigenous health. An increased commitment to resources and capacity building will be the real challenge for indigenous health research in the nearest future.OBJETIVO: Revisar la investigación en salud realizada en poblaciones indígenas de Latinoamérica, de 1995 a 2004. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La estrategia de búsqueda fue amplia para asegurar la identificación de todos aquellos estudios relevantes catalogados en las bases de datos PubMed y Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 690 citaciones; de ellas, 509 (73.8% artículos trataron sobre poblaciones indígenas sudamericanas y 159 (23.0% sobre poblaciones indígenas de Centroamérica. Trescientos dos (43.8% de los estudios fueron cuantitativos, 39 (5.7% cualitativos, 259 (37.5% basados principalmente en trabajo de laboratorio y 24 (3.5% trataron sobre análisis de políticas de salud. El tema de investigación más estudiado fue el de biología humana con 200 artículos (29.0%, seguido de enfermedades transmisibles (150 artículos, 21.7%. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una necesidad especial de estudios de políticas de salud en el campo de la salud indígena. Un mayor

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of H7N3 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in Pakistan 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique Naila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV infections have caused heavy economic losses to the poultry industry in Pakistan as well as numerous other regions worldwide. The first introduction of H7N3 AIV to Pakistan occurred during 1995, since then H7N3, H9N2 and H5N1 AIVs have each been sporadically isolated. This report evaluates the genetic origin of the H7N3 viruses from Pakistan collected 1995-2004 and how they disseminated within the country. To accomplish this we produced whole genome sequences for 6 H7N3 viruses and data for the HA and NA genes of an additional 7 isolates. All available sequence from H7N3 AIV from Pakistan was included in the analysis. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there were two introductions of H7 into Pakistan and one N3 introduction. Only one of the H7 introductions appears to have become established in poultry in Pakistan, while the other was isolated from two separate outbreaks 6 years apart. The data also shows that reassortment has occurred between H7N3 and H9N2 viruses in the field, likely during co-infection of poultry. Also, with the exception of these few reassortant isolates, all 8 genes in the predominant H7N3 virus lineage have evolved to be phylogenetically distinct. Conclusions Although rigorous control measures have been implemented in commercial poultry in Pakistan, AIV is sporadically transmitted to poultry and among the different poultry industry compartments (broilers, broiler breeders, table egg layers. Since there is one primary H7 lineage which persists and that has reassorted with the H9N2 AIV in poultry, it suggests that there is a reservoir with some link commercial poultry. On a general level, this offers insight into the molecular ecology of AIV in poultry where the virus has persisted despite vaccination and biosecurity. This data also illustrates the importance of sustained surveillance for AIVs in poultry.

  4. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains schematic drawings for the pipe fittings for the Hanford waste tanks. Included are the modifications to the W-025 trench number-sign 31 leachate loadout piping, and also the modifications to the tanker trailers. The piping was modified to prevent spillage to the environment. The tankers were modified for loading and unloading purposes

  5. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  6. Oil-tanker waste-disposal practices: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 (EPA), launched an investigation into tanker waste disposal practices for vessels discharging ballast water at the Alyeska Pipeline Services Company's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility and marine terminal in Valdez, Alaska. It had been alleged that the Exxon Shipping Company was transferring 'toxic wastes originating in California' to Valdez. In response, EPA decided to examine all waste streams generated on board and determine what the fate of these wastes were in addition to investigating the Exxon specific charges. An extensive Information Request was generated and sent to the shipping companies that operate vessels transporting Alaska North Slope Crude. Findings included information on cargo and fuel tank washings, cleaning agents, and engine room waste

  7. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, J. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Maritime Studies and International Transport

    1999-09-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered.

  8. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered

  9. 75 FR 10546 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... prevent explosions on oil and chemical tankers transporting low flash point cargoes --Clarification of... on evacuation analysis for new and existing passenger ships --Consideration of IACS unified interpretations --Fixed hydrocarbon gas detection systems on double-hull tankers --Harmonization of the...

  10. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  11. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (''OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws

  12. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  13. U.S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott

  14. 77 FR 70526 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... from machinery spaces --Development of requirements for ships carrying hydrogen and compressed natural gas vehicles --Consideration of IACS unified interpretations --Harmonization of the requirements for the location of entrances, air inlets and openings in the superstructures of tankers --Development of...

  15. [A review of the firefighting techniques used on the tanker 'Mega Borg' explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the events leading up to the explosion and fire of the Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker which exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in June of 1990. It briefly discusses the fire fighting strategy used to cool the ship prior to foam application and the types of equipment used. It also briefly discusses the lightering operation and the cargo recovery and dewatering operations which took place after the fire was extinguished

  16. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Merk, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  17. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Do Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  18. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures.

  19. Effects of Common Structural Rules on hull-girder reliability of an Aframax oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parunov, Josko; Guedes Soares, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the changes in notional reliability levels that result from redesigning an existing Aframax tanker to comply with the Common Structural Rules (CSR) for double-hull oil tankers. The probability of structural failure is calculated using the first-order reliability method. The evaluation of the wave-induced load effects that occur during long-term operation of the ship in the seaway is carried out in accordance with the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS)-recommended procedure, while transfer functions are calculated using the sink-source 3D linear method. The still-water loads are defined on the basis of a statistical analysis of loading conditions from the loading manual. The ultimate collapse bending moment of the midship cross section, which is used as the basis for the reliability formulation, is evaluated by progressive collapse analysis and by a single-step procedure according to CSR. The reliability assessment is performed for 'as-built' and 'corroded' states of the existing ship and a reinforced ship complying with CSR. It is shown that the hull-girder failure probability of an Aframax tanker is reduced several times due to the reinforcements according to CSR. Sensitivity analysis and a parametric study are performed to investigate the variability of results with the change of parameters of pertinent random variables within their plausible ranges. Finally, differences between load combination approaches by Ferry-Borges and Castanheta method and Turkstra's rule are investigated

  20. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  1. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  2. A Model for Prediction of Propulsion Power and Emissions – Tankers and Bulk Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    To get an idea of the reduction in propulsion power and associated emissions by varying the speed and other ship design main parameters, a generic model for parameter studies of tankers and bulk carriers has been developed. With only a few input parameters of which the maximum deadweight capacity...... is the primary input a proposal for the main dimensions is made. Based on these dimensions and other ship particulars which are determined by the program the necessary installed propulsion power can be calculated. By adjusting the vessel design, i.e. the suggested main dimensions, and varying the speed...

  3. The liquefied natural gas infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koza, David Franz; Røpke, Stefan; Molas, Anna Boleda

    2017-01-01

    We consider a strategic infrastructure and tanker fleet sizing problem in the liquefied natural gas business. The goal is to minimize long-term on-shore infrastructure and tanker investment cost combined with interrelated expected cost for operating the tanker fleet. A non-linear arc-based model...

  4. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  5. Comparative analysis among deterministic and stochastic collision damage models for oil tanker and bulk carrier reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Campanile

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of collision damage models on oil tanker and bulk carrier reliability is investigated considering the IACS deterministic model against GOALDS/IMO database statistics for collision events, substantiating the probabilistic model. Statistical properties of hull girder residual strength are determined by Monte Carlo simulation, based on random generation of damage dimensions and a modified form of incremental-iterative method, to account for neutral axis rotation and equilibrium of horizontal bending moment, due to cross-section asymmetry after collision events. Reliability analysis is performed, to investigate the incidence of collision penetration depth and height statistical properties on hull girder sagging/hogging failure probabilities. Besides, the incidence of corrosion on hull girder residual strength and reliability is also discussed, focussing on gross, hull girder net and local net scantlings, respectively. The ISSC double hull oil tanker and single side bulk carrier, assumed as test cases in the ISSC 2012 report, are taken as reference ships.

  6. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  7. Seminar on Offshore Activities and Shipping. V. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mykletun, J.; Naerland, L.

    1991-01-01

    The publication presents proceedings from a conference addressing environmental challenges in connection with offshore activities and shipping. Fields being discussed are environmental protection management, and new or improved technologies being developed for controlling the air and water pollution level from tanker ships and offshore activities. 15 separate abstracts are prepared. 31 refs., 85 figs., 14 tabs

  8. Corrosion testing on crude oil tankers and other product carriers by means of acoustic emission (AE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Gerald [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria); Tscheliesnig, Peter [TUV Austria, Deutschstrasse 10, 1230 Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades a lot of maritime disasters with crude oil tankers occurred (e.g. Exxon- Valdez, Erika, Prestige). Every accident led to extreme pollution with horrible consequences not only for the environment but also for the life of the inhabitants of the affected coasts. Although most of these accidents were caused by human errors, the material degradation of the ship hull due to corrosion played an important role. Acoustic emission (AE) is already used to detect and discriminate the stage of corrosion of structures located on land. A consortium consisting of experienced partners from the fields of ship building and classification as well as from AE testing and equipment manufacturing started to investigate the feasibility of this testing technique for its application on oil tankers. The aim of the research project funded by the European Commission is to develop an on-line corrosion monitoring technique based on a permanent installation of AE sensors as well as a spot testing technique during stops in harbors or at anchorages using mobile equipment. Since the project was started, a lot of lab tests as well as background measurements were done on different types of tankers up to a size of 35.000 dead weight tons (DWT). The gathered data were evaluated with a frequency domain based pattern recognition system and it was possible to distinguish the AE signals related to corrosion from those signals, which were emitted by the structure due to the harsh environment on sea (background noise). Together with the oncoming developments of the AE equipment and the improvement of the data base, this project will lead to an important breakthrough for the safe shipping of hazardous products like crude oil. (authors)

  9. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF RISK EVENTS IN THE OIL-TANKER MAINTENANCE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Rabechini Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an investigation into risk events and their respective causes, carried out in ship maintenance undertakings in the logistical sector of the Brazilian oil industry. Its theoretical, conceptual positioning lies in those aspects related to risk management of the undertakings as instruments of support in decision making by executives in the tanker-maintenance business. The case-study method was used as an alternative methodology with a qualitative approach of an exploratory nature and, for the presentation of data, a descriptive format was chosen. Through the analysis of 75 risk events in projects of tanker docking it was possible to extract eight of the greatest relevance. The risk analysis facilitated the identification of actions aimed at their mitigation. As a conclusion it was possible to propose a risk-framework model in four categories, HSE (health, safety and the environment, technicians, externalities and management, designed to provide tanker-docking business executives and administrators, with evidence of actions to assist in their decision-making processes. Finally, the authors identified proposals for further study as well as showing the principal limitations of the study.

  11. Overview of risk analysis research on tanker groundings and collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1999-01-01

    for evaluation of the oil outlfow performance of alternative tanker designs in the event of a collision or grounding. The present paper is an invited contribution oto the first meeting of the Committee on Evaluating Double Hull Alterntive Tanker Designs held at the National Academy of Sciences' Georgetown...

  12. Over-pressure in road tankers; Ueberdrucksicherung an Tankfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frobese, Dirk-Hans; Pape, Harald [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    This work was aimed at determining possible causes of overpressure damages on road tankers. In cooperation with the manufacturers of road tankers, the equipment of road tankers usually used today was, therefore, discussed and possible error sources determined. In measurements performed at two filling stations, real pressure, temperature and volume flow ratios for the loading of a road tanker were recorded. Parallel to it, tests in a cold chamber were carried out to determine the possibility and the general conditions of an icing of the tilting valve and the flame arrester. With these results, scenarios have been worked out which can explain known overpressure damaging events. On the basis of a risk assessment, measures are described how such overpressure damages on road tankers can in future be avoided. (orig.)

  13. Unified Tanker Survey and Inspection Regime in Terms of Reducing Psychophysical Strain of the Crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Bielić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysis of the effect of various surveys and inspections on the psychophysical behaviour of the crew. After analysing the scope and the extent of each regime, the authors identified more than 60% of surveys overlapping each other. Furthermore, the results of the survey conducted among seafarers indicate that the present method of carrying out ship surveys and inspections have a negative effect on the psychophysical condition of the crew. Therefore, a new method of tanker inspections has been proposed in order to reduce the psychophysical strain of the crew. The proposed method would minimise the annual duration of the inspections up to 30% and improve inspection time coordination without compromising quality and safety of the ships.

  14. A History of "Wasen" : Japanese-style Vessels : Part I: From Primitive Dugouts to Medieval Constructed Ships

    OpenAIRE

    T., Kosada; he University of Tokyo

    1980-01-01

    In 1975, the 484,337 dwt tanker Nissei Mam became the largest ship to be classified by NK. We know all of the details of this huge ship's construction, but what of those of its ancestry? This article explores the ancient history of the vessels that led up to this leviathan, and the unique manner in which "wasen", Japanese wooden ships, were developed.

  15. Leaking tankers: how much oil was spilled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecek-Beatty, D. A.; Lehr, W. J.; Lankford, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    A model to estimate leak rates from tankers has been developed for use in emergency situations when more direct oil-loss estimation methods are not available. The model includes algorithms for gravity outflow and air and water ingestion. Three laboratory tests were conducted using fresh water and canola oil to evaluate the model output. Comparison with results from the laboratory experiments indicate good correlation of model results with measured data. However, it is not yet possible in the case of very large crude carriers to answer the question 'how much oil was spilled?' Sensitivity analysis and further laboratory testing were suggested to determine the effect of factors such as: pressure vacuum relief valves that prevent cavitation in the event of tank puncture; changing outside water levels due to wave and tidal action; tank and hole dimensions; and the amount and density of the product.10 refs., 4 figs

  16. Tanker self-help spill recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, J B; Wainwright, J G; Ehman, T K

    1991-12-01

    An investigation was conducted of the circumstances in which oil spills occur from tankers at sea by analyzing available historical oil spill data. A data base of marine oil spills greater than 134 tonnes occurring from 1974 and June 1990, included in an appendix, was among the information analyzed. The analysis showed that marine oil spills of 5,000 tonnes and greater account for 39.4% of the accidents yet 94.7% of the total spilled quantity; 84% of those spills occur in vessels of 20,000 deadweight tonnes and larger. Of spills over 5,000 tonnes, 78.5% occur outside of harbor or pier areas where spill response equipment may not be readily available. Over 50% of spills are caused by groundings or collisions where the vessel crew might be able to respond in mitigating and controlling the outflow of oil. The review suggested that tanker self-help systems warrant serious consideration. Potential self-help systems are described, ranging from additives such as bioremediation, dispersants, and solidifiers to equipment such as portable pumps, booms, and skimmers. Candidate systems were examined in terms of their safety, ease of operation, practicability, and effectiveness. Their possible performance was then assessed for the case of major marine oil spills that have occurred in Canadian waters. Four systems are identified as potential candidates for further evaluation and possible implementation: internal oil transfer, hydrostatic loading, external oil lightering, and contingency planning. A system design is evaluated and its benefits and possible implementation are outlined, based on integration of the preferred attributes of the above four options. Recommendations for implementation are also provided. 28 refs., 6 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Risk Analysis Of Collision Between Passenger Ferry And Chemical Tanker In The Western Zone Of The Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przywarty Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents assumptions and process of the forming of a risk assessment model for collision between a passenger ferry departing from or approaching port of Świnoujście and a chemical tanker carrying a dangerous cargo. In order to assess navigational safety on the basis of data obtained from AIS system, were prepared probabilistic domains of ships, which made it possible to estimate number of navigational incidents as well as their spatial distribution, that consequently allowed to determine potentially dangerous areas. The next phase was formulation of a simulative model intended for the calculating of probability of collision between the ferry and chemical tanker as well as the determining of characteristic scenarios for such collision. This paper presents also an analysis of consequences of the collision with taking into consideration a damage of cargo tanks.

  18. 76 FR 76811 - Stakeholders Meeting Regarding Ready Reserve Force (RRF) Ship Manager Contract Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Owner/Operator requirement. 12-ship award limit. Definition of Ship Manager ``business entity..., Maritime Security Program, or Tanker Emergency Preparedness Agreement. Small business, sub-contracting vs... affiliation to Rilla Gaither at [email protected] by close of business Monday, December 5, 2011. DATES...

  19. Marine pollution : progress made to reduce marine pollution by cruise ships, but important issues remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    From 1993 through 1998-the most recent year for which data are available-cargo ships, tankers, cruise ships, and other commercial vessels registered, or "flagged," in foreign countries have been involved in almost 2,400 confirmed cases of illegally d...

  20. Transformations in gas shipping : Market structure and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout

    This article aims to improve understanding of the gas shipping markets which, contrary to the main merchant markets- namely the dry, the tanker and the container markets- have not been subject to the same scrutiny. We examine the fundamentals and segment these versatile markets in which expanding

  1. Risk Assessment in Financial Feasibility of Tanker Project Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Every ship project would not be apart from risk and uncertainty issues. The inappropriate risk assessment process would have long-term impact, such as financial loss. Thus, risk and uncertainties analysis would be a very important process in financial feasibility determination of the project. This study analyzes the financial feasibility of 17,500 LTDW tanker project. Risk and uncertainty are two differentiated terminologies in this study, where risk focuses on operational risk due to shipbuilding process nonconformity to shipowner finance, while uncertainty focuses on variable costs that affect project cash flows. There are three funding scenarios in this study, where the percentage of funding with own capital and bank loan in scenario 1 is 100% : 0%, scenario 2 is 75% : 25%, and scenario 3 is 50% : 50%. Monte Carlo simulation method was applied to simulate the acceptance criteria, such as net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR, payback period (PP, and profitability index (PI. The results of simulation show that 17,500 LTDW tanker project funding by scenario 1, 2 and 3 are feasible to run, where probability of each acceptance criteria was greater than 50%. Charter rate being the most sensitive uncertainty over project's financial feasibility parameters.

  2. Influence of Climatic Factors on the Efficiency of Disposal Metal- Hydride Unit for the Double-Fuel Low-Speed Internal Combustion Engine of Gas Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednichenko, Oleksandr Costyntunovich; Tkach, Mykhaylo Romanovich

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in the development of ship power engineering have been analyzed. Consideration was given to the specific features of the transportation of liquefied natural gas by gas tankers. The prospects of utilization of the secondary energy resources of marine double-fuel low-speed diesel engines were defined. The metal hydride units of a continuous action were offered for this purpose. The need for the estimation of the influence of climatic factors on the efficiency of disposal...

  3. 'Jail break' made by Iraqi oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of Iran's policy turn-about of allowing ships smuggling Iraqi crude oil to sail through its coastal waters, out of reach of UN and US ships patrolling the Persian Gulf, are discussed. It is suspected that the change in Iranian policy may be due to the fact that an infusion of Iraqi oil on the international markets would suit Iran's purposes by reducing the need for OPEC to raise production quotas. Iran is known to be opposed to an increase of production by OPEC members. At the same time, developments in US-Iranian relations and in the international oil market also have to be considered as factors influencing the Iranian position on this issue

  4. Determinants of the property damage costs of tanker accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates determinants of the vessel, oil cargo spillage, and other-property damage costs of tanker accidents. Tobit estimation of a three-equation recursive model suggests that, among types of tanker accidents, fire/explosion accidents incur the largest vessel damage costs, but the smallest oil cargo spillage costs. Alternatively, grounding accidents incur the smallest vessel damage costs, but the largest oil cargo spillage costs, reflecting the difficulty of controlling oil cargo spillage subsequent to such accidents. Also, oil cargo spillage costs are lower for US flag tanker accidents. A dollar of vessel damage cost increases other-property damage cost by 0.06 dollars, whereas a dollar of oil cargo spillage increases this cost by 1.55 dollars

  5. Environmental law issues: Offshore oil and gas activities and tanker transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental law issues that arise from offshore oil/gas activities and petroleum transport are reviewed, focusing on marine oil pollution and especially on the issues surrounding accidental spills. Some observations are offered on the context of these issues, namely on the risks of oil spills, the difficulty of spill response in the ocean and on shorelines, and the possible environmental damage. Environmental control of petroleum operations is discussed with reference to Canadian regulation, the primary source of which is the Oil and Gas Production and Conservation Act. These regulations require developmental approval for offshore operations, formulation of plans for foreseeable spill emergencies, and compensation to those affected by spills, notably those in the fishing industry. Ship-source oil pollution and spill compensation is discussed with reference to international agreements and the Canada Shipping Act. Some problems and trends with oil spill compensation and recovery for environmental damage are noted in such areas as tanker ship standards, cleanup capabilities, and inadequacy of spill penalties and compensation. 18 refs., 1 fig

  6. 33 CFR 157.410 - Emergency lightering requirements for oil tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK... Petroleum Oils § 157.410 Emergency lightering requirements for oil tankers. Each oil tanker, to which this...

  7. The complex network of global cargo ship movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Kölzsch, Andrea; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-07-06

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods and the spread of invasive species. With 90 per cent of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here, we use information about the itineraries of 16 363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features that set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified into three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with systematic differences between ship types. The data analysed in this paper improve current assumptions based on gravity models of ship movements, an important step towards understanding patterns of global trade and bioinvasion.

  8. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-AB96 Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... mandates two tug escorts for double hull tankers over 5,000 gross tons transporting oil in bulk in PWS. The... tug escort requirements apply to certain double hull tankers. DATES: This interim rule is effective...

  9. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drinking water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were heterotrophic bacteria, total ...

  10. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-23

    Sep 23, 2013 ... A lack of infrastructure, coupled .... munity tankers and its relationship to health outcomes in light of water quality ... delivery, taps at the eThekwini Water and Sanitation laboratory ... relationship between drinking water quality, health, hygiene ... over a 2-week period from the point-of-use and source of each.

  11. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  12. Atlantic Canada : recipe for ruin, loophole in Canadian tanker laws questioned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2001-01-01

    During a storm in December 2000, the captain of a leaking supertanker named the Eastern Power requested permission to dock his 339-metre ship at Come by Chance in Newfoundland. The request was denied by Transport Canada and the barge carrying 1.9 million barrels of oil had to ride out the storm just outside Canada's 200-mile limit. The concern was that the hull might split and spill huge amounts of oil. The Eastern Power has only one hull and is twice the age that the Prevention of Pollution from Ships considers reasonable for the lifespan of a vessel. Tankers built after 1993 are required to have an inside and an outside frame in order to enter Canadian waters. Those that are not double hulled and built before 1993 will be phased out by 2015. The spokesman for Transport Canada explained that the concern regarding the Eastern Power was for the Canadian environment. Owners are responsible for making sure that their ships do not risk our environment. An added precaution requires that all ships radio the Canadian Coast Guard 24 hours before reaching the 200-mile limit to report on their course, destination and seaworthiness. While Transport Canada makes the ultimate decision on entry, it shares the information with the Department of National Defense, Environment Canada and the coast guard. In this case, the crew of the Eastern Power was able to pump cargo into a safer tank and repaired the rupture. It was then given permission to dock at Come By Chance, but it instead headed for the Caribbean. Newfoundland is still recovering from the collapse of the cod fishery and is trying to build an eco-tourism industry given that its Atlantic offshore is a marine ecological treasure. Environmentalists view some of the present marine laws, or lack of laws, as a gateway to a disaster which could wipe out some water fowl species and further reduce fish stocks. 1 fig

  13. Energy efficiency estimation of a steam powered LNG tanker using normal operating data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship’s energy efficiency performance is generally estimated by conducting special sea trials of few hours under very controlled environmental conditions of calm sea, standard draft and optimum trim. This indicator is then used as the benchmark for future reference of the ship’s Energy Efficiency Performance (EEP. In practice, however, for greater part of operating life the ship operates in conditions which are far removed from original sea trial conditions and therefore comparing energy performance with benchmark performance indicator is not truly valid. In such situations a higher fuel consumption reading from the ship fuel meter may not be a true indicator of poor machinery performance or dirty underwater hull. Most likely, the reasons for higher fuel consumption may lie in factors other than the condition of hull and machinery, such as head wind, current, low load operations or incorrect trim [1]. Thus a better and more accurate approach to determine energy efficiency of the ship attributable only to main machinery and underwater hull condition will be to filter out the influence of all spurious and non-standard operating conditions from the ship’s fuel consumption [2]. The author in this paper identifies parameters of a suitable filter to be used on the daily report data of a typical LNG tanker of 33000 kW shaft power to remove effects of spurious and non-standard ship operations on its fuel consumption. The filtered daily report data has been then used to estimate actual fuel efficiency of the ship and compared with the sea trials benchmark performance. Results obtained using data filter show closer agreement with the benchmark EEP than obtained from the monthly mini trials . The data filtering method proposed in this paper has the advantage of using the actual operational data of the ship and thus saving cost of conducting special sea trials to estimate ship EEP. The agreement between estimated results and special sea trials EEP is

  14. Multifractal cross-correlations between crude oil and tanker freight rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feier; Miao, Yuqi; Tian, Kang; Ding, Xiaoxu; Li, Tingyi

    2017-05-01

    Analysis of crude oil price and tanker freight rate volatility attract more attention as the mechanism is not only the basis of industrialization but also a vital role in economics, especially after the year 2008 when financial crisis notably blew the maritime transportation. In this paper, we studied the cross-correlations between the West Texas International crude oil (WTI) and Baltic Exchange Dirty Tanker Index (BDTI) employing the Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (MF-DCCA). Empirical results show that the degree of short-term cross-correlation is higher than that in the long term and that the strength of multifractality after financial crisis is larger than that before. Moreover, the components of multifractal spectrum are quantified with the finite-size effect taken into consideration and an improved method in terms of constructing the surrogated time series provided. Numerical results show that the multifractality is generated mostly from the nonlinear and the fat-tailed probability distribution (PDF) part. Also, it is apparent that the PDF part changes a lot after the financial crisis. The research is contributory to risk management by providing various instructions for participants in shipping markets. Our main contribution is that we investigated both the multifractal features and the origin of multifractality and provided confirming evidence of multifractality through numerical results while applying quantitative analysis based on MF-DCCA; furthermore, the research is contributory to risk management since it provides instructions in both economic market and stock market simultaneously. However, constructing the surrogated series in order to obtain consistence seems less convincing which requires further discussion and attempts.

  15. KC-46A Tanker Modernization (KC-46A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Program Startup Workshop with the assistance from Defense Acquisition University at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. July 8 - 10, 2013: The KC-46A...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-387 KC-46A Tanker Modernization (KC-46A) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition ...Deliveries and Expenditures 48 Operating and Support Cost 49 Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MDAP Programs Acq O&M - Acquisition

  16. Investigation of impact phenomena on the marine structures: Part I - On the behaviour of thin-walled double bottom tanker during rock-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, A. R.; Cho, H. J.; Byeon, J. H.; Bae, D. M.; Sohn, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Predicted loads, such as crew, cargo, and structure have been applied as main inputs during ship design and analysis. However, unexpected events on the sea has high possibility to deliver remarkable losses for ship, industry, and environment. Previous oil spill incident by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska is the perfect example which an environmental damage and industry loss are initiated by an impact phenomenon on the ship, i.e. grounding. Even though hull arrangement has adopted double hull system, grounding may threaten ship safety in various scenarios. This situation pushes society to demand sustainable investigation for impact phenomena on water transportation mode to update understanding in the phenomenon and ensure structural safety during ship operation. This work aimed to study structural behaviour of chemical tanker as a marine structure under impact, namely ship grounding. Bottom raking case was considered to be calculated by virtual experiment. The study was performed using nonlinear finite element (FE) method and an idealised geometry of seabed rock would be deployed to be hard obstruction. Observation on the selected crashworthiness criteria, i.e. internal energy and crushing force indicated that as advanced penetration occurred on the ship structure, the absorbed strain energy continued to increase, while major fluctuation appeared during the initial contact between obstruction and ship happened. Damage extent of several structural members during the crushing process was shown, which concluded that the bottom plating had the largest severity in forms of tearing mode among of all members on the bottom structure.

  17. An Optimization Model For Strategy Decision Support to Select Kind of CPO’s Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaibah Nst, Siti; Nababan, Esther; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    The selection of marine transport for the distribution of crude palm oil (CPO) is one of strategy that can be considered in reducing cost of transport. The cost of CPO’s transport from one area to CPO’s factory located at the port of destination may affect the level of CPO’s prices and the number of demands. In order to maintain the availability of CPO a strategy is required to minimize the cost of transporting. In this study, the strategy used to select kind of charter ships as barge or chemical tanker. This study aims to determine an optimization model for strategy decision support in selecting kind of CPO’s ship by minimizing costs of transport. The select of ship was done randomly, so that two-stage stochastic programming model was used to select the kind of ship. Model can help decision makers to select either barge or chemical tanker to distribute CPO.

  18. Comparison of residual strength-grounding damage index diagrams for tankers produced by the ALPS/HULL ISFEM and design formula method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the Residual ultimate longitudinal strength – grounding Damage index (R-D diagrams produced by two analysis methods: the ALPS/HULL Intelligent Supersize Finite Element Method (ISFEM and the design formula (modified Paik and Mansour method – used to assess the safety of damaged ships. The comparison includes four types of double-hull oil tankers: Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax and VLCC. The R-D diagrams were calculated for a series of 50 grounding scenarios. The diagrams were efficiently sampled using the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique and comprehensively analysed based on ship size. Finally, the two methods were compared by statistically analysing the differences between their grounding damage indices and ultimate longitudinal strength predictions. The findings provide a useful example of how to apply the ultimate longitudinal strength analysis method to grounded ships.

  19. Analysis of dangerous area of single berth oil tanker operations based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lina; Zhu, Faxin; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Hailin

    2018-04-01

    Based on the single process in the liquid cargo tanker berths in the state as the research object, we analyzed the single berth oil tanker in the process of VOCs diffusion theory, built network model of VOCs diffusion with Gambit preprocessor, set up the simulation boundary conditions and simulated the five detection point sources in specific factors under the influence of VOCs concentration change with time by using Fluent software. We analyzed the dangerous area of single berth oil tanker operations through the diffusion of VOCs, so as to ensure the safe operation of oil tanker.

  20. Environmental impact analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program-addendum. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    This study represents a qualitative extension of an earlier Environmental Impact Analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program (MarAd, 1975) using an Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) as the reference ship, to other types of ships including a containership, dry-bulk cargo vessel, and an icebreaking oil tanker. This qualitative analysis shows that, for ships operating into coastal ports (containerships and possibly dry-bulk carriers), both ecological and radiological impacts would be somewhat greater than for the reference ULCC docking at an offshore terminal. These impacts can be kept within the guidelines established for land based nuclear power plants by implementation of appropriate operating procedures

  1. Effect of ship structure and size on grounding and collision damage distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    2000-01-01

    It has been argued that a major shortcoming in the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Interim Guidelines for Approval of Alternative Methods of Design and Construction of Oil Tankers in Collision and Grounding is that grounding and collision damages normalized by the main dimensions...... are expressed in simple expressions involving structural dimensions and the building material of the ships. The study shows that the density distribution for collision and grounding damages normalized by the main dimensions of the ship depends on the size of the ship. A larger ship has a higher probability...

  2. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  3. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  4. More LNG ship orders for GD (General Dynamics Corp. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    General Dynamics Corp. has been awarded a contract for two LNG tankers to transport LNG from Algeria to Lake Charles, La., with the U.S. Maritime Administration funding 25.5% of the $155 million cost of each vessel. The two ships are being built for Lachmar Inc., of Delaware, a partnership composed of Morgas Inc., Pantheon Inc., and Pelmar Inc., subsidiaries respectively of Moore-McCormack Bulk Transport Inc., General Dynamics Corp., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. Upon completion in Dec. 1979 and Mar. 1980, the ships will be operated by Gastrans Inc. of Delaware, which is also a subsidiary of Moore-McCormack.

  5. Wind Tunnel Assessment of Ship Manoeuvrability using a PMM Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agdrup, Kristian; Jensen, Andreas G.; Aage, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Tests have been performed at the Danish Maritime Institute (DMI) to investigate the applicability of a new wind tunnel Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) for the determination of hydrodynamic coefficients of ships. The method has been tested on a tanker with known towing tank data. The wind tunnel model...... data giving reasonable results. The dependency of amplitude and frequency is evaluated, and sources of inaccuracy are discussed. It is concluded that the wind tunnel method is a promising method to achieve a fast and cost-effective estimate of the hydrodynamic coefficients of a ship hull...

  6. Explosion of a road tanker containing liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planas-Cuchi, E.; Casal, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Catalonia (Spain). CERTEC; Gasulla, N.; Ventosa, A. [Autonomous Government of Catalonia (Spain). General Directorate for Emergencies and Civl Security

    2004-07-01

    The explosion of a road tanker transporting LNG (one person killed, two injured) is studied. The analysis shows that the explosion, which followed a two-step mode as for the failure of the vessel, could have been a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). The overpressure and thermal radiation have been estimated and related to the effects observed. Only a relatively small part of the energy released in the explosion was manifested in the pressure wave. The large fragments (the three pieces into which the tank was broken) and the truck motor were ejected at various distances along the tank's main axis. (author)

  7. Optimum use of air tankers in initial attack: selection, basing, and transfer rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis E. Greulich; William G. O' Regan

    1982-01-01

    Fire managers face two interrelated problems in deciding the most efficient use of air tankers: where best to base them, and how best to reallocate them each day in anticipation of fire occurrence. A computerized model based on a mixed integer linear program can help in assigning air tankers throughout the fire season. The model was tested using information from...

  8. Assessment of shipping emissions on four ports of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2017-12-01

    In the last few years, ship emissions have attracted growing attention in the scientific community. The main reason is the constant increase of marine emissions over the last twenty years due to the intensification of port traffic. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate ship emissions (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , NO x , SO 2 , CO, CO 2 , N 2 O CH 4 , NMVOC, and HC) through the activity-based methodology in four of the main ports of Portugal (Leixões, Setúbal, Sines and Viana do Castelo) during 2013 and 2014. The analysis was performed according to ship types (bulk carrier, container, general cargo, passenger, Ro-Ro cargo, tanker and others) and operational modes (manoeuvring, hotelling and during cruising). Results indicated that tankers were the largest emitters in two of the four analysed ports. Regarding cruising emissions, container ships were the largest emitters. . CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 estimated emissions represented more than 95% of the cruising and in-port emissions. Results were also compared with the total national emissions reported by the Portuguese Environment Agency, and if the in-port emissions estimated in the present study would have been taken into account to these totals, emissions of NO x and SO 2 would increase 15% and 24% in 2013 and 16% and 28% in 2014. Summing up ships seem to be an important source of air pollution, mainly regarding NO x and SO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  10. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.

    1992-01-01

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions

  11. Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Prevention of oil spill from shipping by modelling of dynamic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Magnus S; Endresen, Oyvind; Breivik, Oyvind; Brude, Odd Willy; Ellingsen, Ingrid H; Røang, Kjell; Hauge, Jarle; Brett, Per Olaf

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic environmental risk model, with intended use within a new, dynamical approach for risk based ship traffic prioritisation. The philosophy behind this newly developed approach is that shipping risk can be reduced by directing efforts towards ships and areas that have been identified as high priority (high risk), prior to a potential accident. The risk model proposed in this paper separates itself from previous models by drawing on available information on dynamic factors and by focusing on the ship's surroundings. The model estimates the environmental risk of drift grounding accidents for oil tankers in real time and in forecast mode, combining the probability of grounding with oil spill impact on the coastline. Results show that the inherent dynamic risk introduced by an oil tanker sailing along the North Norwegian coast depends, not surprisingly, significantly upon wind and ocean currents, as well as tug position and cargo oil type. Results of this study indicate that the risk model is well suited for real time risk assessment, and effectively separates low risk and high risk situations. The model is well suited as a tool to prioritise oil tankers and coastal segments. This enables dynamic risk based positioning of tugs, using both real-time and projected risk, for effective support in case of a drifting ship situation.

  13. Spatial Pattern and Regional Relevance Analysis of the Maritime Silk Road Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixia Mou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the strategy of “One Belt and One Road”, this paper explores the spatial pattern and the status quo of regional trade relevance of the Maritime Silk Road shipping network. Based on complex network theory, a topological structure map of shipping networks for containers, tankers, and bulk carriers was constructed, and the spatial characteristics of shipping networks were analyzed. Using the mode of spatial arrangement and the Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, this paper further analyzes the traffic flow pattern of regional trade of three kinds of goods. It is shown that the shipping network of containers, tankers and bulk carriers are unevenly distributed and have regional agglomeration phenomena. There is a strong correlation between the interior of the region and the adjacent areas, and the port competition is fierce. Among them, the container ships network is the most competitive in the region, while the competitiveness of the tankers network is relatively the lowest. The inter-regional correlation is weak, and a few transit hub ports have obvious competitive advantages. The ports in Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia are the most significant. The research results combined with the Maritime Silk Road policy can provide reference for port construction, route optimization, and coordinated development of regional trade, which will help to save time and cost of marine transportation, reduce energy consumption, and promote the sustainable development of marine environment and regional trade on the Maritime Silk Road.

  14. Dinâmica da estrutura da comunidade de lauráceas no período 1995-2004 em uma floresta de araucária no sul do estado do Paraná, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geise de Góes Canalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies da família Lauraceae estão entre as mais comuns na Floresta de Araucária. Elas possuem bom potencial silvicultural e econômico, mas são pouco estudadas. Este trabalho trata das mudanças estruturais no período 1995-2004 de oito espécies da família Lauraceae ocorrentes em um fragmento florestal localizado no centro-sul do estado do Paraná. As espécies foram analisadas pelos indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos: IVI, abundância, área basal, volume, distribuição diamétrica, distribuição espacial, recrutamento, mortalidade e incrementos. Os resultados demonstraram que, em 10 anos de dinâmica estrutural, a família Lauraceae, de maneira geral, manteve inalterada sua posição de importância na comunidade. Observou-se que as Lauráceas passam por aumento de densidade, porque o recrutamento está sendo maior que a mortalidade. Já o crescimento das Lauráceas tem sido muito baixo, tanto em diâmetro como em área basal e volume. Embora a maior parte das Lauráceas apresente um padrão dinâmico lento, algumas espécies passam por um intenso processo de mudanças, como é o caso da canela-amarela (Nectandra grandiflora Nees & Mart. ex Nees, que aumentou a maioria dos seus indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos, constituindo-se na espécie de maior destaque entre as analisadas. Essa espécie apresenta recrutamento muito superior à mortalidade, distribuição diamétrica decrescente e ampla distribuição espacial. Esses elementos estão tornando essa espécie em uma das três mais importantes em toda a comunidade, juntamente com a araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze e a erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.. Concluiu-se que, em 10 anos, já é possível distinguir processos ecológicos importantes que podem servir como indicativos em Planos de Manejo para Florestas semelhantes de Araucária.

  15. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  16. Selecting Tanker Steaming Speeds under Uncertainty: A Rule-Based Bayesian Reasoning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the tanker industry, there are a lot of uncertain conditions that tanker companies have to deal with. For example, the global financial crisis and economic recession, the increase of bunker fuel prices and global climate change. Such conditions have forced tanker companies to change tankers speed from full speed to slow speed, extra slow speed and super slow speed. Due to such conditions, the objective of this paper is to present a methodology for determining vessel speeds of tankers that minimize the cost of the vessels under such conditions. The four levels of vessel speed in the tanker industry will be investigated and will incorporate a number of uncertain conditions. This will be done by developing a scientific model using a rule-based Bayesian reasoning method. The proposed model has produced 96 rules that can be used as guidance in the decision making process. Such results help tanker companies to determine the appropriate vessel speed to be used in a dynamic operational environmental.

  17. Environmental impact of oil transportation by tankers, pipelines, railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chelidze, M.A.; Kaviladze, I.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, L.B.; Ninua, T.L.; Kordzaxia, G.I.; Gavasheli, L.; Petriashvili, E.T.; Alania, M.L.; Gigolashvili, Sh.Z.; Kordzakhia, M.O.; Chankotadze, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Considering all types of risks (technical, operational, natural hazards (e.g. geo-hazards) and third party intrusion), the underground pipelines constructed in accordance with the international standards are the most safe and reliable system for oil transportation. Statistical data provided by CONCAWE and US Department of Transportation confirms that the pipeline related spills are rare and mainly related to the old pipelines. Georgia's experience yet confirms the general sound guess that the situation in our countries is not the same as in western Europe or USA and accordingly the CONCAWE statistical data can not be applied mechanically. Two spills (although small and manageable), during the recent 4 years and some discovered illegal hot-taps on the Baku-Supsa pipeline indicate that the issue of third party intrusion risks is much higher in the region and well organized security system is required to protect the pipeline from intentional damage. Of course the pipeline system can not function isolated and it is integrated with the other systems of oil transportation, mainly with off-shore terminals and tankers. The most significant of the recorded pollution damages are related to the tanker collisions (like Prestige and Exxon Valdez cases). The basic fact, which we would like to stress, is that the environmental risks related to the tanker collisions are much higher for such confined or semi-confined systems as Black and Caspian seas. The overloading of the Black Sea transportation capacity and especially its limiting narrow point - the Bosporus will inevitably lead in future to the implementation of the restrictive measures limiting transportation of oil by tankers in the Black Sea. Therefore, the role of the BTC pipeline as major transportation system will increase significantly. We consider that responsibility of the scientific society is to facilitate this process as soon as the BTC pipeline is functional. The railway transportation of oil is quite

  18. Nature preservation acceptance model applied to tanker oil spill simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    is exemplified by a study of oil spills due to simulated tanker collisions in the Danish straits. It is found that the distribution of the oil spill volume per spill is well represented by an exponential distribution both in Oeresund and in Great Belt. When applied in the Poisson model, a risk profile reasonably...... acceptance criterion for the pollution of the environment. This NPWI acceptance criterion is applied to the oil spill example....... be defined in a similar way as the so-called Life Quality Index defined by Nathwani et al [Nathwani JS, Lind NC, Padey MD. Affordable safety by choice: the life quality method. Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo; Waterloo (Ontario, Canada):1997], and can be used to quantify the risk...

  19. Compensation for oil pollution damage caused by oil spills from ships and the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, M.

    1994-01-01

    Liability and compensation for pollution damage caused by oil spills from laden tankers is governed by two international conventions: the 1969 Civil Liability Convention and the 1971 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability Convention established a system of strict liability for tanker owners and introduced compulsory liability insurance. The Fund Convention created a system of supplementary compensation administered by an intergovernmental organization, the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPC Fund), which at present has 56 member states (August 1993). The IOPC Fund pays compensation to victims of oil pollution in member states when the compensation from the ship owner and his insurer is insufficient. (author)

  20. Fast ship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuning, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship whereby the hull and the mechanical propulsion device are designed such that the Froude number is larger than 0.5. In the aft ship the hull has a bottom with V-shaped bottom surfaces with a deadrise angle that is less than 40 degrees and the hull has substantially vertical sides. In the hull are a passenger compartment and a trim tank. The trim tank volume is such that the weight of a filled trim tank is more than 30 % of the weight of displacement of the hull wi...

  1. Global Vigilance, Reach, and Power? Made Possible only with a Robust Tanker Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uyehata, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    ...). Therefore, the CCs should place aerial refueling capability and the recapitalization of the multiple tanker fleets at the top of their integrated priority lists and should also take sufficient...

  2. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk ŞAKAR; Yusuf ZORBA

    2017-01-01

    The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. ...

  3. Modelling of the Internal Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    A method for analysis of the structural damage due to ship collisions is developed. The method is based on the idealized structural unit method (ISUM). Longitudinal/transverse webs which connect the outer and the inner hulls are modelled by rectangular plate units. The responses are determined...... on the stiffness and the strength is considered as well. In order to include the coupling effects between local and global failure of the structure, the usual non-linear finite-element technique is applied. In order to deal with the gap and contact conditions between the striking and the struck ships, gap......-skin plated structures in collision/grounding situations with the present solutions. As an illustrative example the procedure has been used for analyses of a side collision of a double-hull tanker. Several factors affecting ship collision response, namely the collision speed and the scantlings/ arrangements...

  4. The Risk of Striking Accidents During LPG Ships Passage in Ports in Respect to Technical Failures based on Real Time Simulations in Szczecin-Świnoujście Waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of risk assessment based on ship systems technical failures during the passage in the region of Świnoujście of the large LPG (liquefied petroleum gas tanker is presented. The statistical reliability indicators and the simulation model of ships manoeuvring. The researches carried out within this paper let to determine the safety level and necessary tug escort service during the passage of the ship with the hazardous cargo in the port area.

  5. Ship's barbers

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Showing two sailors having their hair cut (? one is possibly being shaved) on board ship. Three other sailors can be seen standing on the right-hand side of the photograph. The photograph is from an album inscribed 'H.M.S. Lancaster; Mediterranean Photographic Album: Diary of Events and Important Places Visited during the Commission 1910-1912' on the cover. This album was the property of Sydney Harold Liddle.

  6. EIA cites importance of key world shipping routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A disruption of crude oil or products shipments through any of six world chokepoints would cause a spike in oil prices, the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) warns. The strategic importance of each major shipping lane varies because of differing oil volumes and access to other transportation routes. But nearly half of the 66 million b/d of oil consumed worldwide flows through one or more of these key tanker routes, involving: 14 million b/d through the Strait of Hormuz from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea; 7 million b/d through the Strait of Malacca from the northern Indian Ocean into the South China Sea and Pacific Ocean; 1.6 million b/d through the Bosporus from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea; 900,000 b/d through the Suez Canal from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea; 600,000 b/d through Rotterdam Harbor from the North Sea to Dutch and German refineries on or near the Rhine River; and 500,000 b/d through the Panama Canal from the Pacific Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. In today's highly interdependent oil markets, the mere perception of less secure oil supplies is enough to boost oil prices, EIA said. Growing oil and product tanker traffic is increasing the likelihood of supply disruptions through oil arteries because of bad weather, tanker collisions, or acts of piracy, terrorism, or war. What's more, the increasing age of the world tanker fleet and dependability of navigational equipment could increase chances of accidents and, therefore, oil supply disruptions

  7. Development of the hull inspection robot (RTV-SHIP); Sentai kensayo suichu robot (RTV-SHIP) no kaihatsu (atarashii sentai kensaho no ichiteian)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Y.; Otsuka, M.; Ozawa, H.; Konosu, M. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A compact and lightweight underwater RTV robot (RTV-SHIP) that enables the remote sensing in the double-shell structure of a tanker and the six-freedom motion control was developed based on the technology of the conventional portable underwater robot. The motion performance test in a water tank showed that the RTV-SHIP can freely access the manhole in the double-shell structure of a tanker and completely satisfies the thrust and swing force required for movement and measurement in a tank. The in-tank function confirmation test also shows that the main measurement items such as positioning in the tank, large deflection of panels, and plate thickness have a satisfactory measurement accuracy and that the RTV-SHIP has the same tone discrimination function as for a visual check. The method of inputting the tank shape during measurement and miniaturizing the recording unit should be improved until the RTV-SHIP is put to practical use. This system can be widely used by improving the above points according to the result of a future measurement test for the actual ships. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  8. Optimization of ship inner shell to improve the safety of seagoing transport ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yun YU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A practical Ship Inner Shell Optimization Method (SISOM, the purpose of which is to improve the safety of the seagoing transport ship by decreasing the maximum Still Water Bending Moment (SWBM of the hull girder under all typical loading conditions, is presented in this paper. The objective of SISOM is to make the maximum SWBM minimum, and the section areas of the inner shell are taken as optimization variables. The main requirements of the ship performances, such as cargo hold capacity, propeller and rudder immersion, bridge visibility, damage stability and prevention of pollution etc., are taken as constraints. The penalty function method is used in SISOM to change the above nonlinear constraint problem into an unconstrained one, which is then solved by applying the steepest descent method. After optimization, the optimal section area distribution of the inner shell is obtained, and the shape of inner shell is adjusted according to the optimal section area. SISOM is applied to a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and the maximum SWBM of the two ships is significantly decreased by changing the shape of inner shell plate slightly. The two examples prove that SISOM is highly efficient and valuable to engineering practice.

  9. Application of Bayesian Belief networks to the human reliability analysis of an oil tanker operation focusing on collision accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Maturana, Marcos Coelho

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades, several techniques have been developed for the quantitative study of human reliability. In the 1980s, techniques were developed to model systems by means of binary trees, which did not allow for the representation of the context in which human actions occur. Thus, these techniques cannot model the representation of individuals, their interrelationships, and the dynamics of a system. These issues make the improvement of methods for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) a pressing need. To eliminate or at least attenuate these limitations, some authors have proposed modeling systems using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs). The application of these tools is expected to address many of the deficiencies in current approaches to modeling human actions with binary trees. This paper presents a methodology based on BBN for analyzing human reliability and applies this method to the operation of an oil tanker, focusing on the risk of collision accidents. The obtained model was used to determine the most likely sequence of hazardous events and thus isolate critical activities in the operation of the ship to study Internal Factors (IFs), Skills, and Management and Organizational Factors (MOFs) that should receive more attention for risk reduction.

  10. Grounding-Induced Sectional Forces and Residual Strength of Grounded Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of groundedship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding-induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage due...... to grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to residual strength assessment of a damaged double hull tanker of 38,400 dwt due to grounding....

  11. Safety at sea: oil spills, the tanker business and international regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golomer, Olivier

    1994-02-01

    The tanker industry has been assailed in recent years with regulations, inspections, and many, many criticisms. The official objective of these pressures - the preservation of the environment from oil spills and oil contamination - is praiseworthy. However, many of these measures have proved inefficient or have led to ludicrous situations due in large part to them being targeted on crisis situations. Instead of emergency regulations spurred by sporadic disasters, both the tanker industry and protection of the environment need a set of economic instruments relying on a systematic assessment of risks. This paper focuses on these issues in the Very Large Crude Carrier segment of the tanker business. We start with a description of the industry and the actors in place, and then review the measures and policies adopted so far and their influence on the industry, especially in relation to freight rates. By analogy with other industries, a comprehensive approach to environmental hazards is then proposed. (Author)

  12. Research on configuration of railway self-equipped tanker based on minimum cost maximum flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuefang; Gan, Chunhui; Shen, Tingting

    2017-05-01

    In the study of the configuration of the tanker of chemical logistics park, the minimum cost maximum flow model is adopted. Firstly, the transport capacity of the park loading and unloading area and the transportation demand of the dangerous goods are taken as the constraint condition of the model; then the transport arc capacity, the transport arc flow and the transport arc edge weight are determined in the transportation network diagram; finally, the software calculations. The calculation results show that the configuration issue of the tankers can be effectively solved by the minimum cost maximum flow model, which has theoretical and practical application value for tanker management of railway transportation of dangerous goods in the chemical logistics park.

  13. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N...

  14. Forecasting Baltic Dirty Tanker Index by Applying Wavelet Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Shuangrui; JI, TINGYUN; Bergqvist, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    modeling techniques used in freight rate forecasting. At the same time research in shipping index forecasting e.g. BDTI applying artificial intelligent techniques is scarce. This analyses the possibilities to forecast the BDTI by applying Wavelet Neural Networks (WNN). Firstly, the characteristics...... of traditional and artificial intelligent forecasting techniques are discussed and rationales for choosing WNN are explained. Secondly, the components and features of BDTI will be explicated. After that, the authors delve the determinants and influencing factors behind fluctuations of the BDTI in order to set...

  15. Rupture Analysis of Oil Tankers in a Side Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Tomasz; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1996-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Minorsky in 1958 the collision damage of ships has been extensively studied in literature. In the past few yearsthere has been renewed interest in this type of problem, as exemplified by for example [4], [7]. For a complete review of the subject, the reader is referred...... in the case of a low longitudinal resistance of the supporting frames.In the second part of this report two kinematically admissible solutions for a square rigid-plastic plate under a point load are compared. One is a 2-dimensinal solution with all components of the strain tensor retained. The other one...

  16. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons along the oil tanker route in the southern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R; Noronha, R; Fondekar, S.P.; SenGupta, R

    Concentrations of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons during 3 cruises (Nos. 51, 66 and 68) of R V Gaveshani, along the oil tanker route, in the southern Bay of Bengal at 0, 10 and 20 m were 19.95 + or - 3.38, 16.78 + or - 2.53 and 13.45 + or - 2.17 mu...

  17. Proteolysis produced within biofilms of bacterial isolates from raw milk tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Koon Hoong; Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Andrewes, Paul; Bremer, Phil; Lindsay, Denise

    2012-06-15

    In this study, six bacterial isolates that produced thermo-resistant enzymes isolated from the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers were evaluated for their ability to produce proteolysis within either single culture biofilms or co-culture biofilms. Biofilms were formed in an in vitro model system that simulated the upper internal surface of a raw milk tanker during a typical summer's day of milk collection in New Zealand. The bacterial isolates were further evaluated for their ability to form biofilms at 25, 30 and 37°C. Mutual and competitive effects were observed in some of the co-culture biofilms, with all isolates being able to form biofilms in either single culture or co-culture at the three temperatures. The proteolysis was also evaluated in both biofilms and corresponding planktonic cultures. The proteolysis per cell decreased as the temperature of incubation (20-37°C) increased. Furthermore, mutualistic interactions in terms of proteolysis were observed when cultures were grown as co-culture biofilms. This is the first study to show that proteolytic enzymes can be produced in biofilms on the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers. This has important implications for the cleaning and the temperature control of raw milk transport tankers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. THE EFFECT OF VESSEL SUPPLY ON SHIP-DEMOLITION PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kagkarakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ship-demolition is one of the four main markets that form the shipping industry and plays an important role on the seaborne trade, as it mitigates imbalances between supply and demand for transportation services by adjusting the merchant fleet supply. The aim of this study is to examine whether the factors that determine the supply of vessels for demolition are capable of affecting materially the ship-demolition price formation. The availability of ships for demolition is primarily a function of the fleet’s age and the conditions on the freight and secondhand markets. The analysis is conducted on the crude tanker and the bulk carrier segments and the vector autoregressive model methodology is employed, whereby the effect of both the supply and the demand factors on the ship-demolition prices is examined. The results indicate that the supply side has limited effect on the price formation in the industry, which is driven by the demand for the steel-scrap commodity.

  19. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  20. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  1. Ship Emission Inventories in Estuary of the Yangtze River Using Terrestrial AIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuary forms a transition zone between inland river and open sea. In China, the estuary of the Yangtze River plays a vital role in connecting the inland and oversea shipping, and witnesses heavy vessel traffic in the recent decades. Nowadays, more attentions have been directed to the issue of ship pollution in busy waterways. In order to investigate the ship emission inventory, this paper presents an Automatic Identification System(AIS based method. AIS data is the realistic data of vessel traffic including dynamic information (position, speed, course, etc. and static information (ship type, dimensions, name, etc.. According to ship dimensions, the power of engines is estimated for different ship types. By using AIS based bottom-up approach, ship emission inventories and shares of air pollutants and GHGs (Greenhouse gases are developed. Spatial distribution of ship emissions is illustrated in the form of heat map. As a case study, the emission inventories are analyzed using AIS data of 2010 in the estuary, and following results are made:(1 shares of the emission are cruise ships 6.59%, bulk carriers 5.16%, container ships 52.96%, tankers 15.16%, fishing ships 9.16%, other ships 10.97%; (2 CO2 is the dominant part of the emission. (3 Areas of highest emission intensity are generally clustered around the South Channel, the North Channel and ports in the vicinity. The proposed method is promising because it is derived from the AIS data which contains not only real data of individual ship but also vessel traffic situation in the study area. It can server as a reference for other researchers and policy makers working in this field.

  2. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  3. Calculation of the collision resistance of ships and its assessment for classification purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckenhauer, M.; Egge, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Within the framework of a research programme ''Tanker Safety'', Germanischer Lloyd has developed a program system for the evaluation of the absorbed plastic deformation energy in a ship-ship collision. The ultimate load capacities of the ship structures in the areas affected by the collision are evaluated stepwise. The total collision energy absorbed by plastic deformations of the ship structures is evaluated on the basis of the minima of the ultimate load capacities and the corresponding penetration depths. By means of the collision energy absorbed, the collision speed necessary to cause damage can be determined.It is now possible to classify ships with regard to their resistance against collisions and to assign relevant class notations.The resistance of a ship against collision impacts is expressed by the class notation COLL with index numbers ranging from 1 to 6. The index numbers indicate that - as compared with a non-strengthened single hull reference ship - a critical situation is likely to occur only if the deformation energy absorbed in the collision exceeds that of the non-strengthened reference ship by specified values.A ''critical situation'' is defined by, for example, rupture of cargo tanks with subsequent spillage of cargo or water ingress into dry cargo holds. ((orig.))

  4. Applying Multi-Class Support Vector Machines for performance assessment of shipping operations: The case of tanker vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Møller, Anders H.; McAloone, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    of feature selection algorithms. Afterwards, a model based on Multi- Class Support Vector Machines (SVM) was constructed and the efficacy of the approach is shown through the application of a test set. The results demonstrate the importance and benefits of machine learning algorithms in driving energy....... Identifying the potential of behavioural savings can be challenging, due to the inherent difficulty in analysing the data and operationalizing energy efficiency within the dynamic operating environment of the vessels. This article proposes a supervised learning model for identifying the presence of energy...

  5. Nuclear ship engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hashidate, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear ship engineering simulator, which analyzes overall system response of nuclear ship numerically, is now being developed by JAERI as an advanced design tool with the latest computer technology in software and hardware. The development of the nuclear ship engineering simulator aims at grasping characteristics of a reactor plant under the situation generated by the combination of ocean, a ship hull and a reactor. The data from various tests with the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' will be used for this simulator to modulate and verify its functions of reproducing realistic response of nuclear ship, and then the simulator will be utilized for the research and development of advanced marine reactors. (author)

  6. Effect of Baffles on the Sloshing in Road Tankers Carrying LPG: A Comparative Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bautista-Jacobo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparative numerical study of the effect of using baffles, and its design, on the behavior of sloshing in a partially filled road tanker carrying LPG. Navier-Stokes equations and standard k-ε turbulence model are used to simulate fluid movement; the Volume of Fluid (VOF method is used to track the liquid-gas interface. Velocity distributions, sloshing stabilization times, and contours of turbulent kinetic energy, which are of high importance in choosing the best design of baffles, are shown. The results show sloshing stabilization times of 22 and 21 s for road tankers with cross-shaped (Type I and X-shaped (Type II baffles, respectively, finding lower values of turbulent kinetic energy for Type II design, being, therefore, the best design of baffles for damping of sloshing and vehicle control among studied ones.

  7. Structural maintenance planning based on historical data of corroded deck plates of tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbatov, Y.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic maintenance and repair analysis of tanker deck plates subjected to general corrosion is presented. The decisions about when to perform maintenance and repair on the structure are studied. Different practical scenarios are analyzed and optimum repair times are proposed. The optimum repair age and intervals are defined based on the statistical analysis of operational data using the Weibull model and some assumptions about the inspection and time needed for repair. The total cost is calculated in normalized form.

  8. Tanker for the transport of very low temperature liquids at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, E S

    1968-02-08

    This tanker for the transport of very low temperature liquids, especially liquefied methane or natural gas, has a large capacity reservoir insulated on the outside. A second reservoir in the bottom of the hull, below the main reservoir, collects liquid leaking out from the main reservoir and is equipped with a drain pipe. The pipe serving to fill and to empty the main reservoir passes through this second reservoir. (4 claims)

  9. An Investigation of the Bomber and Tanker Mating Process in the Single Integrated Operations Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    REFUELING C LOCATIONS ARE OPTIMIZED TO MAXIMIZE BOKSER ENTRY POINT C FUEL. BOMBER, TANKER, AND FRI DATA ARE INPUTS TO THlE C PROGRAM, AND THE INDIVIDUAL...NOTluI 50 UEAD(3.,E,1ND=I0)PRULAT(I).PRULONCI),PRICAP(I) COTOSO I$ NOPRlmI-1 TASm4 44. C C FOR EACH BOKSER TRACK, ASSIGN THE APPROPRIATE At mIN 0r C

  10. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  11. Organización del mercado de generación de electricidad colombiano. Una aplicación de los índices de diversificación tecnológica y de concentración H-H y C-4, 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Castillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la evolución de la concentración del mercado de generación de electricidad colombiano, con base en los índices de diversificación tecnológica y de concentración H-H y C-4, en el período 1995-2004. Se entiende la concentración como un comportamiento empresarial que, desde la perspectiva del regulador, puede atentar contra los resultados de eficiencia esperados con la reforma de las reglas de juego para la industria. Del análisis se concluye, por un lado, que los niveles de concentración han disminuido en el período de estudio, pasando de oligopolio fuerte a moderado; sin embargo, por el otro, al agrupar las empresas por vínculos empresariales los índices se elevan. Curiosamente, las empresas generadoras que apuntalan los índices son aquellas con diversificación tecnológica alta.

  12. Organización del mercado de generación de electricidad colombiano.: Una aplicación de los índices de diversificación tecnológica y de concentración H-H y C-4, 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tobón Orozco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la evolución de la concentración del mercado de generación de electricidad colombiano, con base en los índices de diversificación tecnológica y de concentración H-H y C-4, en el período 1995-2004. Se entiende la concentración como un comportamiento empresarial que, desde la perspectiva del regulador, puede atentar contra los resultados de eficiencia esperados con la reforma de las reglas de juego para la industria. Del análisis se concluye, por un lado, que los niveles de concentración han disminuido en el periodo de estudio, pasando de oligopolio fuerte a moderado; sin embargo, por el otro, al agrupar las empresas por vínculos empresariales los índices se elevan. Curiosamente, las empresas generadoras que apuntalan los índices son aquellas con diversificación tecnológica alta.

  13. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  14. Dutch Ships and Sailors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Victor; Hoekstra, F.G.; Leinenga, Jurjen; van Rossum, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Dutch Ships and Sailors provides an infrastructure for maritime historical datasets, linking correlating data through semantic web technology. It brings together datasets related to recruitment and shipping in the East-India trade (mainly 18th century) and in the shipping of the northern provinces

  15. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  16. Size matters: Exploring the importance of vessel characteristics to inform estimates of shipping emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Conor; Bows, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ship emission baselines can be used to inform studies but require prior knowledge. ► Region specific conditions alter average shipping emission factors. ► Region specific conditions are clearer when individual callings are examined. ► Relationship between ship size and emissions frustrates estimating mean emissions. -- Abstract: The decarbonisation agenda is placing increasing pressure on retailers to directly and indirectly influence greenhouse gas emissions associated with full supply chains. Transportation by sea is an important and significant element of these supply chains, yet the emissions associated with shipping, particularly international shipping, are often poorly accounted for. The magnitude of emissions embodied in a product is directly related to the distances involved in globalised product chains, where shipping can represent the most emission intensive stage per tonne of goods transported. Specifically, limited choice of ship type and size within assessment tools negates a fair estimate of product chain emissions. To address this, the correlation between ship emissions and size is quantified for a sample of United Kingdom (UK) port callings to estimate typical UK emission factors by ship type and size and to determine how well existing global data and available databases represent UK shipping activity. The results highlight that although ship type is a crucial determinant of emissions, vessel size is also important, particularly for smaller ships where the variance in emission factors is greatest. Existing, globally averaged data correlating ship size with emissions agree well with the UK data. However, the relatively higher proportion of smaller ships satisfying a UK demand for short sea shipping results in a skew towards higher typical emission factors, principally within the general cargo, product and chemical tanker categories. This bias is most visible when emissions per individual ship calling are estimated. Incorporating

  17. Waste gas could provide power for ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-07-18

    Dual-fuel engines are not new, but a version has been produced which, when used on ships carrying liquefied natural gas (LNG) could operate almost completely on waste gas. In its gas-operating mode, an engine can use the waste gas boiled off an LNG cargo. This wastage, normally allowed to escape to atmosphere, is about 0.25% of the cargo per day. Calculations have shown that this is enough to provide almost all the propulsion needs of a tanker under full cargo. This design is important in that it is suitable for the larger vessels now being required to carry LNG from N. Africa to North America, a journey where the costs of fuel are very considerable. Tests on the engine have indicated that power output is reduced to something like 80% of power under diesel fuel. However, additional advantages, such as cleaner engines with reduced maintenance costs, will help to tip the economic balance even further in favor of the dual purpose unit. This system also is applicable to stationary generating plant, again particularly on LNG tankage units where the same degree of gas boil-off applies.

  18. Hormone replacement therapy in Denmark, 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Møller, Lisbeth Nørgaard

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the Danish National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics (NRM) was opened for research purposes, and therefore, on an individual basis, can merge with other national registers. The aim of this study was to analyse the use of hormones based on the individual data of the entire Danish...

  19. Hormone replacement therapy in Denmark, 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Ellen; Lidegaard, Ojvind; Møller, Lisbeth Nørgaard

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the Danish National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics (NRM) was opened for research purposes, and therefore, on an individual basis, can merge with other national registers. The aim of this study was to analyse the use of hormones based on the individual data of the entire Danish...... female population, with the focus on a detailed evaluation of specific hormone regimens and factors associated with systemic hormone replacement therapy (HRT)....

  20. Safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  1. Estimated incident cost savings in shipping due to inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sabine; Bijwaard, Govert; Heij, Christiaan

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of safety inspections of ships has been analysed from various angles, but until now, relatively little attention has been given to translate risk reduction into incident cost savings. This paper provides a monetary quantification of the cost savings that can be attributed to port state control inspections and industry vetting inspections. The dataset consists of more than half a million ship arrivals between 2002 and 2007 and contains inspections of port state authorities in the USA and Australia and of three industry vetting regimes. The effect of inspections in reducing the risk of total loss accidents is estimated by means of duration models, in terms of the gained probability of survival. The monetary benefit of port state control inspections is estimated to range, on average, from about 70 to 190 thousand dollars, with median values ranging from about 20 to 45 thousand dollars. Industry inspections have even higher benefits, especially for tankers. The savings are in general higher for older and larger vessels, and also for vessels with undefined flag and unknown classification society. As inspection costs are relatively low in comparison to potential cost savings, the results underline the importance of determining ships with relatively high risk of total loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  3. The Erika tanker shipwreck, one year later. synthesis; Naufrage du petrolier Erika, un an apres. synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In december 1999 the Erika tanker shipwreck broke along the Brittany coast leading to the most important sea pollution by hydrocarbons, since the Amoco-Cadiz. One year after this accident the Ministry of the territory management and of the environment takes stock on the actions carried on after the shipwreck: the management of the POLMAR fund, the shoreline cleaning, the land and water ecosystems restoration, the wastes storage and processing, the ecological consequences. A special part is devoted to the maritime transport regulations and safety and to the victims compensation. (A.L.B.)

  4. The Iron Triangle Manifested: U.S. Air Force Tanker Lease 2001-2005 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Simply put, Air Force leaders never said they even needed the tankers until they woke up one morning and saw a pile of money on the table. —Eric Miller...this assessment, stating the KC–135 could fly well past the turn of the century.5 Responding to the GAO report, the Air Force formed a team of its...concerns were manageable.6 The team predicted fleet sustainment costs would grow $20 million each year due to increases in depot maintenance hours and

  5. Ship emission inventory and its impact on the PM2.5 air pollution in Qingdao Port, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiaotong; Nelson, Peter; Li, Yue; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yuehua; Lang, Jianlei; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Xiurui

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a first high temporal-spatial ship emission inventory in Qingdao Port and its adjacent waters has been developed using a ;bottom-up; method based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. The total estimated ship emissions for SO2, NOX, PM10, PM2.5, HC and CO in 2014 are 3.32 × 104, 4.29 × 104, 4.54 × 103, 4.18 × 103, 1.85 × 103 and 3.66 × 103 tonnes, respectively. Emissions of SO2 and NOX from ships account for 9% and 13% of the anthropogenic totals in Qingdao, respectively. The main contributors to the ship emissions are containers, followed by fishing ships, oil tankers and bulk carriers. The inter-monthly ship emissions varied significantly due to two reasons: stopping of the fishing ship activities during the fishing moratorium and the reduction of freight volume around the Chinese New Year Festival. Emissions from transport vessels concentrated basically along the shipping routes, while fishing ships contributed to massive irregular spatial emissions in the sea. The impact of ship emissions on the ambient air quality was further investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model. The results reveal that the contribution of ship emissions to the PM2.5 concentrations in Qingdao is the highest in summer (13.1%) and the lowest in winter (1.5%). The impact was more evident over densely populated urban areas, where the contributions from ship emissions could be over 20% in July due to their close range to the docks. These results indicated that the management and control of the ship emissions are highly demanded considering their remarkable influence on the air quality and potential negative effects on human health.

  6. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  7. Tracking an Oil Tanker Collision and Spilled Oils in the East China Sea Using Multisensor Day and Night Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaojie; Lu, Yingcheng; Liu, Yongxue; Wang, Mengqiu; Hu, Chuanmin

    2018-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing is well known to play a critical role in monitoring marine accidents such as oil spills, yet the recent SANCHI oil tanker collision event in January 2018 in the East China Sea indicates that traditional techniques using synthetic aperture radar or daytime optical imagery could not provide timely and adequate coverage. In this study, we show the unprecedented value of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Nightfire product and Day/Night Band data in tracking the oil tanker's drifting pathway and locations when all other means are not as effective for the same purpose. Such pathway and locations can also be reproduced with a numerical model, with root-mean-square error of days of the tanker's sinking reveals much larger oil spill area (>350 km2) than previous reports, the impact of the spilled condensate oil on the marine environment requires further research.

  8. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  9. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk ŞAKAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. Firstly, the variables that are the subject of the problem and that constitute the graphical structure of the Bayes Networks are identified. Then, expert opinion was sought as the statistical data on accident reports were not recorded properly while identifying the conditional probability of the relationships between the variables. Linguistic variables whose fuzzy membership functions were identified were used in detecting the probabilities. The findings of the sensitivity test revealed that the major reasons that could lead to fire and explosion during the tank cleaning process are ignition sources, reaction and safety culture.

  10. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  11. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject...

  12. Handbook of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    First, the government organs and other organizations related to nuclear ships and their tasks are described. The fundamental plan for the development of nuclear ships had been determined in July, 1963, and was revised three times thereafter. However in December, 1980, new determination to carry out the research works also was made. The course of the construction of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' from 1955 to 1980, the main particulars of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' and the drawing of the general arrangement are shown. The designated port for berthing the Mutsu was completed in 1972 in Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, but after the happening of radiation leak during the trial operation of the Mutsu in 1974, it was agreed to remove the port. The main works to be carried out at the port and the port facilities are explained. The progress of the examination of safety of the Mutsu and the result, the test of raising the power output carried out in 1974, and the course of selecting the port for making the repair works of the Mutsu are described. The law concerning Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency had been instituted in 1963, and was revised four times thereafter. The change of the budget for the tests and researches related to nuclear ships in Japan is shown. The state of development of nuclear ships in foreign countries, the international organs related to atomic energy, shipping, shipbuilding and energy, and chronological table are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  13. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  14. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  15. The Coselle CNG carrier : a new way to ship natural gas by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenning, D.

    1999-01-01

    Coselle CNG carriers represent an emerging technology option for water-borne natural gas transportation. The idea behind the Coselle is to create a large but compact CNG storage system using pipe coiled into a carousel. The system promises to significantly improve the economics of shipping natural gas over short sea routes. This would unlock many gas reserves which are stranded because of the high costs associated with shipping natural gas by conventional tankers. The innovative patented technology for Coselle CNG carriers was described in this paper. The completed work on the technology is sufficient to allow a pilot project to proceed before the next step of commercialization of the technology. The technology can be applied in the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Arabian Sea, Sakhalin Island, Canada's east coast, Deepwater offshore Brazil and Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  16. The use of long range identification and tracking (LRIT) for modelling the risk of ship-based oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Andrew [Canadian Coast Guard (Canada)], email: andrew.szeto@dfo-mpo.gc.ca; Pelot, Ronald [Dalhousie University (Canada)], email: ronald.pelot@dal.ca

    2011-07-01

    Accidents involving oil tankers have caused many and sometimes very large oil spills. Such spills to marine areas have a significant impact on environmental quality affecting all aspects of marine ecosystems. Based on valid shipping traffic data as a very important factor that must be considered in modeling the risk of ship-based oil spills, this paper shows the importance of use of the long-range identification and tracking (LRIT) system and looks at how it can be implemented to better assess ship-based oil pollution. The system is a new, accurate and reliable world-wide vessel tracking system with a range of data extended out to 1000 nm from Canadian shores and currently tracks up to about 900 vessels a day in real-time. It is believed that traffic data and effective monitoring can assist with search planning for detection of mystery spills, better resource deployment for spill mitigation, and improving information for research and management.

  17. Nuclear ships and their safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation.

  18. Design for air-to-air refuelling operations; new passenger and tanker aircraft design for AAR scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Air-to-air refuelling is a way to improve fuel efficiency of the overall transport system without waiting for the improvement of basic aviation technology. To take full advantage of such an operation, both passenger aircraft and tanker aircraft (which deliver required fuel to the passenger aircraft

  19. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation...... of an intermittently cavitating propeller in a wake and the pressures and forces it exerts on the shaft and on the ship hull is examined. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. The authors have taken care to clearly describe physical concepts and mathematical steps. Appendices...

  20. Tanker milk variability according to farm feeding practices: vitamins A and E, carotenoids, color, and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabriel, C; Cornu, A; Journal, C; Sibra, C; Grolier, P; Martin, B

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the variability in the composition of bulk milk mixtures of fat-soluble compounds (vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids) and assess the links with milk production conditions. Milk from 10 collection trips in the French department of the Haute-Loire (10 to 36 herds per trip) was sampled in the tanker twice during the winter period and 3 times during the grazing season. The collection trips differed in their altitude (440 to 1,150 m) and the forage system (grass or based on corn silage). Vitamins A and E, carotenoids, and terpenoids of the 50 tanker loads of milk were analyzed. Data of milk production conditions in the 204 farms made it possible to constitute indicators for the collection trip and to define 50 mean herds. The relationships between mean herd characteristics (breed, stage of lactation, and feed) and milk characteristics were investigated. The constituents of tanker loads of milk were comparable to those observed in milk produced by groups of animals receiving contrasting diets (rich in concentrate or corn silage vs. pasture). The characteristics of the milk differed according to the period; those produced at grazing were more yellow (1.02 +/- 0.4; mean of difference) and richer in beta-carotene, lutein, vitamin E (2.0 +/- 1.2, 0.23 +/- 0.12, and 6.1 +/- 5.0 mug/g of fat, respectively), and sesquiterpenes (2.7 +/- 2.5) than winter. The variations observed for beta-carotene, lutein, and vitamin E were linked to the proportion of grazed grass or grass silage in the forage (r = 0.66, 0.69, and 0.51, respectively), unlike the vitamin A content. During grazing, 20 of the 32 terpenoids identified were associated with the proportion of permanent grassland available for grazing or cut. These results show that feeding is an effective way to modify the quality of dairy products, even in the case of bulk tank milk mixtures. Dairy plants could market different milks, which would contain specific compositions.

  1. A comparison of methods for evaluating structure during ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Daidola, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison is provided of the results of various methods for evaluating structure during a ship-to-ship collision. The baseline vessel utilized in the analyses is a 67.4 meter in length displacement hull struck by an identical vessel traveling at speeds ranging from 10 to 30 knots. The structural response of the struck vessel and motion of both the struck and striking vessels are assessed by finite element analysis. These same results are then compared to predictions utilizing the open-quotes Tanker Structural Analysis for Minor Collisionsclose quotes (TSAMC) Method, the Minorsky Method, the Haywood Collision Process, and comparison to full-scale tests. Consideration is given to the nature of structural deformation, absorbed energy, penetration, rigid body motion, and virtual mass affecting the hydrodynamic response. Insights are provided with regard to the calibration of the finite element model which was achievable through utilizing the more empirical analyses and the extent to which the finite element analysis is able to simulate the entire collision event. 7 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth in Ship Structural Details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leheta Heba W.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure avoidance is a goal that can be achieved only if the fatigue design is an integral part of the original design program. The purpose of fatigue design is to ensure that the structure has adequate fatigue life. Calculated fatigue life can form the basis for meaningful and efficient inspection programs during fabrication and throughout the life of the ship. The main objective of this paper is to develop an add-on program for the analysis of fatigue crack growth in ship structural details. The developed program will be an add-on script in a pre-existing package. A crack propagation in a tanker side connection is analyzed by using the developed program based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM and finite element method (FEM. The basic idea of the developed application is that a finite element model of this side connection will be first analyzed by using ABAQUS and from the results of this analysis the location of the highest stresses will be revealed. At this location, an initial crack will be introduced to the finite element model and from the results of the new crack model the direction of the crack propagation and the values of the stress intensity factors, will be known. By using the calculated direction of propagation a new segment will be added to the crack and then the model is analyzed again. The last step will be repeated until the calculated stress intensity factors reach the critical value.

  3. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    with motors, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles , and switches. If ship installation is not installed, the system will be status quo. Ship...Impact: the current centrifugal purifiers (Alfa-Laval) have experienced frequent failures with motor, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles ... Designing Adaptable Ships Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs John F. Schank, Scott Savitz, Ken Munson, Brian Perkinson, James

  4. Optimization in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Seaborne trade is the lynchpin in almost every international supply chain, and about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container. In this survey we give an overview of data-driven optimization problems in liner shipping. Research in liner shipping is motivated by a need for handling...... still more complex decision problems, based on big data sets and going across several organizational entities. Moreover, liner shipping optimization problems are pushing the limits of optimization methods, creating a new breeding ground for advanced modelling and solution methods. Starting from liner...... shipping network design, we consider the problem of container routing and speed optimization. Next, we consider empty container repositioning and stowage planning as well as disruption management. In addition, the problem of bunker purchasing is considered in depth. In each section we give a clear problem...

  5. Civilian nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  6. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  8. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  9. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...... in the models have been identified. The models used in this work are based on empirical relations or based on regression analyses of model tests and full-scale trials. In order to achieve valid results the conditions where performance is estimated have to be inside the boundaries of the model. Filters have been......The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...

  10. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A.

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  11. Comparison of Heat Insulations for Cryogenic Tankers Using Analytical and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Miralbés Buil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a methodology for the design of heat insulations used in cryogenic tankers. This insulation usually comprises a combination of vacuum and perlite or vacuum and superinsulation. Concretely, it is a methodology to obtain the temperatures, heat fluxes, and so forth. Using analytical tools has been established, which is based on the equivalence with an electric circuit, and on numerical tools using finite elements. Results obtained with both methods are then compared. In addition, the influence of the outer finish of the external part, due to the effect of the solar radiation, is analyzed too, and the equations to determine the maximum time available to transport the cryogenic liquid have been established. All these aspects are applied to a specific cryogenic commercial vehicle.

  12. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report looks at the impact of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the developing State oil spill regulations on the tanker and coastal barge markets, and at the implications for the future of the U.S. seaborne petroleum trades. The analysis relied on a dual approach. Because much of the legislation, both State and Federal, is still evolving--particularly with respect to implementing regulations--as yet there can be no definitive assessment of its impact. Consequently a quantitative analysis of fleets, trades, and vessel movements, was complemented by extensive interviews. Discussions have been held with oil companies large and small, shipowners, charterers, insurance companies, classification societies, and a variety of public and private institutions active in the maritime industry. All interviews were conducted in confidence: no individual views are identified in the report. (AT)

  13. Analisis Potensi Kebangkrutan PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. dengan Menggunakan Altman’s Z Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Iswandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. (BLTA is a company engaged in the ocean transportation services listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. In 2009 and 2010 BLTA experienced a net loss. At the end of 2011 the company rocked the financial markets in Indonesia and Singapore being unable to meet financial obligations to financial institutions and corporate bondholders. Given such conditions until the end of August 2012 BLTA can not submit audited financial statement of year 2011 to the authorities of stock exchange and public. By using the 2007 to 2010 audited financial statements and June 2011 inhouse financial statement were analyzed using Altman's Z score model can be known that since 2007 BLTA produce a Z score were classified bankruptcy. Investors should analyze the financial condition by using Z Score in order to minimized shareholders and bondholders potential losses.

  14. Distributed propulsion for ships

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Vilde

    2017-01-01

    It is anticipated that using distributed electric propulsion (DEP) on conventional ships will increase the total propulsive efficiency. This is mainly due to two reasons; firstly, because the total propeller disk area can be increased. Secondly, because each propeller can be optimised for the local wake where it is operating. In this work, the benefits of using DEP has been investigated for a 14 000 TEU container ship. Based on a literary study of the present state of propeller modelling ...

  15. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  16. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  17. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  18. Protection Against a Ship as a Weapon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epp, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    .... The purpose of this thesis is to determine systems that constitute architectures of an SoS to stop oil tanker that is hijacked with the intention of running into the oil terminal on Jurong Island, Singapore...

  19. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  20. Recent situations around nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The philosophy when the safety standard for nuclear ships is drawn up and the international rules specifically for nuclear ships are summarized. As for the safety standard for nuclear ships, the safety requirements for ordinary ships, for the ships transporting nuclear reactors, for ordinary nuclear reactors, and for the reactors moving around the seas must be included. As for the international rules for nuclear ships, there are chapter 8 ''Nuclear ships'' in the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and 1974, and Safety Consideration in the Use of Ports and Approaches by Nuclear Merchant Ships. Also there are national rules and standards in Japan and foreign countries. One of the means to explore the practicality of nuclear ships is the investigation of the economy. At this time, the social merits and demerits of nuclear ships must be compared with conventional ships by taking total expenses into account without omission. When oil is depleted, the age of nuclear ships will not necessarily begin, and the will be still some competitors. The investigations concerning the economy of nuclear ships have been carried out in various countries. The present state of the development of nuclear ships in Japan and foreign countries is explained. Many conferences and symposia have been held concerning nuclear ships, and those held recently are enumerated. The realization of nuclear ship age cannot be anticipated from existing papers and shipbuilding projects. (Kako, I.)

  1. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  2. Spatial analysis of private tanker water markets in Jordan: Using a hydroeconomic multi-agent model to simulate non-observed water transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, Christian; Yoon, Jim; Gawel, Erik; Sigel, Katja; Klauer, Bernd; Talozi, Samer; Lachaut, Thibaut; Selby, Philip; Knox, Stephen; Gorelick, Steven; Tilmant, Amaury; Harou, Julien; Mustafa, Daanish; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Avisse, Nicolas; Zhang, Hua

    2017-04-01

    The country of Jordan is characterized by severe water scarcity and deficient public water supply networks. To address these issues, Jordan's water sector authorities have adopted a water rationing scheme implemented by interrupting piped water supply for several days per week. As in many arid countries around the world, this has led to the emergence of private markets of small-scale providers, delivering water via tanker trucks. On the one hand, these markets play a crucial role in meeting residential and commercial water demands by balancing the shortcomings of the public supply system. On the other hand, providers partially rely on illegal abstractions from rural ground and surface water sources, thereby circumventing regulatory efforts to conserve these resources. Private tanker water markets, therefore, provide a substantial contribution to consumer welfare while jeopardizing freshwater resource sustainability. Thus, a better understanding of these markets is of great importance for the formulation of policy interventions pursuing freshwater sustainability in a socially acceptable manner. Direct assessments of the size of these markets or their responses to policy interventions are, however, impeded by their partially illegal nature and the resulting lack of available information. To overcome this data collection challenge, we use a hydroeconomic multi-agent model developed in the Jordan Water Project to indirectly simulate country-wide tanker water market activities on the basis of demand and supply estimates. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. Finally, a spatial market algorithm

  3. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  4. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  5. Study on zigzag maneuver characteristics of V-U very large crude oil (VLCC) tankers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswar, Maimun, A.; Wahid, M. A.; Priyanto, A.; Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Marine Technology at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Teknologi Malaysia has recently developed an Ship Maneuverability tool which intends to upgrade student's level understanding the application of fluid dynamic on interaction between hull, propeller, and rudder during maneuvering. This paper discusses zigzag maneuver for conventional Very Large Crude Oil (VLCC) ships with the same principal dimensions but different stern flame shape. 10/10 zigzag maneuver characteristics of U and V types of VLCC ships are investigated. Simulation results for U-type show a good agreement with the experimental data, but V-type not good agreement with experimental one. Further study on zigzag maneuver characteristics are required.

  6. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  7. Ship operations report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The NOAA Fleet Operations Report 1973 was developed to provide a summary of project accomplishments during calendar year 1973. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. Centralized management of the NOAA Fleet was finalized by changing the operational control of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Ships DAVID STARR JORDAN (FRS 44), TOWNSEND CROMWELL (FRS 43) and MURRE II (FRV 63) from NMFS to the National Ocean Survey on July 1, 1973. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  8. Ship operations report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The NOAA Ship Operations Report 1975 was developed to provide a summary of projects undertaken during calendar year 1975. The report was prepared from season, cruise and special reports submitted by ships of the fleet. This report is promulgated for inhouse dissemination in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, for collaborating and interested agencies, and for use by members of the scientific community. Throughout the year, ships routinely collected and transmitted weather data. Similarly, as NOAA participants in the Integrated Global Ocean Station System (IGOSS) service program, XBT observations were taken and either radioed or submitted in log form via mail. In addition, particulate and radionuclide samples were taken in cooperation with the Atomic Energy Commission, sediment samples were obtained for the Smithsonian Institution and observations were made of marine mammals

  9. Internationalisation Within Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    , the degree of internationalisation, measured on the basis of sea-oriented operations, differs from that measured according to land-oriented front-end marketing and sales activities. The purpose of this study is to further examine the internationalisation patterns of shipping lines. An examination...... of the front-end activities and the structures of leading container-shipping companies is conducted. The sales office networks of the sector’s 20 largest companies worldwide (by twenty-foot equivalent unit capacity) are analysed as key indicators. The numbers of sales offices are measured by analysing...... the websites of the sample (20 companies), as well as annual reports and other publicly available data sources. The findings show that not all shipping companies are international, by virtue of the industry. While it is difficult to observe differences in the overall patterns of the sales networks at a macro...

  10. High-spatiotemporal-resolution ship emission inventory of China based on AIS data in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Yue; Lang, Jianlei; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Xiurui; Zhao, Yuehua

    2017-12-31

    Ship exhaust emissions have been considered a significant source of air pollution, with adverse impacts on the global climate and human health. China, as one of the largest shipping countries, has long been in great need of in-depth analysis of ship emissions. This study for the first time developed a comprehensive national-scale ship emission inventory with 0.005°×0.005° resolution in China for 2014, using the bottom-up method based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data of the full year of 2014. The emission estimation involved 166,546 unique vessels observed from over 15billion AIS reports, covering OGVs (ocean-going vessels), CVs (coastal vessels) and RVs (river vessels). Results show that the total estimated ship emissions for China in 2014 were 1.1937×10 6 t (SO 2 ), 2.2084×10 6 t (NO X ), 1.807×10 5 t (PM 10 ), 1.665×10 5 t (PM 2.5 ), 1.116×10 5 t (HC), 2.419×10 5 t (CO), and 7.843×10 7 t (CO 2 , excluding RVs), respectively. OGVs were the main emission contributors, with proportions of 47%-74% of the emission totals for different species. Vessel type with the most emissions was container (~43.6%), followed by bulk carrier (~17.5%), oil tanker (~5.7%) and fishing ship (~4.9%). Monthly variations showed that emissions from transport vessels had a low point in February, while fishing ship presented two emission peaks in May and September. In terms of port clusters, ship emissions in BSA (Bohai Sea Area), YRD (Yangtze River Delta) and PRD (Pearl River Delta) accounted for ~13%, ~28% and ~17%, respectively, of the total emissions in China. On the contrast, the average emission intensities in PRD were the highest, followed by the YRD and BSA regions. The establishment of this high-spatiotemporal-resolution ship emission inventory fills the gap of national-scale ship emission inventory of China, and the corresponding ship emission characteristics are expected to provide certain reference significance for the management and control of the ship

  11. Estimates of fire environments in ship holds containing radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fire environments that occur on cargo ships differ significantly from the fire environments found in land transport. Cargo ships typically carry a large amount of flammable fuel for propulsion and shipboard power, and may transport large quantities of flammable cargo. As a result, sea mode transport accident records contain instances of long lasting and intense fires. Since Irradiated Nuclear Fuel (INF) casks are not carried on tankers with large flammable cargoes, most of these dramatic, long burning fires are not relevant threats, and transport studies must concentrate on those fires that are most likely to occur. By regulation, INF casks must be separated from flammable cargoes by a fire-resistant, liquid-tight partition. This makes a fire in an adjacent ship hold the most likely fire threat. The large size of a cargo ship relative to any spent nuclear fuel casks on board, however, may permit a severe, long lasting fire to occur with little or no thermal impact on the casks. Although some flammable materials such as shipping boxes or container floors may exist in the same hold with the cask, the amount of fuel available may not provide a significant threat to the massive transport casks used for radioactive materials. This shipboard fire situation differs significantly from the regulatory conditions specified in 10 CFR 71 for a fully engulfing pool fire. To learn more about the differences, a series of simple thermal analyses has been completed to estimate cask behavior in likely marine and land thermal accident situations. While the calculations are based on several conservative assumptions, and are only preliminary, they illustrate that casks are likely to heat much more slowly in shipboard hold fires than in an open pool fire. The calculations also reinforce the basic regulatory concept that for radioactive materials, the shipping cask, not the ship, is the primary protection barrier to consider

  12. Impact of Emissions from Commercial Shipping During TexAQS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E.; Lerner, B.; Murphy, P.

    2007-12-01

    Commercial marine vessels range in size from small fishing boats (20-30 meters in length) to extremely large container ships (over 300 meters in length). These ships almost without exception use diesel engines for propulsion and auxiliary power generation. The larger ships, comprising bulk carriers, tankers and container carriers, utilize diesel engines that produce power in the 10 MW to 100 MW range. These engines typically consume heavy fuel oils which are high in sulfur content (1%-4.5% by weight). These engines are also extremely efficient, converting essentially all of the carbon in the fuel to CO2, but also emitting NOx, CO, SO2, VOCs, and PM. During TexAQS 2006 our measurements on board the NOAA research ship Ronald H. Brown allowed us to characterize the emissions from a large number of commercial marine vessels. The measurements provided the means to calculate mass-based emission factors for many of the compounds noted above. With the information broadcast by these vessels over the Automated Information System, we have unequivocally determined the emission factors for over 200 vessels both at dock and underway. Our data largely confirm published average emission factors, but also show significant variability especially with NOx. This talk will present those results and then use the data to show that emissions of NOx and SO2 from these vessels are not negligible in the Houston-Galveston region.

  13. From tankers to tissues : tracking the degradation and fate of oil discharges in Port Valdez, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.R.; Braddock, J.F.; Bailey, J.; Ka'aihue, L.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Short, J.W.; Driskell, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    An average of 9 million gallons per day of oil-contaminated ballast water off loaded from tankers are treated at the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company Ballast Water Treatment Facility at the terminus of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline in Port Valdez, Alaska. This paper focuses on the results of 2 Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council monitoring programs which detail changes in the chemical composition of treated ballast water as it moves from tankers through the facility and subsequently traces the effluent hydrocarbons into the receiving environment of Port Valdez. The treatment facility involves gravity separation tanks, dissolved air flotation cells and biological treatment tanks. Effluent containing traces of volatile aromatics, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, low levels of oil, saturated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is being continuously discharged to Port Valdez. Because of the extremely large average flow rate, low concentrations in the effluent can add up to a significant mass discharge. Samples from the facility were collected on 3 occasions. In March 2004, a limited pilot series of composite samples were collected from the effluent and the effluent to Port Valdez from a sampling port in the Fan/Meter Building. Second-round samples were collected from a wider suite of locations. A BIORATE assay study was completed during September 2004 and January 2005 field programs to measure degradation rates. The largest hydrocarbon pollution sources detected in samples from Port Valdez stations are correlated with an oil spill mishap at the terminal in 1994 and a sheen event in 1997. Apart from these events, concentrations from petrogenic sources are usually near or below the detection limits of the analytic methods used. However, on a routine basis, oil signals attributed to the facility effluent are detectable in mussel tissues at both Alyeska Marine Terminal and Gold Creek stations, and in sediments at Alyeska

  14. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  15. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  16. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  17. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  18. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance...

  19. Options of ship discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Environmental performance is a key design consideration for manufacturers of bulk handling machines, not least ship unloaders, with features being introduced to minimise dust and noise pollution. The article reports on developments in grab unloaders, slewing grabcranes and mobile grabcranes by manufacturers such as Konecrane, EMS-Tech, Liebherr-Werk Nenzing and Gottwald. 2 photos.

  20. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  1. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  2. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  3. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  4. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  5. Utilisation of VOC in Diesel Engines. Ignition and combustion of VOC released in crude oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhus, Oeyvin

    2002-01-01

    The emission of VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) is a significant source of hydrocarbon pollution. In Norway, the offshore oil industry represents a major source. This emission represents both an energy loss and an environmental problem. Gas tankers have used boil-off gas from the cargo tanks as fuel for some time. However, for the current VOC project a new fuel injection concept is designed for tankers to take advantage of the energy present in the VOC evaporated from crude oil. The VOC is mixed with inert gas in these tankers, and thus the utilisation of this gas represents new challenges. The VOC project uses the concept of ''Condensate Diesel Process'' with pilot ignition. An experimental study of ignition and combustion of VOC Fuels reported here was initiated by the time it was decided to start a pilot project converting propulsion engines in shuttle tankers to use VOC Fuel. It is an experimental study carried out at the Marine Technology Centre (MTS). The objective was to study ignition and combustion of the chosen process in comparison with an ordinary diesel process. The experimental results have been discussed and compared with theoretical considerations of injection, ignition and combustion. For experiments on combustion, a rapid compression machine ''DyFo'' was redesigned to use VOC Fuel. The DyFo test rig was initially designed to study ignition and early combustion of spark ignited homogeneous gas/air charges. To study the ignition and early combustion of VOC Fuel injected at high pressure and ignited by pilot diesel fuel, a redesign was necessary. An important feature of the DyFo, is the visualisation of the combustion. The advantage of the DyFo test rig over an engine, is its simplicity and controllability. In an engine the visualisation would suffer from combustion deposits disturbing the view through the quartz glasses, making the images more difficult to interpret. The simplicity is on the other side a drawback. Correct thermal conditions inside

  6. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  7. High cost for drilling ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  8. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  9. SHIP CLASSIFICATION FROM MULTISPECTRAL VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Robert-Inacio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of a seaport can be achieved by different means: radar, sonar, cameras, radio communications and so on. Such a surveillance aims, on the one hand, to manage cargo and tanker traffic, and, on the other hand, to prevent terrorist attacks in sensitive areas. In this paper an application to video-surveillance of a seaport entrance is presented, and more particularly, the different steps enabling to classify mobile shapes. This classification is based on a parameter measuring the similarity degree between the shape under study and a set of reference shapes. The classification result describes the considered mobile in terms of shape and speed.

  10. EMP coupling to ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Cabayan, H.S.; Kunz, K.F.; Bevensee, R.M.; Martin, L.C.; Egbert, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  11. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  12. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  13. Were freak waves involved in the sinking of the Tanker "Prestige"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lechuga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possible involvement of freak, rogue or giant waves in the damage suffered by the Tanker Prestige, which eventually led to its sinking. By reason of their very characteristics, giant waves are hard to record. Their more or less sudden appearance makes them fairly elusive objects, except for the consequences they produce. However, some hints with regard to the probability of their occurrence can be derived from considering how close the maritime weather of the area of interest is to the situation which is optimal for their generation. This paper takes into account the wave field in the area and at the time of the Prestige accident and investigates how near or how far the wave field was to the instability conditions that are favourable to the generation of freak waves in the different approximations. This paper explores mostly the modulation instability which is one of the most common mechanisms to produce freak waves: it leads to the decomposition of an initially homogeneous train of Stokes waves firstly into a series of groups of waves, whose envelope then produces the so-called "solitons", that then collapse in the form of a giant wave. This mechanism mainly occurs in deep waters. Zakharov studied it in 1968 and, independently, Benjamin and Feir analysed it in 1967. This paper proves that the wave field was conspicuously two dimensional with two main wave components travelling in directions almost orthogonal to each other. This means that the wave field was well outside the instability domain. Therefore it is concluded that freak waves were very unlikely generated and it is improbable that they were responsible for the accident.

  14. The oil spill modelling in the Sea of Japan: application to the tanker 'Nakhodka' 1997 incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, S.M.; Yoon, J.-H.; Hirose, N.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    In January 1997 the Russian tanker 'NAKHODKA' spilled into the Sea of Japan about 5000 tons of heavy fuel oil type C. Most of it reached the coast of Japan and damaged the environment. This incident forced the development of the operational system for the prediction of oil spills in the Sea of Japan. As a part of this system the model for oil spill modelling is presented. The modelled climatological sea currents were used in these simulators, generated by the three-dimensional primitive ocean circulation model with 10-minute horizontal resolution and 19 vertical levels. The model was forced by climatological atmospheric winds and heat fluxes. The wind currents in the upper sea layer were estimated by the wind data of ECMWF with 6 hours time and 0.5625-degree spatial resolution. The vertical structure of the total currents was interpolated using both wind driven currents and the climatological model currents data at the model levels. The oil spill was modelled with the particle tracking techniques. The model included the advection by currents, random diffusion, the buoyancy effect and the parameterisation of oil evaporation, biodegradation and beaching. For the deep sea the parameterisation of diffusion depends from the stratification, taken from the ocean circulation model output. The results demonstrated the defined relation with the observed propagation of the oil along the coast of Japan and highlighted the most important directions for the model development. The main is the realisation of the model for the real-time simulations and forecasts of the ocean currents with the fine resolution in the upper layer of the Sea of Japan. (author)

  15. Simulating partially illegal markets of private tanker water providers on the country level: A multi-agent, hydroeconomic case-study of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.; Talozi, S.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.; Harou, J. J.; Mustafa, D.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Rajsekhar, D.; Avisse, N.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    In arid countries around the world, markets of private small-scale water providers, mostly delivering water via tanker trucks, have emerged to balance the shortcomings of public water supply systems. While these markets can provide substantial contributions to meeting customers' water demands, they often partially rely on illegal water abstractions, thus imposing an unregulated and unmonitored strain on ground and surface water resources. Despite their important impacts on water users' welfare and resource sustainability, these markets are still poorly understood. We use a multi-agent, hydroeconomic simulation model, developed as part of the Jordan Water Project, to investigate the role of these markets in a country-wide case-study of Jordan. Jordan's water sector is characterized by a severe and growing scarcity of water resources, high intermittency in the public water network, and a strongly increasing demand due to an unprecedented refugee crisis. The tanker water market serves an important role in providing water from rural wells to households and commercial enterprises, especially during supply interruptions. In order to overcome the lack of direct data about this partially illegal market, we simulate demand and supply for tanker water. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. A market algorithm is then used to match rural supplies with users' demands, accounting for survey data on tanker operators' transport costs and profit expectations. The model is used to gain insights into the size of the tanker markets in all 89 subdistricts of Jordan and their responsiveness to various policy

  16. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K; Aizawa, K; Yokoyama, M; Yoshikawa, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries LTD., 673-8666, Hyogo (Japan); Kimura, Y; Izumi, M [Tokyo University of Marine Science Technology, 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, K; Numano, M [National Maritime Research Institute, 181-0004, Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, K; Yamaguchi, M; Gocho, Y; Kosuge, E, E-mail: umemoto@ati.khi.co.j [Japan Super-conductivity Organization Co. LTD., 135-8533, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO{sub 2}, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research and development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  17. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  18. Privatization by Other Means: Social Power, Tankers and Techno-Assemblages of Water Supply in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, D.

    2016-12-01

    Combined piped and tanker based water supply systems have become a ubiquitous feature of urban waterscapes in the global South. Jordanian water sector, and Amman in particular has been a recipient of considerable international financial and technical assistance over the past decades. The international assistance has coupled with the Jordanian state's own pro-market ideological stance, and its political compulsions to spawn a techno-social assemblage of water supply that represents a hybrid state and commercial water supply system. I present the results of a field study in Amman, Jordan on water tankers and water users to understand the techno-political underpinnings of the hybrid system and its impact on differential access to water. I explore how Actor Network Theory (ANT) based analysis of tankers, suction pumps and piped water system and their materiality may explain differential access to water. But that exploration is inflected by a larger political ecological concern with questions of power and discourses about citizenship and claim making on the state. I find that ANT based focus on water technologies, while ontologically fertile, and epistemologically innovative, is nevertheless politically barren. Much richer political insights are to be gained from structural and post-structurally based investigations of the discursive and material drivers of the techno-social assemblages of water supply. The technologies don't just neutrally impact water access, but seem to almost intentionally favour the powerful over the powerless. Surely the political agency must not reside in inanimate technologies but in the social actors and structures that fashion those technologies, and configure them such to reinforce geographies of power. I call for a renewed focus on social power and how its impact on lived geographies is mediated by technology.

  19. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  20. Hospital Ship Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    serious contender. Although it is a proven hull design for stability, integrating the ability to quickly transfer patients aboard is challenging . The...Waste management afloat is a constant challenge for the Navy. It is even more so when designing a hospital ship. In addition to the typical waste...0.97 Optbrs: Corrmon rail fuellrijacllon,crude oil. Rated power generating sets 61:ili:ln()q;to~ 50Htl760rpm &.gne type -1801.\\ Vlc )l ~W.’/cyl SI;O k

  1. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  2. ERDC Ship/Tow Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Performing Advanced Hydrodynamic ModelingEngineers and ship pilots can now overcome the challenges of evaluating navigation channel designs, modifications and safety...

  3. The role of the water tankers market in water stressed semi-arid urban areas:Implications on water quality and economic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Kinda; Massoud, May; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-03-01

    Population growth and development are associated with increased water demand that often exceeds the capacity of existing resources, resulting in water shortages, particularly in urban areas, where more than 60% of the world's population resides. In many developing communities, shortages often force households to depend on water tankers amongst other potential sources for the delivery of water for domestic and/or potable use. While water tankers have become an integral part of the water supply system in many countries, the sector is often unregulated and operates with little governmental supervision. Users are invariably unaware of the origin or the quality of purchased water. In an effort to better assess this sector, a field survey of water vending wells and tankers coupled with a water quality sampling and analysis program was implemented in a pilot semi-arid urban area (Beirut, Lebanon) to shed light on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the water tanker sector. Total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride (Cl - ), and microbial loads exceeded drinking water quality standards. While TDS and Cl - levels were mostly due to saltwater intrusion in coastal wells, tankers were found to be a significant source of total coliforms. Delivered water costs varied depending on the tanker size, the quality of the distributed water, and pre-treatment used, with a markup of nearly 8-24 folds of the public water supply and an equivalent economic burden of 16% of the average household income excluding environmental externalities of water quality. The study concludes with a management framework towards consumer protection under integrated supply and demand side measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LNG, Competition and Security of Supply: the Role of Shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, S.; Mazzei, L.; Pontoni, F.; Sileo, A.

    2009-01-01

    suppliers portfolio. Increased possibilities of choice for importers, the widening of the group of exporting countries, and the increased integration of the European market, thanks to the possibility of redirecting cargoes depending on single countries' supply-demand balance, would contribute decisively to security of supply, market globalization and competition (between importers) in the industry (IEA, 2004). Yet, it must be stressed that import via tanker appears to be competitive with import via pipe only for the medium-long distances. As far as LNG chain is concerned, the element that so far has attracted the least attention, though being not less important than the other two, is certainly shipping. Being the link between the producing/exporting country and the importing country, and having been subject to major changes in the last few years, it is particularly interesting to analyze it singularly, aiming to understand how it is linked to the other elements of LNG value chain, besides studying industry dynamics. This paper will address this issue, aiming also to understand what has been and what will be in the future the evolutionary trajectory of this segment, starting from an analysis of operative and planned gas tankers, their size, their routes and their contractual situation. This analysis can be useful to make hypothesis about the growth of the spot market and, consequently, of market liquidity. [it

  5. Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klassert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 m3 per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 m3, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. A transition to more sustainable water consumption patterns will likely require Jordan’s water authorities to rely more strongly on water demand management in the future. We conduct a case study of the effects of pricing policies, using an agent-based model of household water consumption in Jordan’s capital Amman, in order to analyze the distribution of burdens imposed by demand-side policies across society. Amman’s households face highly intermittent piped water supply, leading them to supplement it with water from storage tanks and informal private tanker operators. Using a detailed data set of the distribution of supply durations across Amman, our model can derive the demand for additional tanker water. We find that integrating these different supply sources into our model causes demand-side policies to have strongly heterogeneous effects across districts and income groups. This highlights the importance of a disaggregated perspective on water policy impacts in order to identify and potentially mitigate excessive burdens.

  6. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  7. Luggage and shipped goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Haller, D.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: Purpose: Control of luggage and shipped goods are frequently carried out. The possibilities of X-ray technology shall be demonstrated. Materials and methods: There are different imaging techniques. The main concepts are transmission imaging, backscatter imaging, computed tomography, and dual energy imaging and the combination of different methods The images come from manufacturers and personal collections. Results: The search concerns mainly, weapons, explosives, and drugs; furthermore animals, and stolen goods, Special problems offer the control of letters and the detection of Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). Conclusion: One has to expect that controls will increase and that imaging with X-rays will have their part. Pattern recognition software will be used for analysis enforced by economy and by demand for higher efficiency - man and computer will produce more security than man alone

  8. Global Shipping Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    information please contact the Chairman, War Gaming Department, Naval War College, 686 Cushing Road, Newport, RI 02841 or via electronic mail at... Game ……………………………………………...9 c. Overarching Research Question……………………………………………..…10 d. Subsidiary Questions…………………………………………………………...10 e ...An e -SLOC is the “cyber network that supports the global maritime trade network.” Industry Global Shipping Game Report 27 experts felt that

  9. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José

    2014-01-01

    The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  10. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.L.R.; Llewelyn, G.I.W.; Farmer, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  11. Ship exhaust gas plume cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Neele, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    The exhaust gas plume is an important and sometimes dominating contributor to the infrared signature of ships. Suppression of the infrared ship signatures has been studied by TNO for the Royal Netherlands Navy over considerable time. This study deals with the suppression effects, which can be

  12. Navy Hospital ships in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougat Ray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital ships are operated by the Naval forces in or near war zones to provide medical assistance to the wounded personnel of all nationalities and not be used for any military purpose. Hospital ships possibly existed in ancient times and the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia. However, it was only during the 17th century that it became a common practice for the naval squadrons to be accompanied by large ships with the facilities of carrying the wounded after each engagement. In 1860, the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius were equipped with genuine medical facilities. They were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China. During the World War I and World War II, passenger ships were converted for use as hospital ships and were started to be used on a massive scale. RMS Aquitania and HMHS Britannic were two famous examples of hospital ships used extensively. Modern US hospital ships USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort are operated by Military Sealift Command of the US Navy. Their primary mission is to provide emergency on-site care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.

  13. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  14. Cybersecurity Framework for Ship Industrial Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Maule, R. William; Hake, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Ship mechanical and electrical control systems, and the communications grid through which these devices operate, are a high priority concern for Navy leadership. Ship systems use microprocessor-based controls to interface with physical objects, and Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) to automate ship electromechanical processes. Ship operations are completely dependent on these devices. The commercial security products upon which ships depend do not work on ICS, leaving ships vulnerable. Th...

  15. Containment of spills from ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  16. Ships and the Sailors Inside Them

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, Philip

    2004-01-01

    .... Iron shipbuilding allowed safer and healthier ships but their internal compartmentation created communication problems which were gradually solved with mechanical systems Ships developed their own...

  17. Optimization of work and rest hours for navigation officers on the ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simkuva H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the research as a whole is dedicated to studies of the work load of navigation officers and, consequently, is related to the current international research on the quality of working life. Issues of seafarers' working time are very topical because in recent years the load of navigation officers has significantly increased, either due to increase in shipping intensity, or in the context of the new international maritime law, for example, compliance with the requirements of the ISM CODE (International Management safety Code, THE ISPS (The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. Irregularities are observed in practice of the seafarers' working hours and rest hours, and even the mismatch, as presented in the port of inspection materials. This article is intended to assess the 2nd and 3rd Officer's load compliance with the regulatory enactments for the work and rest regime to develop proposals to load optimization. Load analysis of Navigation officers is based on international maritime regulations that determine the work and rest regime on ships STCW (The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, MLC (Maritime Labour Convention. In the article, concrete data is used from the research, which was conducted 18 months on the Handy type of tanker from July, 2012 till December, 2013 in the real time mode. In the article is also concrete data used from 340 survey respondents, which reflects the views of the navigation officers on violations of the work and rest regime on the ship and the fatigue issue.

  18. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  19. Neutrino physics with SHIP

    CERN Document Server

    van Herwijnen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    SHIP is a new general purpose fixed target facility, whose Technical Proposal has been recently reviewed by the CERN SPS Committee. It recommended that the experiment proceed further to a Comprehensive Design phase. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam extracted from the SPS will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2×1020 POT (Protons On Target) in 5 years. A dedicated detector, based on a long vacuum tank followed by a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c 2 . The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow to probe for the first time the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, and a range of couplings for which Baryogenesis and active neutrino masses could also be explained. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. ντ ...

  20. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  1. A review on the use of gas and steam turbine combined cycles as prime movers for large ships. Part I: Background and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the prospects of using combined cycles as prime movers for large ships, like, container ships, tankers and bulk carriers. The paper is divided into three parts of which this paper constitutes Part I. Here, the environmental and human health concerns of international shipping are outlined. The regulatory framework relevant for shipping and the design of combined cycles are discussed. In Part II, previous work and experience are reviewed, and an overview of the implications of introducing combined cycles as prime movers is included. In Part III, marine fuels are discussed and the pollutant emissions of gas turbines are compared with those of two-stroke, slow-speed diesel engines. Environmental effects of shipping include contributions to the formation of ground-level ozone, acidification, eutrophication and climate impact. Tightening environmental regulations limit the fuel sulphur content and pollutant emissions. For moderate live steam pressures, a vertical HRSG of drum-type mounted directly over the gas turbine, is suggested to be a viable configuration that minimizes ground floor and space requirements

  2. THESEUS - achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation; THESEUS - Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechsterreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompe, K.; Heuser, G.

    1996-03-01

    In spring 1990, the Federal German Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) commissioned the team from the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler-Benz, the Federal Road Research Institute (BASt) with the University of Cologne, Ellinghaus and TUeV Rheinland (project leader) to perform the research project `THESEUS` (the acronym THESEUS comes from the German `Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation`, which translates as `achieving maximum possible road transport tanker safety by means of experimental accident simulation`). Arting from an analysis of road transport tanker accidents, crash tests and overturn tests were performed and supplemented by investigations of road transport tanker components and accompanying complex calculations of the failure processes. Parallel to this, the static side-tilt stability of road transport tankers was determined on a tilting test platform. The causes of and constructive possibilities for avoiding overturning, which is the most common cause of accidents in which hazardous materials escape, wewre analysed in dynamic driving tests with supplementary computer simulation. Various measures for improving the safety of road transport tankers were determined and subjected to a cost-benefit analysis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie hat seit 1990 das Forschungsproject `THESEUS` (Tankfahrzeuge mit hoechst erreichbarer Sicherheit durch experimentelle Unfallsimulation) der Arbeitsgemeinschaft aus TUeV Rheinland (Federfuehrung), Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), DEKRA, Daimler Benz, Bundesanstalt fuer Strassenwesen (BASt), Universitaet Koeln und Ellinghaus gefoerdert. Ausgehend von der detaillierten Analyse von 231 Tankfahrzeugunfaellen wurden Tankfahrzeug-Crashversuche und Tankfahrzeug-Umsturzversuche durchgefuehrt. Diese Messungen an kompletten Fahrzeugen

  3. Reliability-based assessment of deteriorating ship-shaped offshore structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Uraga, Efren

    2009-11-15

    Floating production, storage and off loading ships, referred to as FPSOs, are hybrid structures in the sense that these vessels are ships being operated as offshore facilities. Production ships or FPSOs constitute an efficient solution for remote oil field locations due to their storage capacity of crude oil. Production ships are either tanker conversions or purpose-built vessels. Most of the applications of production ships are converted ocean-going oil tankers, of different ages, to operate in relatively benign environmental areas. Keeping in mind that merchant ships are usually dry-docked every fifth year for inspection, maintenance and repair (IMR) tasks, they are designed according to a more relaxed safety criteria compared to those normally applied for permanent offshore structures, in which the required IMR activities need to be carried out in-situ as they cannot be easily dry-docked. Moreover, ocean on-going ships may in principle avoid heavy weather conditions, whereas FPSOs are moored to a fixed location and could be exposed to harsher extreme conditions. Additionally, FPSOs are exposed to continuously varying still-water load effects, due to the permanent loading-off loading operations. These fundamental differences are even more important to recognize as most of the existing FPSOs around the globe are built based on converted hulls of oil tankers that have already operated during some years. This issue is particularly relevant for vessels whose service life need to be extended, as the deteriorating agents such as fatigue cracking and corrosion become more important. During the initial design of ship structures, the effects of fatigue and corrosion are accounted for separately. However, as the structure ages, the interaction between these two degrading agents increases, and thus such an interaction needs to be accounted for. Moreover, as the number of cracks in a hull structure increases with time, the likelihood of fracture occurrence in main structural

  4. Assessing the damage caused by the oil spill from the tanker Erika; Erika: elements d'evaluation des dommages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delache, X.; Erhard-Cassegrain, A

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999, France was faced with a large-scale marine and ecological disaster following the accident involving the oil tanker Erika which split in two before sinking off the coast of Brittany (western France). This disaster had significant impacts on the coastal environment, affecting 400 km of shoreline. Very different aspects need to be considered in order to assess the damage caused, for which suitable methodologies must be used. Expenditure incurred on emergency and remedial measures to prepare for the 2000 summer season can easily be identified. The main effect of the disaster was ecological: a wide variety of habitats and species, and in particular many protected areas were affected. In addition, economic activities were seriously disrupted, especially tourism, fishing and shellfish production. However, it is harder to assess the economic losses incurred since a large number of short-term and long-term factors were affected. (author)

  5. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  6. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  7. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and territories). Zika virus was first reported in Brazil in 2015 and subsequently spread across the Caribbean ... 11. Mouchtouri VA, Rudge JW. Legionnaires’ disease in hotels and passenger ships: a systematic review of evidence, ...

  8. Ship Repair Workflow Cost Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDevitt, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The effects of intermittent work patterns and funding on the costs of ship repair and maintenance were modeled for the San Diego region in 2002 for Supervisor of Shipbuilding and Repair (SUPSHIP) San Diego...

  9. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  10. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  11. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  12. Development of the nuclear ship MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Umeda, M.; Nawata, Y.; Sato, H.; Honami, M.; Nomura, T.; Ohashi, M.; Higashino, A.

    1989-01-01

    After the planned trial voyage (4700 MWD/MTU) of the nuclear ship MUTSU in 1990, her spent fuel assemblies, initially made of two types of enriched UO 2 (3.2wt% and 4.4wt%), will be transferred to the reprocessing plant soon after cooling down in the ship reactor for more than one year. For transportation, the MUTSU spent fuel shipping casks will be used. Prior to transportation to the reprocessing plant, the cooled spent fuel assemblies will be removed from the reactor to the shipping casks and housed at the spent fuel storage facility on site. In designing the MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask, considerations were given to make the leak-tightness and integrity of the cask confirmable during storage. The development of the cask and the storage function demonstration test were performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). One prototype cask for the storage demonstration test and licensed thirty-five casks were manufactured between 1987 and 1988

  13. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  14. Using new technology to keep oil shipping risks in check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The opening of a new crude of terminal at Primorsk on the Karelian Isthmus north of St. Petersburg at the beginning of 2002 win bring a new set of major environmental risks to the waters of the Gulf of Finland Kvaerner Masa-Yards has developed new technology ideally suited to ships using the new terminal. The company's double-hulled, 'double-acting tanker' concept and 'oblique icebreaker' represent a new generation of cost-effective solutions. The highly regulated nature of the domestic oil market in Russia makes exports an attractive option for local producers, as does the current high level of world crude prices. Oil production in Russia in 2000 increased by 6% compared to 1999, to 323 million tonnes, and exports rose by over 15%, to 143 million tonnes. Getting crude to the customer is becoming increasingly difficult, however. The capacity of the Bosporous to handle shipments from the Caspian has probably reached its current ceiling, of some 50 million t/a. Further north, a number of political and economic tensions surround Russia's pipelines through Latvia and Lithuania; and some 20 million t/a are already being exported by rail through Tallinn. Part of Russia's solution to this ongoing problem has been to launch construction of a new, green field terminal at Primorsk on the Karelian Isthmus between St. Petersburg and the Finnish-Russian border. The first stage of the terminal, capable of handling 12 million t/a, is expected to be completed by the beginning of 2002; the terminal's second stage, planned for completion later, will have a capacity of 40 million t/a. If the project comes to full fruition, the result will be one supertanker a day sailing down the Gulf of Finland past Helsinki. The Primorsk terminal brings with it a new set of risks. Central to these is the fact that the route to the terminal passes through shallow water and winds be- tween a number of islands in the nearby archipelago. Another major risk is associated with the difficult ice

  15. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachet, Y.; Vallette-Fontaine, M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  16. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get underway...

  17. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the str......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...... in collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull...

  18. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  19. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  20. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Koji; Kanbara, Takahisa; Watanabe, Masaharu

    1984-11-29

    To prevent enviromental contamination by radioactive materials from the inside of a ship a provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which is disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside.

  1. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  2. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  3. Quality management in shipping companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đergović Dragana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As international business becomes more competitive, companies are finding that they need to work more effectively to stay in business. Quality assurance has become very important to the majority of production and service companies with international activity. Shipping companies were also required to implement a quality management system. The huge importance of safety in maritime transport operations resulted in the International Safety Management Code (ISM Code by the International Maritime Organization. The general management system principles embodied by the maritime ISM Code and generics ISO standards, have enabled their complementary application in establishing a quality management system in shipping companies, within a safety management system as its subset.

  4. Treatment of bilge and oily drain water of tankers and current measures against combustible oil gas discharge; Tanker no biruji yudakusui shori oyobi kanensei sekiyu gas haishutsu taiskau no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agatsuma, Y.

    1996-07-25

    This paper describes the current actual conditions on treatment of bilge discharged from engine area and oily drain water from cargo area of tankers. Clean bilge among various bilges discharged from engine area such as vapor drain, fresh water, rainwater, seawater and condensed water is directly dumped into the sea after temporary storage in a clean tank. Oily bilge is produced mainly by mixing of clean bilge and leakage oil from main engines and various auxiliaries. Oily bilge is dumped into the sea under comparative monitoring of the bilge quality with the dumping standard by oil concentration monitoring and control equipment after the primary treatment in a treatment tank and the secondary treatment in a bilge separator. Oily drain water from cargo area contains water ballast for cargo oil tanks, wash water for tanks and lines, and bilge produced in pump room. The oily drain water is dumped under a specific condition. However, water ballast for specific ballast tanks is excluded from the oily drain water. 2 figs.

  5. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  6. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  7. Container for shipping dangerous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This container for shipping dangerous material is made by a cylindrical casing of austenitic stainless steel with rounded ends and walls of uniform thickness with welded joins, a tubular metal shock absorber fixed over each end of the casing, removable lugs fixed to the casing, optionally retainers for the material within the casing [fr

  8. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  9. Lifecycle Readiness and Ship Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    incidence of vomiting reported on military transport ships traveling across the Atlantic to vary from 8.5% to 22.1% on three crossings. Bruner (1955...Butterworth (pp. 455-471). Bruner , J. M. (1955). Seasickness in a destroyer escort squadron. United States Armed Forces Medical Journal, 6(4), 469-490

  10. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  11. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  12. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  13. Experiment in democracy: The citizen oversight council as a means of mitigating environmental impacts of terminal and tanker operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, P.; Sterling, S.; Gottehrer, S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, a handful of people from the small fishing community of Cordova, Alaska, coalesced around concern over the risks of oil-related pollution and oil spills in Prince William Sound posed by the trans-Alaska pipeline terminal and tanker operations in neighboring Valdez. The Cordova group sent an emissary to Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which operates the Valdez Marine Terminal on behalf of its seven oil company owners. The emissary asked Alyeska to consider forming a citizen group to advise Alyeska on environmental issues of local or regional concern. Alyeska listened but rejected the idea. In March 1989, the Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef. Alyeska's owners, acting principally at the behest of majority owner, British Petroleum, soon effected sweeping change in Alyeska's management. The change in management, with Jim Hermiller as president, produced a change in Alyeska's attitude toward the citizen advisory group proposal, and not long afterward Alyeska formed the Alyeska Citizen Advisory Committee. Over the next year that group evolved into what is now called the Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, or RCAC. The Prince William Sound Regional Citizens' Advisory Council is a national experiment in providing citizens a voice in corporate decisions that affect them and their communities. This paper recounts the story of RCAC's formation and evolution, the group's mission under both federal law and its contract with Alyeska, and the hallmarks of its achievements and challenges to date

  14. Health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during oil spillage from a Greek tanker "Tasman Spirit".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Rasheed, Shahzad; Meo, Imran Mu; Al-Saadi, Muslim M; Ghani, Hamza A; Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage in the sea water is a disaster for marine life and humans in the vicinity. The study aimed at investigating health complaints among subjects involved in oil cleanup operations during a spillage from a Greek oil tanker "Tasman Spirit". The project was conducted under the supervision of the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study concerned the respiratory and general health complaints in 50 apparently healthy, non-smoking male workers exposed to crude oil during oil cleanup operations. The exposed group was matched with a similar number of male, non-smoking controls. The health complaints were evaluated based on a comprehensive interview. The subjects involved in oil cleanup operations had significantly higher rates of health complaints including cough (38%), runny nose (36%), eye irritation/redness (32%), sore throat (28%), headache (28%), nausea (24%) and general illness (18%), compared to their matched controls. Air pollution due to crude oil spillage into sea water may cause respiratory and general health complaints in workers involved in oil cleanup operations.

  15. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudko, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is to provide the Navy with an affordable, small, multi-mission ship capable of independent, interdependent, and integrated operations inside the littorals...

  16. Facts about Noroviruses on Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cruise Tips for Healthy Cruising Related Resources Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ... 800-CDC-INFO ( 1-800-232-4636 ). Cruise Ship Inspection Scores & Information Inspection Scores Cruise Line Directory Green ...

  17. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  18. International climate policy : consequences for shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Mæstad, Ottar; Evensen, Annika Jaersen; Mathiesen, Lars; Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This report summarises the main results from the project Norwegian and international climate policy consequences for shipping. The aim of the project has been to shed light on how climate policies might affect shipping, both from the cost side and from the demand side. The project has been divided into three sub-projects, investigating the consequences of climate policies for 1. Optimal shipping operations and management 2. The competitiveness of shipping relative to land transport 3. The tra...

  19. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  20. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    , because it is simple, easy to implement and computationally efficient. Multiple many-core graphical processing units (GPUs) are used for parallel execution and the model is implemented using a combination of C/C++, CUDA and MPI. Two ship hydrodynamic cases are presented: Kriso Container Carrier at steady...

  1. Ship-to-Ship Radiocommunication Trial by Using Wireless LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Niwa

    2015-12-01

    In a former field radiocommunication trial, omni-directional antennas were used and a few hundred kbps throughput between two ships was measured, which was not enough for our research target (over 1Mbps. In order to get faster throughput, a field radiocommunication trial was carried out again with a few types of directional antennas and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and the throughput between two ships was measured simultaneously. As a result, multi-path (2-path model affected by the reflection of the sea surface was confirmed and also the characteristics of the directional antennas such as half-power angle were confirmed, but the measured throughput was fast enough to meet our expectation.

  2. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...... to create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  3. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the U.S... officer, of the shipping articles agreements, including any seaman's allotment agreement, required by 46 U...

  4. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the ECCN applicable to your item reads “ $ value” or “in $ value”, there is no shipping tolerance... is no shipping tolerance with respect to the number of units. However, the value of all of your... shipping tolerance on this license because the items are controlled by an ECCN where “$ value” is the...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...

  6. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or cigarette... same containers in which they were received from the factory. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C...

  7. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars are...

  8. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared in...

  9. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material is...

  10. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in accordance...

  11. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  12. Intelligent Prediction of Ship Maneuvering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents an idea of the intelligent ship maneuvering prediction system with the usage of neuroevolution. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of an autonomous control unit, created with artificial neural network. The control unit observes input signals and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of the system is to learn continuously and predict the values of a navigational parameters of the vessel after certain amount of time, regarding an influence of its environment. The result of a prediction may occur as a warning to navigator to aware him about incoming threat.

  13. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    .The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the proposed methods help...... take the container transportation times that can be realized in the network nor the number of transshipments into consideration. This is mainly because the optimization problem is based on other transportation networks where these constraints are not decisive to the quality of the network. Furthermore......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  14. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  15. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods...... of voyages for the same ship. The procedure has been applied to two ships that are identical, with the exception that one has a conventional propeller, whereas the other one is fitted with a high-efficiency propeller of the KAPPEL type. The results are obtained from a period of 2 years steaming for both...

  16. Naval Ship Database: Database Design, Implementation, and Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    ClassId Class identifier Name Ship name Pendant Ship pendant CommissionDate Ship commission date DecommissionDate Ship decommission date; NULL if still...active FlagshipId Ship Id of the ship Figure 3: Ship table definition Table 3: Ship table example rows Id Prefix ClassId Name Pendant ...computation if required. A bridged connection will allow computation analysis to be done in Matlab and allow the processed data to be imported back

  17. Numerical Analysis of the Unsteady Propeller Performance in the Ship Wake Modified By Different Wake Improvement Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugalski Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the summary of results of the numerical analysis of the unsteady propeller performance in the non-uniform ship wake modified by the different wake improvement devices. This analysis is performed using the lifting surface program DUNCAN for unsteady propeller analysis. Te object of the analysis is a 7000 ton chemical tanker, for which four different types of the wake improvement devices have been designed: two vortex generators, a pre-swirl stator, and a boundary layer alignment device. These produced five different cases of the ship wake structure: the original hull and hull equipped alternatively with four wake improvement devices. Two different propellers were analyzed in these five wake fields, one being the original reference propeller P0 and the other - a specially designed, optimized propeller P3. Te analyzed parameters were the pictures of unsteady cavitation on propeller blades, harmonics of pressure pulses generated by the cavitating propellers in the selected points and the fluctuating bearing forces on the propeller shaft. Some of the calculated cavitation phenomena were confronted with the experimental. Te objective of the calculations was to demonstrate the differences in the calculated unsteady propeller performance resulting from the application of different wake improvement devices. Te analysis and discussion of the results, together with the appropriate conclusions, are included in the paper.

  18. Automation of measurement of heights waves around a model ship; Mokeisen mawari no hako keisoku no jidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, M; Kato, M; Yanagida, F [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Trial fabrication and tests were performed on an instrument to automate measurement of heights of waves around a model ship. The currently used electric wave height measuring instrument takes long time for measurement, hence poor in efficiency. The method for processing optical images also has a problem in accuracy. Therefore, a computer controlled system was structured by using AC servo motors in driving the X and Y axes of a traverse equipment. Equipment was fabricated to automate the wave height measurement, in which four servo type wave height meters are installed on a moving rack in the lateral (Y-axial) direction so that wave heights to be measured by four meters can be measured automatically all at once. Wave heights can be measured continuously by moving the moving rack at a constant speed, verifying that wave shapes in longitudinal cross sections can be acquired by only one towing. Time required in the measurements using the instrument was 40 hours as a net time for fixed point measurement and 12 hours for continuous measurement, or 52 hours in total. On the other hand, the time may reach 240 hours for fixed point measurement when the conventional all-point manual traverse equipment is used. Enormous effects were obtained from automating the instrument. Collection of wave height data will continue also on tankers and other types of ships. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  20. Existing Design Trends for Tankers and Bulk Carriers - Design Changes for Improvement of the EEDI in the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Lützen, Marie

    To get an idea of the reduction in propulsion power and associated emissions by varying the speed and other ship design main parameters, a generic model for parameter studies has been developed. With only a few input parameters of which the maximum deadweight capacity is the primary one, a proposal...

  1. Ship Routing with Pickup and Delivery for a Maritime Oil Transportation System: MIP Model and Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius P. Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a ship routing problem with pickup and delivery and time windows for maritime oil transportation, motivated by the production and logistics activities of an oil company operating in the Brazilian coast. The transportation costs from offshore platforms to coastal terminals are an important issue in the search for operational excellence in the oil industry, involving operations that demand agile and effective decision support systems. This paper presents an optimization approach to address this problem, based on a mixed integer programming (MIP model and a novel and exploratory application of two tailor-made MIP heuristics, based on relax-and-fix and time decomposition procedures. The model minimizes fuel costs of a heterogeneous fleet of oil tankers and costs related to freighting contracts. The model also considers company-specific constraints for offshore oil transportation. Computational experiments based on the mathematical models and the related MIP heuristics are presented for a set of real data provided by the company, which confirm the potential of optimization-based methods to find good solutions for problems of moderate sizes.

  2. Solar Hybrid Hydrogen Production in Sunbelt and Shipping to Japan as a Liquid fuel of Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaura, Y.; Hasegawa, N.; Kaneko, H.; Utamura, M.; Katayama, Y.; Onozaki, M.; Hasuike, H.

    2006-01-01

    Solar hybrid methanol (SH-methanol) production (6000 t/day) from natural gas and coal using H 2 and O 2 gases, which are produced by electrolysis with solar thermal power (Tokyo Tech Beam-down concentration solar power generation with molten salt heat-storage system) at Sunbelt in Australia was studied from the economical view point. This system is the combined system of O 2 -burning coal gasification (C+1/2O 2 =CO), natural gas reforming by O 2 -partial oxidation (CH 4 + 1/2O 2 = CO + 2H 2 ), and water decomposition by electrolysis with solar thermal power (H 2 O = H 2 + 1/2O 2 ). In this production system, the SH-methanol is produced with zero CO 2 emission, shipped to Japan by oil tanker, and can be used as solar hybrid hydrogen in Japan for fuel cell. The solar hybrid methanol production cost of 24 yen/kg (58 US dollars bbl crude oil equivalent, April, 2006) is obtained with the solar power cost of the Tokyo Tech Beam-down solar concentration solar power generation with molten salt heat-storage. This cost is lower than the crude oil (67 US dollars bbl crude oil equivalent, April, 2006) and LPG (72 US dollars/ bbl crude oil equivalent, January, 2006). (authors)

  3. Optimization of air injection parameters toward optimum fuel saving effect for ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Air lubrication method is the most promising commercial strategy for the frictional drag reduction of ocean going vessels. Air bubbles are injected through the array of holes or the slots installed onto the flat bottom surface of vessel and a sufficient supply of air is required to ensure the formation of stable air layer by the by the coalescence of the bubbles. The air layer drag reduction becomes economically meaningful when the power gain through the drag reduction exceeds the pumping power consumption. In this study, a model ship of 50k medium range tanker is employed to investigate air lubrication method. The experiments were conducted in the 100m long towing tank facility at the Pusan National University. To create the effective air lubrication with lower air flow rate, various configurations including the layout of injection holes, employment of side fences and static trim have been tested. In the preliminary series of model tests, the maximum 18.13%(at 15kts) of reduction of model resistance was achieved. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) through GCRC-SOP (Grant No. 2011-0030013).

  4. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nautical school ship. 167.05-25 Section 167.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school...

  5. Anthropological Research in Light of Research-Ethics Review: Canadian Master's Theses, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoonaard, Will C; Connolly, Anita

    2006-06-01

    DESPITE CLAIMS THAT RESEARCH-ETHICS review is changing or discouraging social research, there are no studies that have tested this assumption. Examining Canadian Master's theses in anthropology between 1995 and 2004, this paper explores the extent to which the theses represent a change in number, topic, or methodology in relation to formal ethicsreview guidelines that came into force in Canada in 2001. ProQuest Digital Dissertations reveals that the number of theses has increased, and that there has not been a noticeable shift from research involving humans to research based on archival data, or theoretical or review theses. However, there has been a very significant increase in research that is called ethnography, but that relies exclusively on interviews. Possible reasons for the halving of percent of ethnographic or participantobservation research are explored.

  6. AFSC/ABL: Young of the year sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) voucher otoliths 1995-2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We studied young of the year sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria to collect basic life history information on their abundance, growth, and diet and to determine whether...

  7. Kala töötlemine : [andmeid aastatest 1995-2004] / Maarja Purik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purik, Maarja

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 49-52. Kalatöötlemise osatähtsus toiduainetööstuses moodustas 2004. a. 11,9% ja ekspordis 24,9%. Tabelid. Diagrammid

  8. Use of propofol for anesthesia in cats with primary hepatic lipidosis: 44 cases (1995-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Lysa P; Asakawa, Makoto; Erb, Hollis N

    2008-06-15

    OBJECTIVE-To determine morbidity and fatalities in cats with hepatic lipidosis that received propofol to facilitate placement of a feeding tube. STUDY DESIGN-Retrospective case series. ANIMALS-44 Cats with presumed primary hepatic lipidosis anesthetized for placement of a feeding tube. PROCEDURES-Medical records from January 1995 through December 2004 were reviewed to identify cats that matched the inclusion criteria (histologic confirmation of hepatic lipidosis, anesthetized for placement of feeding tube, complete intensive care unit [ICU] records, and recorded outcome). Data extracted included age, body weight, sex, anesthetic drugs, drug dosages, type of feeding tube, duration of anesthesia, number of hours in ICU, administration of blood products, and survival until discharge from ICU. RESULTS-44 Cats (21 females and 23 males) were included in the analysis. Age range was 3 to 15 years (median, 8 years), and body weight ranged from 1.8 to 9.0 kg (4.0 to 19.8 lb), with a median of 4.8 kg (10.6 lb). Twenty-seven cats were administered propofol. There was no significant association between the use of propofol or the dosage of propofol and any risk factor, need for blood products, number of hours in the ICU, or survival. There was no significant difference between cats that received propofol and cats that did not receive propofol with regard to interval until discharge from the ICU. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-The use of propofol did not increase morbidity or fatalities in cats with primary hepatic lipidosis. Thus, propofol can be used in these cats for placement of a feeding tube.

  9. From Bosnia to Baghdad: The Evolution of US Army Special Forces From 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    BIJELJINA (OPERATION JOINT FORGE)............................... 13 H . FROM JCO TO SR (OPERATION ALLIED FORCE)......................... 14 I. SPECIAL...would only work with and report on Serbian villages and “Bosniak teams” exclusively focusing their efforts upon Bosnian Muslim villages.25 H . FROM JCO...processing station. Ramadani , the Sefer faction leader, arrived the next day at the demobilization point with approximately 40 faction members, including

  10. Thermal burn and electrical injuries among electric utility workers, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, Tiffani A; Kelsh, Michael; Lu, Elizabeth T; Sahl, Jack D; Yager, Janice W

    2007-03-01

    This study describes the occurrence of work-related injuries from thermal-, electrical- and chemical-burns among electric utility workers. We describe injury trends by occupation, body part injured, age, sex, and circumstances surrounding the injury. This analysis includes all thermal, electric, and chemical injuries included in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Occupational Health and Safety Database (OHSD). There were a total of 872 thermal burn and electric shock injuries representing 3.7% of all injuries, but accounting for nearly 13% of all medical claim costs, second only to the medical costs associated with sprain- and strain-related injuries (38% of all injuries). The majority of burns involved less than 1 day off of work. The head, hands, and other upper extremities were the body parts most frequently injured by burns or electric shocks. For this industry, electric-related burns accounted for the largest percentage of burn injuries, 399 injuries (45.8%), followed by thermal/heat burns, 345 injuries (39.6%), and chemical burns, 51 injuries (5.8%). These injuries also represented a disproportionate number of fatalities; of the 24 deaths recorded in the database, contact with electric current or with temperature extremes was the source of seven of the fatalities. High-risk occupations included welders, line workers, electricians, meter readers, mechanics, maintenance workers, and plant and equipment operators.

  11. Sloshing Simulation of Three Types Tank Ship on Pitching and Heaving Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Djatmiko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of a ship, tanker / cargo hold specifically designed to distribute the load to be maintained safely. In a related IMO classification of LNG carrier, there are a wide variety of types of LNG tanks on ships. Are generally divided into two types, namely tank (Independent Self Supporting Tank and (Non Self Supporting Tanks. The tank-type variation will affect the characteristics of fluid motion that is inside the tank. Need for simulation of sloshing and analysis of the structure of the tank due to the force created by the load when the heaving and pitching. Sloshing the effect of the free movement of the fluid in the tank with the striking motion wall tank walls that can damage the walls of the tank. Type 1 tank is a tank octagonal (octogonal for membrane-type LNG carrier with dimensions of length 38 m width 39.17 m 14.5 m high side of the tank. Type 2 tank is a tank-shaped capsule with the long dimension of 26.6 m and a diameter of 10.5 m. Type 3 tank is rectangular tank (rectanguler with dimensions of length of 49.68 m, width 46.92 and 32.23 m high. Simulations conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD using ANSYS FLUENT software. From the simulation results concluded that the tank 1 to form (octogonal have a total pressure of 3013.99 Pa on the front wall with a height of 13.65 m from the base of the tank

  12. Development of nuclear powered ship in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The development of nuclear merchant ship in Japan was started in 1955 by the establishment of Nuclear Ship Study Group, and since then, the investigation, test and research on nuclear ships have been continued. As a result, a nuclear ocean observation and supply ship was designed for trial. Researches were carried out also in JAERI and Institute for Technical Research of Ships. Meanwhile, the nuclear icebreaker Lenin was completed in Soviet Union in 1959, the nuclear ship Savannah set out for maiden voyage in U.S. in 1962, and the construction of the nuclear ore carrier Otto Hahn was prepared in FRG. Japan Nuclear Ship Development Corp. was established in 1963, and started the design and construction of the first nuclear ship in Japan, Mutsu. The basic policy in the construction is the improvement of nuclear ship technology, the securing of safety, and the use of domestic technologies as far as possible. The progress of the design, construction and test of the Mutsu is described. Owing to the problem of radiation leak, the development of nuclear ships stagnated for a while, but the nuclear plant of the Mutsu demonstrated the expected performance in the functional test, land criticality test and zero output test, and it is expected that the bud of the independent development brought up so far can bear valuable fruit. The independent development of marine nuclear reactors should be continued by selecting the way most suitable to Japan. (Kako, I.)

  13. Characteristics of aerosol particles and trace gases in ship exhaust plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnick, F.; Diesch, J.; Borrmann, S.

    2011-12-01

    -sulfur fuel, the chemical submicron aerosol fraction is mainly composed of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) species. These include PAHs that are adsorbed onto the high number of ultrafine particles. Nevertheless, the chemical composition, typical particle sizes as well as emitted gaseous components vary substantially dependent on the engine or ship type, engine operation condition and fuel mixture. This results in cargo vessels compared to tankers, passenger ships and river boats being the largest polluters influencing the Elbe shipping lane areas by high amounts of NOx, SO2, CO2, PAH, BC and ultrafine particulate matter. The tropospheric ozone chemistry in this area is also substantially affected particularly due to the increasing number of Elbe-passing ships. As onshore regions can be influenced by aged shipping plumes, trajectory pathways and transportation times were examined. As a consequence of the plumes' aging, variations of the organic fraction of the mass spectral fingerprints were found. Eyring, V. et al. (2010), Atmospheric Environment, 44, 4735-4771.

  14. Analytical support management shipping company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Tarasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article to determine areas of improvement of the economic analysis of the shipping companies tested, allowing to identify the problems of organization and methods, which are as follows: lack of regulation of economic analysis, unregulated and methods of economic analysis, using methods such as coefficient method, absolute differences method relative differences groupings balance method, while as factor analysis and correlation are ignored. Proved that today the priority targets of management that should be subject to economic analysis are: analysis of the efficiency of the fleet; analysis of the efficiency of transport services; analysis of the cost of transport services and costs; analysis of the efficiency of resource use.

  15. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  16. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  17. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...

  18. Decommission of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateyama, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-powered ship 'MUTSU' was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  19. TMI-2 Core Shipping Preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, L.J.; Barkanic, R.J.; Conaway, W.T. II; Schmoker, D. S.; Post, Roy G.

    1988-01-01

    Shipping the damaged core from the Unit 2 reactor of Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station near Harrisburg, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, required development and implementation of a completely new spent fuel transportation system. This paper describes of the equipment developed, the planning and activities used to implement the hard-ware-systems into the facilities, and the planning involved in making the rail shipments. It also includes a summary of recommendations resulting from this experience. (author)

  20. Development of a nuclear ship safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A unique safety philosophy must be recognized and accepted as an integral part of the design and operation of a nuclear ship. For the nuclear powered ship, the ultimate safety of the reactor and therefore the crew and the environment lies with the safety of the ship itself. The basis for ship safety is its ability to navigate and survive the conditions or the environment in which it may find itself. The subject of traditional ship safety is examined along with its implication for reactor protection and safety. Concepts of reactor safety are also examined. These two philosophies are combined in a manner so as to provide a sound philosophy for the safety of nuclear ships, their crews, and the environment

  1. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  2. LNG shipping at 50, SIGTTO at 35 and GIIGNL at 43. A commemorative SIGTTO/GIIGNL publication 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corkhill, Mike; Harris, Syd; Clifton, Andrew; Wayne, Bill; Robin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Jointly sponsored by SIGTTO and GIIGNL, LNG Shipping at 50 is a celebration of the first half century of commercial LNG carrier and terminal operations. The publication also marks the 35. and 43. anniversaries of the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO) and the International Group of LNG Importers (GIIGNL), respectively. The two organisations and their memberships have done a sterling job of developing guidance on safe operations; promulgating industry best practice; and providing forums for the airing of concerns and discussion of topical issues. The exemplary safety record built up by the LNG shipping and terminal industry over the past five decades owes much to the central roles played by SIGTTO and GIIGNL. The LNG industry has an exceptional story to tell and LNG Shipping at 50 contributes to the telling of that story. The publication starts with a review of the early days to show how the industry developed the innovative solutions needed to ensure the safe transport of LNG by sea. The articles in this section then describe how these solutions were then continuously improved upon as more countries turned to seaborne natural gas imports to meet their energy needs. Pioneering people, ships, shipyards, containment systems, class societies and equipment suppliers are reviewed to highlight the key role they played in facilitating the safe and smooth operation of the LNG supply chain, including at the critical ship/shore interface. Safety is the No 1 priority in the LNG industry and the safety regime section of the magazine examines the cornerstones that underpin an unparalleled safety record. Quite aside from the IGC Code and the work of SIGTTO and GIIGNL, there are the contributions of class, training establishments, vetting programmes and escort tug services. LNG Shipping at 50's survey of progress to date is followed by a look at the many innovations introduced by the industry in more recent years, not least floating LNG

  3. On the collision protection of ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief survey of the literature extant on the collision protection of ships is presented herein. An examination of the characteristics of different energy-absorbing methods suggests that honeycomb structures provide an alternative to deck structures which are currently used to achieve the collision protection of ships. Various features of honeycomb panels are explored and a particular structural arrangement which utilizes both sides of a hull and incorporates honeycomb panels is proposed for the collision protection of a ship. (Auth.)

  4. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Shotaro; Takigami, Yoshio.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  5. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  6. Nuclear powered freight ships - safe and reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.C.

    1978-12-01

    The five nuclear-powered ships built in the world so far have entered over 100 ports in 14 countries about 1000 times in 15 years, during which there were no accidents endangering the safety of a ship. However, for the expansion of freight shipping with nuclear power, comprehensive international regulations for safety requirements, responsibility etc., are necessary. Although the NEA/IAEO symposium excluded economic questions on the safety of nuclear powered ships, the trends regarding further development in individual countries became clear

  7. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  8. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  9. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  10. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  11. International Standardization in the Design of "Shore to Ship" - Power Supply Systems of Ships in Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnapowicz, Dariusz; German-Galkin, Sergiej

    2018-03-01

    The decisive source of air pollution emissions in ports is the berthed ships. This is primarily caused by the work of ship's autonomous generator sets. One way of reducing the air pollution emissions in ports is the supply of ships from electricity inland system. The main problem connected with the power connection of ships to the inland network is caused by different values of levels and frequencies of voltages in these networks (in various countries) in relation to different values of levels and frequencies of voltages present in the ship's network. It is also important that the source power can range from a few hundred kW up to several MW. In order to realize a universal „Shore to Ship" system that allows the connection of ships to the electricity inland network, the international standardization is necessary. This article presents the current recommendations, standards and regulations for the design of „Shore to Ship" systems.

  12. Navy Ships: Turning Over Auxiliary Ship Operations to the Military Sealift Command Could Save Millions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... One additional multiproduct ship of a new class is currently under construction. The Navy has delegated operational control of 27 of these ships to MSC, the military's single manager for sealift, to better...

  13. Ship Technology Workshop Materials from Collaboration with Mexico to Reduce Emissions from Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 26, 2012, a ship technology seminar was held to provide Mexican stakeholders with information about some of the ship technologies needed to meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI and an ECA.

  14. Advanced ship systems condition monitoring for enhanced inspection, maintenance and decision making in ship operations

    OpenAIRE

    Lazakis, Iraklis; Dikis, Konstantinos; Michala, Anna Lito; Theotokatos, Gerasimos

    2016-01-01

    Structural and machinery failures in the day-to-day ship operations may lead to major accidents, endangering crew and\\ud passengers onboard, posing a threat to the environment, damaging the ship itself and having a great impact in terms of business\\ud losses. In this respect, this paper presents the INCASS (Inspection Capabilities for Enhanced Ship Safety) project which aims\\ud bringing an innovative solution to the ship inspection regime through the introduction of enhanced inspection of shi...

  15. Report of the Chief Inspector of Marine Accidents into the grounding of the tanker Sea Empress at Milford Haven between 15 and 21 February 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The motor tanker, Sea Empress, was loaded with cargo of 130,018 tonnes of light crude oil when she went aground while entering the harbour at Milford Haven in the United Kingdom on 15th February 1996. About 2,500 tonnes of crude oil were released from damaged cargo tanks when the vessel first grounded. In preparation for a lightening operation, the Sea Empress was first manoeuvred into deeper water then, on 17th February, turned in order to be re-anchored head to wind in the deteriorating weather conditions. Control was lost and the vessel grounded again. Over the next four days the tanker went aground on a number of occasions before being successfully re-floated, taken to a berth within the Haven and the remainder of the cargo discharged. A further 69,300 tonnes of oil were lost to the sea over the period of salvage. The initial grounding and the salvage operation are analysed. The cause of the initial grounding was found to be pilot error. In addition to the bad weather, the lack of tugs of sufficient power and manoeuvrability, and inadequate understanding of the local tidal currents have been identified as the factors which extended the time taken to carry out the salvage operation. Recommendations are made in the light of the findings. (UK)

  16. Viking FellowSHIP: Norwegian hydrogen ship on the right course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen-Aas, Kari

    2006-01-01

    In the future fuel cells will change the world of shipping's economical conditions, and environmental effects from this industry. A new model of a hydrogen fuelled ship was presented at the ONS exhibition in Stavanger 2006. The technology may revolutionize the shipping industry. A brief description of the project is presented (ml)

  17. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  18. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  19. 2013 Tanker Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  20. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which the...

  1. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall make...

  2. 46 CFR 173.051 - Public nautical school ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public nautical school ships. 173.051 Section 173.051 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.051 Public nautical school ships. Each public nautical school...

  3. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

  4. Impact analysis of shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Shipping casks are being used in the United States Department of Energy to transport irradiated experiments, reactor fuel, radioactive waste, etc. One of the critical requirements in shipping cask analysis is the necessity to withstand severe impact environments. It is still conventional to develop the design and to verify the design requirements by hand calculations. Full three dimensional computations of impact scenarios have been performed but they are too expensive and time consuming for design purposes. Typically, on the order of more than an hour of CRAY time is required for a detailed, three dimensional analysis. The paper describes how simpler two- and three-dimensional models can be used to provide an intermediate level of detail between full three dimensional finite element calculations and hand calculations. The regulation that is examined here is: 10 CFR-71.73 hypothetical accident conditions, free drop. Free drop for an accident condition of a Class I package (approximate weight of 22,000 lb) is defined as a 30 foot drop onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, striking the surface in a position for which maximum damage is expected. Three free drop scenarios are analyzed to assess the integrity of the cask when subjected to large bending and axial stresses. These three drop scenarios are: (1) a thirty foot axial drop on either end, (2) a thirty foot oblique angle drop with the cask having several different orientations from the vertical with impact on the top end cask corner, and (3) a thirty foot side drop with simultaneous impact on the strength of the various components that comprise the cask. The predicted levels of deformation and stresses in the cask will be used to assess the potential damage level. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  6. Mathematical Ship Modeling for Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the models for describing the motion of a ship in four degrees of freedom suitable for control applications. We present the hydrodynamic models of two ships: a container and a multi-role naval vessel. The models are based on experimental results in the four degrees...

  7. Some concepts of future nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic features of nuclear power generation are as follows: (1) Thermal energy can be continuously extracted for a long time without fuel feed, (2) Nuclear energy is suitable for generating huge power, (3) Oxygen is unnecessary for combustion of fuel, and (4) Unlike fossil fuel, nuclear power generation does not exhaust NOx, SOx, and CO 2 : it can be considered environmentally friendly. In view of these features, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute commissioned the Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) to survey what kinds of nuclear ship would be put to practical use in the near future. For this purpose, a research committee was organized in 1992 by the JSRA, and concluded its investigation in 1996. The main aim of this research was to clarify the requirements of ship performance as nuclear ships, and then to extract the technical issues of the marine reactor installed in nuclear ships to be solved. As a result of the survey, it was suggested that displacement-type large high-speed container ship would be one of the promising future nuclear merchant ships, and 6500 m deep-sea and 600 m undersea scientific research submersibles would be other promising nuclear special purpose ships. At the same time, various requirements of marine reactors, which are expected to be installed in these ships, were clarified mainly from the technical viewpoints. (author)

  8. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  9. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and

  10. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  11. Automatic temperature control method of shipping can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Kaoru.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of rapidly and accurately controlling the temperature of a shipping can, which is used upon shipping inspection for a nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a measured temperature value of the shipping can is converted to a gas pressure setting value in a jacket of the shipping can by conducting a predetermined logic calculation by using a fuzzy logic. A gas pressure control section compares the pressure setting value of a fuzzy estimation section and the measured value of the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can, and conducts air supply or exhaustion of the jacket gas so as to adjust the measured value with the setting value. These fuzzy estimation section and gas pressure control section control the gas pressure in the jacket of the shipping can to control the water level in the jacket. As a result, the temperature of the shipping can is controlled. With such procedures, since the water level in the jacket can be controlled directly and finely, temperature of the shipping can is automatically controlled rapidly and accurately compared with a conventional case. (I.S.)

  12. Underactuated ship tracking control : theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2001-01-01

    We consider complete state tracking feedback control of a ship having two controls, namely surge force and yaw moment. The ship model has similarities with chained form systems but cannot directly be transformed in chained form. In particular, the model has a drift vector field as opposed to the

  13. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  14. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  15. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  16. Spent fuel shipping cask sealing concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    In late 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requested the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) to provide a study which examined sealing concepts for application to spent fuel shipping casks. This request was approved, and assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). In the course of this study, discussions were held with personnel in the International Safeguards Community who were familiar with the shipping casks used in their States. A number of shipping casks were examined, and discussions were held with two shipping cask manufacturers in the US. As a result of these efforts, it was concluded that the shipping casks provided an extremely good containment, and that many of the existing casks can be effectively sealed by applying the seal to the cask closure bolts/nuts

  17. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  18. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  19. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of nuclear-powered ships in Japan broke down due to the radiation leak on the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' in 1974, and the objective has not yet been attained. The Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency was reorganized to advance the development of nuclear-powered ships and to develop marine nuclear reactors. Recently, various opinions have been expressed regarding the development of nuclear-powered ships and Mutsu, accordingly, it is necessary to clarify the way it should be. The Atomic Energy Commission organized this meeting to discuss the problem. The practical use of nuclear-powered ships is expected at the beginning of the 21st century, but it is only the guess. But it is important to accumulate the technology, knowledge and experience to prepare for the use of nuclear-powered ships. The continuation of the development of Mutsu is important for the future, and the construction of the new home port is unavoidable. The aim of the research and development, and the concrete way of advancing the research and development of Mutsu are discussed. It is scheduled that the Agency is integrated with other atomic energy organizations by March, 1985. The consideration to be given for implementing the integration is described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Nuclear fuel shipping inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Hada, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an nuclear fuel shipping inspection device having a high detection sensitivity and capable of obtaining highly reliable inspection results. Constitution: The present invention concerns a device for distinguishing a fuel assembly having failed fuel rods in LMFBR type reactors. Coolants in a fuel assembly to be inspected are collected by a sampling pipeway and transferred to a filter device. In the filter device, granular radioactive corrosion products (CP) in the coolants are captured, to reduce the background. The coolants, after being passed through the filter device, are transferred to an FP catching device and gamma-rays of iodine and cesium nuclides are measured in FP radiation measuring device. Subsequently, the coolants transferred to a degasing device to separate rare gas FP in the coolants from the liquid phase. In a case if rare gas fission products are detected by the radiation detector, it means that there is a failed fuel rod in the fuel assembly to be inspected. Since the CP and the soluble FP are separated and extracted for the radioactivity measurement, the reliability can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA) [fr

  2. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and artificial reefs. As the decision is a commercial one, the selection of a yard is predominantly based on the offer price, which depends on the location of the yard and the recycling process employed.Among...

  3. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  4. AIS Ship Traffic: Hawaii: 2011-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship position data from a satellite-based Automatic Identification System (AIS) were obtained jointly by PacIOOS (J. Potemra), SOEST/ORE of the University of Hawaii...

  5. Fuel exchanging machine for a nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Tetsuji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent atmospheric contaminations upon fuel exchange thereby keep the environmental circumstance clean in the periphery of the nuclear ship. Constitution: A nuclear reactor container is disposed to the inside of a containing vessel in the ship body and a shutter is mounted to the upper opening of the ship body. Further, a landing container having a bottom opening equipped with shutter for alingning the upper opening equipped with shuuter of the ship is elevatably suspended to the trolley of a crane by way of a wire rope and a winch, and a fuel exchange cask is elevatably disposed to the inside of the landing container. Further, airs in the inside of the container is adapted to be discharged externally through a filter by means of a blower and the inside is kept at a negative pressure. Thus, since the containing vessel is covered with the landing container upon fuel exchanging operation, atmospheric contamination can be prevented sufficiently. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Solvency and Liquidity in Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Yeo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the solvency of shipping firms. The paper uses a panel dataset and employs the GLM and FGLS regression analyses. This study explores the financial structure of top 130 shipping firms provided by the Factiva database during the period between 2009 and 2013. The paper finds that liquidity is closely related to the leverage of shipping companies. The negative association between the asset liquidity and the leverage level implies that there exist conflicts of interest between managers and investors. Shipping firms have a comfortable high liquidity position, but they have a high degree of leverage. They need to take steps to reduce debts. There is evidence of heterogeneity in the determinants of leverage level. The paper also finds that the variables such as profitability, FSIZE, FAGE influence differently the leverage level whether the debt is short-term or long-term.

  7. Review of ship slamming loads and responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Guedes Soares, C.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents an overview of studies of slamming on ship structures. This work focuses on the hull slamming, which is one of the most important types of slamming problems to be considered in the ship design process and the assessment of the ship safety. There are three main research aspects related to the hull slamming phenomenon, a) where and how often a slamming event occurs, b) slamming load prediction and c) structural response due to slamming loads. The approaches used in each aspect are reviewed and commented, together with the presentation of some typical results. The methodology, which combines the seakeeping analysis and slamming load prediction, is discussed for the global analysis of the hull slamming of a ship in waves. Some physical phenomena during the slamming event are discussed also. Recommendations for the future research and developments are made.

  8. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  9. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  10. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  11. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  12. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to study a cogeneration plant for combined heat & power (CHP production that utilises the low-temperature waste energy in the power plant of a Suezmax-size oil tanker for all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency and a CHP Plant with R245fa fluid using a supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC is selected. All the ship heat requirements can be covered by energy of organic fluid after expansion in the turbine, except feeder-booster heating. Hence, an additional quantity of working fluid may be heated using an after Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG directed to the feeder-booster module. An analysis of the obtained results shows that the steam turbine plant does not yield significant fuel savings. However, a CHP plant with R245fa fluid using supercritical ORC meets all of the demands for electrical energy and heat while burning only a small amount of additional fuel in HRSG at the main engine off-design operation.

  13. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-04-03

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  14. A Nonlinear Ship Manoeuvering Model: Identification and adaptive control with experiments for a model ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Skjetne

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete nonlinear dynamic manoeuvering models of ships, with numerical values, are hard to find in the literature. This paper presents a modeling, identification, and control design where the objective is to manoeuver a ship along desired paths at different velocities. Material from a variety of references have been used to describe the ship model, its difficulties, limitations, and possible simplifications for the purpose of automatic control design. The numerical values of the parameters in the model is identified in towing tests and adaptive manoeuvering experiments for a small ship in a marine control laboratory.

  15. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  16. Ship design methodologies of preliminary design

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with ship design and in particular with methodologies of the preliminary design of ships. The book is complemented by a basic bibliography and five appendices with useful updated charts for the selection of the main dimensions and other basic characteristics of different types of ships (Appendix A), the determination of hull form  from the data of systematic hull form series (Appendix B), the detailed description of the relational method for the preliminary estimation of ship weights (Appendix C), a brief review of the historical evolution of shipbuilding science and technology from the prehistoric era to date (Appendix D) and finally a historical review of regulatory developments of ship's damage stability to date (Appendix E).  The book can be used as textbook for ship design courses or as additional reading for university or college students of naval architecture courses and related disciplines; it may also serve as a reference book for naval architects, practicing engineers of rel...

  17. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  18. Automatic production planning for the construction of complex ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, C.D.

    2017-01-01

    European shipyards specialize in building complex ship types including offshore vessels, yachts, dredgers, and cruise ships. One key difference between these ships and the simple cargo ships typically built in the Far East is the amount and variety of mission-related equipment required to operate

  19. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  20. Computational methods for more fuel-efficient ship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koren, B.

    2008-01-01

    The flow of water around a ship powered by a combustion engine is a key factor in the ship's fuel consumption. The simulation of flow patterns around ship hulls is therefore an important aspect of ship design. While lengthy computations are required for such simulations, research by Jeroen Wackers

  1. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371.118 Section 1371.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause...

  2. 46 CFR 169.817 - Master to instruct ship's company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Master to instruct ship's company. 169.817 Section 169.817 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.817 Master to instruct ship's company. The master shall conduct drills and give instructions as necessary to insure that al...

  3. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a...

  4. Modelling ship operational reliability over a mission under regular inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christer, A.H.; Lee, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A ship is required to operate for a fixed mission period. Should a critical item of equipment fail at sea, the ship is subject to a costly event with potentially high risk to ship and crew. Given warning of a pending defect, the ship can try to return to port under its own power and thus attempt to

  5. 46 CFR Sec. 5 - Measures to protect ship's payrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures to protect ship's payrolls. Sec. 5 Section 5... SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 5 Measures to protect ship's payrolls. (a) General Agents are not required to consider the amount of the payroll delivered to the Master at the conclusion of a voyage in determining the...

  6. 32 CFR 700.872 - Ships and craft in drydock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ships and craft in drydock. 700.872 Section 700... Special Circumstances/ships in Naval Stations and Shipyards § 700.872 Ships and craft in drydock. (a) The... ship or craft, not in commission, is in a naval drydock, the provisions of this article shall apply...

  7. A building cost estimation method for inland ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkenberg, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is very little publicly available data about the building cost of inland ships, especially for ships that have dimensions that differ significantly from those of common ships. Also, no methods to determine the building cost of inland ships are described in literature. In this paper, a method

  8. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  9. Development of software for handling ship's pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in

  10. A Ship Cargo Hold Inspection Approach Using Laser Vision Systems

    OpenAIRE

    SHEN Yang; ZHAO Ning; LIU Haiwei; MI Chao

    2013-01-01

    Our paper represents a vision system based on the laser measurement system (LMS) for bulk ship inspection. The LMS scanner with 2-axis servo system is installed on the ship loader to build the shape of the ship. Then, a group of real-time image processing algorithms are implemented to compute the shape of the cargo hold, the inclination angle of the ship and the relative position between the ship loader and the cargo hold. Based on those computed inspection data of the ship, the ship loader c...

  11. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  12. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author)

  13. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  14. Analysis of ship maneuvering data from simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frette, V.; Kleppe, G.; Christensen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze complex manuevering histories of ships obtained from training sessions on bridge simulators. Advanced ships are used in fields like offshore oil exploration: dive support vessels, supply vessels, anchor handling vessels, tugs, cable layers, and multi-purpose vessels. Due to high demands from the operations carried out, these ships need to have very high maneuverability. This is achieved through a propulsion system with several thrusters, water jets, and rudders in addition to standard propellers. For some operations, like subsea maintenance, it is crucial that the ship accurately keeps a fixed position. Therefore, bridge systems usually incorporate equipment for Dynamic Positioning (DP). DP is a method to keep ships and semi submersible rigs in a fixed position using the propulsion systems instead of anchors. It may also be used for sailing a vessel from one position to another along a predefined route. Like an autopilot on an airplane, DP may operate without human involvement. The method relies on accurate determination of position from external reference systems like GPS, as well as a continuously adjusted mathematical model of the ship and external forces from wind, waves and currents. In a specific simulator exercise for offshore crews, a ship is to be taken up to an installation consisting of three nearby oil platforms connected by bridges (Frigg field, North Sea), where a subsea inspection is to be carried out. Due to the many degrees of freedom during maneuvering, including partly or full use of DP, the chosen routes vary significantly. In this poster we report preliminary results on representations of the complex maneuvering histories; representations that allow comparison between crew groups, and, possibly, sorting of the different strategic choices behind.

  15. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  16. Analysis of ship life cycles: the impact of economic cycles and ship inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the shipping industry's international legal framework, there are loopholes in the system, which can increase the risk of incidents with high economic costs due to the substandard operation of vessels. This article uses duration analysis and through the creation of ship life cycles provides

  17. Ship Acquisition of Shipping Companies by Sale & Purchase Activities for Sustainable Growth: Exploratory Fuzzy-AHP Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Sik Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening sale and purchase (S&P capacity has become a fundamental requirement for sustainable growth and corporate competitiveness in the modern shipping market. However, there is a lack of research related to S&P and its priority when shipping companies attempt to implement ship acquisition through S&P activities. To fill this gap, this paper conducts an empirical analysis to analyze priority factors during the acquisition of second-hand ships from the perspective of shipping companies. Business criteria are considered to be the most important factors in the analysis of the priority of ship acquisition and investment in shipping companies. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first exploration covering Korean shipping companies’ ship acquisition through S&P activities. This study is expected to contribute to the better understanding of the role of S&P in ensuring the sustainability of shipping companies and to provide stakeholders with valuable insights.

  18. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  19. An assessment of simplified methods to determine damage from ship-to-ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is studying the safety of shipping, radioactive materials (RAM) by sea, the SeaRAM project (McConnell, et al. 1995), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project is concerned with the potential effects of ship collisions and fires on onboard RAM packages. Existing methodologies are being assessed to determine their adequacy to predict the effect of ship collisions and fires on RAM packages and to estimate whether or not a given accident might lead to a release of radioactivity. The eventual goal is to develop a set of validated methods, which have been checked by comparison with test data and/or detailed finite element analyses, for predicting the consequences of ship collisions and fires. These methods could then be used to provide input for overall risk assessments of RAM sea transport. The emphasis of this paper is on methods for predicting- effects of ship collisions

  20. Radiative Forcing Over Ocean by Ship Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Wilcox, E.; Poudyal, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in surface albedo represent one of the main forcing agents that can counteract, to some extent, the positive forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Here, we report on enhanced ocean reflectance from ship wakes over the Pacific Ocean near the California coast, where we determined, based on airborne radiation measurements that ship wakes can increase reflected sunlight by more than 100%. We assessed the importance of this increase to climate forcing, where we estimated the global radiative forcing of ship wakes to be -0.00014 plus or minus 53% Watts per square meter assuming a global distribution of 32331 ships of size of greater than or equal to 100000 gross tonnage. The forcing is smaller than the forcing of aircraft contrails (-0.007 to +0.02 Watts per square meter), but considering that the global shipping fleet has rapidly grown in the last five decades and this trend is likely to continue because of the need of more inter-continental transportation as a result of economic globalization, we argue that the radiative forcing of wakes is expected to be increasingly important especially in harbors and coastal regions.

  1. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  2. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body......—the International Maritime Organization. Drawing on original empirical evidence and archival data, we introduce a four-factor framework to investigate two main questions: why is shipping lagging in its environmental governance; and what is the potential for the International Maritime Organization to orchestrate......, and growing regulatory fragmentation and uncertainty. The paper concludes with pragmatic recommendations for the International Maritime Organization to acknowledge the regulatory difficulties and seize the opportunity to orchestrate environmental progress....

  3. Report of nuclear powered ship meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The research and development of nuclear powered ships in Japan have been advanced centering around the Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency established in 1963. It is regretful that the development of ''Mutsu'' is largely behind the schedule due to the radiation leak in 1974, and the expected objective has not yet been attained even today. The government decided to advance the research on the improvement of marine nuclear reactors in 1980, and this new research function was given to the Agency by changing its organization. However, recently various arguments have arisen concerning the way of the research and development of nuclear ships in Japan centering around ''Mutsu'', such as the necessity of developing nuclear ships, the enormous expenditure for the development, the aging of ''Mutsu'' more than 10 years after the construction, the introduction of nuclear ship technology from foreign countries and so on. By the end of fiscal 1984, the Agency is expected to merge with other organization related to atomic energy, therefore, it is necessary to decide the way of research and development. This meeting organized by the Atomic Energy Commission makes this report to show the way of thinking about the above arguments. (Kako, I.)

  4. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  5. Ship information system: overview and research trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ship Information Systems (SISs have been one of the main research focuses in ship design and become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the SIS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of SIS. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research areas such as networking technology, information fusion, information decision, message display, ship control in real-time SISs. A Semi-Physical Simulation Platform (SPSIM designed for SIS research and its running effect through a new Fuzzy-PID fusion algorithm are introduced in this paper then. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included.

  6. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Landers, N.F.; Turner, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  7. The Two Regimes of Postwar Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Tenold, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the bargaining that accompanied the shift from the national regime to the competitive regime. Specifically, we show that the new regime primarily accommodated the interests of private actors such as shipping companies, rather than the interests of the authorities and the trade unions.......The aim of this article is to illustrate the most important changes in the regulatory framework of the shipping sector from the 1960s to 2010, and to analyse the basis for, and effects of, these changes. In order to explain how the transformation has occurred, we use two traditional maritime...... nations—Denmark and Norway—as case studies. First, we introduce the two regimes of Danish and Norwegian shipping: ‘the national regime’ from the early 1960s to the mid-1970s; and ‘the competitive regime’, which was fully established by the middle of the 1990s and still persists. Then, we briefly sketch...

  8. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  9. Malaria infections in crews of Japanese ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, M; Shimizu, K; Nagano, M; Ishii, M

    2001-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the most dangerous infection for seafarers in West Africa. In December 1998, five cases of this infection occurred among Japanese seafarers in West Africa, two of them died, one on board ship, and another died five days after the admission to the hospital in Reunion island, East Africa. Six other cases of falciparum malaria infection occurred among Japanese seafarers on another ship in December 1999. Three infected persons were admitted to hospitals in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and Point Noire (Congo). In Japan, over 100 cases of imported malaria were recorded each year during the period from 1990 to 1997, and about 40% of these cases were falciparum infections. It is not known how many of them occurred among seafarers. We estimate that at least 5% of all malaria cases in Japan are seafarers. Measures to protect crews of ships against malaria are discussed.

  10. Applicabilities of ship emission reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guleryuz, Adem [ARGEMAN Research Group, Marine Division (Turkey)], email: ademg@argeman.org; Kilic, Alper [Istanbul Technical University, Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: enviromarineacademic@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Ships, with their high consumption of fossil fuels to power their engines, are significant air polluters. Emission reduction methods therefore need to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each emissions reduction method. Benefits of the different methods are compared, with their disadvantages and requirements, to determine the applicability of such solutions. The methods studied herein are direct water injection, humid air motor, sea water scrubbing, diesel particulate filter, selected catalytic reduction, design of engine components, exhaust gas recirculation and engine replacement. Results of the study showed that the usefulness of each emissions reduction method depends on the particular case and that an evaluation should be carried out for each ship. This study pointed out that methods to reduce ship emissions are available but that their applicability depends on each case.

  11. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter....... As part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action...

  12. Network Design Models for Container Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund

    This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...... is included in the calculation of the capacity and that a inhomogeneous fleet is modeled. The model also includes the cost of transshipment which is one of the major cost for the shipping companies. The concept of pseudo simple routes is introduced to expand the set of feasible routes. The linearization...

  13. Code of safety for nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Code is in chapters, entitled: general (including general safety principles and principles of risk acceptance); design criteria and conditions; ship design, construction and equipment; nuclear steam supply system; machinery and electrical installations; radiation safety (including radiological protection design; protection of persons; dosimetry; radioactive waste management); operation (including emergency operation procedures); surveys. Appendices cover: sinking velocity calculations; seaway loads depending on service periods; safety assessment; limiting dose-equivalent rates for different areas and spaces; quality assurance programme; application of single failure criterion. Initial application of the Code is restricted to conventional types of ships propelled by nuclear propulsion plants with pressurized light water type reactors. (U.K.)

  14. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  15. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, Veronika; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berntsen, Terje; Collins, William J.; Corbett, James J.; Endresen, Oyvind; Grainger, Roy G.; Moldanova, Jana; Schlager, Hans; Stevenson, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of exhaust gases and particles from oceangoing ships are a significant and growing contributor to the total emissions from the transportation sector. We present an assessment of the contribution of gaseous and particulate emissions from oceangoing shipping to anthropogenic emissions and air quality. We also assess the degradation in human health and climate change created by these emissions. Regulating ship emissions requires comprehensive knowledge of current fuel consumption and emissions, understanding of their impact on atmospheric composition and climate, and projections of potential future evolutions and mitigation options. Nearly 70% of ship emissions occur within 400 km of coastlines, causing air quality problems through the formation of ground-level ozone, sulphur emissions and particulate matter in coastal areas and harbours with heavy traffic. Furthermore, ozone and aerosol precursor emissions as well as their derivative species from ships may be transported in the atmosphere over several hundreds of kilometres, and thus contribute to air quality problems further inland, even though they are emitted at sea. In addition, ship emissions impact climate. Recent studies indicate that the cooling due to altered clouds far outweighs the warming effects from greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) or ozone from shipping, overall causing a negative present-day radiative forcing (RF). Current efforts to reduce sulphur and other pollutants from shipping may modify this. However, given the short residence time of sulphate compared to CO 2, the climate response from sulphate is of the order decades while that of CO 2 is centuries. The climatic trade-off between positive and negative radiative forcing is still a topic of scientific research, but from what is currently known, a simple cancellation of global mean forcing components is potentially inappropriate and a more comprehensive assessment metric is required. The CO 2 equivalent emissions using

  16. Superconducting DC homopolar motors for ship propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiberger, M.; Reed, M.R.; Creedon, W.P.; O' Hea, B.J. [General Atomic (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Superconducting DC homopolar motors have undergone recent advances in technology, warranting serious consideration of their use for ship propulsion. Homopolar motor propulsion is now practical because of two key technology developments: cryogen-free superconducting refrigeration and high performance motor fiber brushes. These compact motors are ideal for podded applications, where reduced drag and fuel consumption are predicted. In addition, the simple DC motor controller is more efficient and reliable compared with AC motor controllers. Military ships also benefit from increased stealth implicit in homopolar DC excitation, which also allows the option for direct hull or pod mounting. (authors)

  17. Probabilistic Damage Stability Calculations for Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide background material for the present probabilistic damage stability rules fro dry cargo ships.The formulas for the damage statistics are derived and shortcomings as well as possible improvements are discussed. The advantage of the definiton of fictitious...... compartments in the formulation of a computer-based general procedure for probabilistic damaged stability assessment is shown. Some comments are given on the current state of knowledge on the ship survivability in damaged conditions. Finally, problems regarding proper account of water ingress through openings...

  18. Load and Global Response of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    The present monograph covers wave load and global structural response for ships. It is primary written as a textbook for students with an introductionary background in naval architecture and a basic knowledge of statistics and strength of materials. The subjects are treated in details starting from...... first principles. The aim has been to derive and present the necessary theoretical framework for predicting the extreme loads and the corresponding hull girder stresses the ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime.Although some account is given to reliabiity analysis, the present...

  19. Nuclear shipping and waste disposal cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R. II.

    1977-11-01

    Cost estimates for the shipping of spent fuel from the reactor, shipping of waste from the reprocessing plant, and disposal of reprocessing plant wastes have been made for five reactor types. The reactors considered are the light-water reactor (LWR), the mixed-oxide-fueled light-water reactor (MOX), the Canadian deuterium-uranium reactor (CANDU), the fast breeder reactor (FBR), and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). In addition to the cost estimates, this report provides details on the bases and assumptions used to develop the cost estimates

  20. Time constrained liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    We present a mathematical model and a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem. The model takes into account coordination between vessels and transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. The solution method is an improvement heuristic, where an integer program is solved...... iteratively to perform moves in a large neighborhood search. Our improvement heuristic is applicable as a real-time decision support tool for a liner shipping company. It can be used to find improvements to the network when evaluating changes in operating conditions or testing different scenarios...

  1. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  2. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...

  3. Prototypic fabrication of TRIGA irradiated fuel shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.K.; Lee, Y.W.; Whang, C.K.; Lee, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    This is the safety analysis report on the prototypic fabrication of ''TRIGA Irradiated Fuel Shipping Cask'' conducted by KAERI in 1980. The results of the evaluation show that the shipping cask is in compliance with the applicable regulation for the normal conditions of transport as well as hypothetical accident conditions. The prototypic fabrication of the shipping cask (type B) was carried out for the first time in Korea after getting technical experience from fabrication of the ''TRIGA Spent Fuel Shipping Cask'' and ''the KO-RI Unit 1 surveillance capsule shipping cask'' in 1979. This report contains structural evaluation, thermal evaluation, shielding, criticality, quality assurance, and handling procedures of the shipping cask

  4. Challenges to Ship Hydrodynamics in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Kobylinski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of twenty-first century is characterized with important changes in world shipping and exploitation of ocean resources. Three important trends are clearly visible: environment protection, safety and economy. They materialize in important changes in the structure of world fleet where some existing ship types are going to disappear and new ship types emerge. Increasing the size of some ship types is another visible tendency. Stress on environment protection has serious impact on the hydrodynamic characteristics of ships whether with regard to safety zero accident rate is the goal. Important challenges to ship hydrodynamics caused by those tendencies are discussed in the paper.

  5. Carrier portfolio management for shipping seasonal products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal

  6. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  7. Statistical modelling for ship propulsion efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jóan Petur; Jacobsen, Daniel J.; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a state-of-the-art systems approach to statistical modelling of fuel efficiency in ship propulsion, and also a novel and publicly available data set of high quality sensory data. Two statistical model approaches are investigated and compared: artificial neural networks...

  8. Flooding and sinking of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettnin, H.K.J.; Wehowsky, P.

    1978-01-01

    In contrast to land-based power plants for ship reactors the marine environment brings up the peril of sinking. But this peril is low for nuclear ships with its high safety standard. An evaluation of casualties from 1964 - 1974 for ships>8000 GRT allows to estimate a very low sink probability for nuclear ships in the range of 10 -7 to 10 -8 p.a. In spite of this low probability a sinking cannot be excluded absolutely. Therefore passive means must be provided for sinking in deep waters: to maintain the integrity of at least one enclosure as activity barrier; to supply seawater into the safety containment for decay heat removal. For sinking in shallow waters and flooding at least one of the redundant decay heat removal systems including power supply stays operable. A mathematical tool is available for the design of flood openings of sufficient cross sections to flood the containment and to reach a pressure balance in case of postulated sinking in deep waters of any depth

  9. Reconfigurable Control of a Ship Propulsion Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    1998-01-01

    -tolerant control is a fairly new area. Thise paper presents a ship propulsion system as a benchmark that should be useful as a platform for the development of new ideas and a comparison of methods. The benchmark has two main elements. One is the development of efficient FDI algorithms, and the other...

  10. Trace of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' required the long period of about 30 years from 1963 to 1992. When this period is looked back, it is roughly divided into the period from the initial planning to the construction, the period of the power increase test and the occurrence of radiation leak, the period of the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup as the countermeasures, the period of the checkup and maintenance based on the new research plan, the period of the power increase test and the sea trial, and the period of the experimental voyage after the completion. The course of the development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' is shown. The design of Mutsu, the incidental land facilities for Mutsu, the power increase test and the experimental voyage of Mutsu, the law system for nuclear powered ships, the research and development of an improved marine nuclear reactor and the development of nuclear powered ships in the world are reported. Nuclear powered warships are operated in USA, USSR, UK, France and China. (K.I.)

  11. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive...

  12. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    is to tune the ship to have rigid body resonance, or close to it, and resist that motion to absorb power. A hydraulic ramp connected to an accumulator feeding a hydraulic motor that generates power is one possibility. Several other energy extraction mechanisms such as turbines connected to oscillating water...

  13. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Video Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During each NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer field season, full-resolution video in a ProRes 422 format at a bitrate of 145 Mbps is produced during each deployment of the...

  14. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  15. Detection of Parametric Roll on Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    phenomenon could make the navigator change ship’s speed and heading, and these remedial actions could make the vessel escape the bifurcation. This chapter proposes non-parametric methods to detect the onset of parametric roll resonance. Theoretical conditions for parametric resonance are re...... on experimental data from towing tank tests and data from a container ship passing an Atlantic storm....

  16. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...

  17. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  18. PARTICIPATION BASED MODEL OF SHIP CREW MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Bielić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 This paper analyse the participation - based model on board the ship as possibly optimal leadership model existing in the shipping industry with accent on decision - making process. In the paper authors have tried to define master’s behaviour model and management style identifying drawbacks and disadvantages of vertical, pyramidal organization with master on the top. Paper describes efficiency of decision making within team organization and optimization of a ship’s organisation by introducing teamwork on board the ship. Three examples of the ship’s accidents are studied and evaluated through “Leader - participation” model. The model of participation based management as a model of the teamwork has been applied in studying the cause - and - effect of accidents with the critical review of the communication and managing the human resources on a ship. The results have showed that the cause of all three accidents is the autocratic behaviour of the leaders and lack of communication within teams. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  19. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  20. Automated intelligent video surveillance system for ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai; Nguyen, Hieu; Ramu, Prakash; Raju, Chaitanya; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    To protect naval and commercial ships from attack by terrorists and pirates, it is important to have automatic surveillance systems able to detect, identify, track and alert the crew on small watercrafts that might pursue malicious intentions, while ruling out non-threat entities. Radar systems have limitations on the minimum detectable range and lack high-level classification power. In this paper, we present an innovative Automated Intelligent Video Surveillance System for Ships (AIVS3) as a vision-based solution for ship security. Capitalizing on advanced computer vision algorithms and practical machine learning methodologies, the developed AIVS3 is not only capable of efficiently and robustly detecting, classifying, and tracking various maritime targets, but also able to fuse heterogeneous target information to interpret scene activities, associate targets with levels of threat, and issue the corresponding alerts/recommendations to the man-in- the-loop (MITL). AIVS3 has been tested in various maritime scenarios and shown accurate and effective threat detection performance. By reducing the reliance on human eyes to monitor cluttered scenes, AIVS3 will save the manpower while increasing the accuracy in detection and identification of asymmetric attacks for ship protection.

  1. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  2. EX1101: Ship Shakedown and Patch Tests on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer (EM302)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project will involve the shakedown of all Okeanos Explorer ship capabilities and a patch test of the Kongsberg EM302 multibeam system. Operations for this...

  3. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguí luz, Victor M.; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant

  4. Virtual Ship Architecture Description Document Issue 1.00

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best, John

    2000-01-01

    The Virtual Ship concept calls for simulation models of systems to be brought together to create a virtual representation of a warship, in a process analogous to the construction of a physical ship...

  5. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  6. Ship Track for Lost City 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Lost City 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of...

  7. Protection of Shipping: A Forgotten Mission with Many New Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grubb, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    ..." mission status, often leading to devastating losses of shipping when war came. Today, the protection of shipping mission still finds itself behind more high-profile missions such as strike warfare and ballistic missile defense...

  8. The investigation of ship maneuvering with hydrodynamic effects between ships in curved narrow channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic interaction between two large vessels can't be neglected when two large vessels are closed to each other in restricted waterways such as in a harbor or narrow channel. This paper is mainly concerned with the ship maneuvering motion based on the hydrodynamic interaction effects between two large vessels moving each other in curved narrow channel. In this research, the characteristic features of the hydrodynamic interaction forces between two large vessels are described and illustrated, and the effects of velocity ratio and the spacing between two vessels are summarized and discussed. Also, the Inchon outer harbor area through the PALMI island channel in Korea was selected, and the ship maneuvering simulation was carried out to propose an appropriate safe speed and distance between two ships, which is required to avoid sea accident in confined waters. From the inspection of this investigation, it indicates the following result. Under the condition of SP12≤0.5L, it may encounter a dangerous tendency of grounding or collision due to the combined effect of the interaction between ships and external forces. Also considering the interaction and wind effect as a parameter, an overtaken and overtaking vessel in narrow channel can navigate while keeping its own original course under the following conditions; the lateral separation between two ships is about kept at 0.6 times of ship length and 15 degrees of range in maximum rudder angle. On the other hand, two ships while overtaking in curved narrow channel such as Inchon outer harbor in Korea should be navigated under the following conditions; SP12 is about kept at 1.0 times of ship length and the wind velocity should not be stronger than 10 m/s.

  9. Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lian-en

    1984-01-01

    Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water: An attempt is made to obtain shallow-water optimal ship forms for total resistance by means of "tent" function representation under the constraints that the main dimensions of the ship and the water-line area were kept constant. The objective function in the quadratic programming is the sum of wave-making resistance calculated by Sretenski's formula and viscou...

  10. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the Safety..., “RTCM Standard 11020.0—Ship Security Alert Systems (SSAS) using the Cospas-Sarsat System,” Version 1.0...

  11. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  12. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk; Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  13. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  14. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's...

  15. Econometric analysis of ship life cycles - are safety inspections effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDue to the shipping industry’s international legal framework and the existence of loopholes in the system, an estimated 5-10 percent of substandard ships exist which are more likely to have incidents with high economic cost. This article uses ship life cycles to provide insight into

  16. 47 CFR 80.59 - Compulsory ship inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory ship inspections. 80.59 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.59 Compulsory ship inspections. (a) Inspection of ships subject to the Communications Act or the Safety Convention. (1) The FCC will not normally...

  17. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than...

  18. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The route specified on the Certificate of Inspection and the SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  19. A Mathematical Model for Analysis on Ships Collision Avoidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study develops a mathematical model for analysis on collision avoidance of ships. The obtained model provides information on the quantitative effect of the ship's engine's response and the applied reversing force on separation distance and stopping abilities of the ships. Appropriate evasive maneuvers require the ...

  20. 47 CFR 80.1099 - Ship sources of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship sources of energy. 80.1099 Section 80.1099... Stations § 80.1099 Ship sources of energy. (a) There must be available at all times, while the ship is at... batteries used as part of a reserve source of energy for the radio installations. (b) A reserve source of...

  1. Effect of ship motion on spinal loading during manual lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Delleman, N.; Dieën, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ship motion on peak spinal loading during lifting. All measurements were done on a ship at sea. In 1-min trials, which were repeated over a wide range of sailing conditions, subjects lifted an 18 kg box five times. Ship motion, whole body kinematics, ground

  2. 48 CFR 47.305-16 - Shipping characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping characteristics... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-16 Shipping characteristics... shipments of agreed size. (b) Guaranteed shipping characteristics. (1) The contracting officer shall insert...

  3. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, K.F.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Tournadre, J.

    2015-01-01

    Weaddress the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived shipNOx emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based onOMI observed troposphericNO2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European shipNOx

  4. Ship-Track Models Based on Poisson-Distributed Port-Departure Times

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heitmeyer, Richard

    2006-01-01

    ... of those ships, and their nominal speeds. The probability law assumes that the ship departure times are Poisson-distributed with a time-varying departure rate and that the ship speeds and ship routes are statistically independent...

  5. Technique for ship/wake detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskovensky, John K [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-01

    An automated ship detection technique includes accessing data associated with an image of a portion of Earth. The data includes reflectance values. A first portion of pixels within the image are masked with a cloud and land mask based on spectral flatness of the reflectance values associated with the pixels. A given pixel selected from the first portion of pixels is unmasked when a threshold number of localized pixels surrounding the given pixel are not masked by the cloud and land mask. A spatial variability image is generated based on spatial derivatives of the reflectance values of the pixels which remain unmasked by the cloud and land mask. The spatial variability image is thresholded to identify one or more regions within the image as possible ship detection regions.

  6. Indirect Encoding in Neuroevolutionary Ship Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for artificial intelligence methods used in the neuroevolutionary ship maneuvering system. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of a group of artificial helmsmen - autonomous control units, created with an artificial neural network. The helmsman observes input signals derived form an enfironment and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of this project is to evolve a population of helmsmen with indirect encoding and compare results of simulation with direct encoding method.

  7. Application of fuel cells in surface ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, C.; Nietsch, T.; Griffiths, D.; Morley, J.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a DTI supported project entitled: ''Applications of fuel cells in surface ships''. It gives a brief market analysis describing the general requirements of different vessel types and an overview of the different heat engine technologies currently used for propulsion and power generation in ships. The appendices contain a more detailed description of the different vessel types, their general requirements and a description of current prime mover technologies used. This analysis is followed by a summary of the major fuel cell development programmes and activities ongoing in different countries that have a direct or potential relevance to a marine application of the technology. (author)

  8. Major impact in shipping and port sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrill, K.

    1985-08-01

    The impact of information technology (IT) on operations efficiency in the transport field is comparable to the revolution brought on by the use of containers. The author examines the influence of IT on British shipping in terms of documentation, cargo tracking, and trend analysis on the operational side and communications links on the structural side. Shipboard computers were slow to penetrate the traditional bastion of the ship's bridge, but the effects of automation are already evident in the size of crews and their work roles. Britain is a world leader in specialized networks in the ports sector. A European-based initiative for a European ports database is in the development stage. It is essential for the IT networks to be compatible both nationally and internationally for the technology to be worthwhile.

  9. Multipole superconducting electric motors for ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thullen, P.; Keim, T.A.; Minervini, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    While a great deal of attention has been paid to two-pole superconducting synchronous machines, very little analysis of low speed, multipole superconducting synchronous machines has been done. Such machines may prove desirable as drive motors in ship drive systems. Results are presented of an analysis which assumes a motor of sufficient size that the airgap may be considered to be flat. A power output expression is given which shows the effects of machine geometry and superconductor characteristics on machine size. Based on this expression, a 40,000 hp 120 rpm motor is sized, and the resulting machine is compared with a conventional ship drive motor. The comparison illustrates possible size reductions through the application of superconductivity

  10. The Ship Movement Trajectory Prediction Algorithm Using Navigational Data Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Piotr

    2017-06-20

    It is essential for the marine navigator conducting maneuvers of his ship at sea to know future positions of himself and target ships in a specific time span to effectively solve collision situations. This article presents an algorithm of ship movement trajectory prediction, which, through data fusion, takes into account measurements of the ship's current position from a number of doubled autonomous devices. This increases the reliability and accuracy of prediction. The algorithm has been implemented in NAVDEC, a navigation decision support system and practically used on board ships.

  11. Leadership Profiling of Ocean Going Ship Masters1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Theotokas

    2014-12-01

    This paper focuses on the ocean going ship Masters and aims at identifying their leadership profiles and understanding their attitudes and reactions in given circumstances. It analyses and discusses the results of a field study of ship officers of different nationalities employed as Masters on board ships of a leading international maritime group. Results of the research reveal that the characteristics and the competencies of ship Masters as identified using the specially developed questionnaire, are compatible with those proposed by situational leadership theories. Ship Masters seem to give priority to the people on board and their needs and try to be supportive in their decisions.

  12. Observations and computations of narrow Kelvin ship wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Noblesse; Chenliang Zhang; Jiayi He; Yi Zhu; Chenjun Yang; Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Computations of far-field ship waves, based on linear potential flow theory and the Hogner approximation, are reported for monohull ships and catamarans. Specifically, far-field ship waves are computed for six monohull ships at four Froude numbers F≡V/gL=0.58, 0.68, 0.86, 1.58 and for six catamarans with nondimensional hull spacing s≡S/L=0.25 at two Froude numbers Fs≡V/gS=1 and 2.5. Here, g is the gravitational acceleration, V and L denote the ship speed and length, and S is the separation di...

  13. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  14. Methanol plant ship: Appendix. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The document is an appendix to the final report on a proposed methanol plant ship off of the coast of Trinidad. The document incorporates the results of the redetermination of capital required to implement the project. It also presents a revised cost analysis, with better accuracy, for the project. The projected operating revenues and revised expenses are also given. As a continuation of the information presented in the final report, the methanol market and proposed products are discussed in the report

  15. Light UAV Support Ship (ASW) (LUSSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Propeller EMALS - Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System GM - Center of Gravity to Metacenter HFO - Heavy Fuel Oil IPS - Integrated Propulsion System...it induces high cavitation levels on surface ships. The ship’s final design implemented a contra- rotating propeller (CRP) system. CRP propulsion...Stability Analyses Intact stability analyses were performed using the hydrodynamic modeling tool Paramarine. The vertical center of gravity (VCG) of

  16. Salvage Stories, Preserving Narratives, and Museum Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    Preserved ships and other vessels are associated with a historiography, in Europe at least, which is still marked by parochialism, antiquarianism, and celebratory narrative. Many evidence difficult histories, and they are also extremely expensive to preserve. Yet, they are clearly valued, as nations in Europe invest heavily in them. This survey examines a range of European examples as sites of cultural, political and national identity. An analytical framework foregrounding the role of narrati...

  17. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Secretary considers these nominations , along with others he receives as well as his own thoughts in this matter. At appropriate times, he selects names...Research Service 16 “ nomination ” process is often fiercely contested as differing groups make the case that “their” ship name is the most fitting...and practices of the Navy for naming vessels of the Navy, and an explanation for such variances;  Assesses the feasibility and advisability of

  18. A Survey on the Ship Loading Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Recent statistics show that large container terminals can process more than 30 million containers a year, and are constantly in search for the better ways to optimize processing time, deliver high quality and profitable services. Some of the terminal decisions are, however, dependent...... are integrated to improve the efficiency of the ship handling operations. We present a survey of the state-of-the-art methods and of the available benchmarking data....

  19. Ship Structure Committee Publications. A Special Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STEEL AND SUPPLEMENT ON EMBRITTLEMENT OF "C" STEEL BY NITROGEN Evans, EB. K lingler , Li .......................................................... 13...FROM: NTIS AD-8710SSC-28 CAUSES OF CLEAVAGE FRACTURE IN SHIP PLATE, HIGH YIELD STRENGTH STRUCTURAL STEEL SSC-31 The primary objective of the... careful design, selection of materials, and PART II: THE EFFECT OF SUBCRITICAL HEAT TREATMENT ON goo. workmanship are of the greatest importance in

  20. Ship Anti Ballistic Missile Response (SABR)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Allen P.; Breeden, Bryan; Duff, Willard Earl; Fishcer, Paul F.; Hornback, Nathan; Leiker, David C.; Carlisle, Parker; Diersing, Michael; Devlin, Ryan; Glenn, Christopher; Hoffmeister, Chris; Chong, Tay Boon; Sing, Phang Nyit; Meng, Low Wee; Meng, Fann Chee

    2006-01-01

    Includes supplementary material. Based on public law and Presidential mandate, ballistic missile defense development is a front-burner issue for homeland defense and the defense of U.S. and coalition forces abroad. Spearheaded by the Missile Defense Agency, an integrated ballistic missile defense system was initiated to create a layered defense composed of land-, air-, sea-, and space-based assets. The Ship Anti-Ballistic Response (SABR) Project is a systems engineering approach t...

  1. Connecting Land-Based Networks to Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    multipoint wireless broadband systems, and WiMAX networks were initially deployed for fixed and nomadic (portable) applications. These standards...CAPABILITIES OF SHIP-TO-SHORE COMMUNICATIONS A. US Navy Automated Digital Network System (ADNS) The U.S. Navy’s Automated Digital Network System (ADNS...submit digitally any necessary documents to the terminal operators, contact their logistics providers, access tidal information and receive

  2. Utilization of nuclear technology to ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. C.

    2004-01-01

    The SMART, a medium sized power plant with an output of 330mwth, can be used on barges to generate electric power and water, and can be used to propel container ships. For high speed, to secure the container cargo, and huge container carriers, to lower the operating expenses, the use of nuclear power reactor is essential. To compete in this challenging area with the advanced countries, a well-orchestrated joint effort will be necessary by the government and the industries

  3. Big Data in Shipping - Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Rødseth, Ørnulf Jan; Perera, Lokukaluge Prasad; Mo, Brage

    2016-01-01

    Big Data is getting popular in shipping where large amounts of information is collected to better understand and improve logistics, emissions, energy consumption and maintenance. Constraints to the use of big data include cost and quality of on-board sensors and data acquisition systems, satellite communication, data ownership and technical obstacles to effective collection and use of big data. New protocol standards may simplify the process of collecting and organizing the data, including in...

  4. O significado da anemia falciforme no contexto da 'política racial' do governo brasileiro 1995-2004 The significance of sickle cell anemia within the context of the Brazilian government's 'racial policies' (1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Fry

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste ensaio é refletir sobre o significado social de um crescente interesse pela anemia falciforme e outras doenças associadas ao corpo negro no Brasil. Investigarei a rede discursiva que se formou em torno da doença no contexto social da sua produção. Começo resumindo a analise feita do antropólogo Melbourne Tapper, do programa de combate à Anemia Falciforme nos Estados Unidos nos anos 70, logo após as vitórias dos negros na luta pelos direitos civis. Tapper (1999 argumenta que uma das conseqüências dessa política foi a criação de uma comunidade negra cidadã e responsável. O Programa de Anemia Falciforme, desenvolvido pelo governo brasileiro com participação de ativistas negros a partir da década de 1990, também contribui para a formação e de uma "comunidade negra responsável". O argumento do artigo é que a anemia falciforme torna-se muito mais que uma doença a ser erradicada. O discurso em torno dela é um poderoso elemento no processo de naturalização da "raça negra" (e, por oposição lógica e política, da "raça branca" num país que se imaginava como biológica e culturalmente híbrido.This essay reflects on the social significance of growing interest in sickle cell anemia and other illnesses associated with the black body in Brazil. I explore the discursive network that has taken shape around the disease within the social context of its production. I first summarize anthropologist Melbourne Tapper's analysis of the United States program to fight sickle cell anemia in the 1970s, shortly after blacks attained victories in the civil rights movement. Tapper (1999 argues that one of the consequences of this policy was the creation of a responsible black citizenry. In the late 1990s, the Brazilian government developed a program (Programa de Anemia Falciforme that counted on the heavy participation of black activists and that also contributed to the formation of a "responsible black community. My argument is that sickle cell anemia becomes much more than an illness to be eradicated. The discourse surrounding it is a powerful element in the process of naturalization of the "black race" (and, by logical and political complement, the "white race" in a country that until recently imagined itself a biologically and culturally hybrid nation.

  5. Historic survey on nuclear merchant ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir, E-mail: luciano.ondir@gmail.com; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear merchants ships already built are described and studied. • Their history and main architectural choices are presented, focusing nuclear domain. • The typical problems in those projects are discussed. • Some key factors for developing successful nuclear merchant ships are identified. - Abstract: This work provides a survey on past nuclear merchant ships experience. On light of new regulations on CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, the options for clean naval propulsion need to be studied. Despite many efforts, the only already sea proven emissions-free energy is nuclear power of pressurized water reactor type. Given the past experience on the field, this work provides some information on history, architectures and hints of reasons for the success or failures of each project. It is found that adequate requirements identification must be done keeping economics always in the center of design. Experience shows, except after major catastrophic accidents, public trust may be earned by open dialog and sound engineering practices.

  6. Enhanced situational technologies applied to ship channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Michael A.; Wacker, Roger A.

    1997-06-01

    The Houston Ship Channel ranks as America's number one port in foreign tonnage by welcoming more than 50,000 cargo ships and barges annually. Locally 196,000 jobs, 5.5 billion dollars in business revenue and 213 million dollars in taxes are generated. Unfortunately, 32 days of each year vessel traffic stops for hours due to fog causing an estimated 40- 100 million dollars loss as ships idly wait in the channel for weather to clear. In addition, poor visibility has contributed to past vessel collisions which have resulted in channel closure, and associated damage to property and the environment. Today's imaging technology for synthetic vision systems and enhanced situational awareness systems offers a new solution to this problem. Whereas, typically these systems have been targeted at aircraft landing systems the channel navigation application provides a peripheral ground based market. This paper describes two imaging solutions to the problem. One using an active 35 GHz scanning radar and the other using a 94 GHz passive millimeter wave camera.

  7. Historic survey on nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nuclear merchants ships already built are described and studied. • Their history and main architectural choices are presented, focusing nuclear domain. • The typical problems in those projects are discussed. • Some key factors for developing successful nuclear merchant ships are identified. - Abstract: This work provides a survey on past nuclear merchant ships experience. On light of new regulations on CO 2 , SO x and NO x , the options for clean naval propulsion need to be studied. Despite many efforts, the only already sea proven emissions-free energy is nuclear power of pressurized water reactor type. Given the past experience on the field, this work provides some information on history, architectures and hints of reasons for the success or failures of each project. It is found that adequate requirements identification must be done keeping economics always in the center of design. Experience shows, except after major catastrophic accidents, public trust may be earned by open dialog and sound engineering practices.

  8. Adaptation to carbon dioxide tax in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This note discusses the consequences for the sea transport sector between Norway and continental Europe of levying a carbon dioxide tax on international bunker. The influence of such a tax on the operational costs of various types of ship and various transport routes is calculated. The profit obtainable from the following ways of adapting to an increased tax level is assessed: (1) Reducing the speed, (2) Rebuilding the engine to decrease fuel consumption, (3) Changing the design speed for new ships. It is found that a carbon dioxide tax of NOK 200 per tonne of CO 2 will increase the transport costs by 3 - 15 percent. In the long run much of this may be transferred to the freight rates since so much of the sea transport are in segments in which the demand for the service is not sensitive to the prices. Even if the freight rates are not changed, a tax this size will not make it necessary to reduce the speed of the existing fleet. The income lost by taking fewer trips will exceed the costs saved in reducing the speed. However, the optimum design speed for new ships may be somewhat reduced (0.5 knots). Rebuilding engines to reduce the fuel consumption would pay off were it not for the fact that the remaining life of the present fleet is probably too short for this to be interesting

  9. Analysis of Ship Groundings on Soft Sea Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    it influences the ship heave and pitch motions as well as the friction between the ship and the soil.In this paper a rational calculation model is presented for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the ship bottom. The model is based on the assumption that the penetration of the ship bow generates a flow of pore......The consequences associated with ships running aground depend very much on the soil characteristics of the sea bed and the geometrical shape of the ship bow. The penetration into the sea bed depends on these factors and the penetration is an important factor for the ship motion because...... by the theory of frictional soils in rupture. Frictional stresses on the bow surface are assumed to be related to the normal pressure by a simple Coulumb relation. The total soil reaction as a function of velocity and penetration is found by integration of normal pressure and frictional stresses over...

  10. Thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor in the conditions of ship motions and safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Murata, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kenichi; Inasaka, Fujio; Aya, Izuo; Shiozaki, Koki

    1999-01-01

    By inputting the experimental data, information and others on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of integrated ship propulsion reactor accumulated hitherto by the Ship Research Institute and some recent cooperation results into the nuclear ship engineering simulation system, it was conducted not only to contribute an improvement study on next ship reactor by executing general analysis and evaluation on motion characteristics under ship body motion conditions, safety at accidents, and others of the integrated ship reactor but also to investigate and prepare some measures to apply fundamental experiment results based on obtained here information to safety countermeasure of the nuclear ships. In 1997 fiscal year, on safety of the integrated ship propulsion reactor loading nuclear ship, by adding experimental data on unstable flow analysis and information on all around of the analysis to general data base fundamental program, development to intellectual data base program was intended; on effect of pulsation flow on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship propulsion reactor; after pulsation flow visualization experiment, experimental equipment was reconstructed into heat transfer type to conduct numerical analysis of pulsation flow by confirming validity of numerical analysis code under comparison with the visualization experiment results; and on thermo-hydraulic behavior in storage container at accident of active safety type ship propulsion reactor; a flashing vibration test using new apparatus finished on its higher pressurization at last fiscal year to examine effects of each parameter such as radius and length of exhausting nozzle and pool water temperature. (G.K.)

  11. Resultater efter ekstrakorporal membranoxygeneringsbehandling af nyfødte og spaedbørn i Danmark 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke; Helvind, Morten H; Greisen, Gorm

    2007-01-01

    of the survey. 42% of the parents reported sequels or suspicion of sequels. The primary sequels were reduced hearing, which was observed in eight infants, and chronic lung disease, which was observed in seven. Only one child was severely disabled. CONCLUSION: The underlying diagnoses, mortality and disability...

  12. Prevalance and characteristics of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd variants Groenendael and Tervueren born in Denmark 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Christensen, Stine Louise Krogh

    2008-01-01

    1995 and 2004. Furthermore, it was the intention to describe the clinical manifestation (seizure types and phenomenology) of epilepsy and to identify risk factors for euthanasia once the dog was diagnosed as having epilepsy. METHODS: All owners of Groenendael and Tervueren dogs born between January...... seizures. In four percent seizures were unclassifiable. The most commonly reported focal seizure phenomenology included ataxia, crawling, swaying, fearful behavior, salivation, excessive attention seeking and disorientation. In 16% of the cases, epilepsy led to euthanasia. Intact dogs with epilepsy had...

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

  14. Ten year review og the international wind power industry 1995-2004. Forecast for 2015. Long term scenario to 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Since 1995 BTM-Consult has published a World Market Report on International Wind Energy Development. Ten years on we are marking the anniversary with this special publication. That very first report was funded by the Danish Ministry of Energy under a dedicated programme for supporting new renewable energy sources. The primary target group was the emerging Danish wind power industry, represented by FDV, the Danish Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association. The aim of the report was to 'map the international wind power industry and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Danish manufacturers in this business environment. Although published in Danish, an English summary including the main factual data was distributed to all foreign companies which had contributed information to the survey. This summary was the starting point for publishing the annual publication World Market Update. During the process of conducting this initial survey, a global network was established alongside other information sources which BTM-C had already developed since its formation in 1986. In 1997 the first issue of World Market Update in the format and concept used now was published. A mountain of data has been collected since then, and in this report a selection of the findings over the period from 1995 to 2004 is presented and evaluated with the benefit of hindsight. Over the years, a continuing dialogue with our customers has been the most inspiring input to the ongoing process of improving the report's content. We are proud to have achieved the status of being 'the reference', the most cited report in the industry in terms of progress and future perspectives on wind power. Neither BTM Consult nor other analysts in the industry could imagine in 1995 that the wind power industry would progress as successfully as it has actually performed. The aggregate installed capacity has grown from 3,531 MW in 1994 to almost 48,000 MW by the end of 2004. This represents an average annual growth rate of 29.7% over the decade. (au)

  15. Low accuracy of the national reporting system of acute hepatitis C infection in Taiwan, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Kwong-Ming; Hung, Chi-Ming; Wang, Jing-Houng; Hung, Chao-Hung; Chen, Pao-Fei; Lin, Kuo-Sin; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2010-07-01

    This study attempted to clarify accuracy of acute hepatitis C (AHC) and its clinical characteristics. We reviewed 632 reported cases from national surveillance data of the Taiwan Center for Disease Control between 1995 and 2004, and reclassified diagnoses. A definite case was defined as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) > 10 x the upper limit of normal (ULN) with seroconversion of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV). A probable case was defined as (i) seroconversion of anti-HCV and/or elevated ALT levels; or (ii) anti-HCV(+) but titers increased (from or= 40 S/CO) and ALT > 10 x the ULN. A suspected case was defined as initial anti-HCV(+) and ALT level > 10 x the ULN and/or jaundice. Excluded cases were defined as ALT levels less than 10 x ULN with initial positive anti-HCV Ab. A total of 310 (49%) cases were confirmed as AHC; these included 95 (15%) definite and 215 (34%) probable cases. Higher incidence rates and accuracy of AHC were demonstrated in the southern area significantly if compared with northern, eastern and central areas, respectively (all P < 0.05). On comparison between blood centers and hospitals, more AHC cases were found in Southern Taiwan than in other areas (157/73 vs 24/40, P < 0.001), younger mean age (33.3 +/- 11.1 vs 49.3 +/- 16.4, P < 0.001), lower ALT levels (263.1 +/- 200.9 vs 1264.2 +/- 706.8, P < 0.001) and male predominance (191/39 vs 46/18, P = 0.046). This study showed our reporting system over-estimated the AHC diagnosis, which is also a common issue worldwide. Greater efforts are needed to establish appropriate reporting systems, as well as more supplemental methods to distinguish between prevalent and incident cases.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

  17. [The significance of sickle cell anemia within the context of the Brazilian government's 'racial policies' (1995-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Peter H

    2005-01-01

    This essay reflects on the social significance of growing interest in sickle cell anemia and other illnesses associated with the black body in Brazil. I explore the discursive network that has taken shape around the disease within the social context of its production. I first summarize anthropologist Melbourne Tapper's analysis of the United States program to fight sickle cell anemia in the 1970s, shortly after blacks attained victories in the civil rights movement. Tapper (1999) argues that one of the consequences of this policy was the creation of a responsible black citizenry. In the late 1990s, the Brazilian government developed a program (Programa de Anemia Falciforme) that counted on the heavy participation of black activists and that also contributed to the formation of a "responsible black community". My argument is that sickle cell anemia becomes much more than an illness to be eradicated. The discourse surrounding it is a powerful element in the process of naturalization of the "black race" (and, by logical and political complement, the "white race") in a country that until recently imagined itself a biologically and culturally hybrid nation.

  18. Contribution of ship traffic to aerosol particle concentrations downwind of a major shipping lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivekäs, N.; Massling, Andreas; Grythe, H.

    2014-01-01

    at a remote location. We studied the particle number concentration (12 to 490 nm in diameter), the mass concentration (12 to 150 nm in diameter) and number and volume size distribution of aerosol particles in ship plumes for a period of 4.5 months at Hovsore, a coastal site on the western coast of Jutland...... in Denmark. During episodes of western winds, the site is about 50 km downwind of a major shipping lane and the plumes are approximately 1 hour old when they arrive at the site. We have used a sliding percentile-based method for separating the plumes from the measured background values and to calculate...... the ship plume contribution to the total particle number and PM0.15 mass concentration (mass of particles below 150 nm in diameter, converted from volume assuming sphericity) at the site. The method is not limited to particle number or volume concentration, but can also be used for different chemical...

  19. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  20. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguang Leng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way.