WorldWideScience

Sample records for tank-in-tank solar combisystems

  1. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  2. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    different heat storage types is compared. Design/methodology/approach - The thermal performance of Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems is calculated with the simulation program TRNSYS. Two different TRNSYS models based on measurements were developed and used...

  3. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  4. Development of a compact solar combisystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    to get highest system efficiency for use with either a condensing natural gas boiler or a pellet boiler. Especially when using the potential of high peak power of modern condensing natural gas boilers, a new operation strategy of a natural gas boiler/solar combisystem can increase the energy savings......Within the frame of the project REBUS, “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research, a new type of compact solar combisystem with high degree of prefabrication was developed. A hydraulic and control concept was designed with the goal...... of a small solar combisystem by about 80% compared to conventional operation strategies....

  5. Solar heating systems for houses. A design handbook for solar combisystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2003-11-01

    A handbook giving guidance on systems for providing combined solar space heating and solar water heating for houses has been produced by an international team. The guidance focuses on selection of the optimum combi-system for groups of single-family houses and multi-family houses. Standard classification and evaluation procedures are described. The book should be a valuable tool for building engineers, architects, solar manufacturers and installers of solar solar energy systems, and anyone interested in optimizing combined water and space heating solar systems

  6. INVESTIGATIONS ON DESIGN OF HEAT STORAGE PIPE CONNECTIONS FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how different designed pipe connections on a tank for solar combisystems were evaluated based on experimental tests and theoretical investigations with the simulation tool TRNSYS. Measurement results from laboratory measurements were used to calibrate a TRNSYS model....... In general the results showed only very little differences between external connection and internal PEX pipes, if the internal PEX pipes have thick walls. Typically used PEX pipes with only 2 mm wall thickness lead to reduced system performance compared to PEX pipes with 6 mm wall thickness and external pipe...... for simulations with parameter analysis. The possibility to connect pipes at the bottom and use internal PEX pipes to reach the inlet/outlet level in the tank was compared with the possibility to connect the pipe at the side of the tank and pass to the bottom level of the tank inside the tank insulation...

  7. Comparison between a new TRNSYS model and experimental data of phase change materials in a solar combisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bony, J.; Citherlet, S.

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the IEA Task 32 (Solar Heating and Cooling Programme), we developed a numeric model to simulate heat transfer in phase change materials (PCM), and experimental data. The analyzed system is bulk PCM plunged in a water tank storage of a solar combisystem (heating and domestic hot water production). The numerical model, based on the enthalpy approach, takes into account hysteresis and subcooling characteristic and also the conduction and the convection in the PCM. This model has been implemented in an existing TRNSYS type of water tank storage. The simulations has been compared with experimental data obtained with a solar installation using water tank storage of about 900 litres, already studied during the IEA Task 26 (Weiss 2003). (author)

  8. CoSyPCM - Solar combisystem with phase change materials - Annual report 2006; CoSyPCM Combi-systeme avec materiaux a changement de phase. Rapport annuel 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citherlet, S.; Bony, J.

    2006-12-15

    The investigated objects are storage tanks of solar heating systems for domestic hot water preparation and space heating ('solar combisystems'). The question raised is whether the immersion of phase-change materials (PCM) contained in metal rods or spheres into the water storage tanks of such systems can be useful and bring reasonable advantages. The investigations took place by performing both measurements in the laboratory and computerized simulations using a model that was reported on in the annual report 2005 of the project. The present richly illustrated report describes the improvement of the simulation model by additionally considering the natural convection flow in the liquid phase of the PCM. This flow has a substantial effect on the heat transfer capacity rate from the storage water to the PCM or vice-versa. Simulations showed that this parameter has a decisive impact on the energy balance of the whole combisystem: if it is too small, the auxiliary heater has to be more frequently turned on to supplement the temporarily missing thermal energy to the heat consumer, as the solar energy stored in the PCM cannot be delivered sufficiently quickly to the user. The use of PCM in such storage tanks does not provide significant auxiliary energy savings in the cases investigated by the authors. However, more investigations could identify configurations offering energetic advantages, the authors claim. The report is supplemented by a life-cycle analysis of storage tanks with immersed PCM, to assess the environmental impact of the heat storage system.

  9. Solar combisystems with forecast control to increase the solar fraction and lower the auxiliary energy cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Solar Combi systems still need quite a lot of auxiliary energy especially in small systems without seasonal storage possibilities. The control of the auxiliary energy input both in time and power is important to utilize as much as possible of the solar energy available from the collectors and also...... energy sources. It can be either direct electric heating elements or a heat pump upgrading ambient energy in the air, ground, solar collector or waste heat from the house. The paper describes system modeling and simulation results. Advanced laboratory experiments are also starting now with three...

  10. CoSyPCM - Solar combisystem with phase change materials - Annual report 2005; CoSyPCM - Combi-systeme avec materiaux a changement de phase. Rapport annuel 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citherlet, S.; Bony, J.

    2005-12-15

    Computerized simulations have been performed to validate an improved mathematical model of the storage tank of solar heating systems for domestic hot water preparation and space heating ('solar combisystems'). Heat is stored in water and in various phase change materials (PCM) immersed in the storage tank. The improvements implemented in the model are described. The validation was performed by comparison with measured data. The dynamics of the fusion and solidification of the PCMs have been measured and simulated. The following materials have been studied: paraffin; paraffin with aluminium shavings; paraffin with aluminium honeycomb; sodium acetate with graphite. The measured data for the first two materials were obtained from the own laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, in Yverdon-les-Bains. The measured data for the last two materials were obtained respectively from the University of Lleida, Spain and the University of Graz, Austria. The samples were contained in spherical or cylindrical containers. One important conclusion is that the convection flow in the liquid phase of the PCM cannot be neglected in the mathematical model.

  11. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.15 Slop tanks in tank vessels. (a) Number. A... tanks must have the total capacity to retain oily mixtures from cargo tank washings, oil residue, and... washing water. (c) Design. A slop tank required in this section: (1) Must minimize turbulence, entrainment...

  12. Energetic, exergetic and economic analysis of an innovative Solar CombiSystem (SCS) producing thermal and electric energies: Application in residential and tertiary households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Mehdaoui, Farah; Naili, Nabiha; Noro, Marco; Lazzarin, Renato; Guizani, AmenAllah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using innovative SCS in Tunisia. • In cold months the SCS provide about 50–75% of the total exergy provides. • The SCS produces between 70–150% of electric energy needs. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater was 10.2 years. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on gas/gas town was about and 8.7 years. - Abstract: The endeavor of this paper is to study of the potential offered by the expenditure of an innovative Solar CombiSystem, SCS, used for the space heating load, the domestic hot water supply and the electric energy production. The investigation achieved in this work was based on an experimental and a simulation studies. A TRNSYS simulation program was achieved in order to evaluate the SCS monthly/annual thermal and electric performances. It was found that the proposed SCS covered between 20 and 45% of the SH energy needs by considering only solar energy. The result shows also that the SCS provided from 40 to 70% of the total DHW needs. It was also found that the SCS electric production ranged between 32 and 225 MJ/m 2 with a gain factor varying between 49 and 125%. An economic appraisal was also achieved to appraise the SCS feasibility. The results of the economic analysis show that the annual energy saved (ARE) and the payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater were respectively equal to 7618.3 kW h/year and 10.2 years. It was found that ARE and Pb based on gas/gas town were about 5825 m 3 and 8.7 years, respectively. The results of the economic analysis shows that the adoption of the SCS saves about 48% of electric energy and about 46% of gas/gas town kept back by the conventional system.

  13. Energy performance of water hybrid PV/T collectors applied to combisystems of Direct Solar Floor type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, G.; Johannes, K. [Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingenierie de l' Environnement, Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Chambery, Campus Scientifique Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Menezo, C. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Bat. Freyssinet, 20, Avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-11-15

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) modules in buildings allows one to consider a multifunctional frame and then to reduce the cost by substitution of components. In order to limit the rise of the cell operating temperature, a photovoltaics/thermal (PV/T) collector combines a solar water heating collector and PV cells. The recovered heat energy can be used for heating systems and domestic hot water. A combination with a Direct Solar Floor is studied. Its low operating temperature level is appropriate for the operating conditions of the mono- or poly-crystalline photovoltaic modules which are selected in that study. However, for a system including a glass covered collector and localised in Macon area in France, we show that the annual photovoltaic cell efficiency is 6.8% which represents a decrease of 28% in comparison with a conventional non-integrated PV module of 9.4% annual efficiency. This is obviously due to a temperature increase related to the cover. On the other hand, we show that without a glass cover, the efficiency is 10% which is 6% better than a standard module due to the cooling effect. Moreover, in the case of a glazed PV/T collector with a conventional control system for Direct Solar Floor, the maximum temperature reached at the level of the PV modules is higher than 100{sup o}C. This is due to the oversize of the collectors during the summer when the heating needs are null, i.e. without a heated swimming pool for example. This temperature level does not allow the use of EVA resin (ethylene vinyl acetate) in PV modules due to strong risks of degradation. The current solution consists of using amorphous cells or, if we do not enhance the thermal production, uncovered PV/T collector. Further research led to water hybrid PV/T solar collectors as a one-piece component, both reliable and efficient, and including the thermal absorber, the heat exchanger and the photovoltaic functions. (author)

  14. The actual status of the development of a Danish/Swedish system concept for a solar combisystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiedler, Frank; Bales, Chris; Thür, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    and Sweden it has been decided to develop a common system concept for both countries, which increases the market potential for the manufacturer. The focus of the development is on systems for the large number of rather well insulated existing single family houses. In close collaboration with the industrial...... for solar heating in the Nordic countries. Existing system concepts have been analyzed and based on the results new system designs have been developed. The proposed solutions have to fulfill country specific technical, sociological and cost requirements. Due to the similar demands on the systems in Denmark...... partners a system concept has been developed that is characterized by its high compactness and flexibility. It allows the use of different types of boilers, heating distribution systems and a variable store and collector size. Two prototypes have been built, one for the Danish market with a gas boiler...

  15. Solar combi system with phase-change materials; CoSyPCM. Combi-systeme avec materiaux a changement de phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citherlet, S.; Bony, J.

    2007-02-15

    Within the framework of Task 32 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA) we studied the potential of using Phase Change Material (PCM) in a solar combi system in the form of modules placed in a storage tank. The goal was to analyze the potential of latent heat storage in a water tank of a solar installation, in order to increase the performance or to reduce the storage volume. This report describes the methodology used and the results obtained during the analysis of the heat storage potential by latent heat. The following stages were carried out: (i) Development of a simulation model: As no reliable numerical model exists, we developed a dynamic model to simulate PCM modules of various PCM types and shapes. This simulation model takes into account the hysteresis, the subcooling as well as the internal convection of the PCM in a liquid phase. This model was implemented in an existing TRNSYS Type(60). (ii) Laboratory measurements: In order to validate the digital model we tested various configurations and different types of PCM to check the agreement between simulations and experimental results. This step was focused on the time-dependent temperature distribution in the PCM and in the storage tank in order to validate the numerical model. (iii) Solar combi system: The potential relevance of the PCM was tested by using a solar combi system (Arpege) both with and without PCM. An energy balance was established on the basis of a seven days uninterrupted use of Arpege in various conditions (meteorological conditions and domestic hot water draw-off). Following the validation of the numerical model, annual simulations were carried out. (iv) Environmental impacts: A life cycle analysis of this solar combi system both with and without PCM was carried out. This analysis takes into account materials of the Arpege installation, the PCM and its container, as well as auxiliary energy used. (author)

  16. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade...... of the building....

  17. Solar combi system based on a mantle tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    A solar combisystem based on a mantle tank is investigated numerically and experimentally. Three different houses with four different radiator systems are considered for the simulations. The needed temperature for the auxiliary heater is determined for different houses and radiator systems....... The thermal performance of the solar combisystem is compared to the thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system based on a mantle tank. In the experimental study, tank temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient for the top mantle for a discharge test is determined. The investigations showed...

  18. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    .D. studies in Denmark, Sweden and Latvia, and a post-doc. study in Norway. Close cooperation between the researchers and the industry partners ensures that the results of the project can be utilized. By the end of the project the industry partners will be able to bring the developed systems onto the market...... from an economical and architectural point of view. The project includes education, research, development and demonstration. The project started in 2003 and will be finished by the end of 2006. The participants of the project, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research and the participants themselves......The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both...

  19. DETAILED MODELLING OF CHARGING BEHAVIOUR OF SMART SOLAR TANKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The charging behaviour of smart solar tanks for solar combisystems for one-family houses is investigated with detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The smart solar tank can be charged with a variable auxiliary volume fitted to the...... by the mesh densities, the distribution of computational cells, the physical model and time steps used in the simulations. The findings of the investigations will be used as guidance for creation of CFD models for optimal design of smart solar tanks.......The charging behaviour of smart solar tanks for solar combisystems for one-family houses is investigated with detailed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The smart solar tank can be charged with a variable auxiliary volume fitted...... to the expected future energy demand. Therefore the heat loss from the tank is decreased and the thermal performance of the solar heating system is increased compared to a traditional system with a fixed auxiliary volume. The solar tank can be charged either by an electric heating element situated in the tank...

  20. Thermography for stratified storage. High performance imaging cameras give an insight into the behaviour of combi-solar systems; Thermographie fuer Schichtspeicher. Hochaufloesende Waermebildkameras geben einen Einblick in das Anlagenverhalten von Kombi--Solarsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandler, Martin [EFG Energie fuer Gebaeude e.K., Kaufbeuren (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The interaction of all components of solar systems must be right. A decisive factor is that unnecessary heat is stored precisely in order to provide the heat immediately and completely to the user. This can be accomplished with a well-functioning stratified reservoir. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on an investigation of the performance of solar combi-systems using high-resolution thermal imaging cameras.

  1. Investigations of Intelligent Solar Heating Systems for Single Family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Chen, Ziqian; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Three differently designed intelligent solar heating systems are investigated experimentally in a test facility. The systems provide all the needed yearly heating demand in single family houses. The systems are based on highly stratified tanks with variable auxiliary heated volumes. The tank...... is a tank in tank heat storage with domestic hot water in the inner tank and space heating water in the outer tank. The total tank volume is 750 liters and the solar collector area is 9 m2. The auxiliary energy supply system is based on electrical heating element(s)/heat pump and is different for all three...... systems.The system will be equipped with an intelligent control system where the control of the electrical heating element(s)/heat pump is based on forecasts of the variable electricity price, the heating demand and the solar energy production.By means of numerical models of the systems made in Trnsys...

  2. Performance improvement by discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Thür, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The thermal advantages by utilizing discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks are investigated, both for a small SDHW system and for a solar combisystem. The investigations showed that it is possible to increase the thermal performance of both types of systems by using two draw......-off levels from the solar tanks instead of one draw-off level at a fixed position. The best position of the second draw-off level is in the middle or just above the middle of the tank. For the investigated small SDHW system with a realistic draw off hot water temperature of 40°C and 45°C and an auxiliary...... volume temperature of 50.5°C the increase of the thermal performance by the second draw-off level is about 6%. For the investigated solar combisystem the extra thermal performance by using one extra draw-off level, either for the domestic hot water heat exchanger or for the heating system, is about 3...

  3. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCM’s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating...... as the theoretical results obtained for a solar combi system with the PCM-storage installed in a low energy house in a Danish climate. Parametric studies of collector area, storage volume and solar fraction for the PCM-system will be presented as well as an outline for a system with 100% coverage of the space...... and domestic hot water. The work is part of the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar Buildings”. The investigations are based on a newly developed TRNSYS type for simulation of a PCM-storage with controlled super-cooling. The super-cooling makes it possible to let...

  4. Exergy efficient production, storage and distribution of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandnes, Bjoernar

    2003-07-01

    There are two main themes in this thesis. 1) Exergy efficient utilization of solar energy, where the introduction of alternative technologies such as photovoltaic/thermal collectors and phase change energy storage in a low temperature solar system is investigated. 2) The possibility of storing thermal energy in supercooled liquids is investigated. The introductory chapters introduce the concept of exergy, and focus on the use of solar heat as an inherently low quality source for covering low quality demands associated with space heating and hot water. The different stages of solar energy production, storage, and distribution of heat is discussed, with emphasis on exergy relevant issues. With the low temperature solar heating system as background, the introduction of some additional technologies that are investigated. A section of this thesis presents a study of a small scale PV/T collector as a possible component in a low temperature system. In another section the instrumentation that has been built for studies of full-size PV and thermal systems is described, and the possibility of using the PV unit outputs as parameters for controlling the thermal system operation is briefly discussed. It is suggested that the design of the PV/T unit in terms of whether priority should be given to electricity or heat production should be based on how consumption of high quality auxiliary energy is minimized, and not on adding up the combined exergy which is being produced. Solar combisystems require larger heat storage capacities compared to the more common solar hot water systems. Increased volumetric heat storage capacity can be achieved by latent heat storage systems where thermal energy is stored as heat of fusion in phase change materials (PCMs). A section presents a study where spherically encapsulated PCM is incorporated in a solar heat store. Solar combisystems are often complex, and have a relatively large number of interacting components. Another section describes a

  5. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadorn, J.-C.; Renaud, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  6. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  7. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003; Programme 'Solaire actif - Chaleur et Stockage de chaleur'. Activites et projets en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadorn, J.-C. [Base Consultants, Geneva (Switzerland); Renaud, P. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD

  8. Identification of single-shell tank in-tank hardware obstructions to retrieval at Hanford Site Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Two retrieval technologies, one of which uses robot-deployed end effectors, will be demonstrated on the first single-shell tank (SST) waste to be retrieved at the Hanford Site. A significant impediment to the success of this technology in completing the Hanford retrieval mission is the presence of unique tank contents called in-tank hardware (ITH). In-tank hardware includes installed and discarded equipment and various other materials introduced into the tank. This paper identifies those items of ITH that will most influence retrieval operations in the arm-based demonstration project and in follow-on tank operations within the SST farms

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  14. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  15. Samba Solar; Samba Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, Charles W.

    2012-07-01

    Brazil, the biggest country of the South American subcontinent, has discovered the power of solar energy. Brazil recently introduced net metering of solar power plants and started to open the power supply grid to PV systems. The market has great potential as Brazil is the world's sixth biggest national economy.

  16. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  17. Solar Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use of solar cookers in the science classroom. Includes instructions for construction of a solar cooker, an explanation of how solar cookers work, and a number of suggested activities. (DS)

  18. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  19. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  20. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  1. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  2. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, V.; Miramonti, L.; Peña Garay, Carlos; Serenelli, A.

    2013-01-01

    The study of solar neutrinos has given since ever a fundamental contribution both to astroparticle and to elementary particle physics, offering an ideal test of solar models and offering at the same time relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in...

  3. Solar holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, Jacques E.; Riccobono, Juanita R.; Caulfield, H. John; Upton, Timothy D.

    2002-07-01

    A solar photovoltaic energy collection system using a reflection hologram is described herein. The system uses a single-axis tracking system in conjunction with a spectral- splitting holographic element. The hologram accurately focuses the desired regions of the solar spectrum to match the bandgaps of two ro more different solar cells, while diverting unused IR wavelengths away. Other applications for solar holography include daylighting and greenhouses.

  4. Buying Solar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Joe

    Presented are guidelines for buying solar systems for the individual consumer. This is intended to help the consumer reduce many of the risks associated with the purchase of solar systems, particularly the risks of fraud and deception. Engineering terms associated with solar technology are presented and described to enable the consumer to discuss…

  5. Solar Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Roekel, A.; Osborne, J.; Schroeter, S.; De Jong, R.; De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically

  6. Solar urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  7. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The book serves several purposes. First set of chapters gives a concise general introduction to solar physics. In a second set the basic methods of magnetohydrodynamics are developed. A third set of chapters is an account of current theories for observed phenomena. The book is suitable for a course in solar physics and it also provides a comprehensive review of present magnetohydrodynamical models in solar physics. (SC)

  9. Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  10. Solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, W.

    1977-03-03

    A solar collector is described. The absorber consists of a plate onto which the light is focussed through lenses. The heat is transported from the absorber to the heat accumulator via metallic heat conductors. In case of insufficient solar radiation, the heat transport from the collector to the accumulator may be interrupted by a disconnecting switch. The casing consists of Eternit.

  11. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  12. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  13. Solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-08-18

    Concerning the exsisting solar cell utilizing wavelength transition, the area of the solar cell element necessary for unit electric power output can be made small, but transition efficiency of the solar cell as a whole including a plastic plate with phosphor is not high. This invention concerns a solar cell which is appropriate for transferring the light within a wide spectrum range of the sunlight to electricilty efficiently, utilizes wavelength transition and has high efficiency per unit area. In other words, the solar cell of this invention has the feature of providing in parallel with a photoelectric transfer layer a layer of wavelength transitioning material (phosphor) which absorbs the light within the range of wavelength of low photoelectric transfer efficiency at the photoelectric transfer layer and emits the light within the range of wavelength in which the photoelectric transfer rate is high on the light incident side of the photoelectric transfer layer. (5 figs)

  14. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  15. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  16. Solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1983-01-01

    The solar energy is produced by a series of nuclear reactions taking place in the deep interior of the sun. Some of these reactions produce neutrinos which may be detected, the proper detection system being available. The results of the Davis experiment (with 37 Cl) are given, showing a deficiency in the solar neutrino flux. The relevant explanation is either a property of the neutrino or an important change in the physics of the solar models. The prospect of a new experiment (with 71 Ga) is important as it will decide which of the two explanations is correct [fr

  17. Solar chulha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, P. H.; Patrikar, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  18. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  19. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  20. Solar chulha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhao, P. H. [Department of Physics J.D. Institute of Engg. & Tech. Yavatmal (India); Patrikar, S. R. [Department of Physics VNIT, Nagpur (India)

    2016-05-06

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  1. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavicini, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The status of solar neutrino experiments and their implications for both nonstandard astrophysics ({\\it e.g.,} cool sun models) and nonstandard neutrino properties ({\\it e.g.,} MSW conversions) are discussed. Assuming that all of the experiments are correct, the relative rates observed by Kamiokande and Homestake are hard to account for by a purely astrophysical solution, while MSW conversions can describe all of the data. Assuming the standard solar model, there are two allowed regions for M...

  2. Solar generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeneuve, J.

    2012-01-01

    Solar energy might become the main energy resource for mankind in the next 50 years. The author describes the assets of photovoltaic energy and helio-thermodynamics and reviews the conditions required for such a future. The first condition is an integrated approach for the development of solar energy in buildings, it means to develop in parallel the use of low-power appliances, to insulate buildings, to use daylight. Secondly to find an efficient solution to store solar energy. In the building sector this solution could be the use of solar energy (through solar panels) and geothermal heat pump to be able to recover in winter the calories caught in summer and stored in the ground. In a warmer and warmer world, the production of cold from solar calories has the advantage of sparing electricity and to make the demand for calories corresponding with the peak of the resource. A graph shows that the expected cost of photovoltaic electricity in 2020 will be half the 2011 cost and will correspond to the retail price of electricity. (A.C.)

  3. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  4. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  5. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  6. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  7. Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    "Using the new Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the My World of Science series provides the earliest readers with background on key STEM concepts. Solar System explores basic planetary astronomy in a simple, engaging way that will help readers develop word recognition and reading skills. Includes a glossary and index."-- Provided by publisher.

  8. Solar Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Bellini, G.; Ianni, A.; Ranucci, G.

    2010-01-01

    Solar neutrino investigation has represented one of the most active field of particle physics over the past decade, accumulating important and sometimes unexpected achievements. After reviewing some of the most recent impressive successes, the future perspectives of this exciting area of neutrino research will be discussed.

  9. Solar Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar Neutrinos. Revathi Ananthakrishnan. 1. Introduction. The neutrino, which means the little neutral one in Ital- ian, is a very special elementary particle. It is a spin half, chargeless and almost . massless particle and therefore eluded detection for a long time. However, the sun is a rich source of neutrinos and physicists ...

  10. Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Norman C.; Kane, Joseph W.

    1971-01-01

    Proposes a method of collecting solar energy by using available plastics for Fresnel lenses to focus heat onto a converter where thermal dissociation of water would produce hydrogen. The hydrogen would be used as an efficient non-polluting fuel. Cost estimates are included. (AL)

  11. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  12. Solar club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar club

    2013-01-01

    SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

  13. Fisica solare

    CERN Document Server

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  14. Solar Training Network and Solar Ready Vets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalstrom, Tenley Ann

    2016-09-14

    In 2016, the White House announced the Solar Ready Vets program, funded under DOE's SunShot initiative would be administered by The Solar Foundation to connect transitioning military personnel to solar training and employment as they separate from service. This presentation is geared to informing and recruiting employer partners for the Solar Ready Vets program, and the Solar Training Network. It describes the programs, and the benefits to employers that choose to connect to the programs.

  15. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  16. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis an electrodynamic model for solar flares is developed. The main theoretical achievements underlying the present study are treated briefly and the observable flare parameters are described within the framework of the flare model of this thesis. The flare model predicts large induced electric fields. Therefore, acceleration processes of charged particles by direct electric fields are treated. The spectrum of the accelerated particles in strong electric fields is calculated, 3 with the electric field and the magnetic field perpendicular and in the vicinity of an X-type magnetic neutral line. An electromagnetic field configuration arises in the case of a solar flare. A rising current filament in a quiescent background bipolar magnetic field causes naturally an X-type magnetic field configuration below the filament with a strong induced electric field perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. This field configuration drives particles and magnetic energy towards the neutral line, where a current sheet is generated. The global evolution of the fields in the flare is determined by force balance of the Lorentz forces on the filament and the force balance on the current sheet. The X-ray, optical and radio observations of a large solar flare on May 16, 1981 are analyzed. It is found that these data fit the model very well. (Auth.)

  17. Solar chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the creation of chameleons deep inside the Sun (R∼0.7R sun ) and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetized surface of the Sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft x-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarizations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft x-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft x-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling, the chameleons emitted by the Sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST magnetic pipes, which could be within the reach of CAST with upgraded detector performance. Then, axion helioscopes have thus the potential to detect and identify particle candidates for the ubiquitous dark energy in the Universe.

  18. Solar Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling the chameleons emitted by the sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST pipes, which could be within the reach...

  19. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  20. Solar solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    China is facing enormous energy challenges. Everyone seems to know that we need to increase our energy supply by the equivalent of one power plant per week to support China's economic growth, which is allowing millions of people to enjoy better standards of living. Much less is known of the extent to which China has taken steps to mitigate the impact of that growing energy demand through incentives for greater efficiency and renewable energy. Policies include: Cutting energy intensity - 20 per cent between 2005 and 2010, saving five times as much CO 2 as the EU's goals. Cutting major pollutants by 10 per cent by 2010. Setting one of the world's most aggressive renewable energy standards: 15 per cent of national energy from renewables by 2020. Setting targets of 300 megawatts of installed solar by 2010, and 1.8 gigawatts by 2020, in the 2007 National Development and Reform Commission Renewable Energy Development Plan. Dedicating $180 billion for renewable energy by 2020. Imposing energy efficiency targets for the top 1,000 companies, a measure with greater carbon savings potential than most Western initiatives. Establishing building energy codes in all regions and extensive efficiency standards for appliances, which will be particularly important as China continues to grow. Targeting new buildings in major cities like Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing, to achieve 65 per cent greater energy efficiency than local codes require. Closing thousands of older, smaller, dirtier power plants by 2010. China understands the economic development potential in clean energy technologies. Even the noted journalist Thomas Friedman has remarked that 'China is going green in a big way,' using domestic demand for cleaner energy to build low-cost, scalable green technologies. Suntech Power Holdings - now the world's largest solar photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturer, with operations around the globe - was just one of dozens of solar companies that realised the opportunity provided by

  1. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  2. Solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  3. Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.

  4. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  5. Intégration des systèmes à absorption solaire de petites puissances aux bâtiments - approche multifonction solaire : chauffage, ECS et rafraîchissement

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Noel

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of new low capacity absorption chillers opens new prospects for the multifunction multisource solar systems (MFSSYS) which exploit the full potential of the solar energy for heating, cooling and production of domestic hot water (DHW) purposes. The solar combisystems (SCS), which preceded the MFSSYS, lacked an adapted procedure for the sizing of their main components: the solar collector and the solar thermal storage tank. From the point of view of the energy and investment co...

  6. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club

    2010-01-01

    Le CERN Solar-Club vous invite à la présentation de sa participation dans : The Cyprus Institute Solar Car Challenge du 18 au 20 juin à Chypre . en réponse à l’invitation dudit institut, dans le cadre de la demande de Chypre pour joindre le CERN . Le Club y participera avec son vénérable Photon rénové , et la Dyane E-Solaire d’un de ses membres, rénové aussi . Après la présentation, le forum est ouvert pour toutes vos questions et propositions diverses, également dans d’autres domaines des énergies renouvelables . C’est aussi l’occasion pour joindre le Club ! Où, et Quand ? Le Mercredi 7 Avril à 19 h 00, au 6ème étage du Bât. Principal, (60-6-015) à la suite de l’AG des membres du Club , à 18h00 dans...

  7. Solar Heating and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, John A.; Beckman, William A.

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent research that has made solar energy economically competitive with other energy sources. Includes solar energy building architecture, storage systems, and economic production data. (MLH)

  8. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  9. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  10. Fast Solar Sailing for Solar System Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Practical spinning solar sails will be needed for the most demanding and scientifically compelling solar sail missions of the future. The "heliogyro" is potentially...

  11. Solar neutrinos and nonradial solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.T.; Gavryuseva, E.A.; Kopysov, Yu.S.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of origin of surface solar oscillations is considered. It is assumed that generation of oscillations is performed by the solar nucleus. The necessary excitation condition for gravitational oscillations of the solar nucleus is a sharp decrease of the oscillation amplitude outside the nucleus, where the nuclear reaction rates are small and only radiation losses are considerable. It is shown that the specific singularities of gravitational wave propagation in solar entrails permit to attain a significant reduction of the oscillation amplitude. The solar entrails can serve as an effective trap for gravitational waves, if the substance of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. In order that the g 1 quadrupole mode of the solar nucleus has a period of 2h 40 min and sharply decreases in the solar mantle, it is enough that only the external part of the solar nucleus is close to the state of convectional equilibrium. Closeness of the solar nucleus to the state of convectional equilibrium is an argument in favour of its periodic mixing. Periodic mixing of the solar nucleus can serve as a cause of a low counting rate of solar neutrinos in R.Davis chlorous detector

  12. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  13. EDITORIAL Solar harvest Solar harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The first observations of the photoelectric effect date back to the early 19th century from work by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel, Heinrich Hertz, Wilhelm Hallwachs and J J Thomson. The theory behind the phenomena was clarified in a seminal paper by Einstein in 1905 and became an archetypical feature of the wave-particle description of light. A different manifestation of quantised electron excitation, whereby electrons are not emitted but excited into the valence band of the material, is what we call the photoconductive effect. As well as providing an extension to theories in fundamental physics, the phenomenon has spawned a field with enormous ramifications in the energy industry through the development of solar cells. Among advances in photovoltaic technology has been the development of organic photovoltaic technology. These devices have many benefits over their inorganic counterparts, such as light-weight, flexible material properties, as well as versatile materials' synthesis and low-cost large-scale production—all highly advantageous for manufacturing. The first organic photovoltaic systems were reported over 50 years ago [1], but the potential of the field has escalated in recent years in terms of efficiency, largely through band offsetting. Since then, great progress has been made in studies for optimising the efficiency of organic solar cells, such as the work by researchers in Germany and the Netherlands, where investigations were made into the percentage composition and annealing effects on composites of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) [2]. Hybrid devices that aim to exploit the advantages of both inorganic and organic constituents have also proven promising. One example of this is the work reported by researchers in Tunisia and France on a systematic study for optimising the composition morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK), which also led to insights

  14. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the knowledge about solar flares which has been obtained through observations from the earth and from space by various methods is presented. High-resolution cinematography is best carried out at H-alpha wavelengths to reveal the structure, time history, and location of flares. The classification flares in H alpha according to either physical or morphological criteria is discussed. The study of flare morphology, which shows where, when, and how flares occur, is important for evaluating theories of flares. Consideration is given to studies of flares by optical spectroscopy, radio emissions, and at X-ray and XUV wavelengths. Research has shown where and possibly why flares occur, but the physics of the instability involved, of the particle acceleration, and of the heating are still not understood. (IAA)

  15. Solar Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Solar Unlimited, Inc.'s suncatcher line includes a variety of solar arrays, derived from NASA's satellite program: water heating only, partial home heating, or water and whole house central heating. Solar Unlimited developed a set of vigorous requirements to avoid problems common to solar heating technologies.

  16. Solar workshops financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ten one-day workshops were held across the United States. Information in this workbook is compiled in conjunction with those workshops. The following discussions are included: solar as a fuel (history); why alternative fuels are being sought today; the need for conservation; advantages of solar energy; the potential of solar energy; why solar energy is not more widely used; a definition of solar; how solar can help meet energy demands; Federal policies and programs; what solar technologies exist today that can be effectively utilized (thermal applications, fuels from biomass, solar electric). Additional information is presented in three attachments: Energy-Conserving Methods; Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy; and DOE Secretary's Annual Report to Congress-Solar Section. (MCW)

  17. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  18. Hybrid Solar Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, UR; Umanand, L

    2010-01-01

    In the existing traditional solar cookers, the cooking is performed near the collector which may be at an inconvenient location for cooking purposes. This paper proposes a hybrid solar cooking system where the solar energy is brought to the kitchen. The energy source is a combination of the solar thermal energy and the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) that is very common in kitchens. The solar thermal energy is transferred to the kitchen by means of a circulating fluid like oil. The transfer of ...

  19. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  20. Development of Solar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Axel D.; Wolfschmidt, Gudrun; Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Originally based on a workshop on “Development of Solar Research”, held in Freiburg/Breisgau, this book contains articles on megalithic structures, the Nebra sky-disk, ancient sun cults, the observation of sunspots, the photography of the sun during eclipses, eclipse maps and expeditions, solar telescopes, solar physics during the Nazi era, archives of solar observations, scientific ballooning for solar research, site-testing on the Canary Islands, as well as on international cooperation.

  1. Solar Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar Club

    2012-01-01

      Le  CERN Solar Club tiendra son Assemblée Générale le Mercredi  4 avril, à 18h00 dans la salle C, bat.61, 1e étage de 18h00  à  19h30. Grande table ronde avec  présentations de projets concernant toute forme d’Energie  Renouvelable par des membres du club,  et… par  VOUS, nos invités. Au programme : - L’E-push : petite remorque électrique, qui pousse vôtre vélo par Robert Becker. - Le Stockage Saisonnier Sous-Lacustre d’Energie Solaire (S3LES) par  William van Sprolant. - Compte-Rendu de plusieurs conférences récentes concernant les E.R. par Jacques Dupin. - VOS  Projets ou Sujets (contactez : paul.gelissen@orange.fr). - Partie «administrative» avec rapport d’activités, rapport fina...

  2. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  3. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  4. Principles of solar engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, D Yogi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Solar Energy ConversionGlobal Energy Needs and ResourcesSolar EnergyEnergy StorageEconomics of Solar SystemsSummary of RE ResourcesForecast of Future Energy MixReferencesFundamentals of Solar RadiationThe Physics of the Sun and Its Energy TransportThermal Radiation FundamentalsSun-Earth Geometric RelationshipSolar RadiationEstimation of Terrestrial Solar RadiationModels Based on Long-Term Measured Horizontal Solar RadiationMeasurement of Solar RadiationSolar Radiation Mapping Using Satellite DataReferencesSuggested ReadingsSolar Thermal CollectorsRadiative Properties and Characteristics of MaterialsFlat-Plate CollectorsTubular Solar Energy CollectorsExperimental Testing of CollectorsConcentrating Solar CollectorsParabolic Trough ConcentratorCompound-Curvature Solar ConcentratorsCentral Receiver CollectorFresnel Reflectors and LensesSolar Concentrator SummaryReferencesSuggested ReadingThermal Energy Storage and TransportThermal Energy StorageTypes of TESDesign of Storage SystemEnergy Transport ...

  5. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  6. Solar Thermal Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    Solar Thermal Energy Technology (PST) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide research and development information that would expand the technology base required for the advancement of solar thermal systems as a significant energy resource.

  7. Solar power roof shingle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon solar cell module provides both all-weather protection and electrical power. Module consists of array of circular silicon solar cells bonded to fiberglass substrate roof shingle with fluorinated ethylene propylene encapsulant.

  8. Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A searchable database of all Solar Dynamics Observatory data including EUV, magnetograms, visible light and X-ray. SDO: The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first...

  9. Aeronet Solar Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  10. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar engineering 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, D.E.; Hogan, R.E.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 83 papers constitutes the Proceedings of the 1994 International Solar Energy Conference held March 27--30, 1994 in San Francisco, California. The Conference was jointly sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Japan Solar Energy Society. This is the fourth cooperation between ASME, JSME and JSES in cosponsoring the International Solar Energy Conference. The papers cover a wide range of solar technologies from low temperature solar ponds and desalinization to high temperature concentrators for space applications and central receivers for terrestrial power generation. Other topics covered include solar detoxification of hazardous waste, dish Stirling systems, solar cooling, photovoltaics, building energy analysis and conservation, simulation, and testing and measurement techniques. All papers were indexed separately for the data base

  12. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  13. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tus of hybrid perovskite solar cells. 1. Introduction. Gradually, primary energy resources such as fossil fuels, coal, and natural gas are depleting, while the global energy consump- tion is increasing. Solar energy, along with wind, biomass, tidal, and geothermal sources is emerging as an answer to our energy- starved planet.

  15. Durable solar mirror films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Mark B.; Henderson, Andrew J.; Hebrink, Timothy J.; Katare, Rajesh K.; Jing, Naiyong; North, Diane; Peterson, Eric M.

    2017-02-14

    The present disclosure generally relates to durable solar mirror films, methods of making durable solar mirror films, and constructions including durable solar mirror films. In one embodiment, the present disclosure relates to a solar mirror film comprising: a multilayer optical film layer including having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion of less than about 30 ppm per percent relative humidity; and a reflective layer having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion.

  16. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  17. Experimenting with Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the author has had the opportunity to study the subject of solar energy and to get involved with the installation, operation, and testing of solar energy systems. His work has taken him all over the United States and put him in contact with solar experts from around the world. He has also had the good fortune of seeing some…

  18. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  19. Solar energy potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of solar energy as a national resource is discussed. Research and development programs for the development of eleven concepts are described to show the proposed funding for each year over a fifteen year period. The estimated energy contributions by period for each of the solar concepts are analyzed. The estimated impact of the solar concepts to the year 2020 are tabulated.

  20. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  1. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  2. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  3. Solar Proton Events in Six Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaly, Ishkov

    Based on materials the catalogs of solar proton events (SPE) in 1955 ‒ 2010 and list SPE for the current 24 solar cycle (SC) are examined confirmed SPE with E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 proton cm-2 s ster-1 (pfu) from Švestka and Simon’s (1955 - 1969) and 5 volumes Logachev’s (1970 - 2006) Catalogs of SPE. Historically thus it was formed, that the measurements of the proton fluxes began in the epoch “increased” solar activity (SC 18 ‒ 22), and includes transition period of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction from epoch “increased” to the epoch “lowered” solar activity (22 ‒ 23 SC). In current 24 SC ‒ first SC of the incipient epoch of “lowered” SA ‒ SPE realize under the new conditions, to that of previously not observed. As showed a study of five solar cycles with the reliable measurements of E> 10 MeV proton flux in excess of 1 pfu (1964 - 2013): ‒ a quantity of SPEs remained approximately identical in SC 20, 21, somewhat decreased in the initial solar cycle of the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (22), but it returned to the same quantity in, the base for the period of reconstruction, SC 23. ‒ Into the first 5 years of the each solar cycle development the rate of the proton generation events noticeably increased in 22 cycles of solar activity and returned to the average in cycles 23 and 24. ‒ Extreme solar flare events are achieved, as a rule, in the solar magnetic fields reconstruction period (August - September 1859; June 1991; October ‒ November 2003.), it is confirmed also for SPE: the extreme fluxes of solar protons (S4) except one (August 1972) were occurred in period of perestroika (SC 22 and 23). This can speak, that inside the epochs SA, when the generation of magnetic field in the convective zone works in the steady-state regime, extreme SPE are improbable. ‒ The largest in the fluxes of protons (S3, S4) occur in the complexes of the active regions flare events, where magnetic field more

  4. Solar radiation absorbing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  5. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  6. Solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The state of Israel has been a pioneer in the solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's solar domestic home heaters became commercially available. At the same time research work has been started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details of commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main Research and Development projects in industry, universities and research institutes. (authors)

  7. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  8. Frequency agile solar radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Tim S.

    2003-02-01

    The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a solar-dedicated, ground based, interferometric array optimized to perform broadband imaging spectroscopy from ~ 0.1-30+ GHz. It will do so with the angular, spectral, and temporal resolution required to exploit radio emission from the Sun as a diagnostic of the wide variety of astrophysical processes that occur there. FASR represents a major advance over existing radioheliographs, and is expected to remain the world's premier solar radio instrument for two decades or more after completion. FASR will be a versatile and powerful instrument, providing unique data to a broad users community. Solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physicists will exploit FASR to attack a broad science program, including problems of fundamental interest: coronal magnetography, solar flares and particle acceleration, drivers of space weather, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. A design study and implementation planning are underway. Recent progress is reviewed here.

  9. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  10. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  11. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  12. Solar engineering of thermal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Duffie, John A

    2013-01-01

    The updated fourth edition of the ""bible"" of solar energy theory and applications Over several editions, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes has become a classic solar engineering text and reference. This revised Fourth Edition offers current coverage of solar energy theory, systems design, and applications in different market sectors along with an emphasis on solar system design and analysis using simulations to help readers translate theory into practice. An important resource for students of solar engineering, solar energy, and alternative energy as well

  13. Solar energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, A.; Winter, R.

    1993-07-01

    Many aspects with regard to the practical use of solar energy are discussed. This guide is aimed at informing local and regional administrators, committee members of housing corporations and public utilities and public relations officers on the possibilities to use solar energy. In chapter one an overview is given of the use of solar energy in the housing sector, the recreational sector, agricultural sector, industry, trade and other sectors. In the chapters two, three and four attention is paid to passive solar energy, active thermal solar energy and photovoltaic energy respectively. In the chapters five and six aspects concerning the implementation of solar energy systems in practice are discussed. First an outline of the parties involved in implementing solar energy is given: the municipality, the energy utility, the province, local authorities, advisors, housing constructors and the occupants of the buildings. Then attention is paid to the consequences of implementing solar energy for the building inspection and regulations, the finances, energy savings and the environment. In chapter seven an overview is given of the subsidy regulations of the European Community, the Dutch national and local governments. Chapter contains addresses of solar thermal systems, photovoltaic systems and other institutes operating in the field of solar energy, as well as the titles of a number of brochures and courses. 51 figs., 7 tabs., 86 refs

  14. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  16. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Cuesta-Santianes, M. J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  17. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  18. Solar opacities constrained by solar neutrinos and solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    This review discusses the current situation for opacities at the solar center, the solar surface, and for the few million kelvin temperatures that occur below the convection zone. The solar center conditions are important because they are crucial for the neutrino production, which continues to be predicted about 4 times that observed. The main extinction effects there are free-free photon absorption in the electric fields of the hydrogen, helium and the CNO atoms, free electron scattering of photons, and the bound-free and bound-bound absorption of photons by iron atoms with two electrons in the 1s bound level. An assumption that the iron is condensed-out below the convection zone, and the opacity in the central regions is thereby reduced, results in about a 25 percent reduction in the central opacity but only a 5 percent reduction at the base of the convection zone. Furthermore, the p-mode solar oscillations are changed with this assumption, and do not fit the observed ones as well as for standard models. A discussion of the large effective opacity reduction by weakly interacting massive particles also results in poor agreement with observed p-mode oscillation frequencies. The much larger opacities for the solar surface layers from the Los Alamos Astrophysical Opacity Library instead of the widely used Cox and Tabor values show small improvements in oscillation frequency predictions, but the largest effect is in the discussion of p-mode stability. Solar oscillation frequencies can serve as an opacity experiment for the temperatures and densities, respectively, of a few million kelvin and between 0.1 and 10 g/cm 3 . Current oscillation frequency calculations indicate that possibly the Opacity Library values need an increase of typically 15 percent just at the bottom of the convection zone at 3 x 10 6 K. 41 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  19. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  20. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  1. Climate Fundamentals for Solar Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    The design of any solar heating system is influenced heavily by climate; in this bulletin, information on climate as related to solar heating is as related to solar heating is provided. Topics discussed include: (1) solar radiation; (2) degree days; (3) climate and calculations which make use of solar radiation and degree days; and (4)…

  2. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  3. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  4. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  5. Solar photocatalyzed process economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) cost estimates for solar water detoxification systems based on the best available information as of October 1990. Comparative costs are also provided for competitive conventional technologies which are presently applied in the water detoxification market. Although costs for solar photocatalytic systems are presently higher than those of competitive technologies, cost and performance improvements should lead to cost competitiveness by 1995

  6. Solar Asset Management Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, Aaron [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Zviagin, George [Ra Power Management, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Ra Power Management (RPM) has developed a cloud based software platform that manages the financial and operational functions of third party financed solar projects throughout their lifecycle. RPM’s software streamlines and automates the sales, financing, and management of a portfolio of solar assets. The software helps solar developers automate the most difficult aspects of asset management, leading to increased transparency, efficiency, and reduction in human error. More importantly, our platform will help developers save money by improving their operating margins.

  7. Profile in solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.; Woods, A.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews an innovative solar hot water heater and its inventor/entrepreneur. It includes the inventor's strategy for developing and marketing the product and his ideas on the state of the solar industry in general. There is a brief description of the solar water heater which has as prominent features its skylight-like appearance, resistance to freeze damage, simplicity and low cost

  8. Rectenna solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Rectenna Solar Cells discusses antenna-coupled diode solar cells, an emerging technology that has the potential to provide ultra-high efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion. This book will provide an overview of solar rectennas, and provide thorough descriptions of the two main components: the diode, and the optical antenna. The editors discuss the science, design, modeling, and manufacturing of the antennas coupled with the diodes. The book will provide concepts to understanding the challenges, fabrication technologies, and materials required to develop rectenna structures. Written by e

  9. Solar and interplanetary disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Alurkar, S K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last three decades, a spate of solar wind observations have been made with sophisticated ground-based and space-borne instruments. Two highly successful space missions of the Skylab and the twin spacecraft Helios 1 and 2 have amassed an invaluable wealth of information on the large scale structure of the inner heliosphere, the solar and interplanetary magnetic field, coronal holes, interplanetary dust, solar windflows, etc.Solar and interplanetary propagating phenomena have been extensively studied during the last two decades. Very recently, a new simple model based on results from a

  10. CERN... Solar Style

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Inventor William van Sprolant presenting the Solar Club's latest invention, the solar fountain. The CERN Solar Club is giving new meaning to the phrase 'fun in the sun' with their most recently developed contraption, the Solar Fountain. The Fountain was presented to the public just outside of Restaurant 1 on Wednesday October, 17th and uses solar energy to run a water pump at its base to propel a golden plastic ball up into the air. As lovely as the fountain is, the funny thing about it is that the height of the water jet and the ball are an artistic method of measuring the amount of solar power being captured by the photovoltaique panel (no batteries included). The day it was presented started out cloudy, but as the afternoon wore on, the weather brightened and the fountain jumped to life. William van Sprolant, the Solar Fountain's inventor, had great fun with the fountain in front of a group of visiting children swiveling the solar panel in multiple directions. 'Everyone who installs solar panels worrie...

  11. Solar Cycle Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as you consume the reduced propellant load more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future will be discussed.

  12. Harnessing solar heat

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  13. Solar neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial {sup 51}Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs.

  14. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  15. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  16. Solar Stereoscopy and Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Aschwanden

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We review stereoscopic and tomographic methods used in the solar corona, including ground-based and space-based measurements, using solar rotation or multiple spacecraft vantage points, in particular from the STEREO mission during 2007--2010. Stereoscopic and tomographic observations in the solar corona include large-scale structures, streamers, active regions, coronal loops, loop oscillations, acoustic waves in loops, erupting filaments and prominences, bright points, jets, plumes, flares, CME source regions, and CME-triggered global coronal waves. Applications in the solar interior (helioseismic tomography and reconstruction and tracking of CMEs from the outer corona and into the heliosphere (interplanetary CMEs are not included.

  17. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  18. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    After the bad year of 2002, the european solar thermal market returned to double-digit growth rate in 2003: 22%. Nevertheless, the sector still has not recovered the growth rate it had in the early 2000 and European Commission targets are still far from being reached. This paper presents the thermal solar industry barometer. Data on the evolution of annually installed surfaces in the european union since 1993, the cumulated capacity of thermal collectors installed in the European Union, the estimation of the annual energy production associated to european solar thermal capacities and the main companies of the European Union thermal solar sector are presented and discussed. (A.L.B.)

  19. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  20. Solar Public Observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.

    2002-01-01

    Now in Japan, there are more than fifty astronomical educational facilities which have solar telescopes, for example, public observatories and science museums. Because many of the solar telescopes have H-alpha filters, such active chromospheric phenomena as solar flares and prominences are easily presented to the public. Though the objects of these solar telescopes must be mainly education and public outreach, they have enough good performance to contribute to solar research. But, the staff in the most of facilities don't know well how to observe the sun and how to understand the solar phenomena. So, we started two attempts in order to support their solar observations. One is the administration of the "Solar Telescope Mailing List (solnet ML)". The purpose is exchanges of information on solar daily phenomena, instruments of solar telescopes, and solar articles. Almost one hundred solar observers use actively this mailing list. The other is the arrangement of the "Solar Telescope Workshop", which were held in 2000 and 2001. These workshops provide a chance for staff in public observational facilities to study observational methods, to learn educational techniques using solar observations, and to show their observational results on solar active phenomena. These two attempts also play a role to link public observers with professional solar researchers. In this presentation, we review the current situation of public solar observations in Japan and introduce solar images observed with the public educational facilities. In addition, we would like to mention what we hope for professional solar researchers.

  1. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Samy A.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined

  2. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  3. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  4. Solar Neutrons and Related Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Lev

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive compilation and review of the extensive body of experimental and theoretical material on solar neutrons and related phenomena published in the scientific literature over the last sixty years. Phenomena related to solar neutrons are more specifically: the decay products of solar neutrons solar gamma rays generated in processes like nuclear reactions between solar energetic charged particles and matter of the solar atmosphere, as well as by the capture of solar neutrons by hydrogen atoms in the solar atmosphere the propagation of solar neutrons, solar gamma rays and other secondary particles through the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona, as well as through interplanetary space and through the Earth's atmosphere. Models and simulations of particle acceleration, interactions, and propagation processes show that observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays in space and in the Earth's atmosphere yield essential and unique information on the source function of ene...

  5. Solar: California, not dreaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-03-15

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in January 2006. The CSI is the largest solar programme of this kind ever in the USA and provides for $3.2 billion in incentives for solar projects between 2007 and 2017. The PUC will oversee a $2.5 billion programme to provide funding for solar installations on commercial and existing residential buildings, while the California Energy Commission (CEC) will manage a separate $350 million fund targeted at new residential building. Existing solar programmes operated by the PUC and CEC will be consolidated into the CSI. The CEC programme will use already allocated funding, but the PUC programme will be funded through revenues collected from customers of the main gas and electric utilities in California. Funds will be distributed via rebates to householders or companies that install solar. As well as solar photovoltaics (PV), rebates will also go to solar thermal power (concentrating solar power) and solar heating and cooling. CSI funding can be used in combination with existing federal tax credits. The aim is a gradual increase from installation of 40 MW of PV in 2005 to 100 MW by 2009. The CSI is also expected to create favourable market conditions for PV manufacturers in California and to encourage investment in production of solar-grade silicon in or near California. Objections from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) appear to have been overcome but a number of other potential snags remain. CSI is expected to be replicated in other US states.

  6. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAHATA, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consis...

  7. The Solar Energy Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

    This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

  8. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  9. Priority to solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    There are many different combinations of solar heating systems and heat pumps in the market; some of them differ considerably in terms of the design concept, control management and storage technology. One thing they all have in common is that solar heating comes first.

  10. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  11. The lower solar atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low chromosphere in the context of chemical composition studies. The highly dynamical nature of the photosphere does not seem to jeopardize precise determination of solar abundances in classical fashion. It is still an open question how

  12. Development of Solar Scintillometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... A photodiode is used as the detector. The telescope along with detector was obtained from National Solar Observatory (NSO), and is similar to the one used for Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) site survey. At USO we developed the amplifier and data acquisition system for the scintillometer.

  13. Solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 2 ... We first present the allowed areas obtained from global solar analysis and demonstrate the preference of the solar data towards the large-mixing-angle (LMA) MSW ... Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India.

  14. Million Solar Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Since its announcement in June 1997, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative has generated a major buzz in communities, states, and throughout the nation. With more than 300,000 installations, the buzz is getting louder. This brochure describes Million Solar Roofs activities and partnerships.

  15. Solar neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    The special properties of solar neutrinos that render this flux so uniquely important in searches for neutrino masses and flavor mixing are reviewed. The effects of matter, including density fluctuations and turbulence, on solar neutrino oscillations are explained through analogies with more familiar atomic physics phenomena

  16. The thermodynamic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, B.

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  17. Sunmotor Solar Shack 120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article described a solar pump that was developed by Alberta-based Sunmotor International Ltd. The prototype Solar Shack 120 was recently deployed in central Alberta for a remediation project for Devon Canada. The portable solar pump unit is well suited for environmental remediation in the oilpatch where conventional electricity is not available. The solar panels automatically run the pump whenever there is enough sunlight and there is liquid in the sump. Devon Canada wanted a system that continues to pump during cloudy weather to avoid the accumulation of effluent in the sump. The Solar Shack 120 delivers 120 volts of alternating current (vac) power. Solar panels are used to charge a bank of large sealed batteries that supply direct power (DC) to an inverter, which converts it into AC. A thermostat control was added to shut off the pumps in cold weather to avoid battery discharging. The Solar Shack unit has possibilities in countries with unreliable electricity supplies. It could provide a backup power supply that automatically kicks in whenever the power grid goes down. Sunmotor International Ltd. can supply complete remote power systems for both AC and DC electrical requirements. The systems are designed for each application to ensure customer satisfaction. The company is currently building a unit that integrates solar power with a generator backup, thereby eliminating the annoying noise of a continually running generator. 1 fig

  18. Pioneering with Solar Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, George; Pollack, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of Mississippi County Community College's (MCCC's) solar energy system. Explains the functioning of the campus's computer-controlled photovoltaic concentrator system, MCCC's cooperative agreement with the Arkansas-Missouri Power Company, program funding, the integration of the solar system with other building components,…

  19. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  20. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  1. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Ambastha is with the Udaipur Solar. Observatory, Physical. Research Laboratory. He is involved in the observations and modelling of solar activity and magnetic fields since. 1983. He is presently leading the scientific programs of the. Observatory. He is associated with the. GONG project since 1986. His other ...

  2. The solar neutrino problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solar neutrino problem, the longstanding disagreement between the measured and predicted neutrino flux from the Sun, has moved from being a curiosity of solar physics to a research problem that now commands the attention of a large number of physicists who have at their disposal impressive experimental ...

  3. Solar energy in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, H.

    1981-12-01

    The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

  4. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  5. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  6. Solar collector overheating protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaman, M.J.; Griessen, R.P.

    Prismatic structures in a thermal solar collector are used as overheating protection. Such structures reflect incoming light efficiently back whenever less thermal power is extracted from the solar collector. Maximum thermal power is generated when the prismatic structure is surrounded by a

  7. Solar Technology Curriculum, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This curriculum guide contains lecture outlines and handouts for training solar technicians in the installation, maintenance, and repair of solar energy hot water and space heating systems. The curriculum consists of four modular units developed to provide a model through which community colleges and area vocational/technical schools can respond…

  8. MEMS Solar Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Grbovic, Dragoslav; Osswald, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using MEMS bimaterial structures to build highly efficient solar energy generators. This is a novel approach that utilizes developments in the area of bimaterial sensors and applies them in the field of solar energy harvesting.

  9. Solar air conditioning. Dresden colloquium; Solare Klimatisierung. Dresdner Kolloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Subjects: R + D activities in solar air conditioning; dessicative and evaporative cooling (DEC) - systems and components; Chances of solar air conditioning in Europe; Practical experience with solar-assisted air conditioning; Performance of a solar system at Lissabon; DEC system in the Alsenblock building, Berlin; Does solar air conditioning require specially designed buildings; Performance of solar heated adsorption refrigerators; Low-capacity absacity absorption systems for solar air conditioning. [German] Die Kolloquiumsschrift beinhaltet Unterlagen ueber die abgehandelten Themen. Sie lauten: F and E-Aktivitaeten im Bereich Solare Klimatisierung; SGK(DEC-Technik) - ausgefuehrte Anlagen und deren Komponenten; Chancen der solaren Klimatisierung in Europa; Erfahrungen mit der solarunterstuetzten Klimatisierung; Energieverbrauch und Regelung von SGK-Anlagen; Betriebserfahrungen einer Solaranlage in Lissabon; Realisierung der SGK im Alsenblock Berlin; Erfordert die solare Klimatisierung besondere Gebaeude?; Betriebserfahrungen mit solar beheizten Adsorptionskaeltemaschinen; Absorptionsanlagen kleiner Leistung fuer solare Klimatisierung. (orig.)

  10. The solarPACES strategy for the solar thermal breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, G.D.; Grasse, W.

    1997-01-01

    IEA(International Energy Agency)/SolarPACES(Solar Power and Chemical Energy systems)represents a world wide coalition for information sharing and collaboration on applications of concentrated solar energy. The current SolarPACES community has built up solar thermal system know-how over 15 years, is operating the three main solar test centres in the world. Its main activities are in the following four fields: solar thermal electric power systems, solar chemistry, solar technology and advanced applications and non-technical activities. The article presents the talk on the strategy of solarPACES given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. (A.A.D.)

  11. Solar Power System Design for the Solar Probe+ Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Kinnison, James; Fraeman, Martin; Roufberg, Lew; Vernon, Steve; Wirzburger, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Solar Probe+ is an ambitious mission proposed to the solar corona, designed to make a perihelion approach of 9 solar radii from the surface of the sun. The high temperature, high solar flux environment makes this mission a significant challenge for power system design. This paper summarizes the power system conceptual design for the solar probe mission. Power supplies considered included nuclear, solar thermoelectric generation, solar dynamic generation using Stirling engines, and solar photovoltaic generation. The solar probe mission ranges from a starting distance from the sun of 1 AU, to a minimum distance of about 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU, from the center of the sun. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 510 times AM0. This requires power systems that can operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  12. DOE facilities solar design handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, Bruce D.; Balcomb, J. Douglas

    1978-01-01

    This handbook covers design of solar heating systems for commercial and laboratory buildings at Department of Energy Facilities. It includes discussions of solar energy fundamentals, solar heating and cooling technology, systems, and components, as well as a discussion of solar system economics. Quantitative analysis, with generalized design and sizing curves, is presented for solar heating so that collector and other system parameters can be cost-economically sized without a computer simulation. Solar system design considerations and guidelines, as well as guidelines for developing subsystem specifications, are presented. Thus this handbook is both a primer for the solar novice and a reference manual for the solar system designer.

  13. Solar cell shingle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar cells were connected to connectors at the edge of the substrate through a connection to a common electrical bus or busses. An overlap area was arranged to receive the overlap of a cooperating similar shingle so that the cell portion of the cooperating shingle may overlie the overlap area of the roof shingle. Accordingly, the same shingle serves the double function of an ordinary roof shingle which may be applied in the usual way and an array of cooperating solar cells from which electrical energy may be collected.

  14. A Little Solar Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    Experiences from use of solar cookers in India and many other places are different. But the story which is based on a field study in Gujarat state of India shows that during last twenty years there has been a tendency that many families do not continue to use their solar cookers. The study shows...... that the tendency is related with the lack of compatibility of this new technology (solar cooker) with the everyday real-life conditions of the families. In principle the findings are supported by an evaluation report on a solar cooker project in Burkina Faso. The conclusion is that the user should be involved...... in the solar cooker technological development process....

  15. Risks of solar electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J. [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje (Yugoslavia)

    1993-12-31

    The main objectives of the study were to provide scientific bases for the definition of the possible role of solar electricity in the future national energy program and in particular for the establishment of an experimental solar electrostation at MASA. The national long term interest in solar electricity is justified by the environmental impacts of coal, the lack of other domestic energy sources and the favourable climate conditions. For decision-making purposes, a comparative risk analysis including some specific solar electricity characteristics was undertaken. Detailed methodological investigations have shown that the standard approach does not fully appreciate the energy cycle boundaries nor the time dependence of the consequence and that it omits to include the psychosomatic and psychological indicators. The proper accounting of the above factors leads to comparatively more favorable results for the solar electricity option. (author) 4 figs., 20 refs.

  16. Solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    The focus in the present Ph.D. thesis is on the active use of solar energy for domestic hot water and space heating in so-called solar combi systems. Most efforts have been put into detailed investigations on the design of solar combi systems and on devices used for building up thermal...... the thermal behaviour of different components, and the theoretical investigations are used to study the influence of the thermal behaviour on the yearly thermal performance of solar combi systems. The experimental investigations imply detailed temperature measurements and flow visualization with the Particle...... Image Velocimetry measurement method. The theoretical investigations are based on the transient simulation program TrnSys and Computational Fluid Dynamics. The Ph.D. thesis demonstrates the influence on the thermal performance of solar combi systems of a number of different parameters...

  17. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite, a newcomerin the solar cell industry has proved its potential forincreasing efficiency rapidly from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in2016. High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of theemerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attentionof researchers and technologists in the field.

  18. Delft's solar car wins Solar Challenge 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockels, J.W.; Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    There were remarkable scenes in Adelaide, Australia,on the afternoon of Wednesday 22 October 2003 when a swathe of orange spilled through the city. Barely visible at the heart of this burst of colour was the Nuna II, a futuristic vehicle which had just won the Solar Challenge 2003, a four-day

  19. Solar thermal and concentrated solar power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The European concentrated solar power plant market is steeling itself for tough time ahead. The number of projects under construction is a pittance compared with 2012 that was an excellent year for installations (an additional 802.5 MW of capacity recorded). This drop is the result of the moratorium on renewable energy power plants introduced by the Spanish government. The European solar thermal market is hardly any more encouraging . EurObserv'ER holds that it slipped for the fourth year in a row (it dropped 5.5% between 2011 and 2012). The newly-installed solar thermal collector surface area in the EU now stands at 3.4 million m 2 , far short of its 2008 installation record of 4.6 million m 2 . The EU's solar thermal base to date at the end of 2012 is 29.6 GWth with 2.4 GWth installed during the year 2012. This article gives tables gathering the figures of the production for every European country for 2012 and describes the market and the general trend for every EU member

  20. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of the emerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attention of researchers and technologists in the field. This article fo- cuses on the emergence, properties, and current research sta- tus of hybrid perovskite solar cells. 1. Introduction. Gradually, primary energy resources ...

  1. The Effects of Solar Irradience and Ambient Temperature on Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is abundant. It is however low grade energy and cannot be easily used in the form it occurs for work. Converting solar energy directly to electricity, using solar photovoltaic (PV) modules is however a low efficiency process. Optimizing this conversion, especially in the face of the high cost of solar panels, is thus ...

  2. Performances of solar water pumping station with solar tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V.V.; Vardanyan, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    For the solar water pumping stations ? solar tracking system with phototransistor is developed. On the basis of the experimental investigations the utility and efficiency of the PV water pumping station with solar tracker under different conditions of varying solar radiation in Armenia is shown

  3. Estimation of global solar radiation using solar PV and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is the prime energy source of hydrologic parameter such as evapotranspiration and aerodynamic parameter like wind. Knowledge of daily global solar radiation is important to estimate all solar energy related parameters. In this study, mean daily global solar radiation at Haramaya University (HU) and Dire ...

  4. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  5. Iron sulphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1984-12-01

    The abundant, naturally occurring natural compound pyrite (FeS2) can be used as a semiconducting material for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic solar cells. Unlike most of the intensively studied photoactive materials, pyrite solar cell production would never be limited by the availability of the elements or by their compatibility with the environment. An energy gap of 0.95 eV has been determined for pyrite, and it is noted that the theoretical efficiency limit for solar energy conversion in this material is of the order of 15-20 percent.

  6. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  7. Protetores solares Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Flor

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Health problems related to UV radiation can be minimized by the appropriate use of sunscreens. Different kinds of sunscreens are reported in the literature, even though there is a misleading denomination among them and few discussions are presented about how they work. This paper describes some important aspects in order to understand sunscreen phenomena such as: solar radiation effect, type of solar filters, protection mechanism, formulations and solar protection factor (SPF. Moreover the importance of Chemistry and the interdisciplinary studies related to sunscreens and cosmetic researches are emphasized.

  8. Solar powered Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  9. Solar cell array interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  10. Can solar power deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Emmott, Christopher J M

    2013-08-13

    Solar power represents a vast resource which could, in principle, meet the world's needs for clean power generation. Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology has demonstrated the potential of solar power to deliver on a large scale. Whilst the dominant PV technology is based on crystalline silicon, a wide variety of alternative PV materials and device concepts have been explored in an attempt to decrease the cost of the photovoltaic electricity. This article explores the potential for such emerging technologies to deliver cost reductions, scalability of manufacture, rapid carbon mitigation and new science in order to accelerate the uptake of solar power technologies.

  11. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  12. Analysis of Flat-Plate Solar Array and Solar Lantern

    OpenAIRE

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith; M. Sameera Sarma

    2014-01-01

    A very detailed theortical analysis of a solar array has been carried out based on established values of solar radiation data to predict the performance of solar lamp . The analysis is based on established theory about flat-plate collectors. Top heat loss coefficient (Ut), Bottom heat loss coefficient (Ub), Overall heat loss coefficient (Ul), Useful energy (Qu), efficiency (hp) of the flat-plate solar array and efficiency (hl) of the solar lantern has been calculated.

  13. Pyramid solar micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen

    2018-03-01

    A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.

  14. Four-cell solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  15. Data on incident solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Instrumentation for solar irradiance monitoring, and radiation scales are discussed in a survey of incident solar energy data. The absolute accuracy and intrinsic reliability of the values of the solar constant and zero air mass solar spectrum proposed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences as an ASTM standard are evaluated. Extraterrestrial observations are used for deriving solar irradiance data at ground level for widely varying atmospheric parameters, with special reference to air pollution. The effects of diffuse sky radiance and those of varying slopes of the solar energy collecting surface are examined. Average values of solar energy available at different locations in the United States are included.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  17. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  18. Molybdenum solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, K.; Cowan, G.A.; Bryant, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of the molybdenum solar neutrino experiment is to deduce the 8 B solar neutrino flux, averaged over the past several million years, from the concentration of 98 Tc in a deeply buried molybdenum deposit. The experiment is important to an understanding of stellar processes because it will shed light on the reason for the discrepancy between theory and observation of the chlorine solar neutrino experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy may lie in the properties of neutrinos (neutrino oscillations or massive neutrinos) or in deficiencies of the standard solar model. The chlorine experiment only measures the 8 B neutrino flux in current times and does not address possible temporal variations in the interior of the sun, which are also not considered in the standard model. In the molybdenum experiment, we plan to measure 98 Tc (4.2 Myr), also produced by 8 B neutrinos, and possibly 97 Tc (2.6 Myr), produced by lower energy neutrinos

  19. Solar Imagery - GONG

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  20. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  1. Solar ENA Imaging Coronagraph

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe solar energetic particles (SEPs) where they are accelerated. The one observation of...

  2. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraschuk, Dmitry Y

    2006-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Moscow State University as follows: Conjugated polymers are promising materials for many photonics applications, in particular, for photovoltaic and solar cell devices...

  3. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  4. Solar system sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The sites and materials involved in solar system sputtering of planetary surfaces are reviewed, together with existing models for the processes of sputtering. Attention is given to the interaction of the solar wind with planetary atmospheres in terms of the role played by the solar wind in affecting the He-4 budget in the Venus atmosphere, and the erosion and differentiation of the Mars atmosphere by solar wind sputtering. The study is extended to the production of isotopic fractionation and anomalies in interplanetary grains by irradiation, and to erosion effects on planetary satellites with frozen volatile surfaces, such as with Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Further measurements are recommended of the molecular form of the ejected material, the yields and energy spectra of the sputtered products, the iosotopic fractionation sputtering causes, and the possibility of electronic sputtering enhancement with materials such as silicates.

  5. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  6. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  7. Concentrating Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Lee A.; Loomis, James; Bhatia, Bikram; Bierman, David M.; Wang, Evelyn N.; Chen, Gang

    2015-12-09

    Solar energy is a bountiful renewable energy resource: the energy in the sunlight that reaches Earth in an hour exceeds the energy consumed by all of humanity in a year.(1) While the phrase “solar energy conversion” probably brings photovoltaic (PV) cells to mind first, PV is not the only option for generating electricity from sunlight. Another promising technology for solar energy conversion is solar–thermal conversion, commonly referred to as concentrating solar power (CSP).(2) The first utility-scale CSP plants were constructed in the 1980s, but in the two decades that followed, CSP saw little expansion.(3, 4) More recent years, however, have seen a CSP renaissance due to unprecedented growth in the adoption of CSP.(3, 5) Photographs of two operating CSP plants, a parabolic trough collector plant and a central receiver (or “power tower”), are shown here.

  8. Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kahler, Stephen W

    2008-01-01

    This report covers a basic research (6.1 level) task on solar-terrestrial interactions carried out in the Space Weather Center of Excellence over an 11-year period for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research...

  9. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  10. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  11. Solar results purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.

    2001-01-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  12. Solar Indices Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  13. Solar Imagery - GONG (Magnetogram)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  14. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  15. Solar Surface Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordlund Åke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the properties of solar convection that are directly observable at the solar surface, and discuss the relevant underlying physics, concentrating mostly on a range of depths from the temperature minimum down to about 20 Mm below the visible solar surface.The properties of convection at the main energy carrying (granular scales are tightly constrained by observations, in particular by the detailed shapes of photospheric spectral lines and the topology (time- and length-scales, flow velocities, etc. of the up- and downflows. Current supercomputer models match these constraints very closely, which lends credence to the models, and allows robust conclusions to be drawn from analysis of the model properties.At larger scales the properties of the convective velocity field at the solar surface are strongly influenced by constraints from mass conservation, with amplitudes of larger scale horizontal motions decreasing roughly in inverse proportion to the scale of the motion. To a large extent, the apparent presence of distinct (meso- and supergranulation scales is a result of the folding of this spectrum with the effective “filters” corresponding to various observational techniques. Convective motions on successively larger scales advect patterns created by convection on smaller scales; this includes patterns of magnetic field, which thus have an approximately self-similar structure at scales larger than granulation.Radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of solar surface convection can be used as 2D/3D time-dependent models of the solar atmosphere to predict the emergent spectrum. In general, the resulting detailed spectral line profiles agree spectacularly well with observations without invoking any micro- and macroturbulence parameters due to the presence of convective velocities and atmosphere inhomogeneities. One of the most noteworthy results has been a significant reduction in recent years in the derived solar C, N, and O abundances with

  16. COLOR- SENSITIZED SOLAR ELEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gish R. A.; Ranabkhat K.; Yatsenko A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices are a promising solution to the energy crisis, because they generate electricity directly from sunlight, without producing CO2. While color-sensitized batteries are the most studied element, mainly due to its low cost and high efficiency solar energy conversion into electricity. Until recently, the color-sensitized solar cells performance was less than 1%, however, the use of titanium dioxide as the anode material have greatly raised their efficiency. The advantages of ti...

  17. The solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the most recent findings on the solar system. The physical processes in the sun are presented, their interactions in the interplanetary space, and the planets and moons of the solar system. The sun and its moon are discussed in great detail. The text is supplemented by excellent satellite pictures, including the latest pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons. (HM) [de

  18. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    A short historical review of the technological advances; the current state and the perspectives of the materials for photovoltaic applications is made. Thereinafter, the general aspects of the physical principles and fundamental parameters that govern the operation of the solar cells are described. To way of the example, a methodology for the design and facilities size of a photovoltaic system is applied. Finally, the perspectives of photovoltaic solar energy in relationship to the market and political of development are mentioned

  19. Solar wind stream evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    Highlights of the recent progress in understanding the problem of high speed stream evolution with increasing heliocentric distance are reviewed. Crucial to this understanding are the measurements made in the inner solar system by Helios and the outer solar system by Pioneers 10 and 11. When coupled with observations at 1 AU these measurements allow a testing of current theoretical models of stream evolution. 21 references

  20. Solar fuels generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.

    2016-10-25

    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  1. Heating solar coronal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that the coronal hole, and the associated high-speed stream in the solar wind, are powered by a heat input of the order of 500,000 ergs/sq cm s, with most of the heat injected in the first 1-2 solar radii, and perhaps 100,000 ergs/sq cm s introduced at distances of several solar radii to provide the high speed of the issuing solar wind. The traditional view has been that this energy is obtained from Alfven waves generated in the subphotospheric convection, which dissipate as they propagate outward, converting the wave energy into heat. This paper reviews the generation of waves and the known wave dissipation mechanisms, to show that the necessary Alfven waves are not produced under the conditions presently understood to exist in the sun, nor would such waves dissipate significantly in the first 1-2 solar radii if they existed. Wave dissipation occurs only over distances of the order of 5 solar radii or more.

  2. Solar History An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the four centuries of sunspot observation and the five decades during which artificial satellites have monitored the Sun – that is to say for 99.99999% of the Sun’s existence – our knowledge of solar history depends largely on analogy with kindred main sequence stars, on the outcome of various kinds of modelling, and on indirect measures of solar activity. They include the analysis of lunar rocks and meteorites for evidence of solar flares and other components of the solar cosmic-ray (SCR) flux, and the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in wood, stratified ice and marine sediments to evaluate changes in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux and thus infer changes in the sheltering magnetic fields of the solar wind. In addition, shifts in the global atmospheric circulation which appear to result from cyclic fluctuations in solar irradiance have left their mark in river sediments and in the isotopic composition of cave deposits. In this volume the results these sources have already produced have bee...

  3. Advanced Solar Panel Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual-junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg.

  4. Solar powered dugout aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murrell, S.

    2001-10-01

    Pasture dugouts are a significant source of water for livestock on the Canadian Prairies and as such, must maintain the best water quality possible. Aeration improves the water quality and is part of a good management plan to reduce overall water treatment costs. Although dugouts can be aerated naturally through wind and wave action and photosynthesis, this generally aerates only the top portion of the dugout. Artificial aeration by air injection into the lowest point of the dugout ensures that the water is oxygenated throughout the entire dugout. Solar aeration can be used in remote areas where grid power is not practical. With solar powered aeration systems, solar panels are used to generate the electrical power needed to run the compressor while storing excess energy in batteries. A solar aeration system includes solar panels, deep cycle batteries to store excess power, a control board with a regulator, a compressor, a weighed feeder hose, and an air diffuser. This publication presented the design of a solar aeration system and its cost. 1 tab., 3 figs

  5. The Solar Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Hathaway

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev–Ohl (even-odd Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  6. Solar effects on communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, F.; Malcolm, W.; Nordell, D.E.; Zirker, J.

    1991-01-01

    When people involved in the power industry think of Solar Magnetic Disturbances (SMD), they normally consider the potential for disrupting power transmission which results form solar-induced disturbances to the earth's magnetic field known as geomagnetic storms. However, in addition to the disruption of power transmission, solar phenomena can interfere with utility communication systems. Utilities use many different types of communication media, some of which can be affected by various solar phenomena. These include wire-based facilities (metallic cables and power line carrier), radio systems (HF, VHF, UHF mobile radio, microwave networks, and satellite transmissions), and fiber optic systems. This paper reports that the solar flares and other solar phenomena can affect these media through different mechanisms: Radio communications can be disturbed by flare-induced changes in the ionispheric layer of the atmosphere; Cable communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced changes in the magnetosphere which surrounds the earth. These changes, in turn, induce currents in the power equipment that energizes long communications cables; Satellite communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced perturbations of satellite orbits and equipment

  7. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Yaghoobi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed “Heat Trap” effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  8. Simulations of Solar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmosphere, the solar wind acceleration, and the complexities of heat transfer throughout the corona.In the authors simulations, a jet is initiated as a magnetic dipole rotates at the solar surface, winding up field lines. Magnetic reconnection between the twisted lines and the background field then launches the jet from the dense and hot solar

  9. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the "solar neutrino problem". Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. (Communicated by Toshimitsu Yamazaki, M.J.A.).

  10. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAHATA, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. PMID:21558758

  11. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  12. Community Solar Value Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, John T [Extensible Energy; Cliburn, Jill [Cliburn and Associates

    2017-11-30

    The Community Solar Value Project (CSVP) is designed to assist electric utilities in designing better community solar programs. Better programs seek new sources of value to promote “win-win” solutions between utilities and their customers. The CSVP focused on five “challenge areas” in identifying new sources of value: - Strategic solar design for community solar projects (including technology choices, siting, orientation, and related issues) - Market research and targeted marketing approaches (for program design and for customer recruitment) - Procurement and financing (for establishing best practices that can bring economies of scale and economies of expertise) - Integration of “companion measures” (such as storage and demand-response options that can benefit customer and utility net load shapes) - Pricing in program design (including best practices for integration of identified value in program prices or credits) The CSVP directly engaged the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), and more than a dozen other utilities to develop improved community solar program designs. The outcomes include a plan at SMUD for over 100 MW or more of community and shared solar and support for new or expanded programs at 15 other utilities so far. Resulting best-practice solutions have not only informed program applications, but also have generated discussion among experts and industry associations about the new opportunities and challenges CSVP has brought forth. In these ways, the CSVP has impacted community solar programs and DER plans, competitive innovations and policies nationwide. The CSVP team has been led by Extensible Energy under John Powers, President and CEO. Jill Cliburn, of Santa Fe, NM-based Cliburn and Associates, has served as Principal Investigator. The team also benefitted from expertise from Navigant, Olivine Inc. and Millennium Energy, LLC, in addition to the collaborative and cost

  13. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  14. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  15. Solar structure without computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    We derive succinctly the equations of solar structure. We first present models of objects in hydrostatic equilibrium that fail as models of the sun in order to illustrate important physical requirements. Then by arguing physically that the pressure gradient can be matched to the simple function dP/dr = -kre/sup( -r//a) 2 , we derive a complete analytic representation of the solar interior in terms of a one-parameter family of models. Two different conditions are then used to select the appropriate value of the parameter specifying the best model within the family: (1) the solar luminosity is equated to the thermonuclear power generated near the center and/or (2) the solar luminosity is equated to the radiative diffusion of energy from a central region. The two methods of selecting the parameter agree to within a few percent. The central conditions of the sun are well calculated by these analytic formulas, all without aid of a computer. This is an original treatment, yielding much the best description of the solar center to be found by methods of differential and integral calculus, rendering it an excellent laboratory for applied calculus

  16. The outer solar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encrenaz T.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The outer solar system extends beyond a heliocentric distance of 5 AU. It contains the giant planets and their systems (rings and satellites, the Kuiper belt, the comets (except those which approach episodically the inner solar system and, at its outer edge, the Oort cloud. The outer solar system physically corresponds to the region located outside the « snow line » which corresponded to the distance of ice condensation in the protodolar disk, and thus made the frontier between the terrestrial and the giant planets at the time of the planets’ formation. The outer solar system is charaterized by a very large variety of ob jects, even within a given class of ob jects. Each of the giant planet has its own properties, as well as each of the outer satellites and the ring systems ; all are the products of specific conditions which determined their formation and evolution processes. The existence of the Kuiper belt, suspected on theoretical bases since the 1940s, has been confirmed since 1992 with the observation of over 1200 trans-neptunian ob jects. Thanks to the the developments of more and more performing groundbased instrumentation and the use of large telescopes, these ob jects are now studies in a statistical way, both dynamically and physically, and these studies are precious for constraining the early formation models of the solar system.

  17. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  18. Solar sphere viewed through the Skylab solar physics experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The solar sphere viewed through the Skylab solar physics experiment (S082) Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliographis seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The solar chromosphere and lower corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun characterized by the white light emissions. This image was recorded during the huge solar prominence which occurred on August 21, 1973.

  19. Winnebago Tribe Solar Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieman, Autumn [Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Solar Project (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The strategy of the Solar Project was to reduce fuel use within two years by a roof mounted photovoltaic system. The police/fire building is completely powered by electricity. The renewable energy system we have selected has a power capacity of 23kW and the ability to export 44.3 MWh. We anticipate 32.55% kWh energy savings, an excess of the required 30% reduction, in the building’s total fuel use based on the most current 12 months of data (2012). The solar electric system is a grid-tie, ballast mounted on a flat roof over the police/fire station. The solar electric system includes 280 Watt modules for a nominal total of 22.80 kW. Approximately 84 modules are ballast mounted to the flat roof facing south.

  20. Proton solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikova, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The observations of proton solar flares have been carried out in 1950-1958 using the extrablackout coronograph of the Crimea astrophysical observatory. The experiments permit to determine two characteristic features of flares: the directed motion of plasma injection flux from the solar depths and the appearance of a shock wave moving from the place of the injection along the solar surface. The appearance of the shock wave is accompanied by some phenomena occuring both in the sunspot zone and out of it. The consistent flash of proton flares in the other groups of spots, the disappearance of fibres and the appearance of eruptive prominences is accomplished in the sunspot zone. Beyond the sunspot zone the flares occur above spots, the fibres disintegrate partially or completely and the eruptive prominences appear in the regions close to the pole

  1. Solar maximum observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The successful retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite by Shuttle astronauts in April 1984 permitted continuance of solar flare observations that began in 1980. The SMM carries a soft X ray polychromator, gamma ray, UV and hard X ray imaging spectrometers, a coronagraph/polarimeter and particle counters. The data gathered thus far indicated that electrical potentials of 25 MeV develop in flares within 2 sec of onset. X ray data show that flares are composed of compressed magnetic loops that have come too close together. Other data have been taken on mass ejection, impacts of electron beams and conduction fronts with the chromosphere and changes in the solar radiant flux due to sunspots. 13 references

  2. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  3. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  4. Solar bowl component efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hair, E.A.; Green, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory has published two volumes on the economic evaluation of various proposed configurations and plant sizes for the four solar thermal technologies. These are the latest in a series of publications sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) on plant and operational costs and are more complete in that they include calculations of electrical output. These latest Battelle volumes use the 1976 solar data from Barstow, Calif., and by calculating or estimating the energy conversion efficiency of each element in the process from sun to electricity predict the output and cost of electricity from different plant sizes for each of the four technologies. In this paper a comparison is presented of the component efficiencies developed by Battelle and those of the solar bowl at Crosbyton, Tex

  5. International solar refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilavi, A.; Khalagi Asadi, M.

    2001-01-01

    An intermittent solar refrigeration system using ammonia as refrigerant and water as absorbent, is fabricated and tested in the Center for Renewable Energy Research and Application. In this system, using solar flat plate collectors, ammonia is separated from the water-ammonia solution with quality 60%, during the day and its cooling effect happens during the night time. The system can be used in areas with high solar intensity in Iran. A comparison between the theoretical and experimental results shows that the average amount of coefficient of performance are close (COP the =0.485, COP exp =0.432). This result represents the potent rol accessibility to temperature below 10 d eg C, while the ambient temperature is about 30 d eg C

  6. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... based on measurements on the Marstal plant, Denmark, and through comparison with published and unpublished data from other plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performance are repored, based on experiences from the last decade. For detailed designing, a computer simulation...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors...

  7. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  8. Solar ventilation and tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  9. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  10. Solar electricity potentials and optimal angles for mounting solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for harnessing solar energy using solar panels mounted at optimal inclination angles in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria is presented. The optimal angle for mounting solar panels as presented by Photovoltaic Geographic Information System (PVGIS) ranges from 11º to 14º in the Southern zone and 13º to 16º ...

  11. Solar energy in Uruguay. Increase the use of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, V.

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the future of the solar energy in Uruguay. The main aspects of this kind of energy are solar thermic which is used for cooking food and heating water through solar collectors as well as the photovoltaics which allows the generation of electricity

  12. The solar system barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Not all solar eclipses are fascinating visual spectacles. The 'eclipse' that the thermal solar sector underwent between the 1984 oil price's collapse and the beginning of the 90's almost succeeded in sending it straight into a 'black hole'. Luckily, the steadfastness of some sector professionals and the intrinsic qualities of an energy which can be adapted to a great number of different situations got the better of this difficult period. After ten lean years, the sector has been experiencing a new youth for the past four years now. (author)

  13. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  14. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  15. Characterization of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, J.; Tuominen, E.; Nybergh, K.; Ezer, Y.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sinkkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Electrical and Communications Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Photovoltaic research in the Electron Physics Laboratory started in 1993, when laboratory joined the national TEKES/NEMO 2 research program. Since the beginning of the project, characterization as well as experimentally orientated development of the fabrication process of the solar cells were carried out parallery. The process development research started by the initiatives of the Finnish industry. At the moment a large amount of the laboratory personnel works on solar cell research and the financing comes mainly from external projects. The funding for the research has come from TEKES, Ministry of Education, Finnish Academy, GETA graduate school, special equipment grants of the university, and from the laboratory

  16. Solar reflection panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Reshetnik, Michael [Boulder, CO

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  17. Solar energy in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijpe, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the Dutch energy distribution companies (REMU) applies integrated passive, thermal and photovoltaic solar energy systems in fifty newly built dwellings in Amersfoort, Netherlands. The houses are equipped with a combi-boiler (solar energy and natural gas) and 22.5m 2 photovoltaic panels to produce electricity. Six houses are equipped with an electric heat pump, while the other 44 houses have a high-efficiency low-NO x combi-boiler. The experiences with the project so-far are outlined. 6 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  18. Solar noise storms

    CERN Document Server

    Elgaroy, E O

    2013-01-01

    Solar Noise Storms examines the properties and features of solar noise storm phenomenon. The book also presents some theories that can be used to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. The coverage of the text includes topics that cover the features and behavior of noise storms, such as the observable features of noise storms; the relationship between noise storms and the observable features on the sun; and ordered behavior of storm bursts in the time-frequency plane. The book also covers the spectrum, polarization, and directivity of noise storms. The text will be of great use to astr

  19. Manhattan Solar Cannon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffers, Richard R.; Loisos, George; Ubbelohde, Susan; Douglas, Susanna; Pintos, Eduardo; Mulherin, James; Pasley, David

    2015-01-01

    We describe a 2.4 m hexagonal solar collector atop a Manhattan office building used for a solar / arts project. The collector uses an afocal design to concentrate the sunlight into a 0.6 m diameter beam which is directed by mirrors into a 80 m long fiber optic sculpture which descends an interior stairwell. The collector is fully steerable and follows the sun each day robotically. The control system and the optical design of the collector as well as the fiber optic sculpture will be discussed.

  20. Drainback solar thermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botpaev, R.; Louvet, Y.; Perers, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Although solar drainback systems have been used for a long time, they are still generating questions regarding smooth functioning. This paper summarises publications on drainback systems and compiles the current knowledge, experiences, and ideas on the technology. The collective research exhibits...... of this technology has been developed, with a brief description of each hydraulic typology. The operating modes have been split into three stages: filling, operation, and draining, which have been studied separately. A difference in the minimal filling velocities for a siphon development in the solar loop has been...

  1. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance and having low toxicity. Developing methods for the combination of the elements to produce binary, ternary and quaternary compounds has dominated research in the field. This chapter will provide the most recent developments (from year 2012 onwards) for the synthesis and use of colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cell applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  2. Future Directions in Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    I will discuss scientific opportunities for space-based solar physics instruments in the coming decade and their synergy with major new ground-based telescopes. l will also discuss ( pow small satellites may complement larger solar physics missions.

  3. Solar Week: Learning from Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.; Hauck, K.

    2003-12-01

    Solar Week is a week-long set of games and activities allowing students to interact directly with solar science and solar scientists. Solar Week was developed as a spin-off of the highly successful Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP). While YPOP provided access to solar images, movies and activities, the main goal of Solar Week was to enhance the participation of women, who are under-represented in the physical sciences. Solar Week achieves this by providing young women, primarily in grades 6-8, with access to role models in the sciences. The scientists participating in Solar Week are women from a variety of backgrounds and with a variety of scientific expertise. In this paper, our aim is to provide some insight into developing activity-based space science for the web and to discuss the lessons-learned from tailoring to a specific group of participants.

  4. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  5. Solar Leasing Summary, Houston Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mary [City of San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-02-14

    A relatively new option for homeowners looking to add solar to their home is the solar lease. At present, the solar lease option can be found in California, Arizona, Texas, Colorado, Hawaii, New York and Oregon. The most active companies currently offering solar leases are NRG Energy, Sungevity, Solar City and Sun Run. With the uncertainty and/or lack of subsidies the states participating in these programs have ebbed and flowed over the last few years. However, there is an expectation that in the current market solar leasing will make solar viable without the utility and federal subsidies. NRG Energy is currently testing this expectation in Houston, TX where currently no subsidies or incentives beyond the federal tax incentives, exist. Following is an explanation on the state of solar leasing in Houston, TX and explanation of the current financing options.

  6. Skylab 2 Solar Physics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Skylab 2 Solar Physics Experiment. This black and white view of a solar flare was taken from the skylab remote solar experiment module mounted on top of the vehicle and worked automatically without any interaction from the crew. Solar flares or sunspots are eruptions on the sun's surface and appear to occur in cycles. When these cycles occur, there is worldwide electromagnetic interference affecting radio and television transmission.

  7. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Solar Collector Manufacturing Activity 1990 report prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents summary and detailed data provided by domestic manufacturers on shipments of solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the period 1974 through 1990. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the period 1982 through 1990. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1990

  8. Million Solar Roofs Flyer (Revision)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2000-11-01

    The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced in June 1997, assists businesses and communities in installing solar energy systems on one million buildings across the United States by 2010. The US Department of Energy leads this trailblazing initiative by partnering with the building industry, local governments, state agencies, the solar industry, electric service providers, and non-governmental organizations to remove barriers and strengthen the demand for solar technologies.

  9. Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The experimental work in this thesis is focused on the fabrication of nanostructures that can be implemented in organic solar cell (OSC) architecture for enhancement of the device performance. Solar devices made from organic material are gaining increased attention, compared to their inorganic...... for organic solar cell applications, opening new patterning possibilities....

  10. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.; Janssen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited. [nl

  11. The solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, L.

    2004-05-01

    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  12. Guide for solar electricity projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jol, J.C.; Kil, A.J.; Van Schalkwijk, M.; De Vos, R.C.J.

    2003-04-01

    A large number of solar electricity projects are presented in this guideline to inform interested parties on the use of solar electricity in the built environment. The guideline shows the phases in the building process while for each phase (planning, design, contracting, realization, sale and usage) the most important aspects for the realization of a solar electricity project are discussed [nl

  13. When the solar energy pays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramee, V.

    1997-01-01

    In the californian desert of Mojave, the three biggest solar power plants in the world produce 90% of world solar electric power. They have been operating for ten years, and their managers go on to improve them. These installations beat the productivity record every year, proving that the thermal solar energy can be competitive. (N.C.)

  14. Solar energy technical training directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcoleotes, G; Kramer, K; O& #x27; Connor, K

    1979-06-01

    Available solar energy offerings in the technical training area are presented. Institutions are listed alphabetically by state. Each listing includes an institution address and phone number, solar programs or curricula offered, and detailed solar couse information. An alphabetical index of institutions in included. (MHR)

  15. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  16. Job creation potential of solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    This document defines the size of the job market within Canada's solar industry and presents a preliminary forecast of the employment opportunities through to 2025. The issue of job potential within Canada's solar technologies is complicated by the wide range of different fields and technologies within the solar industry. The largest energy generator of the solar technologies is passive solar, but the jobs in this sector are generally in the construction trades and window manufacturers. The Canadian Solar Industries Association estimates that there are about 360 to 500 firms in Canada with the primary business of solar technologies, employing between 900 to 1,200 employees. However, most solar manufacturing jobs in Canada are for products exports as demonstrated by the 5 main solar manufacturers in Canada who estimate that 50 to 95 per cent of their products are exported. The main reason for their high export ratio is the lack of a Canadian market for their products. The 3 categories of job classifications within the solar industry include manufacturing, installation, and operations and maintenance. The indirect jobs include photovoltaic system hardware, solar hot water heating, solar air ventilation, and glass/metal framing. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  17. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  18. Solar 79 Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, S [ed.

    1979-01-01

    The highlights of the many public programs are described and summaries of plenary session speeches are included. Names, addresses, and solar interest codes of conference registrants are included. Eleven technical papers or summaries are included. A separate citation was prepared for each one. (MHR)

  19. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and is invisible to powerful telescopes in visible, X-ray or radio wavelengths. Photospheric features such as ..... gaps. 3000. 3100. 3200. GENERAL I ARTICLE which the light from entire solar disk is mixed together. In such observations, the Doppler shifts corresponding to the high degree modes, which have small structures ...

  20. Junior Solar Sprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Aisling

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) that engages students in building solar cars in groups with kits that include a three volt panel. The design and engineering decisions are made by the students using pertinent information. (DDR)

  1. Solar absorption surface panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  2. Generating inexpensive solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    In the last few years the solar thermal industry has invested quite a lot in the optimisation of their manufacturing. Rising material and raw material costs have negated the effects of lower production costs, however. The sector is now calling for better research support in a new strategy paper. (orig.)

  3. Solar Coronal Plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar plumes are thin long ray-like structures that project beyond the limb of the Sun polar regions, maintaining their identity over distances of several solar radii. Plumes have been first observed in white-light (WL images of the Sun, but, with the advent of the space era, they have been identified also in X-ray and UV wavelengths (XUV and, possibly, even in in situ data. This review traces the history of plumes, from the time they have been first imaged, to the complex means by which nowadays we attempt to reconstruct their 3-D structure. Spectroscopic techniques allowed us also to infer the physical parameters of plumes and estimate their electron and kinetic temperatures and their densities. However, perhaps the most interesting problem we need to solve is the role they cover in the solar wind origin and acceleration: Does the solar wind emanate from plumes or from the ambient coronal hole wherein they are embedded? Do plumes have a role in solar wind acceleration and mass loading? Answers to these questions are still somewhat ambiguous and theoretical modeling does not provide definite answers either. Recent data, with an unprecedented high spatial and temporal resolution, provide new information on the fine structure of plumes, their temporal evolution and relationship with other transient phenomena that may shed further light on these elusive features.

  4. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the European solar thermal market put on a strong spurt only to mark time in 2009 with about 4.2 million m 2 installed, which is 450000 m 2 less year-on-year. The main reasons of the decrease is the financial crisis and the low oil price, other reasons more specific to the country exist, for instance the property crisis has dragged the Spanish market down. In 2009, the solar thermal collector surface area in service in the European Union is of the magnitude of 32.6 million m 2 , equivalent to a capacity of 22.8 GWTh. The solar thermal sector is one of the renewable sectors that creates the highest number of jobs and wealth, partly because the vast majority of the system components sold in Europe are produced in Europe and partly because the sale, installation fitting and maintenance are labour-intensive. In 2009, there were 50000 direct or indirect jobs in the European solar thermal sector. The main European actors in this sector are GREENoneTEC, Bosch-Thermotechnik, Viessmann, Vaillant and Solvis. No clear recovery is expected before 2011. (A.C.)

  5. Solar System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2002-01-01

    In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

  6. Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite, a newcomerin the solar cell industry has proved its potential forincreasing efficiency rapidly from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in2016. High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of theemerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attentionof researchers and technologists in the field.

  7. Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    weather were associated with huge ejections of plasma from the solar corona, which took the form of magnetic clouds when moved from the Sun. It is the collisions of the magnetic clouds with the Earth's magnetosphere that lead to ...

  8. Concentrating solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelli, Enzo; Vignolini, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy can be used instead of fossil fuels to produce high-temperature heat for use in many industrial processes and in electricity generation. If carried out on a large scale, the replacement would make it possible to reduce harmful emissions and stabilise the global climate over the long term. ENEA has an innovative project in this sector [it

  9. solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    measurements can also provide information on direction and energy of the incoming neutrinos. The electron scattering reaction used in sK and sNO has excellent directional sensitivity. In fact through this reaction the Kamiokande experiment first demonstrated the solar origin of the neutrinos. The left panel in figure 1 plots ...

  10. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  11. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General Article Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 18-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Simulating solar MHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schüssler

    Full Text Available Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse' are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 105 G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.

    Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies.

  13. Solar water disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [Universal Recycled Water Systems, Orlando, FL (United States); Collier, R. [Enerscope, Inc., Merritt Island, FL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Non-potable drinking water is a major problem for much of the world`s population. It has been estimated that from 15 to 20 million children under the age of 5 die from diarrheal conditions brought on by infected drinking water every year. This is equivalent to a fully-loaded DC-10 crashing every ten minutes of every day, 365 days a year. Heat is one of the most effective methods of disinfecting drinking water. Using conventional means of heating water (heating on an open-flamed stove) results in an extremely energy-intensive process. The main obstacle is that for areas of the world where potable water is a problem, fuel supplies are either too expensive, not available, or the source of devastating environmental problems (deforestation). The apparatus described is a solar-powered water disinfection device that can overcome most if not all of the barriers that presently limit technological solutions to drinking water problems. It uses a parabolic trough solar concentrator with a receiver tube that is also a counterflow heat exchanger. The system is totally self-contained utilizing a photovoltaic-powered water pump, and a standard automotive thermostat for water flow control. The system is designed for simplicity, reliability and the incorporation of technology readily accessible in most areas of the world. Experiments at the Florida Solar Energy Center have demonstrated up to 2,500 liters of safe drinking water per day with 28 square meters of solar concentrator.

  14. Solar extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  15. Solar Curriculum Guides, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This document contains an outline for a curriculum to train solar energy technicians in community colleges. The guide contains eight courses, each of which is divided into one to five modules. Modules, in turn, are divided into units, and units contain student handouts appropriate to the material. The following eight courses are included in this…

  16. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  17. Solar Fuel Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  18. The New Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the details of bodies making up our solar system have been revised. This was largely as a result of new discoveries of a number of planet-like objects beyond the orbit of Pluto. The International Astronomical Union redefined what constituted a planet and established two new classifications--dwarf planets and plutoids. As a result, the…

  19. The Nano Solar Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Lindgren, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ISO PAINT Nordic A/S produces roof coatings, facade painting as well as specialised products for surface treatments. The company decided that they would develop a nano solar ICT based project having the capacity to change the whole cost structure of a building, for example by a nano roof coating...

  20. Solar Energy Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Harvey, Ed.

    Twenty articles addressing different aspects of solar energy are compiled in this book. They represent the views of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, members of congress, and other individuals including, for example, Barry Commoner and Amory Lovins. Topics discussed include the need for federal support, passive solar…

  1. Nature's Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Nature's Solar Cell. Stephen Suresh Gautham Nadig. Research News Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/02/0102-0104 ...

  2. solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sRUBABATI GOsWAMI. Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Email: sruba@mri.ernet.in. Abstract. This article summarises the status of the solar neutrino oscillation phe- nomenology at the end of 2002 in the light of the SNO and KamLAND results. We first present the allowed ...

  3. Solar Thermal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, David K.

    The different approaches to the generation of power from solar energy may be roughly divided into five categories: distributed collectors; central receivers; biomass; ocean thermal energy conversion; and photovoltaic devices. The first approach (distributed collectors) is the subject of this module. The material presented is designed to…

  4. Solar Sea Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  5. Solar System Update

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    This book, the first in a series of forthcoming volumes, consists of topical and timely reviews of a number of carefully selected topics in solar systemn science. Contributions, in form of up-to-date reviews, are mainly aimed at professional astronomers and planetary scientists wishing to inform themselves about progress in fields closely related to their own field of expertise.

  6. Solar Power Sources: PV, Concentrated PV, and Concentrated Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  7. Solar Power Sources: PV, Concentrated PV, and Concentrated Solar Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address......Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  8. Monitoring of the solar activity and solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akioka, Maki; Kubo, Yuki; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Ohtaka, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Solar activity is the source of various space weather phenomena in geospace and deep space. Solar X-ray radiation in flare, energetic particles, coronal mass ejection (CME) can cause various kind of disturbance near earth space. Therefore, detailed monitoring of the solar activity and its propagation in the interplanetary space is essential task for space weather. For example, solar energetic particle which sometimes affect spacecraft operation and manned space flight, is considered to be produced by solar flares and travelling shockwave caused by flares and CME. The research and development of monitoring technique and system for various solar activity has been an important topic of space weather forecast program in NICT. In this article, we will introduce the real time data acquisitions of STEREO and optical and radio observations of the Sun at Hiraiso Solar Observatory. (author)

  9. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  10. Solar-assisted hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, John W M; Perkins, Anthony; Tjipto, Alwie

    2012-02-01

    Hemodialysis resource use-especially water and power, smarter processing and reuse of postdialysis waste, and improved ecosensitive building design, insulation, and space use-all need much closer attention. Regarding power, as supply diminishes and costs rise, alternative power augmentation for dialysis services becomes attractive. The first 12 months of a solar-assisted dialysis program in southeastern Australia is reported. A 24-m(2), 3-kWh rated solar array and inverter-total cost of A$16,219-has solar-assisted the dialysis-related power needs of a four-chair home hemodialysis training service. All array-created, grid-donated power and all grid-drawn power to the four hemodialysis machines and minireverse osmosis plant pairings are separately metered. After the grid-drawn and array-generated kilowatt hours have been billed and reimbursed at their respective commercial rates, financial viability, including capital repayment, can be assessed. From July of 2010 to July of 2011, the four combined equipment pairings used 4166.5 kWh, 9% more than the array-generated 3811.0 kWh. Power consumption at 26.7 c/kWh cost A$1145.79. Array-generated power reimbursements at 23.5 c/kWh were A$895.59. Power costs were, thus, reduced by 76.5%. As new reimbursement rates (60 c/kWh) take effect, system reimbursements will more than double, allowing both free power and potential capital pay down over 7.7 years. With expected array life of ∼30 years, free power and an income stream should accrue in the second and third operative decades. Solar-assisted power is feasible and cost-effective. Dialysis services should assess their local solar conditions and determine whether this ecosensitive power option might suit their circumstance.

  11. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  12. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  13. The sun and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased 14 C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind. (U.K.)

  14. Solar energy research and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The role of solar energy is visualized in the heating and cooling of buildings, in the production of renewable gaseous, liquid and solid fuels, and in the production of electric power over the next 45 years. Potential impacts of solar energy on various energy markets, and estimated costs of such solar energy systems are discussed. Some typical solar energy utilization processes are described in detail. It is expected that at least 20% of the U.S. total energy requirements by 2020 will be delivered from solar energy.

  15. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  16. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  17. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  18. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M

    2007-01-01

    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  19. Solar Observations in Public Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.

    In Japan, solar telescopes are now operated in more than fifty astronomical educational facilities, such as public observatories and science museums. Since most of these have the capability of observing the Sun in Hα, active chromospheric phenomena such as solar flares and prominence eruptions are often presented to the public there. Though these telescopes must be mainly used for education and public outreach, they have a good enough performance to contribute to professional solar research. The staff in most of the facilities do not have so much knowledge on how best to observe the Sun or how to understand solar phenomena. We started two efforts in order to support their solar observations. One is the administration of the "Solar Telescope Mailing List" (solnet ML). The other is the arrangement of the "Solar Telescope Workshops".

  20. Public Policies of Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves; Pehlivanian, Sophie; Teissier, Pierre; Chauvin-Michel, Marion; Forget, Marie; Raymond, Roland; Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie; Guthleben, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This dossier about the Public Policies of Solar Energy brings together the presentations given in June 2013 at a colloquium organised by the Savoie university of Chambery (France): Introduction (Yves Bouvier, Sophie Pehlivanian); Passive solar energy in the shade of the French energy policy, 1945-1986 (Pierre Teissier); Solar architectures and energy policies in France: from oil crisis to solar crisis (Marion Chauvin-Michel); Sun in media, between promotion and contestation (Sophie Pehlivanian); Public policies of solar energy and territorial jurisdictions: the example of village photovoltaic power plants (Marie Forget); Energy social system and ordinary creative movement (Roland Raymond); The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's (Julie Hyun Jin Yu, Nathalie Popiolek); Research on solar energy from yesterday to the present day: an historical project (Denis Guthleben); Photovoltaic power: public policies and economical consequences. The French choices in the international context - 1973-2013 (Alain Ricaud)

  1. Central solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  2. Sustainable solar housing - IEA Solar Task 28; Nachhaltige Solar-Wohnbauten - IEA Solar Task 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, R.

    2003-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy discusses the importance of making sure that the experience gained in the construction of housing built to 'passive-house' standards and related findings of research are used in the next generation of housing. Also, the importance of recent developments in industry is stressed. These include innovations made in the area of highly-insulated windows and doors as well as in heat generation and distribution. Improvements considered necessary in the areas of heating and ventilation and the optimal use of solar gains are discussed, as are the activities of the Swiss group that has taken over the chairmanship of Task 28 in the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme.

  3. Solar variability and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2000-01-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a surprising imprint of the 11- year solar cycle on global low cloud cover. The cloud data suggest a correlation with the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays. If this apparent connection between cosmic rays and clouds is real, variations of the cosmic ray flux caused by long-term changes in the solar wind could have a significant influence on the global energy radiation budget and the climate. However a direct link between cosmic rays and clouds has not been unambiguously established and, moreover, the microphysical mechanism is poorly understood. New experiments are being planned to find out whether cosmic rays can affect cloud formation, and if so how. (37 refs).

  4. Equations for solar tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlaud, Alexis; De Mazière, Martine; Hermans, Christian; Cornet, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Direct sunlight absorption by trace gases can be used to quantify them and investigate atmospheric chemistry. In such experiments, the main optical apparatus is often a grating or a Fourier transform spectrometer. A solar tracker based on motorized rotating mirrors is commonly used to direct the light along the spectrometer axis, correcting for the apparent rotation of the Sun. Calculating the Sun azimuth and altitude for a given time and location can be achieved with high accuracy but different sources of angular offsets appear in practice when positioning the mirrors. A feedback on the motors, using a light position sensor close to the spectrometer, is almost always needed. This paper aims to gather the main geometrical formulas necessary for the use of a widely used kind of solar tracker, based on two 45° mirrors in altazimuthal set-up with a light sensor on the spectrometer, and to illustrate them with a tracker developed by our group for atmospheric research.

  5. Characterization of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, J.; Tuominen, E.; Nybergh, K.; Ezer, Y.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sinkkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Electrical and Communications Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Photovoltaic research began at the Electron Physics Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Tehnology in 1993, when the laboratory joined the national NEMO 2 research program. During the early stages of the photovoltaic research the main objective was to establish necessary measurement and characterisation routines, as well as to develop the fabrication process. The fabrication process development work has been supported by characterisation and theoretical modelling of the solar cells. Theoretical investigations have been concerned with systematic studies of solar cell parameters, such as diffusion lengths, surface recombination velocities and junction depths. The main result of the modelling and characterisation work is a method which is based on a Laplace transform of the so-called spatial collection efficiency function of the cell. The basic objective of the research has been to develop a fabrication process cheap enough to be suitable for commercial production

  6. Advances in solar sailing

    CERN Document Server

    Third International Symposium on Solar Sailing

    2014-01-01

    Hosted by the Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory within the department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of the University of Strathclyde, the third International Symposium on Solar Sailing was held in McCance Building at 16 Richmond Street, Glasgow, between 11 and 13 June 2013. The symposium attracted over 90 delegates from19 different counties, bringing together international experts from across the globe to discuss funded solar sail flight programs alongside on-going technology development and testing programs. The symposium also provided a forum for the discussion of enabling technologies, new application concepts, materials and structural concepts, space environmental effects, dynamics, navigation, control, and much more. This volume contains the unabridged symposium proceedings, in the gathered experts own words. As symposium chair, I thank our partners at Scottish Enterprise and L’Garde, Inc., the symposium’s gold sponsor, for their support in realising this symposium.

  7. Solar collector. Solarkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-14

    The purpose of the invention is to design the support of a mirror for focussing the sun's light on to the absorber (flat solar collectors), so that no distortion of the mirrors can occur due to the fixing or due to thermal stresses in this support system. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the use of a mirror curved on one axis, which is chamfered in the longitudinal direction parallel to the bending edges and is provided with metal supports. This configuration achieves safe operation of the mirror, free of distortion, and easy replaceability of the mirror. Design and material details of this solar collector mirror device are described in 3 patent claims. (HWJ).

  8. The Solar Dynamics Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Pesnell, William; Thompson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which was launched 11 February 2010.  The articles focus on the spacecraft and its instruments: the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE), and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Articles within also describe calibration results and data processing pipelines that are critical to understanding the data and products, concluding with a description of the successful Education and Public Outreach activities.  This book is geared towards anyone interested in using the unprecedented data from SDO, whether for fundamental heliophysics research, space weather modeling and forecasting, or educational purposes. Previously published in Solar Physics journal, Vol. 275/1-2, 2012.

  9. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  10. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of missing solar neutrinos is reviewed and discussed. The experiments of the 70s show a solar neutrino flux to be 4 times lower than the flux predicted by the standard model of the Sun. The three possible origins of this contradiction are analysed: the cross sections of nuclear reactions going on in the internal region of the Sun must be remeasured; the unknown properties of neutrino, like neutrino oscillation or decay, must be investigated theoretically and experimentally; or the standard model of the Sun must be changed, e.g. by a periodically pulsating star model or by a model describing periodic admixtures of He-3 to the central region of the Sun. Some new models and newly proposed experiments are described. The importance of new electronic detection methods of neutrinos is underlined. (D.Gy.)

  11. Johnston Avenue Solar Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrayer, David [Isles, Inc., Trenton, NJ (United States)

    2017-08-22

    DOE awarded funds to support a demonstration project to illustrate how access to solar power and green roof systems could improve building performance and long-term outcomes for the building owner and multiple nonprofit tenants housed in the building. Since being placed in service the solar PV system has saved approximately $1,000 per month in energy costs. The green roof has added to this benefit by naturally cooling the building and has helped reduce local road flooding by retaining storm water. These elements have improved the quality of life in the low-income community in which the building is located by allowing social service organizations to focus more of their resources on programs and job creation.

  12. Solar system plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  13. Tomorrow's solar world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch, Meg.

    1996-01-01

    The largest privately funded solar power installation in the world is at the Florida Walt Disney World. It is the Universe of Energy exhibit at the Experimental Prototype Community of the World. The Universe of Energy shows the development and exploitation of energy sources and how energy is used and includes a recreation of the primeval world from which coal and oil deposits were formed. Visitors travel through two giant theatres in electrically powered cars. Most of the ride system is powered by a solar cell array on the roof of the building. The array is composed of 2,200 modules each made up of 36 cells and can generate 70kW of DC power which is fed through an inverter to convert it to AC. (UK)

  14. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  15. Solar powered dehumidifier apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebens, Robert W.

    1980-12-30

    A thermally insulated light transmitting housing forms a chamber containing a desiccant and having a first gas port open to the ambient and a second gas port connected by a two way valve to a volume to be dried. Solar energy transmitted through the housing heats and dries the desiccant. The increased air pressure due to the heating of the volume to be dried causes the air from the volume to be expelled through the valve into the chamber. The desiccant is then cooled by shielding it from solar energy before the volume cools thereby increasing its moisture absorbing capacity. Then the volume is allowed to cool drawing dehumidified air through the desiccant and the valve into the volume to be dried. This cycle is then repeated.

  16. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  17. Solar heat receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Hansen, Leif J.; Evans, David B.

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  18. Solar Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Bob

    2011-04-27

    The Department of Energy, Golden Field Office, awarded a grant to the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF) on August 1, 2005 to develop a solar and renewable energy information center. The Solar Technology Center (STC) is to be developed in two phases, with Phase I consisting of all activities necessary to determine feasibility of the project, including design and engineering, identification of land access issues and permitting necessary to determine project viability without permanently disturbing the project site, and completion of a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Environmental Assessment. Phase II is the installation of infrastructure and related structures, which leads to commencement of operations of the STC. The STC is located in the Boulder City designated 3,000-acre Eldorado Valley Energy Zone, approximately 15 miles southwest of downtown Boulder City and fronting on Eldorado Valley Drive. The 33-acre vacant parcel has been leased to the Nevada Test Site Development Corporation (NTSDC) by Boulder City to accommodate a planned facility that will be synergistic with present and planned energy projects in the Zone. The parcel will be developed by the UNLVRF. The NTSDC is the economic development arm of the UNLVRF. UNLVRF will be the entity responsible for overseeing the lease and the development project to assure compliance with the lease stipulations established by Boulder City. The STC will be operated and maintained by University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) and its Center for Energy Research (UNLV-CER). Land parcels in the Eldorado Valley Energy Zone near the 33-acre lease are committed to the construction and operation of an electrical grid connected solar energy production facility. Other projects supporting renewable and solar technologies have been developed within the energy zone, with several more developments in the horizon.

  19. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  20. Solar system magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siscoe, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The content of this paper reflects a kind of conference course reviewing the basic equations that cover the solar-system magnetohydrodynamics in a rather exhaustive way. First, the macroscopic equations are derived from basic equations, like the Boltzmann equation. Basic concepts are explained. Next, the hydromagnetic approximation and its consequences are discussed. Then, the author deals with MHD waves and discontinuities. Finally, different kinds of MHD instabilities are discussed. (Auth.)

  1. 2015 Solar Decathalon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, George [Alfred Univ. and Alfred State College, NY (United States)

    2015-11-20

    A final report is submitted for the results of Team Alfred’s participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon held in October of that year in Irvine California. More than 30 people traveled the distance from Alfred NY to Irvine to participate in the assembly and contest of the ALF house. The results of what the team learned, the experience we had, and what we would have done differently are included in this report.

  2. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  3. Hexagon solar power panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Irwin

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel comprises a support upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  4. Advanced solar panel designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  5. Solar food dehydrator

    OpenAIRE

    Brunke, Frederike; De la Torre, Adrian; Hood, Léonore; Nogal, Hubert; Berényi, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, the growing concern about sustainability, self-reliance, healthy diets, and the increasing interest and use of solar energy make our project and our goals as interesting as important. We are developing a product for a very specific and relatively new market niche, which is however rapidly expanding. Our target group – private consumers, such as small farmers, families with a garden or a terrace, or simply any person who is concerned about maintaining a healthy diet and a hea...

  6. Solar-thermal experimental projects on the Spanish Plataforma Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasse, W.

    1981-11-01

    The Plataforma Solar with an area of 1,000,000 sq m is located in Spain at a distance of approximately 50 km from the Mediterranean. In May 1979, nine members of the International Energy Agency (IEA) decided to support the construction of Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS). The countries involved include West Germany, the U.S., Spain, and Italy. The SSPS are to demonstrate the operational feasibility of solar technologies which have been mainly developed in Germany and the U.S. In addition, data are to be obtained regarding the relative competitive position of two different operational concepts for SSPS. The concepts are related to the central receiver system (solar tower) and the distributed collector system. Attention is also given to the Spanish solar power station CESA-1 and the German-Spanish technology program GAST, which is to explore the technological limits of solar-energy systems.

  7. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  8. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  9. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  10. Institutionalizing solar energy education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arwood, J.W. [Arizona Dept. of Commerce, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Energy Office

    1997-12-31

    As America entered the final decade of the 20th century, millions of people turned out to celebrate Earth Day`s 20th anniversary. Environmental awareness was on an upswing, and as a result, environmental education became a priority across the country. Environmental education was making significant headway into the public school system, and recycling emerged as the vanguard of this movement. At first the exclusive province of school children, recycling soon became a household habit. As children collected cans for cash, they also taught their parents to recycle. In its movement from classroom to curbside, recycling rode the school bus to Main Street and, within a few short years, became institutionalized. In this paper, the author demonstrates how the Solar Information and Education Program has evolved to the point where it has become an institutionalized, lasting part of the school experience for thousands of Arizona students. It is hoped that the solar experience for the state`s young people will duplicate the recycling experience of a decade ago, this time taking solar technology from chalkboard to rooftop.

  11. Recent solar activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Fumio; Ono, Minoru

    1977-01-01

    Solar activities in the 20-th period were investigated and compared with those of the preceding periods based on measured data. Changes of flare index, plage index, and sunspot number during the 20-th period (from 1971 to 1977) are shown. The change of sunspot number during the 20-th period is also compared with the preceding two periods, and the mean value from 8-th period through 19-th period. Relative number of sunspot in the north and south solar semi-sphere for the 20-th period is presented, and their asymmetry is compared with that of the preceding period, then the significant difference is observed. The activities of the sunspots McMath 14726, which appeared on April 11, 1977, McMath 14771 (May 9), and McMath 14801 (June 6) are also shown by photographs. It is finally concluded that the prediction of the maximum number of sunspots during the 21-st period is very difficult, and that the number of solar flares appeared during a year after the period of minimum appearance is significantly less than that during the preceding period. (Aoki, K.)

  12. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  13. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  14. Solar Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown here is one of the first images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander of one of the octagonal solar panels, which opened like two handheld, collapsible fans on either side of the spacecraft. Beyond this view is a small slice of the north polar terrain of Mars. The successfully deployed solar panels are critical to the success of the 90-day mission, as they are the spacecraft's only means of replenishing its power. Even before these images reached Earth, power readings from the spacecraft indicated to engineers that the solar panels were already at work recharging the spacecraft's batteries. Before deploying the Surface Stereo Imager to take these images, the lander waited about 15 minutes for the dust to settle. This image was taken by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol, or Martian day, 0 (May 25, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Solar Power Grid Unfurled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown here is one of the first images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander of one of the octagonal solar panels, which opened like two handheld, collapsible fans on either side of the spacecraft. Beyond this view is a small slice of the north polar terrain of Mars. The successfully deployed solar panels are critical to the success of the 90-day mission, as they are the spacecraft's only means of replenishing its power. Even before these images reached Earth, power readings from the spacecraft indicated to engineers that the solar panels were already at work recharging the spacecraft's batteries. Before deploying the Surface Stereo Imager to take these images, the lander waited about 15 minutes for the dust to settle. This image was taken by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol, or Martian day, 0 (May 25, 2008). This image has been geometrically corrected. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Solar System Voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Serge

    2002-11-01

    In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and information taken from the latest space missions allow readers to experience spectacular scenes: the lunar plains scarred by asteroid impacts, the frozen deserts of Mars and Europa, the continuously erupting volcanoes of Io and the giant geysers of Triton, the rings of Saturn and the clouds of Venus and Titan, and the powerful crash of the comet Shoemaker-Levy into Jupiter. Inspired by the extraordinary photographs and incisive text, readers of Solar System Voyage will gain a greater appreciation of the hospitable planet we call home. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photojournalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. His previous books include Space Odyssey (Cambridge, 2002), Glorious Eclipses with Jean-Pierre Luminet (Cambridge, 2000), and Majestic Universe (Cambridge, 1999).

  17. Solar energy heating panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrie, T.

    1984-08-14

    A solar energy collecting and radiating panel for heating a fluid such as air circulating in an enclosure disposed behind the panel. The panel is in the form of a pan made of sheet metal, such as thin aluminum, darkened on its irradiated surface, the blackened or darkened surface being protected by a pane of glass. The panel has a plurality of dome-shaped dimples embossed on and projecting from its irradiated surface such as to present a large surface area to exposure to sun rays and to capture solar energy independently of the sun height or position relative to the horizon. The heat absorbed by the panel is conveyed by its back surface to air circulating by convection or by forced circulation in a thermally insulated enclosure, for heating a building or for any other utilization. A plurality of panels may be disposed side by side to form a solar energy collecting array preferably mounted on an outside wall of a building, in a southerly orientation.

  18. solaR: Solar Radiation and Photovoltaic Systems with R

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Perpiñan Lamigueiro

    2012-01-01

    The solaR package allows for reproducible research both for photovoltaics (PV) systems performance and solar radiation. It includes a set of classes, methods and functions to calculate the sun geometry and the solar radiation incident on a photovoltaic generator and to simulate the performance of several applications of the photovoltaic energy. This package performs the whole calculation procedure from both daily and intradaily global horizontal irradiation to the final productivity of grid-c...

  19. Solar 92: The 1992 American Solar Energy Society annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, S.; Arden, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to document the lessons learned from federal and state policies and programs in the late 1970's and 1980's aimed at promoting consumer use of solar energy. During this period the primary emphasis was on solar thermal technologies and passive solar design that could be used at the residential level, though there was also some information on stand-alone photovoltaic systems as well

  20. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  1. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Sugiura, S.; Shinoda, S.; Daigo, Y.; Fujihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  2. Solar index generation and delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  3. Concentrated solar power: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najam, Z.; Khan, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology and a fine arrangement for the provision of Electrical Energy and Clean Energy in general .The concentrated solar offers a viable option for the Sunny Zones of the world. The efficiency of the System depends on a few factors like Area, Intensity of Sunlight, Type of receiver, Hybridisation etc. Solar Thermal Systems employ lenses or mirrors to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area. Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is impugned onto photovoltaic cell made surfaces or used to heat a transfer fluid for a conventional power plant. In this paper we give a brief overview of a baseline Solar Thermal Power Plant, Technological details, Cost and Benefit analysis, a glimpse of solar thermal power and future of solar thermal power. (author)

  4. Large-scale solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Solar heating market is growing in many European countries and annually installed collector area has exceeded one million square meters. There are dozens of collector manufacturers and hundreds of firms making solar heating installations in Europe. One tendency in solar heating is towards larger systems. These can be roof integrated, consisting of some tens or hundreds of square meters of collectors, or they can be larger centralized solar district heating plants consisting of a few thousand square meters of collectors. The increase of size can reduce the specific investments of solar heating systems, because e.g. the costs of some components (controllers, pumps, and pipes), planning and installation can be smaller in larger systems. The solar heat output can also be higher in large systems, because more advanced technique is economically viable

  5. Dust Removal from Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A solar panel cleaning device includes a solar panel having a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged in rows and embedded in the solar panel with space between the rows. A transparent dielectric overlay is affixed to the solar panel. A plurality of electrode pairs each of which includes an upper and a lower electrode are arranged on opposite sides of the transparent dielectric and are affixed thereto. The electrodes may be transparent electrodes which may be arranged without concern for blocking sunlight to the solar panel. The solar panel may be a dielectric and its dielectric properties may be continuously and spatially variable. Alternatively the dielectric used may have dielectric segments which produce different electrical field and which affects the wind "generated."

  6. Fundamentals of Solar Heating. Correspondence Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.

    This course is designed for the use of employees of the air conditioning industry, and offers supervised correspondence instruction about solar technology. The following aspects of applied solar technology are covered: solar heating and cooling, solar radiation, solar collectors, heat storage control devices and specialty items, sizing solar…

  7. Approach of a solar building integrated with multiple novel solar technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Ji; Zhi Yu; Wei Sun; Wu Wang

    2014-01-01

    A novel solar building is constructed in Hefei, China. The solar energy can supply the building with solar power, solar space heating, solar-cooling and solar-hot water by corresponding novel solar technologies and components. Preliminary simulation by TRNSYS showed that the solar building could reduce >30% of the energy consumption compared with the same scale of the office building in Hefei during the heating season. In an experiment performed on 20 February 2013, the max temperatures of bo...

  8. Modelling solar-like oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggenberger, P; Miglio, A [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique de l' Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Carrier, F [Institute of Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mathis, S [CEA/DSM/DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA/Saclay, AIM-Unite Mixte de Recherche CEA-CNRS-Universite Paris VII, UMR 7158, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: eggenberger@Qastro.ulg.ac.be

    2008-10-15

    The computation of models of stars for which solar-like oscillations have been observed is discussed. After a brief intoduction on the observations of solar-like oscillations, the modelling of isolated stars and of stars belonging to a binary system is presented with specific examples of recent theoretical calibrations. Finally the input physics introduced in stellar evolution codes for the computation of solar-type stars is discussed with a peculiar emphasis on the modelling of rotation for these stars.

  9. Solar wind stagnation near comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Cravens, T.E.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1983-03-01

    The nature of the solar wind flow near comets is examined analytically. In particular, the typical values for the stagnation pressure and magnetic barrier strength are estimated, taking into account the magnetic field line tension and the charge exchange cooling of the mass loaded solar wind. Knowledge of the strength of the magnetic barrier is required in order to determine the location of the contact discontinuity which separates the contaminated solar wind plasma and the outflowing plasma of the cometary ionosphere. (author)

  10. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  11. Solar influence on Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that variations in solar activity have had a significant influence on Earth's climate. However, the mechanisms responsible for a solar influence are still not known. One possibility is that atmospheric transparency is influenced by changing cloud properties...... and thereby influence the radiative properties of clouds. If the GCR-Cloud link is confirmed variations in galactic cosmic ray flux, caused by changes in solar activity and the space environment, could influence Earth's radiation budget....

  12. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  13. Storing and Deploying Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, D. L.; Stocker, H. M.; Kleidon, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    Like upward-drawn window shades, solar blankets are unfurled to length of 89m, almost filling opening in 95.59-meter-square frame. When frame is completely assembled, solar blankets are pulled from canisters, one by one by electric motor. A Thin cushion sheet is rolled up with each blanket to cushion solar cells. Sheet is taken up on roller as blanket is unfurled. Unrolling proceeds automatically.

  14. Solar influences on atmospheric circulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgieva, K.; Kirov, B.; Koucká Knížová, Petra; Mošna, Zbyšek; Kouba, Daniel; Asenovska, Y.

    90-91, SI (2012), s. 15-25 ISSN 1364-6826. [IAGA/ICMA/CAWSES-II TG4 Workshop on Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System /4./. Prague, 14.02.2011-18.02.2011] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Solar activity * North Atlantic Oscillation * Solar dynamo * Solar activity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682612001393

  15. Solar Ready Vets Curriculum Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalstrom, Tenley

    2017-08-31

    The 5-week SRV program includes four sets of program learning goals aligned around (1) the NABCEP Entry Level body of knowledge; (2) gaining hands-on experience with solar system site analysis, design, installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance and financial considerations; (3) Safety issues unique to solar + OSHA 30; (4) Transition planning and individual support of entry into the solar industry. These goals, and the learning objectives associate with each, are pursued in parallel during the course.

  16. Space Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures, characterizes, and analyzes photovoltaic materials and devices. The primary focus is the measurement and characterization of solar cell response...

  17. Solar Walls for concrete renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the mea......This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results...

  18. The search for solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The pioneering work on the detection of solar neutrinos by R. Davis is discussed. The discrepancy between the theoretical neutrino flux rate, according to a recent standard solar model, of 5.6 solar neutrino units (SNU) and the observed rate of 1 SNU together with three suggested solutions of the discrepancy are examined. Very recently Davis has announced an increased count rate of about 4 SNU while groups in Birmingham and in the Crimea have reported solar oscillations. The impact of these latest developments is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  20. Solar energy perspectives in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In a context combining climate change, energy supply crisis, an increased interest in solar energy, a strongly increasing market of solar installations, new technologies, a promotion of the development of the use solar energy in France and a fast development of the water heater and photovoltaic generator markets in France, this report proposes a wide overview of the past, present and future development of solar energy. It discusses the evolution of the French national energy policy and of the solar energy within this policy. It presents and discusses the solar energy resources, their strengths and weaknesses, their geographical and time distribution. It describes the various uses and applications of solar energy in buildings, discusses different aspects of this market (actors, economical data, evolutions, public incentives, perspectives). Then, it describes and discusses technical and economical aspects of two important technologies, the photovoltaic solar energy and the thermodynamic conversion of solar energy. Public incentives, laws and regulations, technical and economic aspects of the connection to the distribution network are then discussed. Some recommendations and ideas are formulated concerning research activities, industrial development, quality of equipment and facilities, personnel education, investment needs

  1. 2005 Solar Decathlon (Competition Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-10-01

    The 2005 Solar Decathlon Competition Program is distributed to Solar Decathlon visitors, media, sponsors, and the student competitors. It contains basic facts about the Solar Decathlon: what, where, when, who, and how. It is a guide for visitors to the events and workshops. It describes the 10 contests and the technologies used in the houses. It celebrates the accomplishments of the competitors and provides an opportunity for the major sponsors to describe their roles and relay their commitment to the ideals of the Solar Decathlon.

  2. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  3. Support for solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  4. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  5. InterTechnology Corporation technology summary, solar heating and cooling. National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    A summary of systems technology for solar-thermal heating and cooling of buildings is given. Solar collectors, control systems for solar heating and cooling, selective surfaces, thermal energy storage, solar-assisted heat pumps, and solar-powered cooling systems are discussed in detail. Also, an ITC specification for a solar control system is included. (WHK)

  6. Solar wind stream interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements aboard Imp 6, 7, and 8 reveal that approximately one third of all high-speed solar wind streams observed at 1 AU contain a sharp boundary (of thickness less than approx.4 x 10 4 km) near their leading edge, called a stream interface, which separates plasma of distinctly different properties and origins. Identified as discontinuities across which the density drops abruptly, the proton temperature increases abruptly, and the speed rises, stream interfaces are remarkably similar in character from one stream to the next. A superposed epoch analysis of plasma data has been performed for 23 discontinuous stream interfaces observed during the interval March 1971 through August 1974. Among the results of this analysis are the following: (1) a stream interface separates what was originally thick (i.e., dense) slow gas from what was originally thin (i.e., rare) fast gas; (2) the interface is the site of a discontinuous shear in the solar wind flow in a frame of reference corotating with the sun; (3) stream interfaces occur at speeds less than 450 km s - 1 and close to or at the maximum of the pressure ridge at the leading edges of high-speed streams; (4) a discontinuous rise by approx.40% in electron temperature occurs at the interface; and (5) discontinuous changes (usually rises) in alpha particle abundance and flow speed relative to the protons occur at the interface. Stream interfaces do not generally recur on successive solar rotations, even though the streams in which they are embedded often do. At distances beyond several astronomical units, stream interfaces should be bounded by forward-reverse shock pairs; three of four reverse shocks observed at 1 AU during 1971--1974 were preceded within approx.1 day by stream interfaces. Our observations suggest that many streams close to the sun are bounded on all sides by large radial velocity shears separating rapidly expanding plasma from more slowly expanding plasma

  7. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  8. Solar Coronal Plumes and the Fast Solar Wind

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Before the spectroscopic peculiarities in IPRs and plumes in Polar Coronal Holes (PCHs) can be further investigated with the instrument Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), it is mandatory to summarize the results of the ...

  9. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  10. Solar-hydrogen generation and solar concentration (Conference Presentation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulima, Oleg V.; Chinello, Enrico; Conibeer, Gavin; Modestino, Miquel A.; Schüttauf, Jan-Willem; Lambelet, David; Delfino, Antonio; Domine, Didier; Faes, Antonin; Despeisse, Matthieu; Bailat, Julien; Psaltis, Demetri; Fernandez Rivas, David; Ballif, Christophe; Moser, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We successfully demonstrated and reported the highest solar-to-hydrogen efficiency with crystalline silicon cells and Earth-abundant electrocatalysts under unconcentrated solar radiation. The combination of hetero-junction silicon cells and a 3D printed Platinum/Iridium-Oxide electrolyzer has been

  11. The solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B W

    2013-01-01

    Presents a contemporary picture of the solar system, including a description of the Earth, Mars, Venus, cratered worlds, exotic rocks and ices, and giant planets. It is pitched at an introductory level and assumes no previous knowledge of planetary astronomy. Little mathematics is used in the text and the numerous graphs and diagrams are kept as simple as possible. End of chapter exercises are provided. The book can be used as an end in itself, or as a preparation for more advanced study, for which references are given.

  12. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  13. Relativistic solar sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.

    2018-05-01

    We apply the four-vector formalism of special relativity to describe various interaction processes of photons with a solar sail, in two cases: when the sail’s surface is a perfect mirror, and when it is a body coated with a totally absorbing material. We stress the pedagogical value of implementing simultaneously both the linear momentum and the energy conservation in a covariant fashion, as our formalism inherently does. It also allows for a straightforward change of the description of a certain process in different inertial reference frames.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabr...

  15. Silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, W R; Neitzert, H C

    2006-01-01

    The world of today must face up to two contradictory energy problems: on the one hand, there is the sharply growing consumer demand in countries such as China and India. On the other hand, natural resources are dwindling. Moreover, many of those countries which still possess substantial gas and oil supplies are politically unstable. As a result, renewable natural energy sources have received great attention. Among these, solar-cell technology is one of the most promising candidates. However, there still remains the problem of the manufacturing costs of such cells. Many attempts have been made

  16. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  17. The solar internetwork

    OpenAIRE

    Gosic, Milan

    2015-01-01

    En esta tesis se estudia la evoluci on del campo magn etico de la intrared en las escalas peque~nas y su contribuci on al magnetismo del Sol en calma. Los elementos de la intrered son estructuras magn eticas muy din amicas, de cortas vidas que pueblan el interior de las celdas supergranulares. De- bido a su abundancia, se cree que estos campos peque~nos son ingredientes esenciales para el magnetismo solar. Sin embargo, estos elementos son d ebiles y producen min usculo...

  18. Generador de Hidrogen Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Roses Obradors, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    Les necessitats energètiques i els problemes ambientals fan que es busquin alternatives a les energies actuals no renovables. El hidrogen sembla ser un fort substitut dels combustibles fòssils, ja que té molt bones característiques energètiques. L’objecte d’aquest projecte es veure les possibilitats d’una instal•lació de hidrogen solar (hidrogen produït a partir d’energia fotovoltaica), amb unes condicions de temperatura i pressió determinades (1 atmosfera i 25 ºC). La hipòtesi inici...

  19. Solar steam nanobubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Albert

    2013-01-22

    Silica-gold core-shell nanoparticles that are immersed in water act as efficient nanoscale generators of steam when illuminated with sunlight. In their paper in this issue of ACS Nano, Halas, Nordlander, and co-workers demonstrate this intriguing phenomenon that results from the nucleation of steam at the surface of individual nanoparticles that are heated by the sun. The same effect is also used to demonstrate distillation of ethanol. The solar steam nanobubble generation phenomenon results from the complex interplay of many different phenomena that occur at the nanoscale, and can find a broad range of applications.

  20. Solar thermal barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market marked time in 2007 with 6,9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end this market reached 2,9 million m 2 facing 3,1 million m 2 in 2006, an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the german market, the largest market of the european union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates. (A.L.B.)

  1. Solar Thermal Barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, L.W.M.; Mozaffarian, M.

    2008-09-01

    After two years of very strong growth, the solar thermal market (taking all technologies including unglazed flexible collectors into account) marked time in 2007 with 6.9% less collectors being sold with respect to year 2006. In the end, this market reached 2.9 million m 2 vs. 3.1 million m 2 in 2006, i.e. an equivalent capacity of more than 2000 MWth. This decrease is explained for a large part by a strong decline of the German market, the largest market of the European Union. Conversely, other countries are continuing to develop their markets and are showing double-digit growth rates

  2. Detection of solar events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  3. The Energy Impacts of Solar Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Chris

    1980-01-01

    The energy required to build and install solar space- and water-heating equipment is compared to the energy saved under two solar growth paths corresponding to high and low rates of solar technology implementation. (Author/RE)

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of a Solar Flare

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 央明; Takaaki, YOKOYAMA; 国立天文台; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2002-01-01

    A solar flare is an explosive release of the magnetic energy in the solar upper atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic reconnection model of a solar flare and the results of magnetohydrohynamic simulations are shown.

  5. Solar energy perspectives for public power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, N. H.

    1979-06-01

    Perspectives on the utilization of solar energy for electricity production and thermal energy utilization by the public are briefly discussed. Wind energy conversion, biomass conversion, solar thermal, OTEC, photovoltaics, and solar heating and cooling are discussed. (WHK)

  6. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300∫C ñ 800∫C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at

  7. Solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events and the related solar-terrestrial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guiming; Yang, Xingxing; Ding, Liuguang; Liu, Yonghua; Lu, Yangping; Chen, Minhao

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events (SPEs, peak flux ≥1000 pfu) and the solar-terrestrial phenomena associated with the strong SPEs during solar cycles 21-23. The results show that 37 strong SPEs were registered over this period of time, where 20 strong SPEs were originated from the super active regions (SARs) and 28 strong SPEs were accompanied by the X-class flares. Most strong SPEs were not associated with the ground level enhancement (GLE) event. Most strong SPEs occurred in the descending phases of the solar cycles. The weaker the solar cycle, the higher the proportion of strong SPES occurred in the descending phase of the cycle. The number of the strong SPEs that occurred within a solar cycle is poorly associated with the solar cycle size. The intensity of the SPEs is highly dependent of the location of their source regions, with the super SPEs (≥20000 pfu) distributed around solar disk center. A super SPE was always accompanied by a fast shock driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and a great geomagnetic storm. The source location of strongest GLE event is distributed in the well-connected region. The SPEs associated with super GLE events (peak increase rate ≥100%) which have their peak flux much lower than 10000 pfu were not accompanied by an intense geomagnetic storm.

  8. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  9. Availability of solar radiation and standards for solar access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casabianca, G.A.; Evans, J.M. [Research Centre Habitat and Energy, Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseno y Urbanismo, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Capital Federal (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    In southern Argentina, a region between latitudes 38 deg C and 55 deg C S, the heating demand in the residential sector is high while the availability of solar radiation is limited. A new proposal for solar access standards has been developed, taking into account the climatic conditions of each location, the effective availability of solar radiation and the direct sunlight requirements. This study analyses the climatic conditions for the Patagonia, relating heating demand and solar radiation availability in different sites, and presents the development of new sunlight standards that respond to these regional conditions. As a result of this study, the new Argentine standard TRAM 11.603 includes new conditions to protect solar access and provide design recommendations. (orig.) 4 refs.

  10. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  11. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Solar atmosphere wave dynamics generated by solar global oscillating eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. K.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.; Zheng, R.

    2018-01-01

    The solar atmosphere exhibits a diverse range of wave phenomena, where one of the earliest discovered was the five-minute global acoustic oscillation, also referred to as the p-mode. The analysis of wave propagation in the solar atmosphere may be used as a diagnostic tool to estimate accurately the physical characteristics of the Sun's atmospheric layers. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and upward propagation of waves which are generated by the solar global eigenmodes. We report on a series of hydrodynamic simulations of a realistically stratified model of the solar atmosphere representing its lower region from the photosphere to low corona. With the objective of modelling atmospheric perturbations, propagating from the photosphere into the chromosphere, transition region and low corona, generated by the photospheric global oscillations the simulations use photospheric drivers mimicking the solar p-modes. The drivers are spatially structured harmonics across the computational box parallel to the solar surface. The drivers perturb the atmosphere at 0.5 Mm above the bottom boundary of the model and are placed coincident with the location of the temperature minimum. A combination of the VALIIIC and McWhirter solar atmospheres are used as the background equilibrium model. We report how synthetic photospheric oscillations may manifest in a magnetic field free model of the quiet Sun. To carry out the simulations, we employed the magnetohydrodynamics code, SMAUG (Sheffield MHD Accelerated Using GPUs). Our results show that the amount of energy propagating into the solar atmosphere is consistent with a model of solar global oscillations described by Taroyan and Erdélyi (2008) using the Klein-Gordon equation. The computed results indicate a power law which is compared to observations reported by Ireland et al. (2015) using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly.

  13. "SOLAR MAGNETIZED ""TORNADOES:"" RELATION TO FILAMENTS"

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yang; Wang, Tongjiang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Gan, Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Solar magnetized "tornadoes", a phenomenon discovered in the solar atmosphere, appear as tornado-like structures in the corona but root in the photosphere. Like other solar phenomena, solar tornadoes are a feature of magnetized plasma and therefore differ distinctly from terrestrial tornadoes. Here we report the first analysis of solar "tornadoes" {Two papers which focused on different aspect of solar tornadoes were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters (Li et al. 2012) and Nature (W...

  14. A CONCEPT OF SOLAR TRACKER SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Meita Rumbayan *, Muhamad Dwisnanto Putro

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of solar panel efficiency is an ongoing research work recently. Maximizing the output power by integrating with the solar tracker system becomes a interest point of the research. This paper presents the concept in designing a solar tracker system applied to solar panel. The development of solar panel tracker system design that consist of system display prototype design, hardware design, and algorithm design. This concept is useful as the control system for solar tracker to improve...

  15. Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Heat Storages

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Abhishek; Goel, Varun

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy can be converted into different forms of energy, either to thermal energy or to electrical energy. Solar energy is converted directly into electrical power by photovoltaic modules, while solar collector converts solar energy into thermal energy. Solar collector works by absorbing the direct solar radiation and converting it into thermal energy, which can be stored in the form of sensible heat or latent heat or a combination of sensible and latent heats. A theoretical study has be...

  16. Equations for Solar Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Cornet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct sunlight absorption by trace gases can be used to quantify them and investigate atmospheric chemistry. In such experiments, the main optical apparatus is often a grating or a Fourier transform spectrometer. A solar tracker based on motorized rotating mirrors is commonly used to direct the light along the spectrometer axis, correcting for the apparent rotation of the Sun. Calculating the Sun azimuth and altitude for a given time and location can be achieved with high accuracy but different sources of angular offsets appear in practice when positioning the mirrors. A feedback on the motors, using a light position sensor close to the spectrometer, is almost always needed. This paper aims to gather the main geometrical formulas necessary for the use of a widely used kind of solar tracker, based on two 45° mirrors in altazimuthal set-up with a light sensor on the spectrometer, and to illustrate them with a tracker developed by our group for atmospheric research.

  17. Solar ultraviolet radiation cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Despite being a treatable disease, cataract is still the leading cause for blindness in the world. Solar ultraviolet radiation is epidemiologically linked to cataract development, while animal and in vitro studies prove a causal relationship. However, the pathogenetic pathways for the disease are not fully understood and there is still no perfect model for human age related cataract. This non-comprehensive overview focus on recent developments regarding effects of solar UV radiation wavebands on the lens. A smaller number of fundamental papers are also included to provide a backdrop for the overview. Future studies are expected to further clarify the cellular and subcellular mechanisms for UV radiation-induced cataract and especially the isolated or combined temporal and spatial effects of UVA and UVB in the pathogenesis of human cataract. Regardless of the cause for cataract, there is a need for advances in pharmaceutical or other treatment modalities that do not require surgical replacement of the lens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  19. Computer designed solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliman, O.; Daut, I.; Lim, C.S.; Isa, M.; Adzman, M.R. [Kolej Univ. Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia, Perlis (Malaysia). School of Electrical System Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A new method of sun tracking has been proposed and demonstrated at the University of Technology Malaysia. The heliostat not only tracks the sun but also concentrates all of the sun images from its mirrors into a single image at a stationary target. Because of this, the target image can be made small enough so that a relatively small concentrator or receiver is required to collect the solar energy. A single cylinder, beta type Stirling engine has been built to work with this heliostat as a whole system. This paper discussed the computer designed optical concentrator, that was providing efficient solar energy transfer to a Stirling engine. The paper discussed the development of a prototype optical concentrator. The computer-simulated characteristics of the receiver as well as the experimental data of its performance were presented. It was concluded that coupling with a non-imaging focusing heliostat, the prototype optical concentrator was successful in running a small scale Stirling engine. The contribution of the optical concentrator to heliostat application was encouraging. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  20. Sistema seguidor solar microcontrolado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Maria Mendes Duarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A demanda de energia elétrica é cada vez maior devido ao grande crescimento da população e do novo estilo de vida adotado pela sociedade moderna, cada vez mais industrializada. Nesse sentido, o consumo de energia vem apresentando um crescimento acelerado. Concomitantemente, a sociedade se movimenta no sentido de se conscientizar das alterações ocasionadas na natureza, e, assim, surge a necessidade de novos meios de geração de energia, menos impactantes ao meio ambiente, denominadas energias renováveis. Este artigo vem apresentar um sistema seguidor solar microcontrolado, que possibilita uma maior captação de energia em placas solares, pois as posiciona sempre com sua face voltada para o sol. O sistema de controle é baseado nas equações matemáticas cujos resultados são as posições do sol num dado dia e em uma dada hora. Estas coordenadas são calculadas e resultam no deslocamento da célula fotovoltaica por meio de um motor.

  1. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Solar energy - design element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudimac, Budimir S.; Dubljevic, Andjela N.

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this study is the theoretical examination of the possibilities of applying technological, functional, aesthetic and energy resources in elements of urban design. Designed solutions are treated as part of the overall optimization of architectural elements and urban space, in which technological development enables the use of certain energy potentials of elements of urban design. The paper presents student hypothetical design models of urban architectural elements with integrated photovoltaic modules. The analytical procedure was applied in the analysis of student work in a seminar of the first year of master studies at the Faculty of Architecture. The aim is to improve students' awareness of the need for proper handling of energy and the possibility of integration with other architectural elements. The research and the results have enabled further work on the sustainable development of architectural elements with a focus on the use of solar energy by promoting the modern design approach. Key words: PV module, teaching, solar energy, urban design

  4. An Introduction to Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Most likely, solar cells will play a significant role in this country's strategy to address the two interrelated issues of global warming and dependence on imported oil. The purpose of this paper is to present an explanation of how solar cells work at an introductory high school, college, or university physics course level. The treatment presented…

  5. The indium solar neutrino project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, N.E.; Salmon, G.L.; Hukin, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The only way to resolve the solar neutrino puzzle is to perform a new experiment. It is shown that 115 In has unique possibilities as a target for solar neutrino detection. Progress in developing a detector based on 115 In is reviewed and future plans are outlined. (author)

  6. Galaxy and the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoluchowski, R.; Bahcall, J.M.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The solar-Galactic neighborhood, massive interstellar clouds and other Galactic features, the Oort cloud, perturbations of the solar system, and the existence and stability of a solar companion star are examined in chapters based on contributions to a conference held in Tucson, AZ during January 1985. The individual topics addressed include: the Galactic environment of the solar system; stars within 25 pc of the sun; the path of the sun in 100 million years; the local velocity field in the last billion years; interstellar clouds near the sun; and evidence for a local recent supernova. Also considered are: dynamic influence of Galactic tides and molecular clouds on the Oort cloud; cometary evidence for a solar companion; dynamical interactions between the Oort cloud and the Galaxy; geological periodicities and the Galaxy; giant comets and the Galaxy; dynamical evidence for Planet X; evolution of the solar system in the presence of a solar companion star; mass extinctions, crater ages, and comet showers; evidence for Nemesis, a solar companion star.

  7. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  8. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  9. Solar Heating Systems: Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This Student Manual for a Solar Heating System curriculum contains 22 units of instructional materials for students to use in a course or courses on solar heating systems (see note). For each unit (task), objectives, assignment sheets, laboratory assignments, information sheets, checkpoints (tests), and job sheets are provided. Materials are set…

  10. Solar Heating Systems: Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This Instructor's Guide for a Solar Heating System Curriculum is designed to accompany the Student Manual and the Progress Checks and Test Manual for the course (see note), in order to facilitate the instruction of classes on solar heating systems. The Instructor's Guide contains a variety of materials used in teaching the courses, including…

  11. Fixture for assembling solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Vacuum fixture attaches array of silicon solar cells to mounting plate made of clear glass which holds and protects cells. Glass plate transmits, rather than absorbs, solar energy thus cooling cells for efficient operation. Device therefore reduces handling of cells and interconnecting conductors to one operation.

  12. About the standard solar model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, S.

    1986-07-01

    A discussion of the still controversial solar helium content is presented, based on a comparison of recent standard solar models. Our last model yields an helium mass fraction ∼0.276, 6.4 SNU on 37 Cl and 126 SNU on 71 Ga

  13. Solar array manufacturing industry simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Firnett, P. J.; Kleine, B.

    1980-01-01

    Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program is a standardized model of industry to manufacture silicon solar modules for use in electricity generation. Model is used to develop financial reports that detail requirements, including amounts and prices for materials, labor, facilities, and equipment required by companies.

  14. Wind in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might…

  15. Solar Spectral Irradiance and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilewskie, P.; Woods, T.; Cahalan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrally resolved solar irradiance is recognized as being increasingly important to improving our understanding of the manner in which the Sun influences climate. There is strong empirical evidence linking total solar irradiance to surface temperature trends - even though the Sun has likely made only a small contribution to the last half-century's global temperature anomaly - but the amplitudes cannot be explained by direct solar heating alone. The wavelength and height dependence of solar radiation deposition, for example, ozone absorption in the stratosphere, absorption in the ocean mixed layer, and water vapor absorption in the lower troposphere, contribute to the "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms that have been proposed as possible amplifiers of the solar signal. New observations and models of solar spectral irradiance are needed to study these processes and to quantify their impacts on climate. Some of the most recent observations of solar spectral variability from the mid-ultraviolet to the near-infrared have revealed some unexpected behavior that was not anticipated prior to their measurement, based on an understanding from model reconstructions. The atmospheric response to the observed spectral variability, as quantified in climate model simulations, have revealed similarly surprising and in some cases, conflicting results. This talk will provide an overview on the state of our understanding of the spectrally resolved solar irradiance, its variability over many time scales, potential climate impacts, and finally, a discussion on what is required for improving our understanding of Sun-climate connections, including a look forward to future observations.

  16. A Solar Sailcraft Simulation Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeda, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    An application was created to encourage students' practical knowledge of gravitational fields, the law of conservation of energy and other phenomena, such as gravitational slingshots. The educational software simulates the flight of a solar sail spacecraft between two planets of the Solar System using the laws of gravity and radiation…

  17. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Decentralised Solar Power at Homes. Solar PV gives DC Power. But load is AC; Needs a DC-AC convertor. Now if we add a battery. Battery stores only DC. Require a AC-DC convertor for charging; Require a DC-AC convertor during discharging. For low power, each ...

  18. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  19. Solar Ready: An Overview of Implementation Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Guidice, L.; Lisell, L.; Doris, L.; Busche, S.

    2012-01-01

    This report explores three mechanisms for encouraging solar ready building design and construction: solar ready legislation, certification programs for solar ready design and construction, and stakeholder education. These methods are not mutually exclusive, and all, if implemented well, could contribute to more solar ready construction. Solar ready itself does not reduce energy use or create clean energy. Nevertheless, solar ready building practices are needed to reach the full potential of solar deployment. Without forethought on incorporating solar into design, buildings may be incompatible with solar due to roof structure or excessive shading. In these cases, retrofitting the roof or removing shading elements is cost prohibitive. Furthermore, higher up-front costs due to structural adaptations and production losses caused by less than optimal roof orientation, roof equipment, or shading will lengthen payback periods, making solar more expensive. With millions of new buildings constructed each year in the United States, solar ready can remove installation barriers and increase the potential for widespread solar adoption. There are many approaches to promoting solar ready, including solar ready legislation, certification programs, and education of stakeholders. Federal, state, and local governments have the potential to implement programs that encourage solar ready and in turn reduce barriers to solar deployment. With the guidance in this document and the examples of jurisdictions and organizations already working to promote solar ready building practices, federal, state, and local governments can guide the market toward solar ready implementation.

  20. Photon management in solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Uwe; Gombert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Written by renowned experts in the field of photon management in solar cells, this one-stop reference gives an introduction to the physics of light management in solar cells, and discusses the different concepts and methods of applying photon management. The authors cover the physics, principles, concepts, technologies, and methods used, explaining how to increase the efficiency of solar cells by splitting or modifying the solar spectrum before they absorb the sunlight. In so doing, they present novel concepts and materials allowing for the cheaper, more flexible manufacture of solar cells and systems. For educational purposes, the authors have split the reasons for photon management into spatial and spectral light management. Bridging the gap between the photonics and the photovoltaics communities, this is an invaluable reference for materials scientists, physicists in industry, experimental physicists, lecturers in physics, Ph.D. students in physics and material sciences, engineers in power technology, appl...

  1. Investigations of solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of solar combi systems are on the marked to day. The best performing systems are highly advanced energy systems with thermal stratification manifolds, an efficient boiler and only one control system, which controls both the boiler and the solar collector loop (Weiss et al., 2003......). However, it is still too early to draw conclusions on the design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions needs to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal domestic hot water preparation? Is a stratification manifold always more...... desirable than a fixed inlet position? This paper presents experimental investigations of an advanced solar combi system with thermal stratification manifold inlets both in the solar collector loop and in the space heating system and with an external domestic hot water preparation. Theoretical...

  2. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... texturing of different Si solar cells. Theoretically the nanostructure topology may be described as a graded refractive index in a mean-field approximation between air and Si. The optical properties of the developed black Si were simulated and experimentally measured. Total AM1.5G-weighted average...

  3. Solar radiation climate in Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2006-08-15

    Recently, Diabate et al. [Diabate, L., Blanc, Ph., Wald, L., 2004. Solar climate in Africa. Solar Energy 76, 733-744] created a map of solar radiation climate in Africa using clearness index for 62 sites. They established a solar climate class II located in Malawi and Madagascar. However, their analysis did not include any irradiation data from a site in Malawi. In this study, the solar radiation climate of Malawi has been studied using long-term global radiation data from a local site. The mean monthly (K{sub tm}) and seasonal (K{sub ts}) daily clearness indices for the site were computed. It is observed that K{sub tm} has two maxima in a year (K{sub tm}=0.58 in May and K{sub tm}=0.64 in September), in close conformity with findings of Diabate et al. (2004). Other results are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Solar energy enters the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    Everybody agrees that there is a bright future for solar energy. After two decades of research and development, the market introduction of solar hot water systems is now taking off. In several countries, including the Netherlands, preparations are also underway for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic systems. Although the share of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy in the energy supply sector in the Netherlands is very small (0.1 PJ) there are signs of imminent change. According to the Follow-up Policy Document on Energy Conservation, the share of solar energy should increase to 7 PJ by the year 2010. After years of concentrating on research and development, it is now generally recognised that it is time to introduce these technologies onto the market in order to realize the long-term objectives. In this respect, thermal solar energy is ahead of photovoltaics. 4 ills

  5. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  6. Investigations of solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2005-01-01

    A large variety of solar combi systems are on the marked to day. The best performing systems are highly advanced energy systems with thermal stratification manifolds, an efficient boiler and only one control system, which controls both the boiler and the solar collector loop (Weiss et al., 2003...... desirable than a fixed inlet position? This paper presents experimental investigations of an advanced solar combi system with thermal stratification manifold inlets both in the solar collector loop and in the space heating system and with an external domestic hot water preparation. Theoretical......). However, it is still too early to draw conclusions on the design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions needs to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal domestic hot water preparation? Is a stratification manifold always more...

  7. Solar leaps from the shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezat, Jean-Michel; Leplatre, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This article comments the massive development of solar energy in many countries due to a significant decrease of solar array cost, to massive investments and to environmental constraints. More than a half of production means installed in 2015 are solar ones. After 50 GW installed in 2015, 70 GW are expected for 2016. Price drop is notably due to the Chinese dominant position. If equipment is cheaper, it has also become more reliable with a longer lifetime. Emerging countries are leaders in terms of development of installations even though China, the USA and Japan still represent the majority of additional capacities in 2015. Technological advances in solar cell technology are evoked. The associated evolution of the World energy mix is also evoked as well as the threat related by recent positions of President Trump in favour of fossil energies. Chinese policy for the environment and for the development of solar energy is briefly presented

  8. Market opportunities for solar drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskens, R.G.J.H.; Out, P.G.; Schulte, B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising applications for solar heating is the drying of agricultural products. The drying of agricultural products requires large quantities of low temperature air, in many cases, on a year-round basis. Low cost air-based collectors can provide heated air at solar collection efficiencies of 30 to 70%. In 1998/1999 a study was commissioned to better understand the technical and economic potential for solar drying of agricultural products in the world. The practical potential for solar drying was then determined for 59 crops and 22 regions. The world market for solar drying can be divided into three market segments: 1) mechanical drying T 50 deg. C; 3) sun drying. The most promising market for solar drying is generally market segment 1. For this segment the potential amount of energy displaced by solar is in between 216 770 PJ (World-wide). For Western Europe this potential is estimated between 23 88 PJ and for Eastern Europe between 7 and 13 PJ. A different market introduction strategy is required for each market segment. A total of 13 combinations of crops and regions are selected that appear to have the highest practical potential for solar drying. In the Netherlands a programme of activities was carried out by Ecofys and other organisations, to identify and develop the market potential for solar (assisted) drying of agricultural products. A promotional campaign for the use of renewable energy in the (promising) flower bulb sector is planned on a short-term basis to speed up market developments. It can be concluded that there is a large market for solar drying in the World as well as in Europe. (au)

  9. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  10. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  11. Solar homebuilders program: getting builders to build solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, B.; Allen, D.

    1981-01-01

    The homebuilding industry can open the way to wide-scale residential use of solar energy. Under the Northwest Power Act, the Department of Energy's Bonneville Power Administration, Western Solar Utilization Network and the Solar Energy Research Institute are working together with the Home Builders Association of Metropolitan Portland and the Portland chapter of the American Institute of Architects on a program that will affect 7 cities in the Pacific Northwest. Modeled after the successful Denver Metro Homebuilders Program, the project is being implemented in 3 cities in 1981 and three additional cities in 1982. In each of the 7 cities builders and developers will be provided with design, performance monitoring and marketing assistance for constructing passive solar prototypes. The result is ten passive solar homes of superior design and of an affordable price in each city. The secondary result of this program is expected to be a total of 2700 solar homes produced outside the program by builders from 1981-1985. Builders influenced to build passive solar homes outside the program could result in as many as 500,000 homes produced by the year 2000.

  12. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  13. Manifestation of solar activity in solar wind particle flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the origin of long-term variations in flux density of solar wind particles (nv) for different velocity regimes. The study revealed a relationship of these variations to the area of the polar coronal holes (CH). It is shown that within the framework of the model under development, the main longterm variations of nv are a result of the latitude redistribution of the solar wind mass flux in the heliosphere and are due to changes in the large-scale geometry of the solar plasma flow in the corona. A study has been made of the variations of nv for high speed solar wind streams. It is found that nv in high speed streams which are formed in CH, decreases from minimum to maximum solar activity. The analysis indicates that this decrease is attributable to the magnetic field strength increase in coronal holes. It has been found that periods of rapid global changes of background magnetic fields on the Sun are accompanied by a reconfiguration of coronal magnetic fields, rapid changes in the length of quiescent filaments, and by an increase in the density of the particle flux of a high speed solar wind. It has been established that these periods precede the formation of CH, corresponding to the increase in solar wind velocity near the Earth and to enhancement of the level of geomagnetic disturbance. (author)

  14. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  15. Solar system to scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  16. Development of solar tower observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Because the horizontal solar telescope, the Snow Telescope in Yerkes Observatory, was affected by air-currents from the warmed-up soil, George Ellery Hale had the idea of a tower telescope. In 1904, the 60-foot tower in Mt. Wilson was ready, in 1908 the 150-foot tower was built with the help of the Carnegie foundation. After World War I, Germany made heavy efforts to regain its former strong position in the field of science. Already in December 1919 - after the spectacular result of the English eclipse expedition in October 1919 - Erwin Finlay-Freundlich started a successful fund raising (“Einstein-Stiftungrdquo;) among German industrialists. The company Zeiss in Jena was responsible for the instrumentation of the 20-m solar tower, built in 1920-22. The optical design of the Einstein Tower in respect to light intensity surpassed even the Mt. Wilson solar observatory. Also abroad solar tower observatories were built in the 1920s: Utrecht,The Netherlands (1922), Canberra, Australia (1924), Arcetri, Italy (1926), Pasadena, California (1926) and Tokyo, Japan (1928). In the thirties, solar physics became important because of the solar maximum in 1938 and the new observational possibilities created by Bernard Lyot. At the end of the 1930s, Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer proposed to establish a solar tower observatory on Wendelstein in order to improve the predictions of radio interference by observing sunspots. By stressing the importance of the solar research for war efforts, Otto Heckmann of Göttingen observatory finally succeeded in winning the “Reichsluftfahrtministerium” to finance several solar observatories, like Wendelstein, Hainberg/Göttingen, Kanzelhöhe/Villach, and Schauinsland/Freiburg. Solar astronomy profited by the foundation of the new observatories - four of them existed still after the war. Abroad only the solar observatories of Oxford (1935) and the 50 foot tower of the McMath-Hulbert Observatory, University of Michigan (1936) should be mentioned. Only

  17. Improved CMX solar cell coverglasses and optical solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, A. M.; Jones, D. P.; Dollery, A. A.; Murphy, N.; Porter, D. A.

    Recent development programs have demonstrated that considerable improvements in optical and thermooptical performance as well as mechanical properties of CMX solar cell coverglasses and optical solar reflectors (OSRs) can be achieved. Optical coatings can increase infrared emittance by 4 percent and decrease solar absorptance by 50 percent. Chemical treatments can be used to increase glass strength to four times its untreated value or to provide integral antireflection layers which reduce reflection to 0.5 percent per surface. Automated test equipment for proving the strength of each coverglass and mirror has been designed and manufactured.

  18. Solar sail-solar electric technology readiness and transfer assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of conducting a technology readiness assessment was developed. It uses existing OAST technology readiness and risk criteria to define a technology readiness factor that considers both the required gain in technology readiness level to achieved technology readiness plus the degree of effort associated with achieving the gain. The results indicate that Solar Electric Propulsion is preferred based on technology readiness criteria. Both Solar Sail and Solar Electric Propulsion have a high level of transfer potential for future NASA missions, and each has considerable technology spillover for non-NASA applications.

  19. From Solar Cookers Towards Viable Solar Cooking Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    A broader concept of technology encompassing the technical and the societal aspects is introduced. Viability of technology and technological development process from a socio-technical view- point is discussed. Based on the above, the question of securing viability of solar cooking technology...... is taken up. It is discussed that actor- approach can operationally relate the abstract societal factors with those of technical aspects. Some concrete measures regarding application of solar cooker projects are drawn from the discussion: solar cooking projects should a) be based on user and producer...

  20. Upconversion in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Modification of the spectrum requires down- and/or upconversion or downshifting of the spectrum, meaning that the energy of photons is modified to either lower (down) or higher (up) energy. Nanostructures such as quantum dots, luminescent dye molecules, and lanthanide-doped glasses are capable of absorbing photons at a certain wavelength and emitting photons at a different (shorter or longer) wavelength. We will discuss upconversion by lanthanide compounds in various host materials and will further demonstrate upconversion to work for thin-film silicon solar cells. PMID:23413889

  1. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M

    2012-01-01

    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  2. Solar Neutrino Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; McGirt, F.; Miller, G.G.; Thornewell, P.M.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wouters, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) offers the unique opportunity to measure both the 8B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and, independently, the flux of all active neutrino species reaching the Earth. A model-independent test of the hypothesis that neutrino oscillations are responsible for the observed solar neutrino deficit can be made by comparing the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) rates. This LDRD proposal supported the research and development necessary for an assessment of backgrounds and performance of the SNO detector and the ability to extract the NC/CC-Ratio. Particular emphasis is put upon the criteria for deployment and signal extraction from a discrete NC detector array based upon ultra-low background 3He proportional counters

  3. The solar neutrinos epopee

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 year has been fruitful for the neutrino physics. First, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment has shown that the electron neutrinos nu sub e emitted by the sun are converted into muon neutrinos (nu submu) and tau neutrinos (nu subtau), thus closing the 30 years old problem of solar neutrinos deficit. This discovery validates the model of nuclear energy production inside the sun but it shakes the theory describing the weak interactions between the fundamental constituents of matter. This theory considers the neutrinos (and the photons) as massless particles, while the taste conversion phenomenon necessarily implies that neutrinos have a mass. In October 2000, the Universe exploration by the cosmic neutrinos is jointly recognized by R. Davis (USA) and M. Koshiba (Japan) who received the Nobel price of physics. Finally, in December 2000, the KamLAND experiment quantitatively demonstrated the neutrinos metamorphosis by detecting a deficit in the flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the ...

  4. Concentration solar thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  5. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  6. The solar photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    This publication first outlines challenges and stakes related to the development of renewable energies, and more particularly of photovoltaic solar energy in France and in the World. Principles and applications (connected and autonomous systems) are briefly presented. Some key data regarding installed capacity and its evolution in France and in other countries are briefly commented. The knowledge status of this technology is discussed in terms of strengths (environmental and energetic benefits, modularity, fast decreasing costs, integration into building envelope, local investment and consumer commitment, an added value and job generating sector), and weaknesses (fluctuating production and impact on the supply-demand balance, local impact on the distribution grid, land use, cautions, a sector with some environmental impact, evolutions of the support arrangement in France). Actions undertaken by the ADEME in different areas (support to research and innovation, installation quality, promotion of technologies with less environmental impacts) are reviewed

  7. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  8. Improved solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  9. Solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  10. Solar Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Esch, E.-I.; Fowler, M.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; McGirt, F.; Miller, G.G.; Thornewell, P.M.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wouters, J.M.

    1999-07-15

    With its heavy water target, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) offers the unique opportunity to measure both the 8B flux of electron neutrinos from the Sun and, independently, the flux of all active neutrino species reaching the Earth. A model-independent test of the hypothesis that neutrino oscillations are responsible for the observed solar neutrino deficit can be made by comparing the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) rates. This LDRD proposal supported the research and development necessary for an assessment of backgrounds and performance of the SNO detector and the ability to extract the NC/CC-Ratio. Particular emphasis is put upon the criteria for deployment and signal extraction from a discrete NC detector array based upon ultra-low background 3He proportional counters.

  11. Variations in Solar Parameters and Cosmic Rays with Solar Magnetic Polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S. [Department of Earth Science Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Y., E-mail: suyeonoh@jnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, Space Science and Geology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The sunspot number varies with the 11-year Schwabe cycle, and the solar magnetic polarity reverses every 11 years approximately at the solar maximum. Because of polarity reversal, the difference between odd and even solar cycles is seen in solar activity. In this study, we create the mean solar cycle expressed by phase using the monthly sunspot number for all solar cycles 1–23. We also generate the mean solar cycle for sunspot area, solar radio flux, and cosmic ray flux within the allowance of observational range. The mean solar cycle has one large peak at solar maximum for odd solar cycles and two small peaks for most even solar cycles. The odd and even solar cycles have the statistical difference in value and shape at a confidence level of at least 98%. For solar cycles 19–23, the second peak in the even solar cycle is larger than the first peak. This result is consistent with the frequent solar events during the declining phase after the solar maximum. The difference between odd and even solar cycles can be explained by a combined model of polarity reversal and solar rotation. In the positive/negative polarity, the polar magnetic field introduces angular momentum in the same/opposite direction as/to the solar rotation. Thus the addition/subtraction of angular momentum can increase/decrease the motion of plasma to support the formation of sunspots. Since the polarity reverses at the solar maximum, the opposite phenomenon occurs in the declining phase.

  12. Huge opportunity for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In Europe more than 400 solar cooling systems have been installed. By contrast, only a small number of solar cooling installations exist in Australia - primarily adsorption and absorption systems for commercial and hospitals - although these systems are growing. As with other renewable energy technologies, cost is a challenge. However solar cooling is currently competitive with other technologies, with some suggesting that system costs have been decreasing by about 20% per annum in recent times. Australia is also leading efforts in the development of residential solar desiccant technology, currently commercialising Australian-developed technology. Commercial and industrial enterprises are increasingly aware of the impact of demand charges, the potential to install technology as a hedge against future energy price rises and opportunities associated with increased on-site generation and reduced reliance on the grid, often necessitating on-site demand reduction and management. They are also driven by environmental and corporate social responsibility objectives as well as the opportunity for energy independence and uninterruptible operation. Interestingly, many of these interests are mirrdred at residential level, inspiring CSIRO's commercialisation of a domestic scale solar air conditioner with Australian manufacturer Brevis Climate Systems. Australia and other countries are increasingly aware of solar cooling as technology which can reduce or replace grid-powered cooling, particularly in applications where large building thermal energy requirements exist. In these applications, heating, cooling and hot water are generated and used in large amounts and the relative amounts of each can be varied dynamically, depending on building requirements. Recent demonstrations of solar cooling technology in Australia include Hunter TAFE's Solar Desiccant Cooling System - which provides heating, cooling and hot water to commercial training kitchens and classrooms - GPT

  13. Humid free efficient solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Manoj Kumar; Panjwani, Suresh Kumar; Mangi, Fareed Hussain; Khan, Danish; Meicheng, Li

    2017-09-01

    The paper examines the impact of the humidity on the Solar panels which makes a space for the drastic variation in the power generated and makes the device less efficient. Humidity readily affects the efficiency of the solar cells and creates a minimal layer of water on its surface. It also decreases the efficiency by 10-20% of the total power output produced. Moreover, to handle this issue, all around characterized measures are required to be taken to guarantee the smooth working of the solar panels utilized in humid areas. In connection with this issue, Karachi, the biggest city of Pakistan which is located near the costal line touching Arabian Sea, was taken as a reference city to measure the humidity range. In Karachi, the average humidity lies between 25-70% (as per Pakistan Meteorological Department PMD), that indirectly leads in decreasing power acquired from a Solar Panel and develops various complexities for the solar system. The system on average experiences stability issues, such as those of power fluctuations etc., due to which, the whole solar system installed observes abnormal variations in acquired power. Silica Gel was used as a desiccant material in order to assure dryness over the solar panel. More than four experiments were conducted with the usage of water absorbent to improve the efficiency and to make system more power efficient.

  14. Si Microwire Array Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, Morgan C.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Warren, Emily L.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2010-01-01

    Si microwire-array solar cells with Air Mass 1.5 Global conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9% have been fabricated using an active volume of Si equivalent to a 4 μm thick Si wafer. These solar cells exhibited open-circuit voltages of 500 mV, short-circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) of up to 24 mA cm{sup -2}, and fill factors >65% and employed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric particles that scattered light incident in the space between the wires, a Ag back reflector that prevented the escape of incident illumination from the back surface of the solar cell, and an a-SiN{sub x}:H passivation/anti-reflection layer. Wire-array solar cells without some or all of these design features were also fabricated to demonstrate the importance of the light-trapping elements in achieving a high J{sub sc}. Scanning photocurrent microscopy images of the microwire-array solar cells revealed that the higher J{sub sc} of the most advanced cell design resulted from an increased absorption of light incident in the space between the wires. Spectral response measurements further revealed that solar cells with light-trapping elements exhibited improved red and infrared response, as compared to solar cells without light-trapping elements.

  15. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chushiro; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Miyama, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The study on the origin of the solar system entered a stage of synthetic and positivistic science around 1960, as the observation and the theory of protostars began to develop, the solar chemical composition became almost definite, and the amounts of chemical and mineralogical data greatly increased. In accordance with this scientific situation, the first research meeting in Japan on the origin of the solar system was held in 1965 at the Research Institute for Fundamental Physics, Kyoto University. It was discussed how a variety of the data on the solar system can be explained in a unified way. Since 1977, the workshop on the origin has been held annually. Through a series of the workshops, so-called Kyoto model has been talked and discussed frequently. For three years from 1985, the workshop in Kyoto was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, and one of the main items of this grant was to publish the results of the workshop as the Supplement of the Progress of Theoretical Physics. The chronology of the solar system, the formation processes of protostars, the stability of solar nebulae, the physical processes in solar nebulae, the physical processes related to planetary growth, the growth of planets, and the formation of asteroids and meteorites are described in this book. (K.I.)

  16. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  17. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Henry W.; Kistner, Rainer

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  18. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistner, R.; Price, H.

    1999-01-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  19. University of Calgary solar car set for American solar challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    This article described a solar car designed by a team from the University of Calgary for the 2010 American Solar Challenge, a 1100 mile race that starts in Tulsa, Oklahoma and ends 5 days later in Chicago, Illinois. The Shulich Axiom car is comprised of 2000 solar cells with batteries that can store enough power to drive the car for a 4-hour period. The car has a top speed of 140 km per hour and is totally powered by solar energy. The team has taken the car on a 5-day tour of Alberta, stopping in 7 communities across the province before heading back to Calgary. The team is one of only 2 Canadian teams competing in the challenge this year. 1 fig.

  20. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.