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Sample records for tank vapor injection

  1. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  2. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Story, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program

  3. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

  4. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks

  5. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  6. Tank 241-U-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-U-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  7. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  8. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  9. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issuesclose quotes. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolutionclose quotes

  10. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  11. Tank 241-BY-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  12. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  13. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  14. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in ''Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues'' (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-BY-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with ''Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994)

  15. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  16. Tank 241-C-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-C-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  17. Tank 241-BY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-103 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  18. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in open-quotes Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.close quotes Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with open-quotes Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.close quotes

  19. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  20. Tank 241-C-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-111. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  1. Tank 241-BY-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BY-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to the tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  2. Tank 241-C-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  3. Tank 241-C-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-102. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  4. Tank 241-TY-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-101. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  5. Tank 241-BX-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BX-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  6. Tank 241-SX-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-SX-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  7. Tank 241-T-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-T-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  8. Tank 241-B-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-B-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank

  9. Tank 241-C-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank C-101 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks of fugitive emissions to tank farm workers. Gas and vapor samples from the Tank C-101 headspace were collected on July 7, 1994 using the in situ sampling (ISS) method, and again on September 1, 1994 using the more robust vapor sampling system (VSS). Gas and vapor concentrations in Tank C-101 are influenced by its connections to other tanks and its ventilation pathways. At issue is whether the organic vapors in Tank C-101 are from the waste in that tank, or from Tanks C-102 or C-103. Tank C-103 is on the Organic Watch List; the other two are not. Air from the Tank C-101 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9-m long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 8, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 34.0 C, and all heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 39 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks provided by the laboratories

  10. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the priorities, logic, work breakdown structure (WBS), task descriptions, and program milestones required for the resolution of tank vapor issues associated with the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST). The primary objective of this plan is to determine whether a health (personnel exposure) and/or safety (flammability) hazard exists. This plan is focused upon one waste tank, 241-C-103, but contains all elements required to bring the vapor issues to resolution

  11. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA trademark and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks

  12. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

  13. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  14. Waste Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Birn, M.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Silvers, K.L.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report compiles information collected during the Fiscal Year 1995 pertaining to the waste tank vapor characterization project. Information covers the following topics: project management; organic sampling and analysis; inorganic sampling and analysis; waste tank vapor data reports; and the waste tanks vapor database

  15. 14 CFR 25.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  16. 14 CFR 29.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Fuel tank vents. Each fuel tank must be vented from the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  17. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-108 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-108 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on october 27, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 25.7 C. Air from the Tank BY-108 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9 m-long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 1, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The 40 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks that accompanied the samples

  18. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-105 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-105 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on July 7, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 26 C. Air from the Tank BY-105 headspace was withdrawn via a heated sampling probe mounted in riser 10A, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 65 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 46 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 10 trip blanks provided by the laboratories

  19. Tank 241-BY-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Tank BY-110 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-110 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-110 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on November 11, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 27 C. Air from the Tank BY-110 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9 m-long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 12B, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The 40 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks that accompanied the samples

  20. Headspace gas and vapor characterization summary for the 43 vapor program suspect tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    During the time period between February 1994 and September 1995, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) sampled the waste tank headspace of 43 single-shell tanks for a variety of gaseous and/or volatile and semi-volatile compounds. This report summarizes the results of analyses of those sampling activities with respect to both the Priority 1 Safety Issues and relative to the detection in the headspace of significant concentrations of target analytes relating to worker breathing space consideration as recommended by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Toxicology Review Panel. The information contained in the data tables was abstracted from the vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization reports. Selected results are tabulated and summarized. Sampling equipment and methods, as well as sample analyses, are briefly described. Vapor sampling of passively ventilated single-shell tanks (tanks C-105, C-106, and SX-106 were sampled and are actively ventilated) has served to highlight or confirm tank headspace conditions associated with both priority 1 safety issues and supports source term analysis associated with protecting worker health and safety from noxious vapors

  1. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5044. Samples were collected by WHC on July 11, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  3. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  4. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5069. Samples were collected by WHC on October 12, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  5. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  6. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  7. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  8. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  9. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  10. Safety Injection Tank Performance Analysis Using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Lee, Jeong Ik; Nietiadi Yohanes Setiawan [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad Yacine [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This may affect the core cooling capability and threaten the fuel integrity during LOCA situations. However, information on the nitrogen flow rate during discharge is very limited due to the associated experimental measurement difficulties, and these phenomena are hardly reflected in current 1D system codes. In the current study, a CFD analysis is presented which hopefully should allow obtaining a more realistic prediction of the SIT performance which can then be reflected on 1D system codes to simulate various accident scenarios. Current Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study aims to find a better CFD prediction and more accurate modeling to predict the system performance during accident scenarios. The safety injection tank with fluidic device was analyzed using commercial CFD. A fine resolution grid was used to capture the vortex of the fluidic device. The calculation so far has shown good consistency with the experiment. Calculation should complete by the conference date and will be thoroughly analyzed to be discussed. Once a detailed CFD computation is finished, a small-scale experiment will be conducted for the given conditions. Using the experimental results and the CFD model, physical models can be validated to give more reliable results. The data from CFD and experiments will provide a more accurate K-factor of the fluidic device which can later be applied in system code inputs.

  11. 14 CFR 23.975 - Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.975 Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents. (a) Each fuel tank must be vented... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents...

  12. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  13. Performance Analysis of Multi Stage Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Kim, Young In; Bae, Youngmin; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Keung Koo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In general the integral reactor has such characteristics, the integral reactor requires a high flow rate of coolant safety injection at the initial stage of the accident in which the core level is relatively fast decreased, A medium flow rate of coolant safety injection at the early and middle stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is relatively large due to a high internal pressure of the reactor vessel, and a low flow rate of coolant safety injection is required at the middle and late stages of the accident in which the coolant discharge flow rate is greatly reduced due to a decreased pressure of the reactor vessel. It is noted that a high flow rate of the integral reactor is quite smaller compared to a flow rate required in the commercial loop type reactor. However, a nitrogen pressurized safety injection tank has been typically designed to quickly inject a high flow rate of coolant when the internal pressure of the reactor vessel is rapidly decreased, and a core makeup tank has been designed to safely inject at a single mode flow rate due to a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor vessel and core makeup tank. As a result, in order to compensate such a disadvantage, various type systems are used in a complicated manner in a reactor according to the required characteristic of safety injection during an accident. In the present study, we have investigated numerically the performance of the multi stage safety injection tank. A parameter study has performed to understand the characteristics of the multi stage safety injection tank. The performance of the multi stage safety injection tank has been investigated numerically. When an accident occurs, the coolant in the multi stage safety injection tank is injected into a reactor vessel by a gravitational head of water subsequent to making a pressure balance between the reactor and tank. At the early stages of the accident, the high flow rate of

  14. Vaporization Rate Analysis of Primary Cooling Water from Reactor PUSPATI TRIGA (RTP) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonny Anak Lanyau; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Yahya Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Primary cooling system consists of pumps, heat exchangers, probes, a nitrogen-16 diffuser and associated valves is connected to the reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) tank by aluminium pipes. Both the primary cooling system and the reactor tank is filled with demineralized light water (H 2 O), which serves as a coolant, moderator as well as shielding. During reactor operation, vaporization in the reactor tank will reduce the primary water and contribute to the formation of vapor in the reactor hall. The vaporization may influence the function of the water subsequently may affect the safety of the reactor operation. It is essential to know the vaporization rate of the primary water to ensure its functionality. This paper will present the vaporization rate of the primary cooling water from the reactor tank and the influence of temperature of the water in the reactor tank to the vaporization rate. (author)

  15. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, H. H.; Farrar, M. E.; Fink, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  16. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  17. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  18. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  19. AA injection kicker in its tank

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    For single-turn injection of the antiprotons, a septum at the end of the injection line made the beam parallel to the injection orbit, and a quarter of a betatron-wavelength downstream a fast kicker corrected the angle. Kicker type: lumped delay line. PFN voltage 56 kV. Bending angle 7.5 mrad; kick-strength 0.9 Tm; fall-time 95%-5% in 150 ns. The injection orbit is to the left, the stack orbit to the far right. A fast shutter near the central orbit had to be closed before the kicker fired, so as to protect the stack core from being shaken by the kicker's fringe field. The shutter is shown in closed position.

  20. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-101: Results from samples collected on 06/06/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-101. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed

  1. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-203, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-203 (Tank U-203) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-102: Results from samples collected on June 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-AX-102 (Tank AX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  3. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-S-107: Results from samples collected on 06/18/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-107 (Tank S-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National. Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  4. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  5. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which'supplied and analyzed the sample media

  6. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-U-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue.Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-U-104. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 16, 1996 sampling of SST 241-U-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  7. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  8. Analysis of pulsed injection for microgravity receiver tank chilldown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Scott C.; Pietrzyk, Joe R.; Schuster, John R.

    The dominant heat transfer mechanism during the hold phase of a tank chilldown cycle in a low-gravity environment is due to fluid motion persistence following the charge. As compared to the single-charge per vent cycle case, pulsed injection maintains fluid motion and the associated high wall heat transfer coefficients during the hold phase. As a result, the pulsed injection procedure appears to be an attractive method for reducing the time and liquid mass required to chill a tank. However, for the representative conditions considered, no significant benefit can be realized by using pulsed injection as compared to the single-charge case. A numerical model of the charge/hold/vent process was used to evaluate the pulsed injection procedure for tank chilldown in microgravity. Pulsed injection results in higher average wall heat transfer coefficients during the hold, as compared to the single-charge case. However, these high levels were not coincident with the maximum wall-to-fluid temperature differences, as in the single-charge case. For representative conditions investigated, the charge/hold/vent process is very efficient. A slightly shorter chilldown time was realized by increasing the number of pulses.

  9. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank

  10. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-B-102 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-B-102. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 18, 1996 sampling of SST 241-B-102. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media. The team, consisting of Sampling and Mobile Laboratories (SML) and Special Analytical Studies (SAS) personnel, used the vapor sampling system (VSS) to collect representative samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the headspace of SST 241-B-102 with sorbent traps and SUMMA canisters

  11. Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis

  12. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids

  13. Progress toward resolution of vapor problems associated with tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Babad, H.; Story, M.S.

    1994-02-01

    Noxious and flammable gases and vapors associated with high-level radioactive waste storage tank 241-C-103 at the Hanford Site are discussed. Focus is on the Westinghouse Hanford Company strategy to characterize the tank headspace. The sampling and analysis methodology is described. Sampling limitations, devices, and equipment are discussed. Results to date are given

  14. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BX-110 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-BX-110. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 30, 1996 sampling of SST 241-BX-110. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media

  15. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  16. CFD Analysis of the Safety Injection Tank and Fluidic Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Oan; Nietiadi, Yohanes Setiawan; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Addad, Yacine [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-05-15

    One of the most important components in the ECCS is the safety injection tank (SIT). Inside the SIT, a fluidic device is installed, which passively controls the mass flow of the safety injection and eliminates the need for low pressure safety injection pumps. As more passive safety mechanisms are being pursued, it has become more important to understand flow structure and the loss mechanism within the fluidic device. Current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have had limited success in predicting the fluid flow accurately. This study proposes to find a more exact result using CFD and more realistic modeling to predict the performance during accident scenarios more accurately. The safety injection tank with fluidic device was analyzed thoroughly using CFD. The preliminary calculation used 60,000 meshes for the initial test calculation. The results fit the experimental results surprisingly despite its coarse grid. Nonetheless, the mesh resolution was increased to capture the vortex in the fluidic device precisely. Once a detailed CFD computation is finished, a small-scale experiment will be conducted for the given conditions. Using the experimental results and the CFD model, physical models can be improved to fit the results more accurately.

  17. Tank 241-AZ-101 and tank 241-AZ-102, airlift circulator operation vapor sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs). The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-AZ-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No.2E98-082 and No.2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds

  18. Results of vapor space monitoring of flammable gas Watch List tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization Systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, release rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed

  19. Results of Vapor Space Monitoring of Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCAIN, D.J.

    2000-09-27

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, released rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.

  20. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-U-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on December 6, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklarew, D.S.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-112 (Tank U-112) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constitutents. Two risers (Riser 3 and Riser 6) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan.

  1. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-104: Results from samples collected on June 24, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-104 (referred to as Tank BY-104) on June 24, 1994. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze inorganic and organic samples collected from the tank headspace. The sample job was designated S4019 and was performed by WHC on June 24, 1994 using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The results of the analyses are expected to be used in the determination of safety and toxicological issues related to the tank-headspace gas as described in the WHC report entitled Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Vapor Issue Resolution, WHC-SD-WM-DQO-002, Rev. 0. Sampling devices, including 16 sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and 5 SUMMA trademark canisters (for organic analyses), were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on June 20, 1994. Samples were taken (by WHC) on June 24. The samples were returned from the field on June 27. The inorganic samples delivered to PNL on chain-of-custody (COC) 006893 included 16 sorbent trains as described in Tables 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Additional inorganic blank spikes were obtained from related sample jobs. SUMMA trademark samples delivered to PNL on COC 006896 included one ambient air sample, one ambient-air sample through the sampling system, and three tank-headspace SUMMA trademark canister samples. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL laboratory record book 55408. Custody of the sorbent trains was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated (≤10 degrees C) temperature until the time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-TY-102: Results from samples collected on 04/12/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-TY-102 (Tank TY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to'characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes, and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  3. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-B-105: Results from samples collected on 07/30/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-105 (Tank B-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  4. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  5. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-204: Results from samples collected on 07/02/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-204 (Tank C-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  6. Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report discusses comparison tests for two methods of collecting vapor samples from the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank headspaces. The two sampling methods compared are the truck-mounted vapor sampling system (VSS) and the cart-mounted in-situ vapor sampling (ISVS). Three tanks were sampled by both the VSS and ISVS methods from the same access risers within the same 8-hour period. These tanks have diverse headspace compositions and they represent the highest known level of several key vapor analytes

  7. Preliminary study on functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tanks is studied. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive flow features in compound type safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study is carried out to evaluate the functional performance of a compound type multistage safety injection tank that would be considered one of the components for the passive safety injection systems in nuclear power plants. The effects of key design parameters such as the initial volume fraction and charging pressure of gas, tank elevation, vertical location of a sparger, resistance coefficient, and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. The obtained results indicate that the compound type multistage safety injection tank can effectively control the injection flow rate in a passive manner, by switching the driving force for the safety injection from gas pressure to gravity during the refill and reflood phases, respectively

  8. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank SX-101: Results from samples collected on 07/21/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    Results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. They include air concentrations of inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples. The vapor concentrations are based either on whole-volume samples or on sorbent traps exposed to sample flow. No immediate notifications were needed because analytical results indicated no specific analytes exceeded notification levels. Summary of results: NH3, 3.8 ppmv; NO2, 0.10 ppmv; NO, 0.13 ppm; H2O, 11.8 mg/L; CO2, 338 ppmv; CO, 3 ; methanol, 0.060 ppmv; acetone, 0.033 ppmv; trichlorofluoromethane, 0.023 ppmv; and acetone, 0.034 ppmv

  9. Tank 241-C-111 headspace gas and vapor sample results - August 1993 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Tank 241-C-111 is on the ferrocyanide Watch List. Gas and vapor samples were collected to assure safe conditions before planned intrusive work was performed. Sample analyses showed that hydrogen is about ten times higher in the tank headspace than in ambient air. Nitrous oxide is about sixty times higher than ambient levels. The hydrogen cyanide concentration was below 0.04 ppbv, and the average NO x concentration was 8.6 ppmv

  10. Tank 241-Z-361 vapor sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    Tank 241-Z-361 is identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement), Appendix C, (Ecology et al. 1994) as a unit to be remediated under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). As such, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will serve as the lead regulatory agency for remediation of this tank under the CERCLA process. At the time this unit was identified as a CERCLA site under the Tri-Party Agreement, it was placed within the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. In 1997, The Tri-parties redefined 200 Area Operable Units into waste groupings (Waste Site Grouping for 200 Areas Soils Investigations [DOE-RL 1992 and 1997]). A waste group contains waste sites that share similarities in geological conditions, function, and types of waste received. Tank 241-Z-361 is identified within the CERCLA Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group (DOE-RL 1992). The Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group has been prioritized for remediation beginning in the year 2004. Results of Tank 216-Z-361 sampling and analysis described in this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and in the SAP for sludge sampling (to be developed) will determine whether expedited response actions are required before 2004 because of the hazards associated with tank contents. Should data conclude that remediation of this tank should occur earlier than is planned for the other sites in the waste group, it is likely that removal alternatives will be analyzed in a separate Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). Removal actions would proceed after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signs an Action Memorandum describing the selected removal alternative for Tank 216-Z-361. If the data conclude that there is no immediate threat to human health and the environment from this tank, remedial actions for the tank will be defined in a

  11. Analysis of the vaporization of the liquefied gas of the petroleum (LPG) in tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzate Espinosa, Guillermo A; Jaraba V, Xavier F

    2005-01-01

    Putting together thermodynamics (phase behavior), heat transfer and mass transfer fundamentals; it was possible to structure a mathematical and numerical model to simulate the vaporization process of LPG in tanks. The simulation model allows studying any feeding process with gaseous LPG to an appliance, and therefore, to follow changes inside the LPG tank related with LPG composition and its properties, temperature and pressure. A continuous or by cycles supplying process of gaseous LPG from a tank to any appliance promotes a reduction of liquid LPG temperature, an increase on specific gravity of LPG in both phases, and also an increasing in the value calorific of gaseous LPG

  12. Data Quality Issues Associated with the Presence of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Tank Vapor Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, John C.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization data for the gases and vapors in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank headspaces are compiled and available via the TWINS interface (TWINS 2006). A recent re-examination of selected data from TWINS has shown a number of anomalies with respect to compounds that are (1) not expected to be present in the tank based on operational knowledge and (2) not found consistently in the same tank by alternative analysis methods or repeat sampling. Numerous results for two chemicals in particular, cis- and trans-1,2-dichloropropane, are determined here to be suspect based on evidence that they were laboratory contaminants

  13. Engineering Task Plan for a vapor treatment system on Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan describes tasks and responsibilities for the design, fabrication, test, and installation of a vapor treatment system (mixing system) on Tank 241-C-103. The mixing system is to be installed downstream of the breather filter and will use a mixing blower to reduce the chemical concentrations to below allowable levels

  14. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-U-112: Results from samples collected on 7/09/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-112 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company

  15. METEOROLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON VAPOR INCIDENTS IN THE 200 EAST and 200 WEST TANK FARMS FROM CY2001 THRU CY2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAUROTE, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation into the meteorological influences on vapor incidents in the tank farms to determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases. Weather phenomena, specifically barometric pressure, and wind velocity and direction can potentially cause or exacerbate a vapor release within the farm systems

  16. Design of Safety Injection Tanks Using Axiomatic Design and TRIZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Design can be categorized into two steps: 'synthesis' and 'analysis'. While synthesis is the process of decision-making on design parameters, analysis is the process of optimizing the parameters selected. It is known from experience that the mistakes made in the synthesis process are hardly corrected in the analysis process. 'Systematic synthesis' is, therefore, easy to overlook but an important topic. 'Systematic' is interpreted as 'minimizing' uncertainty and subjectivity. This paper will introduce the design product achieved by using Axiomatic Design (AD) and TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving romanized acronym for Russian), which is a new design of Safety Injection Tank (SIT). In designing a large-capacity SIT which should play an important role in mitigating the large break loss of coolant accidents, there are three issues: 1) the excessively large plenum for pressurized nitrogen gas; 2) the difficulties maintaining the high initial injection flow rate; and 3) the non-condensable nitrogen gas in the coolant. This study proposes a conceptual idea for SITs that are pressurized by the chemical reaction of solid propellants. The AD theory and the principles of TRIZ enable new approach in problem-solving for those three issues in an innovative way. The paper made an effort to clarify the systematic synthesis process to reach the final design solution. (authors)

  17. Design of Safety Injection Tanks Using Axiomatic Design and TRIZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyunyoung; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Design can be categorized into two steps: 'synthesis' and 'analysis'. While synthesis is the process of decision-making on design parameters, analysis is the process of optimizing the parameters selected. It is known from experience that the mistakes made in the synthesis process are hardly corrected in the analysis process. 'Systematic synthesis' is, therefore, easy to overlook but an important topic. 'Systematic' is interpreted as 'minimizing' uncertainty and subjectivity. This paper will introduce the design product achieved by using Axiomatic Design (AD) and TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving romanized acronym for Russian), which is a new design of Safety Injection Tank (SIT). In designing a large-capacity SIT which should play an important role in mitigating the large break loss of coolant accidents, there are three issues: 1) the excessively large plenum for pressurized nitrogen gas; 2) the difficulties maintaining the high initial injection flow rate; and 3) the non-condensable nitrogen gas in the coolant. This study proposes a conceptual idea for SITs that are pressurized by the chemical reaction of solid propellants. The AD theory and the principles of TRIZ enable new approach in problem-solving for those three issues in an innovative way. The paper made an effort to clarify the systematic synthesis process to reach the final design solution. (authors)

  18. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-U-108: Results from samples collected on 8/29/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsten, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-108 (Tank U-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in the report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC

  19. METEOROLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON VAPOR INCIDENTS IN THE 200 EAST and 200 WEST TANK FARMS FROM CY1995 TO CY2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOCKING, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Revised for a more comprehensive overview of vapor incidents reported at the Hanford Tank Farms. Investigation into the meteorological influences on vapor incidents in the tank farm to determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases. Weather phenomena, specifically barometric pressure, and wind velocity and direction can potentially cause or exacerbate a vapor release within the farm systems. The purpose of this document is to gather and evaluate the meteorological and weather information for the Tank Farms Shift Log Vapor Incident entries and determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases such as propane. A part of the evaluation will be determining which of the incidents are related to actual ''intrusive'' work, and which are ''transient.'' Transient vapor incidents are herein defined as those vapors encountered during walkdowns, surveys, or other activities that did not require working directly with the tanks, pits, transfer lines, etc. Another part of the investigation will involve determining if there are barometric pressures or other weather related phenomena that might cause or contribute vapors being released when there are no ''intrusive'' activities. A final purpose is to evaluate whether there is any correlation between the 242-A Evaporator operations and Vapor Incidents entered on the Shift Log

  20. METEOROLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON VAPOR INCIDENTS IN THE 200 EAST & 200 WEST TANK FARMS FROM CY1995 TO CY2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOCKING, M.J.

    2005-01-31

    Revised for a more comprehensive overview of vapor incidents reported at the Hanford Tank Farms. Investigation into the meteorological influences on vapor incidents in the tank farm to determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases. Weather phenomena, specifically barometric pressure, and wind velocity and direction can potentially cause or exacerbate a vapor release within the farm systems. The purpose of this document is to gather and evaluate the meteorological and weather information for the Tank Farms Shift Log Vapor Incident entries and determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases such as propane. A part of the evaluation will be determining which of the incidents are related to actual ''intrusive'' work, and which are ''transient.'' Transient vapor incidents are herein defined as those vapors encountered during walkdowns, surveys, or other activities that did not require working directly with the tanks, pits, transfer lines, etc. Another part of the investigation will involve determining if there are barometric pressures or other weather related phenomena that might cause or contribute vapors being released when there are no ''intrusive'' activities. A final purpose is to evaluate whether there is any correlation between the 242-A Evaporator operations and Vapor Incidents entered on the Shift Log.

  1. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Ventilation System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the primary ventilation systems of the AN, AP, AW, and AY/AZ tank farms. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Vapor samples will be obtained from tank farm ventilation systems, downstream from the tanks and upstream of any filtration. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA(trademark) canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples

  2. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals

  3. Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications

  4. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  5. Vapor Space Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gray, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murphy, T. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hicks, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-30

    As part of an integrated program to better understand corrosion in the high level waste tanks, Hanford has been investigating corrosion at the liquid/air interface (LAI) and at higher areas in the tank vapor space. This current research evaluated localized corrosion in the vapor space over Hanford double shell tank simulants to assess the impact of ammonia and new minimum nitrite concentration limits, which are part of the broader corrosion chemistry limits. The findings from this study showed that the presence of ammonia gas (550 ppm) in the vapor space is sufficient to reduce corrosion over the short-term (i.e. four months) for a Hanford waste chemistry (SY102 High Nitrate). These findings are in agreement with previous studies at both Hanford and SRS which showed ammonia gas in the vapor space to be inhibitive. The presence of ammonia in electrochemical test solution, however, was insufficient to inhibit against pitting corrosion. The effect of the ammonia appears to be a function of the waste chemistry and may have more significant effects in waste with low nitrite concentrations. Since high levels of ammonia were found beneficial in previous studies, additional testing is recommended to assess the necessary minimum concentration for protection of carbon steel. The new minimum R value of 0.15 was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion in the vapor space. The pitting that occurred, however, did not progress over the four-month test. Pits appeared to stop growing, which would indicate that pitting might not progress through wall.

  6. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-201: Results from samples collected on 06/19/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-201 (Tank C-201) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary, of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  7. Pressurization of a Flightweight, Liquid Hydrogen Tank: Evaporation & Condensation at a Liquid/Vapor Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis and simulation of evaporation and condensation at a motionless liquid/vapor interface. A 1-D model equation, emphasizing heat and mass transfer at the interface, is solved in two ways, and incorporated into a subgrid interface model within a CFD simulation. Simulation predictions are compared with experimental data from the CPST Engineering Design Unit tank, a cryogenic fluid management test tank in 1-g. The numerical challenge here is the physics of the liquid/vapor interface; pressurizing the ullage heats it by several degrees, and sets up an interfacial temperature gradient that transfers heat to the liquid phase-the rate limiting step of condensation is heat conducted through the liquid and vapor. This physics occurs in thin thermal layers O(1 mm) on either side of the interface which is resolved by the subgrid interface model. An accommodation coefficient of 1.0 is used in the simulations which is consistent with theory and measurements. This model is predictive of evaporation/condensation rates, that is, there is no parameter tuning.

  8. Transient performance analysis of pressurized safety injection tank with a partition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of safety injection tanks with a partition is evaluated. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive features of the flow in multi-unit safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study has been performed to evaluate the functional performance of a pressurized multi-unit safety injection tank, which would be considered as one of the candidates for a passive safety injection system in a nuclear power plant. The influences of key design parameters including the orifice size, initial gas fraction, and resistance coefficients and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized with a discussion of the relevant flow features such as the choked flow of gas through an orifice and two interconnected regions of differing gaseous pressure. The obtained results indicate that a multi-unit safety injection tank can passively control the injection flow rate and provide a stable safety injection over a relatively long period even in the case of drastic depressurization of a reactor coolant system

  9. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III, sampled March 28, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999

  10. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-B-107: Results from samples collected on 7/23/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-107 (Tank B-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwestern National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  11. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-106: Results from samples collected on 06/13/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-106 (Tank S-106) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  12. Combined in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils by closed-loop soil vapor extraction and air injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.S.; Buckler, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment and restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at a bulk petroleum above-ground storage tank (AST) site in Michigan is being conducted through in-situ and ex-situ closed-loop soil vapor extraction (SVE), soil vapor treatment, and treated air injection (AI) processes. The soil vapor extraction process applies a vacuum through the petroleum hydrocarbon affected soils in the ex-situ bio-remediation pile (bio-pile) and along the perimeter of excavated area (in-situ area) to remove the volatile or light petroleum hydrocarbons. This process also draws ambient air into the ex-situ bio-pile and in-situ vadose zone soil along the perimeter of excavated area to enhance biodegradation of light and heavy petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. The extracted soil vapor is treated using a custom-designed air bio-remediation filter (bio-filter) to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in the soil vapor extraction air streams. The treated air is then injected into a flush grade soil bed in the backfill area to perform final polishing of the air stream, and to form a closed-loop air flow with the soil vapor extraction perforated pipes along the perimeter of the excavated area

  13. Engineering task plan for the vapor monitor installation into 241-C-103 tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelendy, N.A.

    1994-12-01

    A vapor flow monitor is to be installed into the 241-C-103 tank's exhaust, just downstream of the HEPA filter. The flow monitor system includes the flow sensor, the baffle assembly, the signal conditioning and control electronics, and a chart recorder. The electronics package and the chart recorder are installed into a small, heated instrument cabinet that is mounted on the same steel pallet on which the flowmeter and the diffuser assembly is mounted. The flowmeter is connected to the HEPA filter with an unheated, un-insulated flex hose. An automatic drain, upstream of the flowmeter, is designed to automatically drain the condensate into an evaporating pan. The flowmeter is heated with a temperature controlled heater to avoid condensation

  14. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated

  15. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-U-109: Results from samples collected on 8/10/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-109 (Tank U-109) At the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. This tank is on the Hydrogen Waste List. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases and total non-methane hydrocarbons is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples is also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  16. Performance Verification for Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Seok Jeong; Kim, Da Yong

    2014-01-01

    In LBLOCA, the SITs of a conventional nuclear power plant deliver excessive cooling water to the reactor vessel causing the water to flow into the containment atmosphere. In an effort to make it more efficient, Fluidic Device (FD) is installed inside a SIT of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). FD, a complete passive controller which doesn't require actuating power, controls injection flow rates which are susceptible to a change in the flow resistance inside a vortex chamber of FD. When SIT Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) water level is above the top of the stand pipe, the water enters the vortex chamber through both the top of the stand pipe and the control ports resulting in injection of the water at a large flow rate. When the water level drops below the top of the stand pipe, the water only enters the vortex chamber through the control ports resulting in vortex formation in the vortex chamber and a relatively small flow injection. Performance verification of SIT shall be carried out because SITs play an integral role to mitigate accidents. In this paper, the performance verification method of SIT with FD is presented. In this paper, the equations for calculation of flow resistance coefficient (K) are induced to evaluate on-site performance of APR 1400 SIT with FD. Then, the equations are applied to the performance verification of SIT with FD and good results are obtained

  17. Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the equivalency of two methods used to sample nonradioactive gases and vapors in the Hanford Site high-level waste tank headspaces. In addition to the comparison of the two sampling methods, the effects of an in-line fine particle filter on sampling results are also examined to determine whether results are adversely affected by its presence. This report discusses data from a January 1996 sampling

  18. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-BX-110: Results from samples collected on 04/30/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-BX-110 (Tank BX-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  19. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide using ultrashort precursor injection pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    An alternative plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method is developed and applied for the deposition of high-quality aluminum oxide (AlOx) films. The PECVD method combines a continuous plasma with ultrashort precursor injection pulses. We demonstrate that the modulation of the

  20. Tank 241-U-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results from samples collected on July 16, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C.; Mitroshkov, A.V.; Edwards, J.A.; Julya, J.L.; Thornton, B.M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results from analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-104 (Tank U-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Tank headspace samples collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Vapor concentrations from sorbent trap samples are based on measured sample volumes provided by WHC. No analytes were determined to be above the immediate notification limits specified by the sampling and analysis plan. None of the flammable constituents were present at concentrations above the analytical instrument detection limits. Total headspace flammability was estimated to be <0.108% of the lower flammability limit. Average measured concentrations of targeted gases, inorganic vapors, and selected organic vapors are provided in a table. A summary of experimental methods, including sampling methodology, analytical procedures, and quality assurance and control methods are presented in Section 2.0. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results are provided in Section 3.0

  1. An experimental study of the flow characteristics of fluidic device in a passive safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seok; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Suon Yeon; Min, Kyong Ho; Chung, Moon Ki

    1998-01-01

    It is considered to adopt passive safety injection tank (SIT) as a enhanced safety feature in KNGR. Passive SIT employs a vortex chamber as a fluidic device, which control injection flow rate passively by the variation of flow resistance produced by vortex intensity within the vortex chamber. To investigate the flow characteristics of the vortex chamber many tests have been carried out by using small-scale test facility. In this report the effects of geometric parameters of vortex chamber on discharge flow characteristics and the velocity measurement result of flow field, measured by PIV, are presented and discussed. (author). 25 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs

  2. Tank 241-B-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  3. Tank 241-BX-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  4. Tank 241-U-203 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  5. Tank 241-C-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  6. Tank 241-S-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  7. Tank 241-U-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  8. Tank 241-SX-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  9. Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  10. Tank 241-C-102 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  11. Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  12. Tank 241-T-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  13. Tank 241-SX-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  14. Tank 241-TY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  15. Tank 241-C-110 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  16. Tank 241-C-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  17. Tank 241-C-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  18. Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  19. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-T-107. Results from samples collected on January 18, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-T-107 (referred to as Tank T-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, I was observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The estimated concentration of all 7 organic analytes observed in the tank headspace are listed in Table I and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank T-107. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected in the tank-headspace samples

  20. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-101: Results from samples collected on 9/1/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-101 (referred to as Tank C-101) and the ambient air collected - 30 ft upwind near the tank and through the VSS near the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4056, and samples were collected by WHC on September 1, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated (≤ 10 degrees C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25 degrees C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for NH 3 , NO 2 , and NO analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)

  1. Preliminary analysis of tank 241-C-106 dryout due to large postulated leak and vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    At the Hanford site in SE Washington, there are 149 single-shell tanks containing radionuclide wastes in the form of liquids, sludges and salt cakes. One of the tanks, tank 241-C-106, is heated to the boiling point due to radionuclide decay (primarily Sr-90). Water is added to the tank, which is ventilated, in order to cool the tank. This analysis assumes that there is a hypothetical large leak at the bottom of Tank 241-C-106 which initiates the dryout of the tank. The time required for a tank to dryout after a leak is of interest for safety reasons. As a tank dries outs, its temperature is expected to greatly increase, which could affect the structural integrity of the concrete tank dome. Hence, it is of interest to know how fast the temperature in a leaky tank increases, so that mitigation procedures can be planned and implemented in a timely manner. The objective of the study was to determine how long it would take for tank 241-C-106 to reach 350 degrees Fahrenheit (about 177 degrees Centigrade) after a postulated large leak develops at the bottom center of the tank.

  2. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  3. Finalize field testing of cold climate heat pump (CCHP) based on tandem vapor injection compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the system diagram and control algorithm of a prototype air-source cold climate heat pump (CCHP) using tandem vapor injection (VI) compressors. The prototype was installed in Fairbanks, Alaska and underwent field testing starting in 09/2016. The field testing results of the past six months, including compressor run time fractions, measured COPs and heating capacities, etc., are presented as a function of the ambient temperature. Two lessons learned are also reported.

  4. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Report for SUMMA trademark canister samples received 11/29/93 (sample jobs 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.R.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.; Allwine, K.J.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of Sample Jobs 4 and 5 was to determine whether the organic nitrites observed on the outside of tank 241-C-103 originated in the tank or from degradation products of the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The plan was to take samples from either side of the HE-PA filter. The relative level of organic nitrites would help determine whether they were produced in the filter or the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was responsible for analyzing the SUMMA trademark canisters collected in support of this study. The laboratory was to analyze the SUMMA trademark Canister samples according to letters of instruction and report all semivolatile and volatile organic constituents detected in the tank headspace. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was also to submit a letter report to the Program Manager of all qualitative and quantitative analytical data, and estimate concentrations of any aliphatic nitrites identified. This was one of the first sampling activities for this program, and a number of errors were made both in the field and in the laboratory. Because of these errors, the samples and results were of questionable value. Therefore, Westinghouse program management asked that the analysis of the samples for this report not be completed. This report describes the few results that were generated before we were asked to stop work on this activity. In addition to analyzing SUMMA trademark canisters, PNL operates a site portable weather station near tank 241-C-103. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was required to collect atmospheric data starting 11/15/93, but the weather station was already collecting data during the time of both these two sample jobs (11/12/93 and 11/16/93). Therefore, a summary of the atmospheric data is also presented in this report

  5. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-SX-103: Results from samples collected on 3/23/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage tank 241-SX-103 (referred to as Tank SX-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, two were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Two tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The four organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank SX-103. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank SX-103 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  6. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2010-01-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  7. Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.

  8. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/27/1999, During Sludge Core Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VISWANATH, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371/Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA(trademark) canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2

  9. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-T-111. Results from samples collected on January 20, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-T-111. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  10. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241; C-102: Results from samples collected on August 23, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-C-102. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  11. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-U-111: Results from samples collected on February 28, 1995. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Bredt, O.P.; Goheen, S.C.; Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Klinger, G.S.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-U-111. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  12. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-U-106: Results from samples collected on March 7, 1995. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O) Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. The NH 3 concentration was 16% greater than that determined from an ISS sample obtained in August 1994; the H 2 O concentration was about 10% less. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 5 were observed in two or more canisters above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed in two or more canisters above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations account for approximately 90% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Three permanent gases, nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon dioxide (COD were also detected

  13. Theoretical Study on the Flow of Refilling Stage in a Safety Injection Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Sang [Halla Univ. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    In this study, a theoretical analysis was performed to the flow of refilling stage in a safety injection tank, which is the core cooling system of nuclear power plant in an emergency. A theoretical model was proposed with a nonlinear governing equation defining on the flow of the refilling process of the coolant. Utilizing the Taylor-series expansion, the 1st - order approximation flow equation was obtained, along with its analytic solution of closed type, which could predict accurately the variations of free surface height and flow rate of the coolant. The availability of theoretical result was confirmed by comparing with previous experimental results.

  14. Theoretical analyses of an injection-locked diode-pumped rubidium vapor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, He; Gao, Chunqing; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Shunyan; Yu, Hang; Rong, Kepeng; An, Guofei; Han, Juhong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You

    2018-04-02

    Diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) have drawn much attention since they were proposed in 2001. The narrow-linewidth DPAL can be potentially applied in the fields of coherent communication, laser radar, and atomic spectroscopy. In this study, we propose a novel protocol to narrow the width of one kind of DPAL, diode-pumped rubidium vapor laser (DPRVL), by use of an injection locking technique. A kinetic model is first set up for an injection-locked DPRVL with the end-pumped configuration. The laser tunable duration is also analyzed for a continuous wave (CW) injection-locked DPRVL system. Then, the influences of the pump power, power of a master laser, and reflectance of an output coupler on the output performance are theoretically analyzed. The study should be useful for design of a narrow-linewidth DPAL with the relatively high output.

  15. Vapor permeation-stepwise injection simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol in biodiesel with voltammetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishov, Andrey; Penkova, Anastasia; Zabrodin, Andrey; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Dmitrenko, Maria; Ermakov, Sergey; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    A novel vapor permeation-stepwise injection (VP-SWI) method for the determination of methanol and ethanol in biodiesel samples is discussed. In the current study, stepwise injection analysis was successfully combined with voltammetric detection and vapor permeation. This method is based on the separation of methanol and ethanol from a sample using a vapor permeation module (VPM) with a selective polymer membrane based on poly(phenylene isophtalamide) (PA) containing high amounts of a residual solvent. After the evaporation into the headspace of the VPM, methanol and ethanol were transported, by gas bubbling, through a PA membrane to a mixing chamber equipped with a voltammetric detector. Ethanol was selectively detected at +0.19 V, and both compounds were detected at +1.20 V. Current subtractions (using a correction factor) were used for the selective determination of methanol. A linear range between 0.05 and 0.5% (m/m) was established for each analyte. The limits of detection were estimated at 0.02% (m/m) for ethanol and methanol. The sample throughput was 5 samples h(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-U-103: Results from samples collected on 2/15/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-103 (referred to as Tank U-103). The results described her were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 11 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 90% of the total organic components in Tank U-103. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected. Tank U-103 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  17. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-TY-101: Results from samples collected on 4/6/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-101 (referred to as Tank TY-101). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Off these, 5 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. One tentatively identified compound (TIC) was observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The six organic analyses identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank TY-101. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected. Tank TY-101 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List

  18. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-108: Results from samples collected on 10/27/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-108 (referred to as Tank BY-108). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H 2 O). Trends in NH 3 and H 2 O samples indicated a possible sampling problem. Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 15 analytes. Of these, 17 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Also, eighty-one organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The nine organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1 and account for approximately 48% of the total organic components in the headspace of Tank BY-108. Three permanent gases, hydrogen (H 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) were also detected. Tank BY-108 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List

  19. Hydrodynamics of Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device in Recent Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device (FD) has been used in several APR1400 nuclear power plants. It was designed to provide a longer passive safety injection than the existing accumulator to improve the safety for Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) by changing the injected flow through the FD and the standpipe of the SIT. As a result, high flow injection phase and the subsequent low flow one can be achieved as longer than the existing accumulator. The present paper discusses the major concerns related to SIT hydrodynamics and the directions to resolution recently concerned. Modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing are included. Based on the discussion, a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The present paper discussed the SIT hydrodynamics including the modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing. Also a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The following conclusions are obtained uncertainty due to the assumption of the total Kfactor as constant for high flow, transition phase, and low flow phase should be considered and nitrogen intrusion phenomena during the transition phase should be considered with a conservatism, especially considering the current situation of nonmeasuring the standpipe level.

  20. Hydrodynamics of Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device in Recent Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device (FD) has been used in several APR1400 nuclear power plants. It was designed to provide a longer passive safety injection than the existing accumulator to improve the safety for Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) by changing the injected flow through the FD and the standpipe of the SIT. As a result, high flow injection phase and the subsequent low flow one can be achieved as longer than the existing accumulator. The present paper discusses the major concerns related to SIT hydrodynamics and the directions to resolution recently concerned. Modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing are included. Based on the discussion, a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The present paper discussed the SIT hydrodynamics including the modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing. Also a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The following conclusions are obtained uncertainty due to the assumption of the total Kfactor as constant for high flow, transition phase, and low flow phase should be considered and nitrogen intrusion phenomena during the transition phase should be considered with a conservatism, especially considering the current situation of nonmeasuring the standpipe level

  1. Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2004-08-31

    Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

  2. Determination of mercury by multisyringe flow injection system with cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.O.; Elsholz, O.; Forteza, R.; Cerda, V.

    2006-01-01

    A new software-controlled time-based multisyringe flow injection system for mercury determination by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. Precise known volumes of sample, reducing agent (1.1% SnCl 2 in 3% HCl) and carrier (3% HCl) are dispensed into a gas-liquid separation cell with a multisyringe burette coupled with one three-way solenoid valve. An argon flow delivers the reduced mercury to the spectrometer. The optimization of the system was carried out testing reaction coils and gas-liquid separators of different design as well as changing parameters, such as sample and reagents volumes, reagent concentrations and carrier gas flow rate, among others. The analytical curves were obtained within the range 50-5000 ng L -1 . The detection limit (3σ b /S) achieved is 5 ng L -1 . The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 1.4%, evaluated from 16 successive injections of 250 ng L -1 Hg standard solution. The injection and sample throughput per hour were 44 and 11, respectively. This technique was validated by means of solid and water reference materials with good agreement with the certified values and was successfully applied to fish samples

  3. Response of the ionosphere to the injection of chemically reactive vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, P.A.

    1976-05-01

    As a gas released in the ionosphere expands, it is rapidly cooled. When the vapor becomes sufficiently tenuous, it is reheated by collisions with the ambient atmosphere, and its flow is then governed by diffusive expansion. As the injected gas becomes well mixed with the plasma, a hole is created by chemical processes. In the case of diatomic hydrogen release, depression of the electron concentrations is governed by the charge exchange reaction between oxygen ions and hydrogen, producing positive hydroxyl ions. Hydroxyl ions rapidly react with the electron gas to produce excited oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Enhanced airglow emissions result from the transition of the excited atoms to lower energy states. The electron temperature in the depleted region rises sharply and this rise causes a thermal expansion of the plasma and a further reduction in the local plasma concentration

  4. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using media-injected permeable reactive barriers with a modified montmorillonite: sand tank studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ximing; Liu, Haifei; Huang, Guoxin; Li, Ye; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    A modified montmorillonite (MMT) was prepared using an acid activation-sodium activation-iron oxide coating method to improve the adsorption capacities of natural MMTs. For MMT, its interlamellar distance increased from 12.29 to 13.36 Å, and goethite (α-FeOOH) was intercalated into its clay layers. Two novel media-injected permeable reactive barrier (MI-PRB) configurations were proposed for removing arsenic from groundwater. Sand tank experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of the two MI-PRBs: Tank A was filled with quartz sand. Tank B was packed with quartz sand and zero-valent iron (ZVI) in series, and the MMT slurry was respectively injected into them to form reactive zones. The results showed that for tank A, total arsenic (TA) removal of 98.57% was attained within the first 60 mm and subsequently descended slowly to 88.84% at the outlet. For tank B, a similar spatial variation trend was observed in the quartz sand layer, and subsequently, TA removal increased to ≥99.80% in the ZVI layer. TA removal by MMT mainly depended on both surface adsorption and electrostatic adhesion. TA removal by ZVI mainly relied on coagulation/precipitation and adsorption during the iron corrosion. The two MI-PRBs are feasible alternatives for in situ remediation of groundwater with elevated As levels.

  5. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-BY-107: Results from in situ sample collected on 3/25/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.K.; Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic results from vapors of the Hanford single-shell waste storage Tank 241-BY-107 (referred to as Tank BY-107). Samples for selected inorganic compounds were obtained but not anlayzed (Section 2.0). Quantitative results were obtained for several organic analytes, but quantities of analytes not listed in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compendium Method TO-14 were estimated. Approximately 80 tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitative determination is beyond the scope of this study. The SUMMATM canister samples were also analyzed for the 41 organic compounds listed in EPA compendium Method TO-14. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limits. These are summarized in Table 3.1. Estimated quantities were determined of tentatively identified compounds (TICs). A summary of these results shows quantities of all TICs above the concentration of ca. 10 ppbv. This consists of more than 80 organic analytes. The 12 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are shown

  7. Degradation of safety injection system and containment spray piping and tank fracture toughness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, A.; Doubel, P.; Wicker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive stress corrosion cracking (SCC), induced by the marine environment and the presence of high residual stresses arising from the respective manufacturing processes has been encountered in the safety injection system piping (RIS), containment spray system piping (EAS) and reactor and spent fuel storage tank (PTR), or refuelling water storage tank (RWST) of the Koeberg plant. Type 304L steels from the RIS system and replacement components for the RIS and RWST systems have been subject to mechanical and fracture toughness testing. The following conclusions have been drawn. -) The piping sections of both the original and replacement components exhibit residual cold work. The level of cold work imparted to the piping and elbow have been estimated to be 2, 2 to 3, 9% and 5, 7 to 7, 3% respectively. -) Re-annealing produces different responses in type 304L as a function of prior cold work level. Re-annealing of material cold worked to low levels i.e. 3.5% maintain the cold worked level of UTS but can exhibit 0, 2% PS. levels below that of the mill annealed condition. There is the potential for the ASTM A312 minimum 0, 2% level to be breached. At higher levels of cold work i.e. 7% re-annealing results in extensive grain growth, a significant reduction in 0, 2% PS from the mill annealed condition and the recovery of the UTS to the mill annealed level. -) Cold work at the levels obtained significantly reduces the SOL initiation toughness Ji. The reduction in toughness can be greater than 50%. The resistance to ductile crack propagation, dJ/da, remains unchanged at least up to 5 % cold work. -) The defect assessment for the RIS/EAS systems have used highly conservative values of initiation toughness such that no crack initiation would occur under the loading conditions considered and in a non-hostile environment. -) Under the marine environment to which the RIS/EAS components are still subjected, the limiting criterion for operation of the RIS/EAS system remains a

  8. Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ( 85m Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H 2 O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H 2 O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770 degree C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H 2 O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol

  9. Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, B.F.

    1993-08-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ({sup 85m}Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H{sub 2}O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H{sub 2}O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770{degree}C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H{sub 2}O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol.

  10. Fiber-Optic Determination of N2, O2, and Fuel Vapor in the Ullage of Liquid-Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2008-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system has been developed that can remotely measure the concentration of molecular oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), hydrocarbon vapor, and other gases (CO2, CO, H2O, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.) in the ullage of a liquid-fuel tank. The system provides an accurate and quantitative identification of the above gases with an accuracy of better than 1 percent by volume (for O2 or N2) in real-time (5 seconds). In an effort to prevent aircraft fuel tank fires or explosions similar to the tragic TWA Flight 800 explosion in 1996, OBIGGS are currently being developed for large commercial aircraft to prevent dangerous conditions from forming inside fuel tanks by providing an inerting gas blanket that is low in oxygen, thus preventing the ignition of the fuel/air mixture in the ullage. OBIGGS have been used in military aircraft for many years and are now standard equipment on some newer large commercial aircraft (such as the Boeing 787). Currently, OBIGGS are being developed for retrofitting to existing commercial aircraft fleets in response to pending mandates from the FAA. Most OBIGGS use an air separation module (ASM) that separates O2 from N2 to make nitrogen-enriched air from compressed air flow diverted from the engine (bleed air). Current OBIGGS systems do not have a closed-loop feedback control, in part, due to the lack of suitable process sensors that can reliably measure N2 or O2 and at the same time, do not constitute an inherent source of ignition. Thus, current OBIGGS operate with a high factor-of-safety dictated by process protocol to ensure adequate fuel-tank inerting. This approach is inherently inefficient as it consumes more engine bleed air than is necessary compared to a closed-loop controlled approach. The reduction of bleed air usage is important as it reduces fuel consumption, which translates to both increased flight range and lower operational costs. Numerous approaches to developing OBIGGS feedback-control sensors have been under

  11. Tank 241-TY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994 and April 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  12. Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in September 1994 and December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  13. Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in July 1993 and August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  14. Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994 and October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  15. Tank 241-BY-104 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in April 1994 and June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  16. Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in May 1994 and July 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  17. Tank 241-C-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in June 1994 and August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  18. Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in May 1994 and November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  19. Tank 241-C-109 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  20. Tank 241-C-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1993 and September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  1. Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in March 1994 and October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  2. Tank 241-BY-110 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in November 1994. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  3. Tank 241-C-105 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in February 1994. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  4. Tank 241-BY-111 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in May 1994 and November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  5. Tank 241-TY-101 headspace gas and vapor characterization results for samples collected in August 1994 and April 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  6. Experimental study on the performance of the vapor injection refrigeration system with an economizer for intermediate pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chang-Uk; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Yoon, Jung-In; Kim, Young-Bok; Son, Chang-Hyo; Ha, Soo-Jung; Jeon, Min-Ju; An, Sang-Young; Lee, Joon-Hyuk

    2018-04-01

    In this study, to investigate the performance characteristics of vapor injection refrigeration system with an economizer at an intermediate pressure, the vapor injection refrigeration system was analyzed under various experiment conditions. As a result, the optimum design data of the vapor injection refrigeration system with an economizer were obtained. The findings from this study can be summarized as follows. The mass flow rate through the compressor increases with intermediate pressure. The compression power input showed an increasing trend under all the test conditions. The evaporation capacity increased and then decreased at the intermediate pressure, and as such, it became maximum at the given intermediate pressure. The increased mass flow rate of the by-passed refrigerant enhanced the evaporation capacity at the low medium pressure range, but the increased saturation temperature limited the subcooling degree of the liquid refrigerant after the application of the economizer when the intermediate pressure kept rising, and degenerated the evaporation capacity. The coefficient of performance (COP) increased and then decreased with respect to the intermediate pressures under all the experiment conditions. Nevertheless, there was an optimum intermediate pressure for the maximum COP under each experiment condition. Therefore, the optimum intermediate pressure in this study was found at -99.08 kPa, which is the theoretical standard medium pressure under all the test conditions.

  7. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  8. Synthesis of diamond films by pulsed liquid injection chemical vapor deposition using a mixture of acetone and water as precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apatiga, L.M.; Morales, J.

    2009-01-01

    A chemical vapor deposition reactor based on the flash evaporation of an organic liquid precursor was used to grow diamond films on Si substrates. An effective pulsed liquid injection mechanism consisting of an injector, normally used for fuel injection in internal combustion engines, injects micro-doses of the precursor to the evaporation zone at 280 o C and is instantly evaporated. The resulting vapor mixture is transported by a carrier gas to the high-temperature reaction chamber where the diamond nucleates and grows on the substrate surface at temperatures ranging from 750 to 850 o C. The injection frequency, opening time, number of pulses and other injector parameters are controlled by a computer-driven system. The diamond film morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The as-deposited diamond films show a ball-shaped morphology with a grain size that varies from 100 to 400 nm, as well as the characteristic diamond Raman band at 1332 cm -1 . The effects of the experimental parameters and operation principle on the diamond films quality are analyzed and discussed in terms of crystallinity, composition, structure, and morphology.

  9. Steam injections wells: topics to consider in casing design of steam injection wells; Revestimento para pocos de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Antonio Carlos Farias [PETROBRAS, Recife, PE (Brazil). Gerencia de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. de Operacoes

    1994-07-01

    Steam injection is one of the processes used to increase production from very viscous oil reservoirs. A well is completed at a temperature of about 110 deg F and during steam injection that temperature varies around 600 deg F. Strain or breakdowns may occur to the casing, due to the critical conditions generated by the change of temperature. The usual casing design methods, do not take into account special environmental conditions, such as those which exist for steam injection. From the results of this study we come up to the conclusion that casing grade K-55, heavy weight with premium connections, without pre-stressing and adequately heated, is the best option for steam injection well completion for most of the fields in Brazil. (author)

  10. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  11. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  12. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-104: Results from samples collected on 2/17/94 and 3/3/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-104 (referred to as Tank C-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur oxides (SO x ), and water vapor (H 2 O). Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were analyzed for tributyl phosphate. Twenty-four organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, two were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. These 10 analytes account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank C 104. Tank C-104 is not on any of the Watch Lists

  13. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  14. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  15. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  16. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118

  17. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  18. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  19. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  20. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  1. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-C-103: Inorganic results from sample Job 7B (May 12-25, 1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lerner, B.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report is to provide analytical results for use in safety and toxicological evaluations of the vapor space of Hanford single-shell waste storage tanks C-103. Samples were analysed to determine concentrations of ammonia, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur oxides, and hydrogen cyanide. In addition to the samples, controls were analyzed that included blanks, spiked blanks, and spiked samples. These controls provided information about the suitability of sampling and analytical methods. Also included are the following: information describing the methods and sampling procedures used; results of sample analyses; and Conclusions and recommendations

  2. The Development of Computer Code for Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device(FD) Blowdown Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Hee; Kim, Tae Han; Choi, Hae Yun; Lee, Kwang Won; Chung, Chang Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Safety Injection Tanks (SITs) with the Fluidic Device (FD) of APR1400 provides a means of rapid reflooding of the core following a large break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), and keeping it covered until flow from the Safety Injection Pump (SIP) becomes available. A passive FD can provide two operation stages of a safety water injection into the RCS and allow more effective use of borated water in case of LOCA. Once a large break LOCA occurs, the system will deliver a high flow rate of cooling water for a certain period of time, and thereafter, the flow rate is reduced to a lower flow rate. The conventional computer code 'TURTLE' used to simulate the blowdown of OPR1000 SIT can not be directly applied to simulate a blowdown process of the SIT with FD. A new computer code is needed to be developed for the blowdown test evaluation of the APR1400 SIT with FD. Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) has developed a new computer code to analyze the characteristics of the SIT with FD and validated the code through the comparison of the calculation results with the test results obtained by Ulchin 5 and 6 units pre-operational test and VAlve Performance Evaluation Rig (VAPER) tests performed by The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)

  3. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-TX-118 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/7/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TX-118 (referred to as Tank TX-118). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen cyanide (CHN), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 13 analytes. Hexane, normally included in the additional analytes, was removed because a calibration standard was not available during analysis of Tank TX-118 SUMMA trademark canisters. Of these, 12 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Fourteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TX-118. Permanent gas analysis was not conducted on the tank-headspace samples. Tank TX-118 is on both the Ferrocyanide and Organic Watch List

  4. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-TY-104: Results from samples collected on 4/27/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-104 (referred to as Tank TY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 8 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Five tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 94% of the total organic components in Tank TY-104. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank TY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List

  5. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-105: Results from samples collected on 2/24/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-105 (referred to as Tank U-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. All nine of the organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for 100% of the total organic components in Tank U-105. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace sample. Tank U-105 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  6. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-107: Results from samples collected on 2/17/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-107 (referred to as Tank U-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 10 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank U-107. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank U-107 is on the Organic and the Hydrogen Watch Lists

  7. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/25/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 target analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Ten organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv in two or more of the three samples collected and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 89% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Methyl isocyanate, a compound of possible concern in Tank U-106, was not detected. Tank U-106 is on the Organic Watch List

  8. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105 (in situ): Results from samples collected on May 9, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the tank headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH 3 , NO 2 , NO, HCN, and H 2 O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Results of the inorganic samples were affected by sampling errors that led to an undefined uncertainty in sample volume. Consequently, tank-headspace concentrations are estimated only. Thirty-nine tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitation is beyond the scope of this study. In addition, we looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 16 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed. These 16 analytes account for approximately 68% of the total or organic components in Tank BY-105

  9. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  10. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-S-111: Results from samples collected on 3/21/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-S-111 (referred to as Tank S-111). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, seven were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Five tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 98% of the total organic components in Tank S-111. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected. Tank S-111 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  11. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-SX-106: Results from samples collected on 3/24/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Litgotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-SX-106 (referred to as Tank SX-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 4 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 7 organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank SX-106. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) was the only permanent gas detected. Tank SX-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List

  12. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-TY-104 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/5/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-104 (referred to as Tank TY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, eight were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty-four organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TY-104. Tank TY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List

  13. Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson L. Ward; Glendon W. Gee; John S. Selker; Caly Cooper

    2002-04-24

    tension of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests of showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of the waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediment s. The released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford.

  14. Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks; A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson l. Ward; Glendon W. Gee; John S. Selker; Clay Cooper

    2002-04-24

    tens ion of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of this waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediments. Th e released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford.

  15. Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Selker, John S.; Cooper, Caly

    2002-01-01

    of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests of showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of the waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediment s. The released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford

  16. Rapid Migration of Radionuclides Leaked from High-Level Water Tanks: A Study of Salinity Gradients, Wetted Path Geometry and Water Vapor Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Selker, John S.; Cooper, Clay

    2002-01-01

    of imbibing solutions can enhance vertical fingered flow, this phenomenon was not observed in the field. Field tests showed that the fingered flow behavior was overwhelmed by the variability in texture resulting from differences in the depositional environment. Field plumes were characterized by lateral spreading with an average width to depth aspect ratio of 4. For both vertical fingers and lateral flow, the high ionic strength contributed to the vapor phase dilution of the waste, which increased waste volume and pushed the wetting from well beyond what would have occurred if the volume of material had remained unchanged from that initially released into the system. It was also observed that following significant vapor-phase dilution of this waste simulants that streams of colloids were ejected from the sediment surfaces. It was shown that due to the high-sodium content of the tank wastes the colloids were deflocculated below a critical salt concentration in Hanford sediments. Th e released colloids, which at the site would be expected to carry the bulk of the sorbed heavy metals and radioisotopes, were mobile though coarse Hanford sediments, but clogged finer layers. The developments resulting from this study are already being applied at Hanford in the nonisothermal prediction of the hypersaline, high pH waste migration in tank farms and in the development of inverse methods for history matching under DOE's Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project at Hanford

  17. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for OVS samples collected from Sample Job 7b, Parts I and II, received 5/18/94 and 5/24/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.R.; Edwards, J.A.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    On 5/18/94, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) delivered samples to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/16/94. These samples were from Sample Job (SJ) 7b, Part 1. On 5/24/94, WHC delivered samples to PNL that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/18/94. These samples were from SJ7b, Part 2. A summary of data derived from the sampling of waste Tank 241-C-103 for gravimetric (H 2 O) and normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) concentrations are shown for SJ7b. Gravimetric analysis was performed on the samples within 24 hours of receipt by PNL. The NPH concentration of 10 samples collected for Part 1 was slightly higher than the average concentration for 15 samples collected in Part 2, 812 (± 133) mg/m 3 and 659 (± 88) mg/m 3 , respectively. The higher concentrations measured in Part 1 samples may be because the samples in Part 1 were collected at a single level, 0.79 meters above the air-liquid interface. Part 2 samples were collected at three different tank levels, 0.79, 2.92, and 5.05 m above the air-liquid interface. In Part 2, the average NPH concentrations for 5 samples collected at each of three levels was similar: 697 (60) mg/m 3 at the low level, 631 (51) mg/m 3 at the mid level, and 651 (134) mg/m 3 at the high level. It is important to note that the measured tridecane to dodecane concentration remained constant in all samples collected in Parts 1 and 2. That ratio is 1.2 ± 0.05. This consistent ratio indicates that there were no random analytical biases towards either compound

  18. Enhanced Tunnel Spin Injection into Graphene using Chemical Vapor Deposited Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, M. Venkata; Dankert, André; Bergsten, Johan; Ive, Tommy; Dash, Saroj P.

    2014-01-01

    The van der Waals heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals constitute a new paradigm in nanoscience. Hybrid devices of graphene with insulating 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have emerged as promising nanoelectronic architectures through demonstrations of ultrahigh electron mobilities and charge-based tunnel transistors. Here, we expand the functional horizon of such 2D materials demonstrating the quantum tunneling of spin polarized electrons through atomic planes of CVD grown h-BN. We report excellent tunneling behavior of h-BN layers together with tunnel spin injection and transport in graphene using ferromagnet/h-BN contacts. Employing h-BN tunnel contacts, we observe enhancements in both spin signal amplitude and lifetime by an order of magnitude. We demonstrate spin transport and precession over micrometer-scale distances with spin lifetime up to 0.46 nanosecond. Our results and complementary magnetoresistance calculations illustrate that CVD h-BN tunnel barrier provides a reliable, reproducible and alternative approach to address the conductivity mismatch problem for spin injection into graphene. PMID:25156685

  19. Multi-component vapor-liquid equilibrium model for LES of high-pressure fuel injection and application to ECN Spray A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheis, Jan; Hickel, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present and evaluate a two-phase model for Eulerian large-eddy simulations (LES) of liquid-fuel injection and mixing at high pressure. The model is based on cubic equations of state and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations and can represent the coexistence of supercritical states and

  20. Improvement of Modeling Scheme of the Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device for Realistic LBLOCA Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Cheong, Aeju; Woo, Sweng Woong

    2014-01-01

    Confirmation of the performance of the SIT with FD should be based on thermal-hydraulic analysis of LBLOCA and an adequate and physical model simulating the SIT/FD should be used in the LBLOCA calculation. To develop such a physical model on SIT/FD, simulation of the major phenomena including flow distribution of by standpipe and FD should be justified by full scale experiment and/or plant preoperational testing. Author's previous study indicated that an approximation of SIT/FD phenomena could be obtained by a typical system transient code, MARS-KS, and using 'accumulator' component model, however, that additional improvement on modeling scheme of the FD and standpipe flow paths was needed for a reasonable prediction. One problem was a depressurizing behavior after switchover to low flow injection phase. Also a potential to release of nitrogen gas from the SIT to the downstream pipe and then reactor core through flow paths of FD and standpipe has been concerned. The intrusion of noncondensible gas may have an effect on LBLOCA thermal response. Therefore, a more reliable model on SIT/FD has been requested to get a more accurate prediction and a confidence of the evaluation of LBLOCA. The present paper is to discuss an improvement of modeling scheme from the previous study. Compared to the existing modeling, effect of the present modeling scheme on LBLOCA cladding thermal response is discussed. The present study discussed the modeling scheme of SIT with FD for a realistic simulation of LBLOCA of APR1400. Currently, the SIT blowdown test can be best simulated by the modeling scheme using 'pipe' component with dynamic area reduction. The LBLOCA analysis adopting the modeling scheme showed the PCT increase of 23K when compared to the case of 'accumulator' component model, which was due to the flow rate decrease at transition phase low flow injection and intrusion of nitrogen gas to the core. Accordingly, the effect of SIT/FD modeling

  1. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-106: Results from samples collected on February 15, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Young, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.; Goheen, S.C.; Lucke, R.B.; Pool, K.H.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-C-106. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  2. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-109 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/22/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-109 (referred to as Tank BY-109). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. Organic compounds were also quantitatively determined. Twenty-three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 38. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. The ten organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. The ten analytes account for approximately 84% of the total organic components in Tank BY-109

  3. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TY-103: Results from samples collected on 4/11/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-103 (referred to as Tank TY-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 16 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank TY-103. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected

  4. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-TX-118: Results from samples collected on 12/16/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, R.B.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TX-118 (referred to as Tank TX-118). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 3 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Twenty three organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 84% of the total organic components in Tank TX-118. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected

  5. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-S-102: Results from samples collected on 3/14/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-S-102 (referred to as Tank S-102). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 11 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 95% of the total organic components in Tank S-102. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-C-109 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 6/23/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-109 (referred to as Tank C-109). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Organic compounds were quantitatively determined. Thirteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, the authors looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrumental detection limit. However, it is believed, even though the values for dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are below the instrumental detection limit, they are accurate at these low concentrations. The six analytes account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank C-109. These six organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Summary Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BX-104: Results from samples collected on 12/30/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BX-104 (referred to as Tank BX-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained. for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SOx) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 13 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixty-six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes, with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 70% of the total organic components in Tank BX-104. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected

  8. 32-Week Holding-Time Study of SUMMA Polished Canisters and Triple Sorbent Traps Used To Sample Organic Constituents in Radioactive Waste Tank Vapor Headspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, John C.; Huckaby, James L.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Julya, Janet L.; Hayes, James C.; Edwards, Jeffrey A.; Sasaki, Leela M.

    1997-01-01

    Two sampling methods[SUMMA polished canisters and triple sorbent traps (TSTs)] were compared for long-term storage of trace organic vapor samples collected from the headspaces of high-level radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. Because safety, quality assurance, radiological controls, the long-term stability of the sampling media during storage needed to be addressed. Samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) using cryogenic reconcentration or thermal desorption sample introduction techniques. SUMMA canister samples were also analyzed for total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOC) by GC/flame ionization detector (FID) using EPA Compendium Method TO-12 . To verify the long-term stability of the sampling media, multiple samples were collected in parallel from a typical passively ventilated radioactive waste tank known to contain moderately high concentrations of both polar and nonpolar organic compounds. Analyses for organic analytes and TNMOC were conducted at increasing intervals over a 32-week period to determine whether any systematic degradation of sample integrity occurred. Analytes collected in the SUMMA polished canisters generally showed good stability over the full 32 weeks with recoveries at the 80% level or better for all compounds studied. The TST data showed some loss (50-80% recovery) for a few high-volatility compounds even in the refrigerated samples; losses for unrefrigerated samples were far more pronounced with recoveries as low as 20% observed in a few cases

  9. Microbiological test results of the environmental control and life support systems vapors compression distillation subsystem recycle tank components following various pretreatment protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Microbiological samples were collected from the recycle tank of the vapor compression distillation (VCD) subsystem of the water recovery test at NASA MSFC following a 68-day run. The recycle tank collects rejected urine brine that was pretreated with a commercially available oxidant (Oxone) and sulfuric acid and pumps it back to the processing component of the VCD. Samples collected included a water sample and two swab samples, one from the particulate filter surface and a second from material floating on the surface of the water. No bacteria were recovered from the water sample. Both swab samples contained a spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus insolitus. A filamentous fungus was isolated from the floating material. Approximately 1 month after the pretreatment chemicals were changed to sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, a swab of the particulate filter was again analyzed for microbial content. One fungus was isolated, and spore-forming bacteria were observed. These results indicate the inability of these pretreatments to inhibit surface attachment. The implications of the presence of these organisms are discussed.

  10. Enhancement of C/C-LAS joint using aligned carbon nanotubes prepared by injection chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Feng-Ling; Fu, Qian-Gang, E-mail: fuqiangang@nwpu.edu.cn; Feng, Lei; Shen, Qing-Liang

    2016-01-05

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) enhanced carbon/carbon-lithium aluminum silicate (C/C-LAS) joint was prepared by a three-step technique of pack cementation, injection chemical vapor deposition (ICVD) and hot-pressing. A layer of aligned CNTs was grown on the surface of SiC coated C/C composites by ICVD method, and the joint was obtained by hot-pressing with magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) as the interlayer. SEM observation reveals that the introduced CNTs result in the formation of a dense and crack-free CNT/MAS nanocomposite interface between SiC and MAS. Compared with the joints without CNTs, the average shear strength of the joints reinforced by CNTs was improved by 48% accompanied by an obvious change in failure mode from brittle fracture without CNTs to plastic fracture with CNTs. The pulling-out and bridging of CNTs on the fracture surfaces had a positive effect on the strength enhancement of the C/C-LAS joint.

  11. An experimental study on the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the Hybrid Safety Injection Tank using a separate effect test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Sung Uk; Ryu, Hyobong; Park, Hyun-Sik; Yi, Sung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The experimental study on the pressure balancing between the Hybrid SIT and PZR. • The effects of different variables affecting the pressure balancing are investigated. • A sensitivity analysis on the pressure variations of the Hybrid SIT. - Abstract: This paper reports an experimental research for investigating thermal hydraulic phenomena of Hybrid Safety Injection Tank (Hybrid SIT) using a separate effect test facility in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The Hybrid SIT is a passive safety injection system that enables the safety injection water to be injected into the reactor pressure vessel throughout all operating pressures by connecting the top of the SIT and the pressurizer (PZR). The separate effect test (SET) facility of Hybrid SIT, which is designed based on the APR+ power plant, comprises a PZR, Hybrid SIT, pressure balancing line (PBL), injection line (IL), nitrogen gas line, and refueling water tank (RWT). Furthermore, the pressure loss range of the SET facility was analyzed and compared with that of the reference nuclear power plant. In this research, a condition for balancing the pressure between the Hybrid SIT and PZR is examined and the effects of different variables affecting the pressure balancing, which are flow rate, injection velocity of steam and initial water level, are also investigated. The condition for balancing the pressure between the Hybrid SIT and PZR was derived theoretically from a pressure network for the Hybrid SIT, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis as a theoretical approach was conducted on the pressure variations in relation to the rate of steam condensation inside the Hybrid SIT. The results showed that pressure of the Hybrid SIT was predominantly determined by the rate of steam condensation. The results showed that if the rate of condensation increased or decreased by 10%, the Hybrid SIT pressure at the pressure balancing point decreased or

  12. Tank 241-BY-105 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in May 1994 and July 1994. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Bratzel, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories

  13. A study on the effect of fluidic device installed in a safety injection tank on thermal-hydraulic phenomena of large break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young Jong; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku; Park, Jong Kyun

    1999-03-01

    The performance of the Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with fluidic device (advanced SIT) is analyzed for the large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) using RELAP5/MOD3.1-KREM. First the case is analyzed using the conventional SIT. Among various cases the case with 4-split downcomer, discharge coefficient Cd=0.6, MCP trip with reactor trip and break location of cold leg discharge side with the pressurizer is found to be the most limiting case. For the same condition, the advanced SIT results the similar PCT, however it can maintain adequately the liquid level in the downcomer. By changing the ECCS location from the current injection to the cold leg elevations, PCT is improved by 75 K. (Author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 54 figs

  14. Rapid food decomposition by H2O2-H2SO4 for determination of total mercury by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebon, Odair; Sakuma, Alice M; Dovidauskas, Sergio; Okada, Isaura A; de, MaioFrancaD; Lichtig, Jaim

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of 50% H2O2-H2SO4 (3 + 1, v/v) was used for decomposition of food in open vessels at 80 degrees C. The treatment allowed rapid total mercury determination by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Cabbage, potatoes, peanuts paste, hazelnuts paste, oats, tomatoes and their derivatives, oysters, shrimps, prawns, shellfish, marine algae, and many kinds of fish were analyzed by the proposed methodology with a limit of quantitation of 0.86 +/- 0.08 microg/L mercury in the final solution. Reference materials tested also gave excellent recovery.

  15. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  16. Improvements to vapor generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Arthur; Monroe, Neil.

    1976-01-01

    A supporting system is proposed for vapor generators of the 'supported' type. Said supporting system is intended to compensate the disparities of thermal expansion due to the differences in the vertical dimensions of the tubes in the walls of the combustion chamber and their collectors compared to that of the balloon tanks and the connecting tube clusters of vaporization, the first one being longer than the second ones. Said system makes it possible to build said combustion chamber higher than the balloon tanks and the tube clusters of vaporization. The capacity of steam production is thus enhanced [fr

  17. DTS technology: evaluation in steam injection pilots in PETROBRAS; Tecnologias DTS: avaliacao em pilotos de injecao de vapor na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triques, Adriana Lucia Cerri; Rodrigues, Renato Cunha; Souza, Carlos Francisco Sales de; Izetti, Ronaldo Goncalves [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In oil and gas industry, downhole pressure and temperature distributed sensors can provide strategic information for production optimization throughout the field. Upon the successful implementation of a pilot for optical fiber distributed temperature monitoring of observer wells in a steam injection field, two new pilots have been implemented to also monitor injectors and producers in both cyclic and continuous injection fields strongly influenced by H2S. The pilots demonstrated that this technology is suitable to monitor producers in onshore fields under the conditions above without risks to the production. The sensors did not prove to be suitable for long term monitoring of injectors under continuous steam injection if fiber is installed inside the injection tubing. For cyclic injection applications, the development of steam injection packers is needed to guarantee casing integrity during the injection cycle. The application of the technology in offshore wells is nowadays restricted to dry completion situation. The potential applicability in submarine wells is tightly linked to the development of downhole and wellhead wet mate optical fiber connectors. (author)

  18. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report

  19. Tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented for the purpose of resolving the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. This document is restricted to issues regarding the flammability of gases, vapors, and an aerosol that may exist in the headspace of tank 241-C-103. While discussing certain information about the organic liquid present in tank 241-C-103, this document addresses neither the potential for, nor consequences of, a pool fire involving this organic liquid; they will be discussed in a separate report.

  20. Evaluating the efficiency of two phase partitioning stirred tank bio-reactor for treating xylene vapors from the airstreamthrough a bed of Pseudomonas Putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Overall, the results of the present research revealed that the application of two phase stirred tank bioreactors (TPPBs containing pure strains of Pseudomonas putida was successful for treatment of air streams with xylene.

  1. FY 1999 cold demonstration of the Multi-Point Injection (MPI) process for stabilizing contaminated sludge in buried horizontal tanks with limited access at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Spence, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the U.S. Department of Energy is the remediation of buried tank waste. Exhumation of the sludge is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation does not typically remove all the contaminated material from the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and uniformly mixed with the sludge. Ground Environmental Services, Inc., has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity, jet-delivery system, which is termed Multi-Point-Injection (MPItrademark). This robust jet-delivery system has been used to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow-buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in a cylindrical test tank (FY 1998). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process was able to successfully form a 32-ton uniform monolith in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of a zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within the 40-inch-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies of Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily mixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing

  2. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ni [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: sjjiang@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Ling [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL{sup −1} Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g{sup −1} for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  3. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL −1 Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g −1 for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample

  4. Experimental study of the vaporization of a droplets injection in a fluidized gas-solid media; Etude experimentale de la vaporisation d'un jet de goutelettes au contact d'un milieu gaz-solide fluidise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, K.

    2002-09-01

    The quality of feedstock injection in the Fluid Catalytic Process (FCC) is essential to ensure a good vaporization. The vaporization should be fast so that the cracking reaction in the gaseous phase can happen within the short residence time in the riser (a few seconds). Vaporization is helped by a uniform injection of droplets as small as possible as well as a good mixing with the catalyst particles that represent the main heat source. Several models were developed to predict the droplet vaporization in a gas-solid media. However, no experimental validation exists for these models, whose predictions vary (from 1 to several hundreds of milliseconds). The objective of this study was to get a better understanding of the physical phenomena taking place during droplet vaporization. This was done in two steps. First, operating limits had to be defined to ensure an optimal vaporization and to avoid local saturation and agglomerate formation. These limits were precisely determined under laboratory conditions to validate a model that showed that agglomeration does not occur under industrial conditions. Then, a kinematic study of vaporization under operating conditions without agglomerate formation was performed. An original measurement technique was developed to get samples at very short times (tens of milliseconds). Experiments showed that heat transfer was not limiting and that mass transfer was the limiting process during vaporization. The developed model was thus based on mass transfer through a boundary layer. The validation of this model in a dense fluidized bed justified its application to operating conditions were the bed voidance is higher. A detailed study of operating parameters will help determine how to improve vaporization. (author)

  5. Biogas upgrading by injection of hydrogen in a two-stage Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura

    An innovative method for biogas upgrading (i.e. CH4 content more than 90%) combines the coupling of H2, which could be produced by water electrolysis using surplus renewable electricity produced from wind mills, with the CO2 of the biogas. CO2 is biologically converted to CH4 by hydrogenotrophic....... It was shown that after the H2 addition, the CH4 rate increased by 45%, resulting in an average CH4 content of approximately 85%, with a maximum of 93.9%. The increase of the pH to 8.5, due to the CO2 conversion, was not an inhibitory factor, demonstrating the adaptation of microorganisms to these pH levels...... methanogens. In this study, a novel serial biogas reactor system is presented, in which the produced biogas from the first stage reactor was introduced in the second stage, where also H2 was injected. The effects of the H2 addition on the process performance and on the microbial community were investigated...

  6. Determination of Noncovalent Binding Using a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor as a Flow Injection Device Coupled to Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C.; Waybright, Veronica B.; Fan, Hui; Ramirez, Sabra; Mesquita, Raquel B. R.; Rangel, António O. S. S.; Fryčák, Petr; Schug, Kevin A.

    2015-07-01

    Described is a new method based on the concept of controlled band dispersion, achieved by hyphenating flow injection analysis with ESI-MS for noncovalent binding determinations. A continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used as a FIA device for exponential dilution of an equimolar host-guest solution over time. The data obtained was treated for the noncovalent binding determination using an equimolar binding model. Dissociation constants between vancomycin and Ac-Lys(Ac)-Ala-Ala-OH peptide stereoisomers were determined using both the positive and negative ionization modes. The results obtained for Ac- L-Lys(Ac)- D-Ala- D-Ala (a model for a Gram-positive bacterial cell wall) binding were in reasonable agreement with literature values made by other mass spectrometry binding determination techniques. Also, the developed method allowed the determination of dissociation constants for vancomycin with Ac- L-Lys(Ac)- D-Ala- L-Ala, Ac- L-Lys(Ac)- L-Ala- D-Ala, and Ac- L-Lys(Ac)- L-Ala- L-Ala. Although some differences in measured binding affinities were noted using different ionization modes, the results of each determination were generally consistent. Differences are likely attributable to the influence of a pseudo-physiological ammonium acetate buffer solution on the formation of positively- and negatively-charged ionic complexes.

  7. Flow Injection Photochemical Vapor Generation Coupled with Miniaturized Solution-Cathode Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometry for Determination and Speciation Analysis of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jiamei; Li, Qing; Guo, Xiaohong; Zhang, Guoxia; Wang, Zheng

    2017-10-03

    A novel, compact, and green method was developed for the determination and speciation analysis of mercury, based on flow injection photochemical vapor generation (PVG) coupled with miniaturized solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectroscopy (SCGD-AES). The SCGD was generated between a miniature hollow titanium tube and a solution emerging from a glass capillary. Cold mercury vapor (Hg(0)) was generated by PVG and subsequently delivered to the SCGD for excitation, and finally the emission signals were recorded by a miniaturized spectrograph. The detection limits (DLs) of Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) were both determined to be 0.2 μg L -1 . Moreover, mercury speciation analysis could also be performed by using different wavelengths and powers from the UV lamp and irradiation times. Both Hg(II) and MeHg can be converted to Hg(0) for the determination of total mercury (T-Hg) with 8 W/254 nm UV lamp and 60 s irradiation time; while only Hg(II) can be reduced to Hg(0) and determined selectively with 4 W/365 nm UV lamp and 20 s irradiation time. Then, the concentration of MeHg can be calculated by subtracting the Hg(II) from the T-Hg. Because of its similar sensitivity and DL at 8 W/254 nm, the simpler and less toxic Hg(II) was used successfully as a primary standard for the quantification of T-Hg. The novel PVG-SCGD-AES system provides not only a 365-fold improvement in the DL for Hg(II) but also a nonchromatographic method for the speciation analysis of mercury. After validating its accuracy, this method was successfully used for mercury speciation analysis of water and biological samples.

  8. Natural convection and vapor loss during underground waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plys, M.G.; Epstein, M.; Turner, D.

    1996-01-01

    Natural convection and vapor loss from underground waste storage tanks is examined here. Stability criteria are provided for the onset of natural convection flow within the headspace of a tank, and between tanks and the environment. The flowrate is quantified and used to predict vapor losses during storage

  9. Structural features of epitaxial NiFe2O4 thin films grown on different substrates by direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R.; Loukya, B.; Li, N.; Gupta, A.

    2012-04-01

    NiFe2O4 (NFO) thin films are grown on four different substrates, i.e., Lead Zinc Niobate-Lead Titanate (PZN-PT), Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate (PMN-PT), MgAl2O4 (MAO) and SrTiO3 (STO), by a direct liquid injection chemical vapor deposition technique (DLI-CVD) under optimum growth conditions where relatively high growth rate (˜20 nm/min), smooth surface morphology and high saturation magnetization values in the range of 260-290 emu/ cm3 are obtained. The NFO films with correct stoichiometry (Ni:Fe=1:2) grow epitaxially on all four substrates, as confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. While the films on PMN-PT and PZN-PT substrates are partially strained, essentially complete strain relaxation occurs for films grown on MAO and STO. The formations of threading dislocations along with dark diffused contrast areas related to antiphase domains having a different cation ordering are observed on all four substrates. These crystal defects are correlated with lattice mismatch between the film and substrate and result in changes in magnetic properties of the films. Atomic resolution HAADF imaging and EDX line profiles show formation of a sharp interface between the film and the substrate with no inter-diffusion of Pb or other elements across the interface. Antiphase domains are observed to originate at the film-substrate interface.

  10. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Estefanía M; Bertón, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2009-08-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF(6)]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 microl of 9.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3ngL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 microg L(-1) Hg(2+) was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  11. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinis, Estefania M.; Berton, Paula; Olsina, Roberto A.; Altamirano, Jorgelina C.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2009-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 μl of 9.0 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3 ng L -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 μg L -1 Hg 2+ was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  12. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nano tubes Using Injection-Vertical Chemical Vapor Deposition: Effects of Synthesis Parameters on the Nitrogen Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachimi, A.; Hakeem, A.; Merzougui, B.; Atieh, M. A.; Merzougui, B.; Atieh, M. A.; Laoui, A.; Swain, G.M.; Chang, Q.; Shao, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped CNTs (N-CNTs) were synthesized using an injection-vertical chemical vapor deposition (IV-CVD) reactor. This type of reactor is quite useful for the continuous mass production of CNTs. In this work, the optimum deposition conditions for maximizing the incorporation of nitrogen were identified. Ferrocene served as the source of the Fe catalyst and was dissolved in acetonitrile, which served as both the hydrocarbon and nitrogen sources. Different concentrations of ferrocene in acetonitrile were introduced into the top of a vertically aligned reactor at a constant flow rate with hydrogen serving as the carrier. The effects of hydrogen flow rate, growth temperature, and catalyst loading (Fe from the ferrocene) on the microstructure, elemental composition, and yield of N-CNTs were investigated. The N-CNTs possessed a bamboo-like microstructure with a nitrogen doping level as high as 14 at.% when using 2.5 to 5 mg/m L of the ferrocene/acetonitrile mixture at 800 degree under a 1000 sccm flow of hydrogen. A production rate of 100 mg/h was achieved under the optimized synthesis conditions.

  13. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes Using Injection-Vertical Chemical Vapor Deposition: Effects of Synthesis Parameters on the Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouelilah Hachimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped CNTs (N-CNTs were synthesized using an injection-vertical chemical vapor deposition (IV-CVD reactor. This type of reactor is quite useful for the continuous mass production of CNTs. In this work, the optimum deposition conditions for maximizing the incorporation of nitrogen were identified. Ferrocene served as the source of the Fe catalyst and was dissolved in acetonitrile, which served as both the hydrocarbon and nitrogen sources. Different concentrations of ferrocene in acetonitrile were introduced into the top of a vertically aligned reactor at a constant flow rate with hydrogen serving as the carrier. The effects of hydrogen flow rate, growth temperature, and catalyst loading (Fe from the ferrocene on the microstructure, elemental composition, and yield of N-CNTs were investigated. The N-CNTs possessed a bamboo-like microstructure with a nitrogen doping level as high as 14 at.% when using 2.5 to 5 mg/mL of the ferrocene/acetonitrile mixture at 800°C under a 1000 sccm flow of hydrogen. A production rate of 100 mg/h was achieved under the optimized synthesis conditions.

  14. Test plan for determining breathing rates in single shell tanks using tracer gases. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This test plan specifies the requirements and conditions for the injection of tracer gas (Helium (He)) into single shell tanks to determine breathing rates using periodic sampling. The eight tanks which have been selected at the time this Test Plan was developed are A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, U-103 (U-103 is counted twice, once during the winter months and once during the summer), and U-105. Other tanks to be sampled will be assigned by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at a later date in the study process as resources allow, the document shall be revised as required. The sampling of headspace for each of these tanks shall be performed using available risers or the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) cabinet as available. The tank farm vapor cognizant engineer shall assign the injection and sample testing point for each tank and document the point in the field work package. SUMMA TMI canisters, equipped in-line with dual particulate air filters and two silica gel sorbent traps will be used to collect the gas samples. The purpose of dual particulate air filters is to ensure no radioactive particulates are transferred to the SUMMA TMI canisters. The silica gel sorbent traps will effectively eliminate any tritiated water vapor that may be present in the sample gas stream. PNNL shall supply the tracer gases injection system and shall perform the analysis on the headspace samples. TWRS Characterization project shall inject the tracer gas and perform the sampling. Refer to Engineering Task Plan HNF-SD-TWR-ETP-002 for a detailed description of the responsibilities for this task

  15. ATR/OTR-SY Tank Camera Purge System and in Tank Color Video Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure will document the satisfactory operation of the 101-SY tank Camera Purge System (CPS) and 101-SY in tank Color Camera Video Imaging System (CCVIS). Included in the CPRS is the nitrogen purging system safety interlock which shuts down all the color video imaging system electronics within the 101-SY tank vapor space during loss of nitrogen purge pressure

  16. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  17. Determination of thiomersal by flow injection coupled with microwave-assisted photochemical online oxidative decomposition of organic mercury and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; D’Ulivo, Alessandro [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici-ICCOM-UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Ferrari, Carlo [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, INO–UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bramanti, Emilia, E-mail: bramanti@pi.iccom.cnr.it [National Research Council of Italy, C.N.R., Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organo Metallici-ICCOM-UOS Pisa, Area di Ricerca, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Thiomersal was determined on line using FI-MW/UV-CVGAFS. •MW/UV allows a “green” on line oxidation of organic mercury to Hg{sup II}. •Each measure requires less than 5 min with a LOD of 3 ng mL{sup −1} (as mercury). •Hg concentration in commercial ophthalmic solutions ranges between 7.5 and 59.0 μg mL{sup −1}. -- Abstract: We developed a flow injection (FI) method for the determination of thiomersal (sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate, C{sub 9}H{sub 9}HgNaO{sub 2}S) based on the UV/microwave (MW) photochemical, online oxidation of organic mercury, followed by cold vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVG-AFS) detection. Thiomersal was quantitatively converted in the MW/UV process to Hg(II), with a yield of 97 ± 3%. This reaction was followed by the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) performed in a knotted reaction coil with NaBH{sub 4} solution, and AFS detection in an Ar/H{sub 2} miniaturized flame. The method was linear in the 0.01–2 μg mL{sup −1} range, with a LOD of 0.003 μg mL{sup −1}. This method has been applied to the determination of thiomersal in ophthalmic solutions, with recoveries ranging between 97% and 101%. We found a mercury concentration in commercial ophthalmic solutions ranging between 7.5 and 59.0 μg mL{sup −1}.

  18. Determination of thiomersal by flow injection coupled with microwave-assisted photochemical online oxidative decomposition of organic mercury and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; D’Ulivo, Alessandro; Ferrari, Carlo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Thiomersal was determined on line using FI-MW/UV-CVGAFS. •MW/UV allows a “green” on line oxidation of organic mercury to Hg II . •Each measure requires less than 5 min with a LOD of 3 ng mL −1 (as mercury). •Hg concentration in commercial ophthalmic solutions ranges between 7.5 and 59.0 μg mL −1 . -- Abstract: We developed a flow injection (FI) method for the determination of thiomersal (sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate, C 9 H 9 HgNaO 2 S) based on the UV/microwave (MW) photochemical, online oxidation of organic mercury, followed by cold vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVG-AFS) detection. Thiomersal was quantitatively converted in the MW/UV process to Hg(II), with a yield of 97 ± 3%. This reaction was followed by the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) performed in a knotted reaction coil with NaBH 4 solution, and AFS detection in an Ar/H 2 miniaturized flame. The method was linear in the 0.01–2 μg mL −1 range, with a LOD of 0.003 μg mL −1 . This method has been applied to the determination of thiomersal in ophthalmic solutions, with recoveries ranging between 97% and 101%. We found a mercury concentration in commercial ophthalmic solutions ranging between 7.5 and 59.0 μg mL −1

  19. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Chemistry, Xuzhou Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jin Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Han Weiying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Miao, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi Shuping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry and Key Laboratory of MOE for Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: bisp@nju.edu.cn

    2006-07-15

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH{sub 4} solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h{sup -1} with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l{sup -1} for Hg{sup 2+} and 2.0 ng l{sup -1} for CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}. The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 {mu}g l{sup -1} of Hg{sup 2+} and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples.

  20. Non-chromatographic speciation analysis of mercury by flow injection on-line preconcentration in combination with chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hong; Jin Yan; Han Weiying; Miao, Qiang; Bi Shuping

    2006-01-01

    A novel non-chromatographic approach for direct speciation of mercury, based on the selective retention inorganic mercury and methylmercury on the inner wall of a knotted reactor by using ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate and dithizone as complexing agents respectively, was developed for flow injection on-line sorption preconcentration coupled with chemical vapor generation non-dispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. With the sample pH kept at 2.0, the preconcentration of inorganic mercury on the inner walls of the knotted reactor was carried out based on the exclusive retention of Hg-DDP complex in the presence of methylmercury via on-line merging the sample solution with ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate solution, and selective preconcentration methylmercury was achieved with dithizone instead of ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate. A 15% (v/v) HCl was introduced to elute the retained mercury species and merge with KBH 4 solution for atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the sample throughputs of inorganic mercury and methylmercury were 30 and 20 h -1 with the enhancement factors of 13 and 24. The detection limits were found to be 3.6 ng l -1 for Hg 2+ and 2.0 ng l -1 for CH 3 Hg + . The precisions (RSD) for the 11 replicate measurements of each 0.2 μg l -1 of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg + were 2.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (simulated natural water, rice flour and pork) and by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and was applied to the determination of inorganic mercury and methylmercury in biological and environmental water samples

  1. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  2. Analysis of Organic Samples from the 5-H and 3-F Pump Tanks and Waste Tank 38H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swingle, R.F. II

    1999-01-01

    Analyses for organic materials in aqueous and surface floating samples taken from the 5-H Pump Tank and Waste Tank 38H and in vapor samples taken from the 5-H and 3-F Pump Tanks have been completed. The results indicate that the concentration of organic materials is extremely low in all samples. This report documents the development of sampling and analysis techniques for this sampling as well as the results of the analyses of vapor samples pulled from Pump Tanks 5-H and 3-F and liquid samples pulled from Waste Tank 38H and Pump Tank 5-H

  3. Mercury uptake in vivo by normal and acatalasemic mice exposed to metallic mercury vapor (203Hg degrees) and injected with metallic mercury or mercuric chloride (203HgCl2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.; Meguro, T.; Aikoh, H.

    1985-01-01

    Levels of mercury in the brain and liver of acatalasemic mice immediately following exposure to metallic mercury vapor or injection of metallic mercury were higher than those found in normal mice. Acatalasemic mice had decreased levels of mercury in the blood and kidneys when the levels were compared with those of normal mice, which indicated that catalase plays a role in oxidizing and taking up mercury. Thus, the brain/blood or liver/blood ratio of mercury concentration in acatalasemic mice was significantly higher than that of normal mice. These results suggest that metallic mercury in the blood easily passed through the blood-brain or blood-liver barrier. The levels of mercury distribution to the kidneys of normal and acatalasemic mice, 1 hr after injection of mercuric chloride solution, were higher than that of normal and acatalasemic mice, respectively, 1 hr after injection of metallic mercury

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) All hoses in the vapor balance system are properly connected, (ii) The adapters or couplers that attach to the vapor line on the storage tank have closures that seal upon disconnect, (iii) All vapor...

  5. Effects of gas residence time of CH4/H2 on sp2 fraction of amorphous carbon films and dissociated methyl density during radical-injection plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hirotsugu; Jia, Lingyun; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Tsutsumi, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Toshio; Takeda, Keigo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    Quadruple mass spectrometric measurements of CH3 density during radical-injection plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to consider the sp2 fraction of amorphous carbon (a-C) films were performed. The sp2 fraction of the a-C films reached a minimum of 46%, where the CH3 density was maximum for a residence time of 6 ms. The sp2 fraction of the a-C films was tailored with the gaseous phase CH3 density during the deposition. This knowledge is useful for understanding the formation mechanism of bonding structures in the a-C films, which enables the precise control of their electronic properties.

  6. 46 CFR 39.40-1 - General requirements for vapor balancing-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 39.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS VAPOR CONTROL SYSTEMS... to control vapor emissions during a lightering or topping-off operation which does not use vapor... compressor or blower to assist vapor transfer without approval from the Commandant (CG-522). (d) Vapor...

  7. Apparatus of vaporizing and condensing liquid radioactive wastes and its operation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiromitsu; Tajima, Fumio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent corrosion of material for a vapor-condenser and a vapor heater and to prevent radioactive contamination of heated vapor. Structure: Liquid waste is fed from a liquid feeding tank to a vapor-condenser to vaporize and condense the waste. Uncondensed liquid waste, which is not in a level of a given density, is temporally stored in a batch tank through a switching valve and a pipe. Prior to successive feeding from the liquid feeding tank, the uncondensed liquid waste within the batch tank is returned by a return pump to the condenser, after which a new liquid is fed from the liquid feeding tank for re-vaporization and condensation in the vapor-condenser. Then, similar operation is repeated until the uncondensed liquid waste assumes a given density, and when the uncondensed liquid waste reaches a given density, the condensed liquid waste is discharged into the storage tank through the switching valve. (Ohara, T.)

  8. Analysis of nitrogen injection as alternative fluid to steam in heavy oil reservoir; Analise da injecao de nitrogenio como fluido alternativo ao vapor em reservatorio de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson Felipe; Galvao, Edney Rafael Viana Pinheiro; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes; Mata, Wilson da; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio Viana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Many of hydrocarbon reserves existing in the world are formed by heavy oils (deg API between 10 and 20). Moreover, several heavy oil fields are mature and, thus, offer great challenges for oil industry. Among the thermal methods used to recover these resources, steam flooding has been the main economically viable alternative. Latent heat carried by steam heats the reservoir, reducing oil viscosity and facilitating the production. This method has many variations and has been studied both theoretically and experimentally (in pilot projects and in full field applications). In order to increase oil recovery and reduce steam injection costs, the injection of alternative fluid has been used on three main ways: alternately, co-injected with steam and after steam injection interruption. The main objective of these injection systems is to reduce the amount of heat supplied to the reservoir, using cheaper fluids and maintaining the same oil production levels. In this paper, the use of N{sub 2} as an alternative fluid to the steam was investigated. The analyzed parameters were oil recoveries and net cumulative oil productions. The reservoir simulation model corresponds to an oil reservoir of 100 m x 100 m x 28 m size, on a Cartesian coordinates system (x, y and z directions). It is a semi synthetic model with some reservoir data similar to those found in Potiguar Basin, Brazil. All studied cases were done using the simulator STARS from CMG (Computer Modelling Group, version 2009.10). It was found that N{sub 2} injection after steam injection interruption achieved the highest net cumulative oil compared to others injection system. Moreover, it was observed that N2 as alternative fluid to steam did not present increase on oil recovery. (author)

  9. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  10. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS and EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors

  11. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  12. Potential benefits of saturation cycle with two-phase refrigerant injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a saturation cycle is proposed to enhance a vapor compression cycle performance by reducing thermodynamic losses associated with single phase gas compression and isenthalpic expansion. In order to approach the saturation cycle, a two-phase refrigerant injection technique is applied to the multi-stage cycle. This multi-stage cycle with different options is modeled, and its performance is evaluated under ASHRAE standard operating conditions for air conditioning systems. Moreover, the two-phase refrigerant injection cycle is compared with the typical vapor injection cycle which is utilizing the internal heat exchanger or the flash tank. Low GWP refrigerants are applied to this two-phase refrigerant injection cycle. In terms of the COP and its improvement, R123 has a higher potential than any other refrigerants in the multi-stage cycle. Lastly, practical ideas realizing the saturation cycle are discussed such as multi-stage phase separator, phase separator with helical structure inside, and injection location of the compressor. -- Highlights: • A saturation cycle is proposed to enhance the vapor compression cycle performance. • Two-phase refrigerant injection technique is applied to the multi-stage cycle. • Modeling results of the proposed cycle show the significant performance improvement. • Low GWP refrigerants are applied and R123 shows the highest performance. • New parameters, α and ε, are used to show the potential of the saturation cycle

  13. Tank 24-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented and interpreted to help resolve the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. Concern that the headspace of tank 241-C-103 may contain a flammable mixture of organic vapors and an aerosol of combustible organic liquid droplets arises from the presence of a layer of organic liquid in the tank. This organic liquid is believed to have originated in the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process, having been stored initially in tank 241-C-102 and apparently transferred to tank 241-C-103 in 1975 (Carothers 1988). Analyses of samples of the organic liquid collected in 1991 and 1993 indicate that the primary constituents are tributyl phosphate (TBP) and several semivolatile hydrocarbons (Prentice 1991, Pool and Bean 1994). This is consistent with the premise that the organic waste came from the PUREX process, because the PUREX process used a solution of TBP in a diluent composed of the n-C 11 H 24 to n-C 15 H 32 normal paraffinic hydrocarbons (NPH)

  14. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  15. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  16. Bioventing - a new twist on soil vapor remediation of the vadose zone and shallow ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancheski, T.B.; McFarland, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing, which is a combination of soil vapor remediation and bioremediation techniques, may be an innovative, cost-effective, and efficient remedial technology for addressing petroleum contamination in the vadose zone and shallow ground water. The objective of bioventing is to mobilize petroleum compounds from the soil and ground water into soil vapor using soil vapor extraction and injection technology, and to promote the migration of the soil vapor upward to the turf root zone for degradation by active near-surface microbiological activity. Promoting and maintaining optimum microbiological activity in the turf root rhizosphere is a key component to the bioventing technique. Preliminary ongoing USEPA bioventing pilot studies (Kampbell, 1991) have indicated that this technique is a promising remediation technology, although feasibility studies are not yet complete. However, based on the preliminary data, it appears that proper bioventing design and implementation will result in substantial reductions of petroleum compounds in the capillary zone and shallow ground water, complete degradation of petroleum compounds in the turf root zone, and no surface emissions. A bioventing system was installed at a site in southern Delaware with multiple leaking underground storage tanks in early 1992 to remediate vadose zone and shallow ground-water contaminated by petroleum compounds. The system consists of a series of soil vapor extraction and soil vapor/atmospheric air injection points placed in various contamination areas and a central core remediation area (a large grassy plot). This system was chosen for this site because it was least costly to implement and operate as compared to other remedial alternatives (soil vapor extraction with carbon or catalytic oxidation of off-gas treatment, insitu bioremediation, etc.), and results in the generation of no additional wastes

  17. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  18. Waste tank safety program annual status report for FY 1993, Task 5: Toxicology and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.

    1993-09-01

    A toxicology team independently reviewed analytical data and provided advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents at the Hanford site. Most of the emphasis was directed toward Tank 241-C-103, but a preliminary assessment was also made of the toxicologic implication of the cyanide levels in the headspace of Tank 241-C-108. The objectives of this program are to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from various tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by waste-tank workers, (3) evaluate the toxicologic implications of those constituents by comparison to established toxicologic data bases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by the project manager and the cognizant Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issues Safety Resolution Manager

  19. Organic analysis of the headspace in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Before radioactive mixed waste in Hanford waste tanks can be isolated and permanently stored, several safety issues need to be addressed. The headspace vapors in Hanford Tank 103-C raise two issues: (1) the potential flammability of the vapor and aerosol, and (2) the potential worker health and safety hazards associated with the toxicity of the constituents. As a result, the authors have implemented organic analysis methods to characterize the headspace vapors in Hanford waste tanks. To address the flammability issue, they have used OSHA versatile sampling (OVS) tubes as the sampling method followed by solvent extraction and GC/MS analysis. For analyzing volatile organics and organic air toxins, they have implemented SUMMA trademark canisters as the collection device followed by cryogenic trapping and GC/MS analysis. Strategies for modifying existing NIOSH and EPA methods to make them applicable to vapors in Hanford waste tanks are discussed. Identification and quantification results of volatile and semivolatile organics are presented

  20. Numerical simulation in steam injection wellbores by mechanistic approach; Simulacao numerica do escoamento de vapor em pocos por uma abordagem mecanicista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, J.C. de; Campos, W.; Lopes, D.; Moura, L.S.S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Thomas, A. Clecio F. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work addresses to the development of a hydrodynamic and heat transfer mechanistic model for steam flow in injection wellbores. The problem of two-phase steam flow in wellbores has been solved recently by using available empirical correlations from petroleum industry (Lopes, 1986) and nuclear industry (Moura, 1991).The good performance achieved by mechanistic models developed by Ansari (1994), Hasan (1995), Gomez (2000) and Kaya (2001) supports the importance of the mechanistic approach for the steam flow problem in injection wellbores. In this study, the methodology to solve the problem consists in the application of a numerical method to the governing equations of steam flow and a marching algorithm to determine the distribution of the pressure and temperature along the wellbore. So, a computer code has been formulated to get numerical results, which provides a comparative study to the main models found in the literature. Finally, when compared to available field data, the mechanistic model for downward vertical steam flow in wellbores gave better results than the empirical correlations. (author)

  1. Development of a large volume injection method using a programmed temperature vaporization injector - gas chromatography hyphenated to ICP-MS for the simultaneous determination of mercury, tin and lead species at ultra-trace levels in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Baamonde, J; Bouchet, S; Tessier, E; Amouroux, D

    2018-04-27

    The current EU legislation lays down Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for 45 priority substances in surface waters; among them levels for (organo)metallic species of Hg, Sn and Pb are set between ng L -1 (for Hg and Sn) and μg L -1 (for Pb). To date, only a few analytical methods can reach these very restrictive limits and there is thus a need for comprehensive methods able to analyze these species down to these levels in natural waters. The aim of this work was to develop an online automated pre-concentration method using large volume injections with a Programmed Temperature Vaporization (PTV) injector fitted with a sorbent packed liner coupled to GC-ICP-MS to further improve the detection limits associated to this well-established method. The influence of several parameters such as the PTV transfer temperature and time, carrier gas flow rate and amount of packing material was investigated. Finally, the maximum volume injected through single or multiple injection modes was optimized to obtain the best compromise between chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. After optimization, very satisfactory results in terms of absolute and methodological detection limits were achieved, down to the pg L -1 level for all species studied. The potential of the method was exemplified by determining the concentrations of organometallic compounds in unpolluted river waters samples from the Adour river basin (SW France) and results were compared with conventional (splitless) GC-ICP-MS. The strength of this analytical method lies in the low detection limits reached for the simultaneous analysis of a wide group of organometallic compounds, and the potential to transfer this method to other gas chromatographic applications with inherent lower sensitivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  3. Waste Tank Safety Screening Module: An aspect of Hanford Site tank waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.G.; Wood, T.W.; Babad, H.; Redus, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-five (45) of the 149 Hanford single-shell tanks have been designated as Watch-List tanks for one or more high-priority safety issues, which include significant concentrations of organic materials, ferrocyanide salts, potential generation of flammable gases, high heat generation, criticality, and noxious vapor generation. While limited waste characterization data have been acquired on these wastes under the original Tri-Party Agreement, to date all of the tank-by-tank assessments involved in these safety issue designations have been based on historical data rather than waste on data. In response to guidance from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB finding 93-05) and related direction from the US Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Hanford Company, assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, designed a measurements-based screening program to screen all single-shell tanks for all of these issues. This program, designated the Tank Safety Screening Module (TSSM), consists of a regime of core, supernatant, and auger samples and associated analytical measurements intended to make first-order discriminations of the safety status on a tank-by-tank basis. The TSSM combines limited tank sampling and analysis with monitoring and tank history to provide an enhanced measurement-based categorization of the tanks relative to the safety issues. This program will be implemented beginning in fiscal year (FY) 1994 and supplemented by more detailed characterization studies designed to support safety issue resolution

  4. Vapor condensation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Manabu; Hirayama, Fumio; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention enables to separate and remove 14 C as CO 3 - ions without condensation in a vapor condensation can of a nuclear facility. That is, the vapor condensation device of the nuclear facility comprises (1) a spray pipe for spraying an acidic aqueous solution to the evaporation surface of an evaporation section, (2) a spray pump for sending the acidic aqueous solution to the spray pipe, (3) a tank for storing the acidic aqueous solution, (4) a pH sensor for detecting pH of the evaporation section, (5) a pH control section for controlling the spray pump, depending on the result of the detection of the pH sensor. With such a constitution, the pH of liquid wastes on the vaporization surface is controlled to 7 by spraying an aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid to the evaporation surface, thereby enabling to increase the transfer rate of 14 C to condensates to 60 to 70%. If 14 C is separated and removed as a CO 2 gas from the evaporation surface, the pH of the liquid wastes returns to the alkaline range of 9 to 10 and the liquid wastes are returned to a heating section. The amount of spraying the aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid can be controlled till the pH is reduced to 5. (I.S.)

  5. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  6. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  7. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  8. 14 CFR 25.981 - Fuel tank ignition prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.981 Fuel tank... system where catastrophic failure could occur due to ignition of fuel or vapors. This must be shown by... established, as necessary, to prevent development of ignition sources within the fuel tank system pursuant to...

  9. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... connected to this line to operate at their design capacity without excessive pressure build-up in the tank... housing and must be directed upward and away from operating personnel. (b) Any pressure building system...-17 Inner tank piping. (a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer and...

  10. History of waste tank 22, 1965--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    Tank 22 (a 1,300,000-gallon Type IV tank) was placed in service June 6, 1965, receiving HW from tank 21. The HW was transferred back into tank 21 in September 1965 and fed to the Building 242-H evaporator. This recycled concentrate and concentrate from other waste was then received in tank 22 until the tank was filled. The HW concentrate and salt remained in the tank until November 1971 when removal was begun. The concentrated supernate was transferred from the tank followed by dissolution and removal of salt from the tank walls and bottom. The salt removal was completed in May 1974 and since that time tank 22 has served as a receiver of LW from Building 221-H. Inspections of the tank interior were made using a 40-ft optical periscope and the steel thickness of the tank bottom was measured ultrasonically. Samples of the tank vapors and liquid collected in the sidewall and bottom sumps were analyzed. Temperature and specific gravity measurements were made of waste stored in the tank. Several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  11. Inyección de aire secundario caliente en calderas de vapor bagaceras y su influencia en el rendimiento térmico Injection of heated secondary air in steam bagasse boilers and its influence on thermal efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como alternativa para aumentar la eficiencia térmica de calderas bagaceras productoras de vapor, se evalúa la inyección de aire secundario al hogar, previamente calentado. Además, se reúne información sobre la combustión y los factores que influyen en dicho fenómeno. Se calculó el rendimiento térmico en una caldera bagacera con inyección de aire secundario frío, mediante el empleo de balances de masa y energía con datos de ensayos experimentales. Se planteó luego un modelo teórico para el caso de calentar todo este aire secundario, y se determinó el nuevo rendimiento térmico. Finalmente se realizó un análisis técnico-económico para evaluar la rentabilidad del uso de esta tecnología, teniendo en cuenta el ahorro de bagazo y su equivalente en gas natural. Para el caso analizado, los resultados mostraron: aumento del rendimiento térmico de la caldera (1,62 puntos; mejora del índice de generación de vapor (2,27%; reducción del consumo de bagazo (2,45%; aceptable periodo de repago de la inversión (114 días de zafra.Previously heated secondary air injection is evaluated as an alternative to increase thermal efficiency of bagasse steam boilers. Aspects regarding the combustion process and the factors affecting it are also described. Tests were made in a bagasse boiler of a sugar mill. Thermal efficiency of the bagasse boiler with cold secondary air injection was determined by solving mass and energy balances. A new thermal efficiency for the case in which all secondary air is pre-heated with hot gases was determined afterwards. Finally, a technical-economic analysis was made to evaluate the yield of this technology, taking into account bagasse saving and its equivalent in natural gas. For the analyzed case, the results showed: an increase in the thermal efficiency of the boiler (1,62 points; a higher steam production index (2,27%; a reduction in bagasse consumption (2,45%; an acceptable payback period of the investment (114

  12. Catch tanks inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established

  13. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  14. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  15. Acceptance criteria for non-destructive examination of double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.E.

    1995-09-01

    This supporting document provides requirements for acceptance of relevant indications found during non-destructive examination of double-shell tanks (DSTs) at Hanford 200 areas. Requirements for evaluation of relevant indications are provided to determine acceptability of continued safe operation of the DSTs. Areas of the DSTs considered include the tank wall vapor space, liquid-vapor interface, wetted tank wall, sludge-liquid interface, and the knuckle region

  16. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  17. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  18. High priority tank sampling and analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    or grab sampled and used. A total of condensed phase samples from 144 tanks were used. Vapor samples for 82 of the tanks were used to address questions needing vapor analysis results. Additional High Priority and other tanks used to address specific questions provided comparable information to that expected from the original plan. Simultaneously, a robust systems integrated approach for establishing near term sampling requirements has been established as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System's culture. No further sampling and analysis will be conducted for the sole purpose of addressing the 12 questions in the Implementation Plan. Characterization sampling and analysis will continue in support of other requirements and decision making as identified through application of the systems integrated approach

  19. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  20. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  1. TARA beamline and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Coleman, J.W.; Torti, R.P.; Blackfield, D.T.; Goodrich, P.

    1983-01-01

    The TARA beamline for neutral beam injection will permit one to three sources to fire into each plug (60 degree or optional 90 degree injection with respect to the TARA axis) or into each anchor (90 degree injection only). The sources, pre-aimed on their mounting plate at the NB test stand, may be fired into neutralizer ducts or optionally through a magnesium curtain, and the unneutralized fraction is dumped by the TARA fringing field onto a receiver plate. The beamline is housed in a cylindrical tank with the beam axis along the tank diameter at the midplane. The tank will be sorption pumped using LN + T/sub I/ or N/sub B/ and/or e-beam gettering. The beam burial tank contains sed arrays and a thin foil dump which reaches sufficiently high temperatures during the shot to boil out gas between shots

  2. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  3. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  4. Hanford double shell tank corrosion monitoring instrument tree prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.L.; Edgemon, G.L.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    High-level nuclear wastes at the Hanford site are stored underground in carbon steel double-shell and single-shell tanks (DSTs and SSTs). The installation of a prototype corrosion monitoring instrument tree into DST 241-A-101 was completed in December 1995. The instrument tree has the ability to detect and discriminate between uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) through the use of electrochemical noise measurements and a unique stressed element, three-electrode probe. The tree itself is constructed of AISI 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), with probes in the vapor space, vapor/liquid interface and liquid. Successful development of these trees will allow their application to single shell tanks and the transfer of technology to other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Keywords: Hanford, radioactive waste, high-level waste tanks, electrochemical noise, probes, double-shell tanks, single-shell tanks, corrosion

  5. History of waste tank 16, 1959 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Jones, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1977-07-01

    Tank 16 was placed in service as a receiver of fresh high heat waste (HW) on May 9, 1959, and was filled to capacity in May 1960. Approximately half the tank contents were transferred to tanks 14 and 15 during September and October 1960 because of leakage into the annulus. Use of tank 16 was resumed in October 1967 when authorization (TA 2-603) was obtained to receive LW, and the tank was filled to capacity by June 1968. Subsequently, supernate was removed from the tank, and a blend of fresh LW and evaporator bottoms was added. In March 1972, the supernate was transferred to tank 13 because leakage had resumed. The sludge was left in the tank bottom and the use of tank 16 for any additional waste storage was discontinued. In September 1960 liquid waste overflowed the annulus pan. Leakage essentially stopped after the tank liquid level was lowered below the middle horizontal weld. After exhaustive study, tank cracking and resultant leakage was concluded to have been caused by stress corrosion due to the action of NaOH or NaNO 3 on areas of high local stress in the steel plate such as welds. Samples of sludge, supernate, tank vapors, and leaked material in the annulus were analyzed, and tank temperature and radiation profiles were taken. Two disk samples were cut from the primary tank wall for metallurgical examination. Test coupons of various metals were exposed to tank 16 waste to aid new tank design and to study stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. In addition, samples of SRP bedrock were placed in tank 16 to study reactions between bedrock and HW. 18 figures, 2 tables

  6. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagadu, C P K; Akaho, E H K; Danso, K A; Stegowski, Z; Furman, L

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. History of waste tank 14, 1957 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Jones, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Tank 14 was placed in service as a receiver of fresh high heat waste (HW) in September 1957. Annulus leakage was discovered in April 1959 and continued until annulus ventilation was increased in January 1965. Practically all of the approximately 40 leak sites that have been identified on the tank wall are located at or below the bottom horizontal weld. Tank supernate was removed from the tank in preparation for a sludge removal operation which was performed in December 1968. The tank was then filled to its present level with blended supernate from tanks 10 and 13. In December 1972, supernate was inadvertently siphoned into the annulus through a dewatering jet, filling the annulus pan to a level of 33 in. The waste was promptly returned to the tank. Inspections of the tank interior and annulus were performed by direct observation, with a 40-ft optical periscope, and with photography and closed circuit television. Radioactive waste was first found in the annulus during visual inspection in May 1959. Samples of sludge, supernate, tank vapors, and leaked material in the annulus were analyzed, and numerous tank temperature profiles were taken. Soil and tank wall temperatures were measured in a study of tank nil ductility transition temperature. Six cooling coils failed, five of which occurred within 7 months after sludge removal. Several modifications to equipment and various equipment repairs were made. 14 figures, 3 tables

  8. History of waste tank 1, 1954 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.; Stevens, W.E.

    1978-10-01

    Tank 1 was placed in service as a receiver of high heat waste (HW) in October 1954. The supernate was removed from the tank in October 1961 and the tank began receiving low heat waste (LW) in January 1962. The LW supernate was decanted in October 1962 and prior to beginning a second HW filling in April 1963. The supernate from this HW filling was decanted twice in 1969. Sludge removal operations were conducted in May and August 1969 in order to use tank 1 for salt storage. The first evaporator concentrate receipt was in September 1969 and tank 1 has only been used as a salt storage tank since. Leakage from the tank into the annulus was discovered in February 1969. Deposits less than 1/4 inch deep of leaked waste were found on the pan floor. However, no leak sites have been found. Inspections of the tank interior and annulus were made by direct observation and by using a 40-ft optical periscope. Samples of sludge, supernate, tank vapors, and leaked material into the annulus were analyzed and tank temperature profiles were taken. Deflection measurements were made of the primary tank bottom knuckle plate while filling the tank with salt. Two vertical cooling coils have failed. Several equipment modifications and various equipment repairs were made. 18 figures, 2 tables

  9. The compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Huang, Shimin [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tang, Kun, E-mail: ktang@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Shulin, E-mail: slgu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Shunming [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ye, Jiandong [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Nanjing University Institute of Optoelectronics at Yangzhou, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Xu, Mingxiang [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Wang, Wei; Zheng, Youdou [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN hetero-structure has been fabricated by MOCVD successfully. • The formation mechanism of different layers in sample was revealed in details. • The properties of the hetero-structure have been presented and discussed extensively. • The effect of Ga diffusion on the magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film has been shown. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have designed and fabricated a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of the hetero-structure have been characterized and discussed. From the characterizations, the hetero-structure has been successfully grown generally. However, due to the unintentional diffusion of Ga ions from Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN layers, the most part of the nominal Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer is actually in the form of Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} with gradually decreased x values from the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} surface. Post-annealing process can further aggravate the diffusion. Due to the similar ionic radius of Ga and Fe, the structural configuration of the Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} does not differ from that of pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. However, the ferromagnetism has been reduced with the incorporation of Ga into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which has been explained by the increased Yafet-Kittel angles in presence of considerable amount of Ga incorporation. A different behavior of the magnetoresistance has been found on the as-grown and annealed samples, which could be modelled and explained by the competition between the spin-dependent and spin-independent conduction channels. This work has provided detailed information on the interfacial properties of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure, which is the solid basis for further improvement and application of

  10. Stabilization of in-tank residuals and external-tank soil contamination: FY 1997 interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This interim report evaluates various ways to stabilize decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm as part of a preliminary evaluation of end-state options for the Hanford tanks. Five technical areas were considered: (1) emplacement of smart grouts and/or other materials, (2) injection of chemical-getters into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing), (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks, (4) the use of engineered barriers over the tanks, and (5) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five technical areas. Detailed cost/benefit analyses of the recommended technologies are not provided in this evaluation, performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  11. Transport of Chemical Vapors from Subsurface Sources to Atmosphere as Affected by Shallow Subsurface and Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. K.; Smits, K. M.; Hosken, K.; Schulte, P.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    experiments. Water saturation, capillary pressure, air and soil temperature, and relative humidity were continuously monitored. Aqueous TCE was injected into the tank below the water table and allowed to volatilize. TCE concentration exiting the tank head space was measured through interval sampling by direct injection into a gas chromatograph. To quantify the transient concentration of TCE vapor in the soil pore space a novel use of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) was developed. Results from our numerical simulations were compared with the experimental data, which demonstrated the importance of considering the interaction of the atmosphere with the subsurface in conceptualization and numerical model development. Results also emphasize that soil saturation and transient sorption have a significant effect on vapor transport through the vadose zone. Follow-up tests and detailed analyses are still underway. Additional applications of this work include carbon sequestration leakage, methane contamination in the shallow subsurface and environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing.

  12. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  13. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagadu, C.P.K., E-mail: dagadukofi@yahoo.co.uk [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A. [Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-UST, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-01-15

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I-131 radioactive tracer is suitable for tracing the aqueous phase in gold ore slurry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Online data collection is more convenient method for tracer monitoring in industrial process systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant zones is suitable to describe the flow behavior of leaching tanks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radiotracer RTD technique could be used to validate design data after process intensification in gold leaching tanks.

  14. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagadu, C.P.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Danso, K.A.; Stegowski, Z.; Furman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process. - Highlights: ► I-131 radioactive tracer is suitable for tracing the aqueous phase in gold ore slurry. ► Online data collection is more convenient method for tracer monitoring in industrial process systems. ► The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant zones is suitable to describe the flow behavior of leaching tanks. ► The radiotracer RTD technique could be used to validate design data after process intensification in gold leaching tanks.

  15. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  16. Tank 241-BY-108 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQOs identity information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for tank BY-108 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given. Single-shell tank BY-108 is classified as a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank. The tank was declared an assumed leaker and removed from service in 1972; interim stabilized was completed in February 1985. Although not officially an Organic Watch List tank, restrictions have been placed on intrusive operations by Standing Order number-sign 94-16 (dated 09/08/94) since the tank is suspected to contain or to have contained a floating organic layer

  17. History of waste tank 24, 1962--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1979-04-01

    Tank 24 was placed in service in April 1963 receiving HW concentrate from the Building 242-H evaporator. The tank was filled by October 1965. In October 1966 the cooled concentrate supernate was decanted. The tank was again filled with concentrate by March 1967, then decanted in June 1967 and refilled by July 1967. Since that time the tank has remained in service storing LW and HW salt and receiving spent zeolite from the cesium removal column (CRC). In April 1973 an influx of slightly contaminated water in the bottom leak detection sump was observed. The tank was inspected with an optical periscope and numerous tests and investigations were conducted but the source of the contaminated water was not determined. However, subsequent to this report period a D 2 O tracer test in tank 21 which also experienced an influx of contaminated water into its bottom sump provided conclusive evidence of communication between the tank vapor space and the bottom leak detection sump. The D 2 O tracer test was documented in DPSPU 76-11-19. Inspections of the tank interior were performed by direct observation and photography using an optical periscope inserted through access risers in the roof. Samples of the vapor condensate and supernate in the tank, and liquid collected in the bottom leak detection sump were analyzed. Numerous temperature profiles were taken and several equipment modifications and repairs were made

  18. Dryout modeling in support of the organic tank safety project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1998-08-01

    This work was performed for the Organic Tank Safety Project to evaluate the moisture condition of the waste surface organic-nitrate bearing tanks that are classified as being conditionally safe because sufficient water is present. This report describes the predictive modeling procedure used to predict the moisture content of waste in the future, after it has been subjected to dryout caused by water vapor loss through passive ventilation. This report describes a simplified procedure for modeling the drying out of tank waste. Dryout occurs as moisture evaporates from the waste into the headspace and then exits the tank through ventilation. The water vapor concentration within the waste of the headspace is determined by the vapor-liquid equilibrium, which depends on the waste's moisture content and temperature. This equilibrium has been measured experimentally for a variety of waste samples and is described by a curve called the water vapor partial pressure isotherm. This curve describes the lowering of the partial pressure of water vapor in equilibrium with the waste relative to pure water due to the waste's chemical composition and hygroscopic nature. Saltcake and sludge are described by two distinct calculations that emphasize the particular physical behavior or each. A simple, steady-state model is devised for each type to obtain the approximate drying behavior. The report shows the application of the model to Tanks AX-102, C-104, and U-105

  19. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  20. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.

  1. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  2. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO's identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given

  3. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  4. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH and Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations

  5. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  6. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  7. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  8. Determination of mixing characterisitics in leaching tanks using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mixing characteristics in two gold leaching tanks each of volume 1.4 x 103 m3 were investigated with a pulse injection of 7.4 x 1010 Bq aqueous solution of 131I into the feed of the tanks to determine the flow model and mixing efficiency of the system. The flow patterns in the tanks connected in series were identical with ...

  9. Safety considerations on LPG storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paff, R.

    1993-01-01

    The safety of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks, in refineries, petrochemicals plants, or distribution storage, is an important concern. Some serious accidents in recent years, have highlighted the need for a good safety policy for such equipment. Accidents in LPG storage are mainly due to losses of containment of the LPG. Formation of a cloud can lead to a ''Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion'' (UVCE). Liquid leakage can lead to pool fires in the retention area. In some circumstances the heat input of the tank, combined with the loss of mechanical resistance of the steel under high temperature, can lead to a BLEVE ''Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion''. It is obvious that such equipment needs a proper design, maintenance and operating policy. The details to be considered are set out. (4 figures). (Author)

  10. Gaseous analytes of concern at Hanford Tank Farms. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Large amounts of toxic and radioactive waste materials are stored in underground tanks at DOE sites. When the vapors in the tank headspaces vent to the open atmosphere a potentially dangerous situation can occur for personnel in the area. An open-path atmospheric pollution monitor is being developed for DOE to monitor the open air space above these tanks. In developing this monitor it is important to know what hazardous gases are most likely to be found in dangerous concentrations. These gases are called the Analytes of Concern. At the present time, measurements in eight tanks have detected thirty-one analytes in at least two tanks and fifteen analytes in only one tank. In addition to these gases, Carbon tetrachloride is considered to be an Analyte of Concern because it permeates the ground around the tanks. These Analytes are described and ranked according to a Hazard Index which combines their vapor pressure, density, and approximate danger level. The top sixteen ranked analytes which have been detected in at least two tanks comprise an open-quotes Analytes of Concern Test Listclose quotes for determining the system performance of the atmospheric pollution monitor under development. A preliminary examination of the infrared spectra, barring atmospheric interferences, indicates that: The pollution monitor will detect all forty-seven Analytes exclamation point

  11. Temperature Stratification in a Cryogenic Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew John; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Boschee, Jacob; Foygel, Michael Gregory

    2013-01-01

    A reduced dynamical model describing temperature stratification effects driven by natural convection in a liquid hydrogen cryogenic fuel tank has been developed. It accounts for cryogenic propellant loading, storage, and unloading in the conditions of normal, increased, and micro- gravity. The model involves multiple horizontal control volumes in both liquid and ullage spaces. Temperature and velocity boundary layers at the tank walls are taken into account by using correlation relations. Heat exchange involving the tank wall is considered by means of the lumped-parameter method. By employing basic conservation laws, the model takes into consideration the major multi-phase mass and energy exchange processes involved, such as condensation-evaporation of the hydrogen, as well as flows of hydrogen liquid and vapor in the presence of pressurizing helium gas. The model involves a liquid hydrogen feed line and a tank ullage vent valve for pressure control. The temperature stratification effects are investigated, including in the presence of vent valve oscillations. A simulation of temperature stratification effects in a generic cryogenic tank has been implemented in Matlab and results are presented for various tank conditions.

  12. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  13. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  14. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  15. History of waste tank 11, 1955 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1978-10-01

    Tank 11 was placed in service as a receiver of low heat waste (LW) in July 1955. In November 1961, the supernate was decanted from the sludge to prepare tank 11 for receipt of frame waste. In July 1962, the supernate was again decanted and tank 11 was used to receive fresh high heat waste (HW) from the enriched uranium process in Building 221-H. Again, the supernate was decanted in June 1965 and July 1967 to allow the tank to be reused for waste receipt. In order to use tank 11 for solid salt storage, a sludge removal operation was conducted in October 1969. The operation was unsuccessful. Tank 11 consequently received hot concentrated supernate from tank 10 blended with dilute waste and was later returned to service as a receiver of HW. A small, apparently inactive leak site was found in April 1974. Inspections have been made of the annulus and the interior of the tank both visually and with an optical periscope. Samples of the sludge, supernate, and tank vapor have been analyzed. Top-to-bottom profiles of radiation and temperature in the tank have been taken and measurements were made of deflections in the bottom knuckle plate due to changing liquid level. One horizontal and seventeen vertical cooling coils have failed, all within one month following the sludge removal operation. Several equipment modifications and various equipment repairs were made. 14 figures, 3 tables

  16. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  17. 49 CFR 195.132 - Design and construction of aboveground breakout tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) or more of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) must be designed and constructed in accordance with API... constructed in accordance with API Standard 650. (4) High pressure steel tanks (i.e., internal gas or vapor...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix N to Part 25 - Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Definitions). A non-flammable ullage is one where the fuel-air vapor is too lean or too rich to burn or is... Office for approval the fuel tank flammability analysis, including the airplane-specific parameters...

  19. Tank 241-U-105 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples and two push mode core samples from tank 241-U-105 (U-105)

  20. A summary description of the flammable gas tank safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    Radioactive liquid waste may produce hydrogen as result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. If the waste contains organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia may be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site in Washington State, are on a Flammable Gas Watch List. Some contain waste that produces and retains gases until large quantities of gas are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks nearly-filled to capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture could result. The most notable example of a Hanford waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Upon occasion waste stored in this tank has released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several, other Hanford waste tanks exhibit similar behavior although to a lesser magnitude. Because this behavior was hot adequately-addressed in safety analysis reports for the Hanford Tank Farms, an unreviewed safety question was declared, and in 1990 the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program was established to address this problem. The purposes of the program are a follows: (1) Provide safety documents to fill gaps in the safety analysis reports, and (2) Resolve the safety issue by acquiring knowledge about gas retention and release from radioactive liquid waste and developing mitigation technology. This document provides the general logic and work activities required to resolve the unreviewed safety question and the safety issue of flammable gas mixtures in radioactive liquid waste storage tanks

  1. Modeling Droplet Heat and Mass Transfer during Spray Bar Pressure Control of the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) Tank in Normal Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartuzova, O.; Kassemi, M.

    2016-01-01

    A CFD model for simulating pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks through the injection of a subcooled liquid into the ullage is presented and applied to the 1g MHTB spray bar cooling experiments. An Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is utilized to track the spray droplets and capture the interaction between the discrete droplets and the continuous ullage phase. The spray model is coupled with the VOF model by performing particle tracking in the ullage, removing particles from the ullage when they reach the interface, and then adding their contributions to the liquid. A new model for calculating the droplet-ullage heat and mass transfer is developed. In this model, a droplet is allowed to warm up to the saturation temperature corresponding to the ullage vapor pressure, after which it evaporates while remaining at the saturation temperature. The droplet model is validated against the results of the MHTB spray-bar cooling experiments with 50% and 90% tank fill ratios. The predictions of the present T-sat based model are compared with those of a previously developed kinetic-based droplet mass transfer model. The predictions of the two models regarding the evolving tank pressure and temperature distributions, as well as the droplets' trajectories and temperatures, are examined and compared in detail. Finally, the ullage pressure and local vapor and liquid temperature evolutions are validated against the corresponding data provided by the MHTB spray bar mixing experiment.

  2. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  3. Tetraphenylborate Catalyst Development for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory 20-L Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team identified Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation as one of the three alternatives to replace the In-Tank Precipitation Facility at the Savannah River Site. The proposed design incorporates two continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) a concentrate tank and a sintered metal crossflow filter. Previous use of tetraphenylborate in batch operation and testing demonstrated the ability of the feed material to catalyze the decomposition of tetraphenylborate. The Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation design seeks to overcome the processing limitation of the unwanted reaction by rapid throughput and temperature control. Nitrogen inerting of the vapor space helps mitigate any safety (i.e., flammable) concerns of the reaction

  4. Tank vent processing system having a corrosion preventive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Shoichi; Sato, Hirofumi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion of a tank vent processing device by injecting an oxygen gas. Constitution: Oxygen gas and phosphorous at high temperature are poured into a tank vent processing device and amorphous oxide layers optimum to the prevention of external corrosion are formed to the inner surface of the device. Since the corrosion preventive device using the oxygen gas injection can be constituted as a relatively simple device, it is more economical than constituting a relatively large tank vent processing device with corrosion resistant stainless steels. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  6. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  7. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  8. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  9. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  10. History of waste tank 15, 1959 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1978-06-01

    Tank 15 was put into service as a receiver of high heat waste (HW) supernate from leaking tank 16 on October 15, 1960, after which it also became the active receiver for fresh HW. Between June 1964 and November 1972, the supernate was decanted (leaving the sludge) five times to allow the tank to be refilled with HW. Inspections and photographs have been made in the annular space using an optical periscope. In April 1972, periscopic inspection revealed salt accumulation at two arrested leak sites on the primary tank wall. Through December 1974, fifteen leak sites had been discovered. Analytical samples of supernate and vapor have been taken. Wall thicknesses and profiles of tank temperature differences have been obtained. Several tests, primarily concerning general corrosion, have been run. Equipment modifications and various equipment repairs were made. 14 figures

  11. The effect of nozzle location on the concentration profiles in chemical addition tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, B. H.; Kim, E. K.; Ro, T. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the flow and injection characteristics is performed for the flow field created by water injected into a cylindrical tank with an initially stationary fluid. The flow is relevant to the operation of the chemical addition system in the chemical and volume control system( CVCS) of nuclear power plants. This study is performed to improve the current design which has a disk block inside tank. The numerical analysis for the flow and injection characteristics in chemical addition tank are carried out using CFD code FLUENT 5. Results show that the inlet nozzle installed in tangential direction at the uppermost region of the tank cylinder and the outlet nozzle located at the center of the tank bottom is very effective in enhancing the injection in the tank

  12. Thermal Design of Vapor Cooling of Flight Vehicle Structures Using LH2 Boil-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Zoeckler, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Using hydrogen boil-off vapor to cool the structure of a flight vehicle cryogenic upper stage can reduce heat loads to the stage and increase the usable propellant in the stage or extend the life of the stage. The hydrogen vapor can be used to absorb incoming heat as it increases in temperature before being vented overboard. In theory, the amount of heat leaking into the hydrogen tank from the structure will be reduced if the structure is cooled using the propellant boil-off vapor. However, the amount of boil-off vapor available to be used for cooling and the reduction in heat leak to the propellant tank are dependent to each other. The amount of heat leak reduction to the LH2 tank also depends on the total heat load on the stage and the vapor cooling configurations.

  13. Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely

  14. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  15. Natural Attenuation of Hydrocarbon and Trichloroethylene Vapors in the Subsurface Environment at Plattsburgh Air Force Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ostendorf, David

    1997-01-01

    .... UMASS tested the hypothesis that natural attenuation processes, stimulated by injected air, reduce emissions of hydrocarbons and trichloroethylene vapors to acceptable air quality standards at the site. Drs...

  16. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  17. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  18. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  19. Engineering task plan for tank farm ventilation strategy document preparation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderZanden, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Active and passive systems provide ventilation for single shell tanks (SST), double shell tanks (DST), and doubly contained receiver tanks (DCRT). The systems perform or contribute to one or more of the following functions: maintain structural integrity (prevent overpressurization), confinement, cooling, vapor and gas removal, and leak detection. For certain tanks, ventilation also removes particles, in addition to vapors, to permit visual observation of the tank inner walls and waste surface. The function(s) performed are dependent on tank construction, watchlist classification, and tank contents. The function(s) should be maintained to support the TWRS mission. The tank farm mission is expected to extend to 2028, based on Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone, M-50-00, for completion of waste pretreatment. Many systems are currently beyond service life expectations and continued operation will result in decreased reliability and increased maintenance. Therefore, the systems must be replaced or upgraded to ensure adequate reliability. Ventilation system upgrades are included in a capital Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations. The ventilation upgrades are expected to be completed by June 2002. The new ventilation systems will satisfy the required function(s) of the tanks and/or tank farms. However, interim component upgrades may be required to guarantee reliability of systems until the capital project is completed. Some upgrades originally identified in the project might more suitably be provided with non-project resources

  20. Waste tank ventilation rates measured with a tracer gas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mitroshkov, A.V.

    1998-08-01

    Passive ventilation with the atmosphere is used to prevent accumulation of waste gases and vapors in the headspaces of 132 of the 177 high-level radioactive waste Tanks at the Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington State. Measurements of the passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of two key safety issues associated with the rates of flammable gas production and accumulation and the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out. Direct measurement of passive ventilation rates using mass flow meters is not feasible because ventilation occurs va multiple pathways to the atmosphere (i.e., via the filtered breather riser and unsealed tank risers and pits), as well as via underground connections to other tanks, junction boxes, and inactive ventilation systems. The tracer gas method discussed in this report provides a direct measurement of the rate at which gases are removed by ventilation and an indirect measurement of the ventilation rate. The tracer gas behaves as a surrogate of the waste-generated gases, but it is only diminished via ventilation, whereas the waste gases are continuously released by the waste and may be subject to depletion mechanisms other than ventilation. The fiscal year 1998 tracer studies provide new evidence that significant exchange of air occurs between tanks via the underground cascade pipes. Most of the single-shell waste tanks are connected via 7.6-cm diameter cascade pipes to one or two adjacent tanks. Tracer gas studies of the Tank U-102/U-103 system indicated that the ventilation occurring via the cascade line could be a significant fraction of the total ventilation. In this two-tank cascade, air evidently flowed from Tank U-103 to Tank U-102 for a time and then was observed to flow from Tank U-102 to Tank U-103

  1. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  2. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  3. Tank 241-C-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the Tank 241-C-107 (C-107) sampling activities. Currently tank C-107 is categorized as a sound, low-heat load tank with partial isolation completed in December 1982. The tank is awaiting stabilization. Tank C-107 is expected to contain three primary layers of waste. The bottom layer should contain a mixture of the following wastes: ion exchange, concentrated phosphate waste from N-Reactor, Hanford Lab Operations, strontium semi-works, Battelle Northwest, 1C, TBP waste, cladding waste, and the hot semi-works. The middle layer should contain strontium recovery supernate. The upper layer should consist of non-complexed waste

  4. Engineering task plan for Tanks 241-AN-103, 104, 105 color video camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlman, E.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and installation of the video camera systems into the vapor space within tanks 241-AN-103, 104, and 105. The one camera remotely operated color video systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space. Activities may include but are not limited to core sampling, auger activities, crust layer examination, monitoring of equipment installation/removal, and any other activities. The objective of this task is to provide a single camera system in each of the tanks for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program

  5. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  6. Steam and solvent injection as an advanced recovering method for heavy oil reservoirs; Injecao de vapor e solvente como um metodo de recuperacao avancada em reservatorios de oleo pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Edney Rafael V.P.; Rodrigues, Marcos Allyson F.; Barbosa, Janaina Medeiros D.; Barillas, Jennys Lourdes M.; Dutra Junior, Tarcilio V.; Mata, Wilson da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Currently a resource more and more used by the petroleum industry to increase the efficiency of steam flood mechanism is the addition of solvents. The process can be understood as a combination of a thermal method (steam injection) with a miscible method (solvent injection), promoting, thus, the reduction of interfacial tensions and oil viscosity. The mobility of the displaced fluid is then improved, resulting in an increase of oil recovery. To better understand this improved oil recovery method, a numerical study of the process was driven contemplating the effects of some operational parameters (distance between wells, injection fluids rate, kind of solvent and injected solvent volume) on the accumulated production of oil and recovery factor. Semisynthetic models were used in this study but reservoir data can be extrapolated for practical applications situations on Potiguar Basin. Simulations were performed in STARS (CMG, 2007.11). It was found that injected solvent volumes increased oil recovery and oil rates. Further the majority of the injected solvent was produced and can be recycled. (author)

  7. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  8. Thermal Response Analyses of Spherical LPG Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsijen.; Lin, Mannhsing.; Chao, Fuyuan

    1999-02-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a very important fuel and chemical feed stock as well; however, the hydrocarbon has been involved in many major fires and explosions. One of these accidents is boiling-liquid, expanding-vapor explosion (BLEVE). It is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release form confinement of a liquid at a temperature above its atmospheric-pressure boiling point. The sudden decrease in pressure results in the explosive vaporization of a fraction of the liquid and a cloud of vapor and mist with the accompanying blast effects. Most BLEVEs involve flammable liquids, and most BELEVE releases are ignited by a surrounding fire and result in a fireball. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a computer model in order to determine the thermal response of a spherical LPG tank involved in fire engulfment accidents. The assessment of the safety spacing between tanks was also discussed. (author)

  9. Extended tank use analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFigh-Price, C.; Green, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site were originally designed for open-quotes temporaryclose quotes use. The newer double-shell tanks were designed for 50 years of use. A number of single-shell tanks failed their original design criteria to contain liquid waste soon after they were constructed. These single-shell and double-shell tanks now will be required to contain semi-solid high-activity waste well beyond their design lives. It must be determined that the waste contained in these tanks will remain stable for up to an additional 30 years of storage. This paper describes the challenge of demonstrating that the tanks that have exceeded or will exceed their design lifetime can safely store high-level waste until planned disposal actions are taken. Considerations will include structural and chemical analyses

  10. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  11. Tank Bump Accident Potential and Consequences During Waste Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides an evaluation of Hanford tank bump accident potential and consequences during waste retrieval operations. The purpose of this report is to consider the best available new information to support recommendations for safety controls. A new tank bump accident analysis for safe storage (Epstein et al. 2000) is extended for this purpose. A tank bump is a postulated event in which gases, consisting mostly of water vapor, are suddenly emitted from the waste and cause tank headspace pressurization. Tank bump scenarios, physical models, and frequency and consequence methods are fully described in Epstein et al. (2000). The analysis scope is waste retrieval from double-shell tanks (DSTs) including operation of equipment such as mixer pumps and air lift circulators. The analysis considers physical mechanisms for tank bump to formulate criteria for bump potential during retrieval, application of the criteria to the DSTs, evaluation of bump frequency, and consequence analysis of a bump. The result of the consequence analysis is the mass of waste released from tanks; radiological dose is calculated using standard methods (Cowley et al. 2000)

  12. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  13. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  14. Compartmentalized safety coolant injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    A safety coolant injection system for nuclear reactors wherein a core reflood tank is provided to afford more reliable reflooding of the reactor core in the event of a break in one of the reactor coolant supply loops. Each reactor coolant supply loop is arranged in a separate compartment in the containment structure to contain and control the flow of spilled coolant so as to permit its use during emergency core cooling procedures. A spillway allows spilled coolant in the compartment to pass into the emergency water storage tank from where it can be pumped back to the reactor vessel. (author)

  15. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  16. History of waste tank 12, 1956 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1978-09-01

    Tank 12 was placed in service as a receiver for high heat waste (HW) in September 1956 and continued in this service through 1974. From August 1963 through December 1974, the supernate was decanted (leaving the sludge) five times to allow the tank to be refilled with HW. Inspections have been made and photographs taken in the annular space with an optical periscope and a lead-shielded camera. A salt-encrusted leak site was discovered in May 1974. No other leak sites have been found. Analytical samples have been taken of sludge, supernate, and vapor. Primary tank wall thickness, heat transfer coefficient measurements, and profiles of tank temperature differences have been obtained. Several modifications to equipment and various equipment repairs were made

  17. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  18. Flashback Flame Arrester Devices for Fuel Cargo Tank Vapor Vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    821711ff’erent fuiel/air mixtures: t pr duca-e f-ames with speedis representative :’ th ’se Or cc fuels that c, aid be carried as bulk car , ab atar -i typical...F w Physical Chemistry , Vol. ,o8, pp. 7-101h, 1977. 1 9 . PAPA/Lewis Research Stafl’, Ba.; i(’ si de tr irot tos ’ ly,]rocarbon Fuels with Air, NACA

  19. The Effect of Sloshing on a Tank Pressure Build-up Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Banne, Håvard Bolstad

    2017-01-01

    This thesis work has aimed to identify how sloshing will affect a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel tank. The physical nature of LNG means it needs to be kept cooled and pressurized in order to remain in a liquid state. By implementing a pressure build-up unit (PBU) it is possible to pressurize the tank vaporizing the tank’s contents, for the vapour then to return to tank in a loop, building pressure in the process. A tank pressure build-up unit has been built in the laboratory ...

  20. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  1. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  2. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  3. Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104

  4. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-102

  5. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  6. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  7. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  8. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  9. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  12. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  15. Toxicologic evaluation of analytes from Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Young, J.Y.; Weller, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company requested PNL to assemble a toxicology review panel (TRP) to evaluate analytical data compiled by WHC, and provide advice concerning potential health effects associated with exposure to tank-vapor constituents. The team's objectives would be to (1) review procedures used for sampling vapors from tanks, (2) identify constituents in tank-vapor samples that could be related to symptoms reported by workers, (3) evaluate the toxicological implications of those constituents by comparison to establish toxicological databases, (4) provide advice for additional analytical efforts, and (5) support other activities as requested by WHC. The TRP represents a wide range of expertise, including toxicology, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine. The TRP prepared a list of target analytes that chemists at the Oregon Graduate Institute/Sandia (OGI), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and PNL used to establish validated methods for quantitative analysis of head-space vapors from Tank 241-C-103. this list was used by the analytical laboratories to develop appropriate analytical methods for samples from Tank 241-C-103. Target compounds on the list included acetone, acetonitrile, ammonia, benzene, 1, 3-butadiene, butanal, n-butanol, hexane, 2-hexanone, methylene chloride, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, dodecane, tridecane, propane nitrile, sulfur oxide, tributyl phosphate, and vinylidene chloride. The TRP considered constituent concentrations, current exposure limits, reliability of data relative to toxicity, consistency of the analytical data, and whether the material was carcinogenic or teratogenic. A final consideration in the analyte selection process was to include representative chemicals for each class of compounds found

  16. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  17. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  18. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  19. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  20. Numerical modeling of a cryogenic fluid within a fuel tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Donald S.

    1994-01-01

    The computational method developed to study the cryogenic fluid characteristics inside a fuel tank in a hypersonic aircraft is presented. The model simulates a rapid draining of the tank by modeling the ullage vapor and the cryogenic liquid with a moving interface. A mathematical transformation was developed and applied to the Navier-Stokes equations to account for the moving interface. The formulation of the numerical method is a transient hybrid explicit-implicit technique where the pressure term in the momentum equations is approximated to first order in time by combining the continuity equation with an ideal equation of state.

  1. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46 degree C, far below the 250 to 380 degree C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103

  2. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  3. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  4. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  5. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  6. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  7. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  8. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  9. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  10. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in TWRS active catch tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-05-20

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  11. Prediction of parameters affecting the safety of tank farms in case of emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorev Vyacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article demonstrates that the physical nature of blow-out of oil products burning in the tank is connected with overheating and fast vaporization of bottom water accumulated in the tank or on a surface of internal floating roof. It is shown that the period of time, during which the homothermal layer of oil, heated up to the boiling point while burning in the tank, reaches the level of bottom water or the water added in the tank in the process of extinguishing depends on the heat losses into environment through the side surface of the tank. It is determined that blow-out time depends on the water cooled surface area of the tank. It is shown that intensive water cooling extremely decreases the rate of formation of homothermal layer with increasing of its thickness.

  12. Metal impurity injection into DIVA plasmas with a Q-switched laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Nagami, Masayuki; Sengoku, Seio; Kumagai, Katsuaki

    1978-08-01

    Metal impurity injection into DIVA plasmas with a Q-switched ruby laser beam is described. Metal materials used are aluminium and gold. The Q-switched laser beam is incident onto a thin metal film thickness about 0.2 μm coated on pyrex glass plate surface. The metal film is vaporized by the laser beam and injected into DIVA plasma. The laser-beam injection method has advantages of sharp profile of vaporized metal, easy control of vaporized metal quantity and injection rate control of metal vapor. (author)

  13. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of ∼3.07 m (120.7 ± 2 in. from sidewall bottom or ∼132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19 degrees C (66 degrees F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992

  14. Radiological and toxicological analyses of tank 241-AY-102 and tank 241-C-106 ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himes, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    filter loadings and would lead to an unfiltered pathway from the radioactively contaminated and toxic aerosols in the head space (vapor space) of the tank into the outside environment. The initiator for the unfiltered (continuous) release scenario is wetting of the HEPA filters with an accompanying filter breach or failure of the seals surrounding the filter in the enclosure. No releases from the filters themselves are assumed in this scenario. In the absence of controls, the exhaust system would continue to expel the contaminated head space air into the outside environment in all three of these scenarios

  15. Radiological and toxicological analyses of tank 241-AY-102 and tank 241-C-106 ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himes, D.A.

    1998-08-11

    filter loadings and would lead to an unfiltered pathway from the radioactively contaminated and toxic aerosols in the head space (vapor space) of the tank into the outside environment. The initiator for the unfiltered (continuous) release scenario is wetting of the HEPA filters with an accompanying filter breach or failure of the seals surrounding the filter in the enclosure. No releases from the filters themselves are assumed in this scenario. In the absence of controls, the exhaust system would continue to expel the contaminated head space air into the outside environment in all three of these scenarios.

  16. Physical model for vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Based on two assumptions, the surface layer is flexible, and the internal energy of the latent heat of vaporization is completely utilized by the atoms for overcoming on the surface resistance of the liquid, the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated for 45 elements. The theoretical values were tested against experiments with positive result.

  17. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  18. Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in single shell tanks using tracer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates

  19. Physical and mathematical modeling of diesel fuel liquid and vapor movement in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.; Kreamer, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional physical modeling of diesel fuel leaks was conducted in sand tanks to determine liquid and vapor migration characteristics. Mathematical modeling provided estimation of vapor concentrations at discrete times and distances from the vapor source and was compared to the physical experiment. The mathematical gaseous diffusion model was analogous to the Theis equation for ground-water flow, accounted for sorptive effects of the media, and was calibrated using measured concentrations from the sand tank. Mathematically different positions of the vapor source were tested to better relate observed liquid flow rates and media configuration to gaseous concentrations. The calculated diffusion parameters were then used to estimate theoretical, three-dimensional vapor transport from a hypothetical liquid leak of 2.0 1/hr for 30 days. The associated three-dimensional vapor plume, which would be reasonably detectable by commercially available vadose zone monitors, was estimated to have a diameter of 8 m with a vapor concentration of 50 ppm at the outside edge of the vapor plume. A careful application of the method and values can be used to give a first approximation to the number of vapor monitors required at a field site as well as the optimal locations for the monitors

  20. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-102. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-102 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendixes. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-44-05. Characterization information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. The most recent core sampling of tank 241-T-102 (March 1993) predated the existence of data quality objectives (DQOs). An assessment of the technical issues from the currently applicable DQOs was made using data from the 1993 push mode core sampling event, a July 1994 grab sampling event, and a May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Historical information for tank 241-T-102, provided in Appendix A, includes surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. Appendix B contains further sampling and analysis data from the March 1993 push mode core sampling event and data from the grab sampling event in August 1994 and May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Of the two push mode cores taken in March of 1993, cores 55

  1. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1997-06-24

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-102. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-102 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendixes. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-44-05. Characterization information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. The most recent core sampling of tank 241-T-102 (March 1993) predated the existence of data quality objectives (DQOs). An assessment of the technical issues from the currently applicable DQOs was made using data from the 1993 push mode core sampling event, a July 1994 grab sampling event, and a May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Historical information for tank 241-T-102, provided in Appendix A, includes surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. Appendix B contains further sampling and analysis data from the March 1993 push mode core sampling event and data from the grab sampling event in August 1994 and May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Of the two push mode cores taken in March of 1993, cores 55

  2. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems

  3. Exposures to jet fuel and benzene during aircraft fuel tank repair in the U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, G N; Smith, L B

    2000-06-01

    Jet fuel and benzene vapor exposures were measured during aircraft fuel tank entry and repair at twelve U.S. Air Force bases. Breathing zone samples were collected on the fuel workers who performed the repair. In addition, instantaneous samples were taken at various points during the procedures with SUMMA canisters and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry. The highest eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) fuel exposure found was 1304 mg/m3; the highest 15-minute short-term exposure was 10,295 mg/m3. The results indicate workers who repair fuel tanks containing explosion suppression foam have a significantly higher exposure to jet fuel as compared to workers who repair tanks without foam (p fuel, absorbed by the foam, to volatilize during the foam removal process. Fuel tanks that allow flow-through ventilation during repair resulted in lower exposures compared to those tanks that have only one access port and, as a result, cannot be ventilated efficiently. The instantaneous sampling results confirm that benzene exposures occur during fuel tank repair; levels up to 49.1 mg/m3 were found inside the tanks during the repairs. As with jet fuel, these elevated benzene concentrations were more likely to occur in foamed tanks. The high temperatures associated with fuel tank repair, along with the requirement to wear vapor-permeable cotton coveralls for fire reasons, could result in an increase in the benzene body burden of tank entrants.

  4. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  5. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  6. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  7. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  8. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  9. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  10. Rheological behaviour of Portland G and polyurethane slurries applied to oil wells submitted a steam injection; Comportamento reologico de pastas de cimento Portland G e poliuretana para cimentacao de pocos sujeitos a injecao de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, U.; Martinelli, A.E.; Melo, D.M.; Silva, L.; Lima, F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Araujo, R.G. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Two point of view can be focused with respect to the behavior of slurries for cementing. The first refers to the rheological properties, they should submit to the established limits by the standards. A second point of view refers to the problems originated from the use of the secondary recovery by steam injection, that wakes up tensile tension in the sheath. A solution for this problem is the addition of thermal stronger polymer to the cement slurry, increasing your tensile strength. However, this practice is usually accompanied by the increase of the viscosity of the slurry, that make difficult the pumping. Studies involving rheological aspects and thickening time were accomplished with slurries additivated with polyurethane for evaluation of your pumpability. Correlations were observed among polyurethane concentration, viscosity and thickening time. Mathematical models are proposed correlating the three parameters. A good values were found for concentrations among 1,5 % and 2,5 % of polyurethane. The polyurethane actuated as a charge reducing the slurry fluidity, then the increase of the viscosity. In the condition of setting of cement, the polyurethane stimulated a better dispersion and approach of the particles of the cement with water, accelerating the typical precipitation process of the cement hydration. (author)

  11. Using in situ bioventing to minimize soil vapor extraction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.C.; Frishmuth, R.A.; Archabal, S.R.; Pluhar, C.J.; Blystone, P.G.; Miller, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Gasoline-contaminated soils may be difficult to remediate with bioventing because high concentrations of gasoline vapors become mobile when air is injected into the soil. Because outward vapor migration is often unacceptable on small commercial sites, soil vapor extraction (SVE) or innovative bioventing techniques are required to control vapors and to increase soil gas oxygen levels to stimulate hydrocarbon biodegradation. Combinations of SVE, off-gas treatment, and bioventing have been used to reduce the costs normally associated with remediation of gasoline-contaminated sites. At Site 1, low rates of pulsed air injection were used to provide oxygen while minimizing vapor migration. At Site 2, a period of high-rate SVE and off-gas treatment was followed by long-term air injection. Site 3 used an innovative approach that combined regenerative resin for ex situ vapor treatment with in situ bioventing to reduce the overall cost of site remediation. At each of these Air Force sites, bioventing provided cost savings when compared to more traditional SVE methods

  12. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B

    2008-01-01

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion has

  13. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  14. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  15. Determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples by flow injection-cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry using sodium borohydride as the sole reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Segade, Susana; Tyson, Julian F.

    2003-01-01

    A simple, fast, precise and accurate method to determine inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples was developed. The optimized flow-injection mercury system permitted the separate determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. Inorganic mercury was selectively determined after reduction with 10 -4 % w/v sodium borohydride, while total mercury was determined after reduction with 0.75% w/v sodium borohydride. The calibration graphs were linear up to 30 ng ml -1 . The detection limits of the method based on three times the standard deviation of the blank were 24 and 3.9 ng l -1 for total mercury and inorganic mercury determination, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 1.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 mercury standard. As a means of checking method performance, deionized water and pond water samples were spiked with methylmercury and inorganic mercury; quantitative recovery for total mercury and inorganic mercury was obtained. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing alkaline and acid extracts of five biological and sediment reference materials. Microwave-assisted extraction procedures resulted in higher concentrations of recovered mercury species, lower matrix interference with mercury determination and less time involved in sample treatment than conventional extraction procedures. The standard addition method was only needed for calibration when biological samples were analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 1.2-19 and 6.6-18 ng g -1 in biological and sediment samples for inorganic mercury and total mercury determination, respectively

  16. History of waste tank 9 , 1955--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Tank 9 was placed in service as a receiver for Purex HLW on July 19, 1955. Filling was essentially completed in December 1955, and this original complement of waste remained in the tank until December 1965, when most of the liquid was decanted to allow refilling. In July 1966, the remaining liquid and approximately 15 inches of sludge were removed using 3000 to 3500 psi water introduced through nozzles to mobilize the sludge. The tank was then used as a receiver and cooler for aged HLW solution concentrated by the tank farm evaporator; the resulting crystallized salt, covered with saturated solution, is now stored in this tank. Inspections have been made of the tank interior and annulus by direct observation and with a 40-ft optical periscope. Analytical samples have been taken of the sludge, supernate, vapor, and leaked material in the annulus. Top-to-bottom profiles of radiation and temperature have been obtained in the annulus and tank, respectively, and measurements have been made of roof deflection caused by salt adhering to roof-supported cooling coils. Leaked waste was discovered in the annulus pan in October 1957. During 1958-59, the annulus pan was flushed nine times with water in 2000-gallon batches, jetting the waste and flush water into the primary tank. However, waste leakage into the annulus continued. The maximum liquid depth reached in the annulus was about 12 inches. This was jetted out in 1961., but some leakage continued theeeafter as indicated by roddings. The roddings showed no standing liquid by August 1964, but some liquid may have been present undera salt crust. In March 1972, salt depth in the annulus was measured to be 8 to 10 in., and the bottom 3 in. was quite wet. The salt remains although most of the liquid has been removed

  17. Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF 6 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF 6 , indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour

  18. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  20. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  1. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  2. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  3. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  4. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  5. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  6. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  7. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  8. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  10. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  12. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  14. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  15. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  16. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  17. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  19. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  1. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  3. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  5. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  6. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  7. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  8. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  9. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  10. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  11. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  12. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  13. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  14. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  15. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  16. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  17. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  18. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yipeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Meng, He; Sun, Lifu; Zhang, Yunpeng

    2013-01-01

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 10 11 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m −3 , which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  19. Test plan for measuring ventilation rates and combustible gas levels in RPP active catch tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    1999-06-03

    The purpose of this test is to provide an initial screening of combustible gas concentrations in catch tanks that currently are operated by River Protection Project (RPP). The data will be used to determine whether or not additional data will be needed for closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. This test will involve field measurements of ammonia, organic vapor, and total combustible gas levels in the headspace of the catch tanks. If combustible gas level in a tank exceeds an established threshold, gas samples will be collected in SUMMA canisters for more extensive laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be measured to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flow through the tanks.

  20. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  1. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establishment septic tank. The UIC requirements do not apply to single family residential septic system wells, nor to non-residential septic system wells which are used solely for the disposal of sanitary waste... whether what is injected is a radioactive waste or not. (9) Septic system wells used to inject the waste...

  2. Tank drive : ZCL takes its composite tank technology worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Edmonton-based ZCL Composites Inc. is North America's largest manufacturer and supplier of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) underground storage tanks. The company has aggressively pursued new markets in the oil sands, shale gas gas, and other upstream petroleum industries. The manufacturer also targets water and sewage applications, and provides customized corrosion solutions for a variety of industries. The company developed its double-walled FRP tanks in response to Canadian Environmental Protection Act rules requiring cathodic protection for steel tanks, leak detection, and secondary containment. ZCL supplies approximately 90 per cent of the new tanks installed by gasoline retailers in Canada. Future growth is expected to be strong, as many old tanks will soon need to be replaced. The company has also developed a method of transforming underground single wall tanks into secondarily contained systems without digging them out. The company has also recently signed licence agreements with tank manufacturers in China. 3 figs.

  3. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  4. 46 CFR 32.50-15 - Cargo piping on tank vessels constructed on or after July 1, 1951-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo... heavy, all joints are welded, and bends are installed to provide for expansion and contraction. (2) Tank... shall not pass through spaces containing machinery where sources of vapor ignition are normally present...

  5. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks

  6. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  7. Utilization of the MPI Process for in-tank solidification of heel material in large-diameter cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the US Department of Energy is remediation of sludge and supernatant waste in underground storage tanks. Exhumation of the waste is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation cannot completely remove all of the contaminated materials from the tanks. For large-diameter tanks, amounts of highly contaminated ``heel'' material approaching 20,000 gal can remain. Often sludge containing zeolite particles leaves ``sand bars'' of locally contaminated material across the floor of the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment (stabilization and immobilization) of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and mixed uniformly with sludge. Ground Environmental Services has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity jet delivery system termed, Multi-Point-Injection (MPI). This robust jet delivery system has been field-deployed to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in cylindrical (FY 1998) and long, horizontal tanks (FY 1999). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process successfully formed a 32-ton uniform monolith of grout and waste surrogates in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within a 40-in.-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies similar to Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily intermixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  8. Standard guide for sampling radioactive tank waste

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide addresses techniques used to obtain grab samples from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste created during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Guidance on selecting appropriate sampling devices for waste covered by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is also provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1). Vapor sampling of the head-space is not included in this guide because it does not significantly affect slurry retrieval, pipeline transport, plugging, or mixing. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  10. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  11. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  12. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  13. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Algarra, Manuel; Manuel Lopez-Romero, J.; Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  14. A science think tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, F [The Australian, (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning.

  15. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  16. Evaluation of tank thermal expansion data in CALDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.; Weh, R.

    1991-01-01

    A thermal expansion test involving a large annular input reprocessing tank was carried out as a part of the CALDEX Project at the TEKO test facility in Karlsruhe, FRG. The objective of this test was to investigate thermal expansion properties of the tank and effects on various pressure and level measurement instruments used in the determination of liquid volume. In the thermal expansion test, a weak nitric acid solution was heated internally to a temperature of 60 degrees C by means of steam injection through the sparge ring. After heating, the annular tank took about one hour to thermally equilibrate, and it took another hour for the sparge ring and pulsator pipes to fill before thermal effects could be followed. The temperature at the end of the test, after tank and its contents had cooled undisturbed for fifty hours, was 29.9 degrees C. Thirteen instrument readings were obtained during each measurement cycle of roughly 70 seconds for a total of over 2800 readings per instrument. Thermal expansion effects for the CALDEX annular tank were consistent with that reported for cylindrical tanks. Temperature variations effect each type of probe in a way that depends on the properties of the probe and the characteristics of the measurement system. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  17. 40 CFR 280.43 - Methods of release detection for tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or contraction of the product, vapor pockets, tank deformation, evaporation or condensation, and the... inoperative by the ground water, rainfall, or soil moisture or other known interferences so that a release... protection system; (iv) The ground water, soil moisture, or rainfall will not render the testing or sampling...

  18. DOUBLE-SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-01-01

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed

  19. Correlation models for waste tank sludges and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted to support the TEMPEST computer modeling under the Flammable Gas Program (FGP) and to further the comprehension of the physical processes occurring in the Hanford waste tanks. The end products of this task are correlation models (sets of algorithms) that can be added to the TEMPEST computer code to improve the reliability of its simulation of the physical processes that occur in Hanford tanks. The correlation models can be used to augment, not only the TEMPEST code, but other computer codes that can simulate sludge motion and flammable gas retention. This report presents the correlation models, also termed submodels, that have been developed to date. The submodel-development process is an ongoing effort designed to increase our understanding of sludge behavior and improve our ability to realistically simulate the sludge fluid characteristics that have an impact on safety analysis. The effort has employed both literature searches and data correlation to provide an encyclopedia of tank waste properties in forms that are relatively easy to use in modeling waste behavior. These properties submodels will be used in other tasks to simulate waste behavior in the tanks. Density, viscosity, yield strength, surface tension, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, salt solubility, and ammonia and water vapor pressures were compiled for solutions and suspensions of sodium nitrate and other salts (where data were available), and the data were correlated by linear regression. In addition, data for simulated Hanford waste tank supernatant were correlated to provide density, solubility, surface tension, and vapor pressure submodels for multi-component solutions containing sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate

  20. Engineering Task Plan for Preparing the Type 4 In Situ Vapor Samplers (ISVS) for Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    The DOE has identified a need to sample vapor space and exhaust ducts of several waste tanks The In-Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) Type IV vapor sampling cart has been identified as the appropriate monitoring tool. The ISVS carts have been out of service for a number of years. This ETP outlines the work to be performed to ready the type IV gas sampler for operation Characterization Engineering will evaluate the Type IV gas sampler carts to determine their state of readiness and will proceed to update procedures and equipment documentation to make the sampler operationally acceptable