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Sample records for tank sludge results

  1. Results of Sludge Mobilization Testing at Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Waste stored in the Tank 241-AZ-101 at the US DOE Hanford is scheduled as the initial feed for high-level waste vitrification. Tank 241-AZ-101 currently holds over 3,000,000 liters of waste made up of a settled sludge layer covered by a layer of liquid supernant. To retrieve the waste from the tank, it is necessary to mobilize and suspend the settled sludge so that the resulting slurry can be pumped from the tank for treatment and vitrification. Two 223.8-kilowatt mixer pumps have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101 to mobilize the settled sludge layer of waste for retrieval. In May of 2000, the mixer pumps were subjected to a series of tests to determine (1) the extent to which the mixer pumps could mobilize the settle sludge layer of waste, (2) if the mixer pumps could function within operating parameters, and (3) if state-of-the-art monitoring equipment could effectively monitor and quantify the degree of sludge mobilization and suspension. This paper presents the major findings and results of the Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests, based on analysis of data and waste samples that were collected during the testing. Discussion of the results focuses on the effective cleaning radius achieved and the volume and concentration of sludge mobilized, with both one and two pumps operating in various configurations and speeds. The Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests were unique in that sludge mobilization parameters were measured using actual waste in an underground storage tank at the hanford Site. The methods and instruments that were used to measure waste mobilization parameters in Tank 241-AZ-101 can be used in other tanks. It can be concluded from the testing that the use of mixer pumps is an effective retrieval method for the mobilization of settled solids in Tank 241-AZ-101

  2. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

    1997-08-01

    The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na 3 PO 4 . Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111

  3. Washing and Caustic Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge: Results of FY 1998 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; BM Rapko; J Liu; DJ Temer; RD Hunt

    1998-12-11

    Sludge washing and parametric caustic leaching tests were performed on sludge samples tiom five Hanford tanks: B-101, BX-1 10, BX-112, C-102, and S-101. These studies examined the effects of both dilute hydroxide washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the residual sludge solids. ` Dilute hydroxide washing removed from <1 to 25% of the Al, -20 to 45% of the Cr, -25 to 97% of the P, and 63 to 99% of the Na from the Hdord tank sludge samples examined. The partial removal of these elements was likely due to the presence of water-soluble sodium salts of aluminate, chromate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate, either in the interstitial liquid or as dried salts.

  4. Tank 40 final sludge batch 9 chemical and fissile radionuclide characterization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kubilius, W. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch (SB) 9 was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS)i. The SB9 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB9. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the 3-L Tank 40 SB9 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 547 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO3/HCl (aqua regiaii) in sealed Teflon® vessels and four with NaOH/Na2O2 (alkali or peroxide fusioniii) using Zr crucibles. Three Analytical Reference Glass – 1iv (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB9 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic

  5. Tank 5 Model for Sludge Removal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEE, SI

    2004-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methods have been used to develop and provide slurry pump operational guidance for sludge heel removal in Tank 5. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation under steady-state indexed and transient oscillation modes. A model used for previous analyses has been updated to add the valve housing distribution piping and pipe clusters of the cooling coil supply system near pump no. 8 to the previous tank Type-I model. In addition, the updated model included twelve concrete support columns. This model would provide a more accurate assessment of sludge removal capabilities. The model focused on removal of the sludge heel located near the wall of Tank 5 using the two new slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 5 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT (trademark) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, modeling calculations were performed with indexed pump orientations until an optimum flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge heel was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 3801 gpm flowrate per nozzle could remove the sludge from the tank with a 101 in liquid level, based on a historical minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. The only exception is the region within maximum 4.5 ft distance from the tank wall boundary at the

  6. Influence of sludge properties and hydraulic loading on the performance of secondary settling tanks--full-scale operational results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestner, R J; Günthert, F Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Full-scale investigations at a WWTP with a two-stage secondary settling tank process revealed relationships between significant operating parameters and performance in terms of effluent suspended solids concentration. Besides common parameters (e.g. surface overflow rate and sludge volume loading rate) feed SS concentration and flocculation time must be considered. Concentration of the return activated sludge may help to estimate the performance of existing secondary settling tanks.

  7. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries

  8. Tank 241-Z-361 Sludge Retrieval and Treatment Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMPTON, B.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Tank 241-Z-361 (Z-361) contains legacy sludge resulting from waste discharges from past missions at PFP. A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 1. In this view various risers and penetrations are shown along with the sludge level depicted by the horizontal line halfway up the tank, and the ground level depicted by the horizontal line above the tank. The HEPA filter installed for breathing is also shown on one of the risers

  9. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 and tank 51 HLW radioactive sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. The high activity radioactive wastes stored as caustic slurries at SRS result from the neutralization of acid waste generated from production of nuclear defense materials. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS, the radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for long term storage and eventual disposal. Before transferring the waste from a storage tank to the DWPF, a portion of the aluminum in the waste sludge will be dissolved and the sludge will be extensively washed to remove sodium. Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges represent the first batch of HLW sludge to be processed in the DWPF. This paper presents results of rheology measurements of Tank 51 and Tank 42 at various solids concentrations. The rheologies of Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive slurries were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco RV-12 with an M150 measuring drive unit and TI sensor system. Rheological properties of the Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges were measured as a function of weight percent solids. The weight percent solids of Tank 42 sludge was 27, as received. Tank 51 sludge had already been washed. The weight percent solids were adjusted by dilution with water or by concentration through drying. At 12, 15, and 18 weight percent solids, the yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge were 5, 11, and 14 dynes/cm2, respectively. The apparent viscosities were 6, 10, and 12 centipoises at 300 sec-1 shear rate, respectively

  10. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks

  11. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation.

  12. Tank 241-AZ-101 criticality assessment resulting from pump jet mixing: Sludge mixing simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.

    1997-04-01

    Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) is one of 28 double-shell tanks located in the AZ farm in the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. The tank contains a significant quantity of fissile materials, including an estimated 9.782 kg of plutonium. Before beginning jet pump mixing for mitigative purposes, the operations must be evaluated to demonstrate that they will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. The main objective of this study was to address a concern about whether two 300-hp pumps with four rotating 18.3-m/s (60-ft/s) jets can concentrate plutonium in their pump housings during mixer pump operation and cause a criticality. The three-dimensional simulation was performed with the time-varying TEMPEST code to determine how much the pump jet mixing of Tank AZ-101 will concentrate plutonium in the pump housing. The AZ-101 model predicted that the total amount of plutonium within the pump housing peaks at 75 g at 10 simulation seconds and decreases to less than 10 g at four minutes. The plutonium concentration in the entire pump housing peaks at 0.60 g/L at 10 simulation seconds and is reduced to below 0.1 g/L after four minutes. Since the minimum critical concentration of plutonium is 2.6 g/L, and the minimum critical plutonium mass under idealized plutonium-water conditions is 520 g, these predicted maximums in the pump housing are much lower than the minimum plutonium conditions needed to reach a criticality level. The initial plutonium maximum of 1.88 g/L still results in safety factor of 4.3 in the pump housing during the pump jet mixing operation

  13. Gravity settling of Hanford single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Rector, D.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to use gravity settling in million-gallon storage tanks while pretreating sludge on the Hanford site. To be considered viable in these large tanks, the supernatant must become clear, and the sludge must be concentrated in an acceptable time. These separations must occur over the wide range of conditions associated with sludge pretreatment. In the work reported here, gravity settling was studied with liter quantities of actual single-shell tank sludge from hanford Tank 241-C-107. Because of limited sludge availability, an approach was developed using the results of these liter-scale tests to predict full-scale operation. Samples were centrifuged at various g-forces to simulate compaction with higher layers of sludge. A semi-empirical settling model was then developed incorporating both the liter-scale settling data and the centrifuge compression results to describe the sludge behavior in a million-gallon tank. The settling model predicted that the compacted sludge solids would exceed 20 wt% in less than 30 days of settling in a 10-m-tall tank for all pretreatment steps

  14. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    projected noble metals content for SB7b. Characterization was performed on the Tank 51 SB7b samples and SRNL performed DWPF simulations using the Tank 40 SB7b material. This report documents: (1) The preparation and characterization of the Tank 51 SB7b and Tank 40 SB7b samples. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the SB7b Tank 40 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a nonradioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and characterization and durability testing (as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT)) of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the SRAT receipt, SRAT product, and SME product. This program was controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R and D) for the DWPF. It should be noted that much of the data in this document has been published in interoffice memoranda. The intent of this technical report is bring all of the SB7b related data together in a single permanent record and to discuss the overall aspects of SB7b processing.

  15. Enhanced sludge reduction in septic tanks by increasing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pussayanavin, Tatchai; Koottatep, Thammarat; Eamrat, Rawintra; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2015-01-01

    Septic tanks in most developing countries are constructed without drainage trenches or leaching fields to treat toilet wastewater and /or grey water. Due to the short hydraulic retention time, effluents of these septic tanks are still highly polluted, and there is usually high accumulation of septic tank sludge or septage containing high levels of organics and pathogens that requires frequent desludging and subsequent treatment. This study aimed to reduce sludge accumulation in septic tanks by increasing temperatures of the septic tank content. An experimental study employing two laboratory-scale septic tanks fed with diluted septage and operating at temperatures of 40 and 30°C was conducted. At steady-state conditions, there were more methanogenic activities occurring in the sludge layer of the septic tank operating at the temperature of 40°C, resulting in less total volatile solids (TVS) or sludge accumulation and more methane (CH4) production than in the unit operating at 30°C. Molecular analysis found more abundance and diversity of methanogenic microorganisms in the septic tank sludge operating at 40°C than at 30°C. The reduced TVS accumulation in the 40°C septic tank would lengthen the period of septage removal, resulting in a cost-saving in desluging and septage treatment. Cost-benefit analysis of increasing temperatures in septic tanks was discussed.

  16. Laboratory testing in-tank sludge washing, summary letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.V.; Torres-Ayala, F.

    1994-09-01

    In-tank washing is being considered as a means of pretreating high-level radioactive waste sludges, such as neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) sludge. For this process, the contents of the tank will be allowed to settle, and the supernatant solution will be decanted and removed. A dilute sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrite wash solution will be added to the settled sludge and the tank contents will be mixed with a mixer pump system to facilitate washing of the sludge. After thorough mixing, the mixer pumps will be shut off and the solids will be allowed to re-settle. After settling, the supernatant solution will be withdrawn from the tank, and the wash cycle will be repeated several times with fresh wash solution. Core sample data of double shell tank 241-AZ-101 indicate that settling of NCAW solids may be very slow. A complicating factor is that strong thermal currents are expected to be generated from heat produced by radionuclides in the sludge layer at the bottom of the tank. Additionally, there are concerns that during the settling period (i.e., while mixing pumps and air-lift re-circulators are shut off), the radionuclides may heat the residual interstitial water in the sludge to the extent that violent steam discharges (steam bumping) could occur. Finally, there are concerns that during the washing steps sludge settling may be hindered as a result of the reduced ionic strength of the wash solution. To overcome the postulated reduced settling rates during the second and third washing steps, the use of flocculants is being considered. To address the above concerns and uncertainties associated with in-tank washing, PNL has conducted laboratory testing with simulant tank waste to investigate settling rates, steam bump potential, and the need for and use of flocculating agents

  17. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention from simulated tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRUMHANSL, JAMES L.; LIU, J.; ARTHUR, SARA E.; HUTCHERSON, SHEILA K.; QIAN, MORRIS; ANDERSON, HOWARD L.

    2000-01-01

    Decommissioning high level nuclear waste tanks will leave small amounts of residual sludge clinging to the walls and floor of the structures. The permissible amount of material left in the tanks depends on the radionuclide release characteristics of the sludge. At present, no systematic process exists for assessing how much of the remaining inventory will migrate, and which radioisotopes will remain relatively fixed. Working with actual sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive. Consequently, methods were developed for preparing sludge simulants and doping them with nonradioactive surrogates for several radionuclides and RCRA metals of concern in actual sludges. The phase chemistry of these mixes was found to be a reasonable match for the main phases in actual sludges. Preliminary surrogate release characteristics for these sludges were assessed by lowering the ionic strength and pH of the sludges in the manner that would occur if normal groundwater gained access to a decommissioned tank. Most of the Se, Cs and Tc in the sludges will be released into the first pulse of groundwater passing through the sludge. A significant fraction of the other surrogates will be retained indefinitely by the sludges. This prolonged sequestration results from a combination coprecipitated and sorbed into or onto relatively insoluble phases such as apatite, hydrous oxides of Fe, Al, Bi and rare earth oxides and phosphates. The coprecipitated fraction cannot be released until the host phase dissolves or recrystallizes. The sorbed fraction can be released by ion exchange processes as the pore fluid chemistry changes. However, these releases can be predicted based on a knowledge of the fluid composition and the surface chemistry of the solids. In this regard, the behavior of the hydrous iron oxide component of most sludges will probably play a dominant role for many cationic radionuclides while the hydrous aluminum oxides may be more important in governing anion releases

  18. Nuclear safety of extended sludge processing on tank 42 and 51 sludge (DWPF sludge feed batch one)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemons, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sludge in tanks 42 and 51 is to be washed with inhibited water to remove soluble salts and combined in tank 51 in preparation for feed to DWPF. Since these tanks contain uranium and plutonium, the process of washing must be evaluated to ensure subcriticality is maintained. When the sludge is washed, inhibited water is added, the tank contents are slurried and allowed to settle. The sludge wash water is then decanted to the evaporator feed tank where it is fed to the evaporator to reduce the volume. The resulting evaporator concentrate is sent to a salt tank where it cools and forms crystallized salt cake. This salt cake will later be dissolved, processed in ITP and sent to Z-Area. This report evaluates the supernate and sludge during washing, the impact on the evaporator during concentration of decanted wash water, and the salt tank where the concentrated supernate is deposited. The conclusions generated in this report are specific to the sludge currently contained in tanks 42 and 51

  19. Assessment of sludges and tank bottoms treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutto, A.W.; Bazmi, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The petroleum refining industries generate considerable amounts of sludge and tank bottoms as waste. Petroleum refinery receives crude oil containing emulsified water and solids. As the crude oil storage tanks are repeatedly filled and emptied, the water and solids settle towards the bottom as sludge. For tanks that have been in service for several years, the sludge accumulation becomes several feet deep, results in a loss of ullage in refinery crude storage tanks. The accumulation of crude storage tank bottoms is a serious problem experienced by local refineries. The refinery sludge waste is categorized as hazardous waste, which is at present buried in the tankform ground. Since the no hazardous material land filling option available, the disposal of these hazardous materials has become a major problem because of the ISO-14000 certification requirements and expectation of stakeholder. To maximize the waste oil recovery from sludge and tank bottoms and to minimize the volume of the hazardous waste, a number of waste recovery and treatment processes are available. The process designs and unit operations of each process are different and each has its own merits, in terms of the technical complexity, operation friendliness, and costs and economics. A study on each of these technologies and the subsequent tide-up to the existing unit operations is conducted, and the associated technical comparisons are made. (author)

  20. Basic and acidic leaching of Melton Valley Storage Tank sludge at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    Basic and acidic leaching tests were conducted with samples of sludge taken from an underground storage tank at the US Department of Energy Melton Valley Storage Tank facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The tests evaluated separation technologies for use in sludge processing to concentrate the radionuclides and reduce the volumes of storage tank waste for final disposal. Study results of sludge characterization, caustic leaching of sludge samples at ambient temperature and at 95 degrees C, and acid leaching of sludge samples at ambient temperature are reported in detail

  1. Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Colton, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are being developed to treat and dispose of large volumes of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The wastes will be partitioned into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. The HLW will be vitrified into borosilicate glass and disposed of in a geologic repository, while the LLW will be immobilized in a glass matrix and will likely be disposed of by shallow burial at the Hanford Site. The wastes must be pretreated to reduce the volume of the HLW fraction, so that vitrification and disposal costs can be minimized. The current baseline process for pretreating Hanford tank sludges is to leach the sludge under caustic conditions, then remove the solubilized components of the sludge by water washing. Tests of this method have been performed with samples taken from several different tanks at Hanford. The results of these tests are presented in terms of the composition of the sludge before and after leaching. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron dispersive x-ray techniques have been used to identify the phases in the untreated and treated sludges

  2. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2000-01-01

    About four or five distinct reprocessing technologies were used at various times in Hanford's history. After removing U and Pu (or later 137Cs and 90Sr), the strongly acidic HLW was ''neutralized'' to high pH (>13) and stored in steel-lined tanks. High pH was necessary to prevent tank corrosion. While each technology produced chemically distinct waste, all wastes were similar in that they were high pH, concentrated, aqueous solutions. Dominant dissolved metals were Fe and/or Al, usually followed by Ni, Mn, or Cr. In an effort to reduce waste volume, many of the wastes were placed in evaporators or allowed to ''self-boil'' from the heat produced by their own radioactive decay. Consequently, today's HLW has been aging at temperatures ranging from 20 to 160 C. Previous studies of synthetic HLW sludge analogues have varied in their exact synthesis procedures and recipes, although each involved ''neutralization'' of acidic nitrate salt solutions by concentrated NaOH. Some recipes included small amounts of Si, SO4 2-, CO3 2-, and other minor chemical components in the Hanford sludges. The work being conducted at the University of Colorado differs from previous studies and from parallel current investigations at Sandia National Laboratories in the simplicity of the synthetic sludge we are investigating. We are emphasizing the dominant role of Fe and Al, and secondarily, the effects of Ni and Si on the aging kinetics of the solid phases in the sludge

  3. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Myers, R.L.; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of 137 Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including 90 Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na 2 O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in 90 Sr

  4. Sludge accumulation and conversion to methane in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    Although the septic tank is the most applied on-site system for wastewater pre-treatment, limited research has been performed to determine sludge accumulation and biogas production in the tank. Therefore a dynamic mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was developed for anaerobic digestion of the accumulated sludge in a septic tank treating domestic wastewater or black water. The results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the tank mainly control the filling time with sludge, while operational temperature governs characteristics of the accumulated sludge and conversion to methane. For obtaining stable sludge and high conversion, the tank needs to be operated for a period more than a year without sludge wasting. Maximum conversion to methane in the tank is about 50 and 60% for domestic wastewater and black water, respectively. The required period for sludge wasting depends on the influent COD concentration and the HRT, while characteristics of the wasted sludge are affected by operational temperature followed by the influent COD concentration and the HRT. Sludge production from the tank ranges between 0.19 to 0.22 and 0.13 to 0.15 L/(person.d), for the domestic wastewater and black water, respectively.

  5. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-01

    transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations

  6. HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

    2008-01-15

    intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

  7. Plant available nitrogen from anaerobically digested sludge and septic tank sludge applied to crops grown in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripanomtanakorn, S; Polprasert, C

    2002-04-01

    Agricultural land is an attractive alternative for the disposal of biosolids since it utilises the recyclable nutrients in the production of crops. In Thailand and other tropical regions, limited field-study information exists on the effect of biosolids management strategies on crop N utilisation and plant available N (PAN) of biosolids. A field study was conducted to quantify the PAN of the applied biosolids, and to evaluate the N uptake rates of some tropical crops. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were chosen in this study. Two types of biosolids used were: anaerobically digested sludge and septic tank sludge. The soil is acid sulfate and is classified as Sulfic Tropaquepts with heavy clay in texture. The anaerobically digested sludge applied rates were: 0, 156 and 312 kg N ha(-1) for the sunflower plots, and 0, 586, and 1172 kg N ha(-1) for the tomato plots. The septic tank sludge applied rates were: 0, 95 and 190 kg N ha(-1) for the sunflower plots, and 0, 354 and 708 kg N ha(-1) for the tomato plots, respectively. The results indicated the feasibility of applying biosolids to grow tropical crops. The applications of the anaerobically digested sludge and the septic tank sludge resulted in the yields of sunflower seeds and tomato fruits and the plant N uptakes comparable or better than that applied with only the chemical fertiliser. The estimated PAN of the anaerobically digested sludge was about 27-42% of the sludge organic N during the growing season. For the septic tank sludge, the PAN was about 15-58% of the sludge organic N. It is interesting to observe that an increase of the rate of septic tank sludge incorporated into this heavy clay soil under the cropping system resulted in the decrease of N mineralisation rate. This situation could cause the reduction of yield and N uptake of crops.

  8. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 HLW radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. At Savannah River Site, Tank 42 sludge represents on of the first HLW radioactive sludges to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The rheological properties of unwashed Tank 42 sludge slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer

  9. Characterization of Settler Tank and KW Container Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-12

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL on February 12, 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

  10. Correlation models for waste tank sludges and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the results of work conducted to support the TEMPEST computer modeling under the Flammable Gas Program (FGP) and to further the comprehension of the physical processes occurring in the Hanford waste tanks. The end products of this task are correlation models (sets of algorithms) that can be added to the TEMPEST computer code to improve the reliability of its simulation of the physical processes that occur in Hanford tanks. The correlation models can be used to augment, not only the TEMPEST code, but other computer codes that can simulate sludge motion and flammable gas retention. This report presents the correlation models, also termed submodels, that have been developed to date. The submodel-development process is an ongoing effort designed to increase our understanding of sludge behavior and improve our ability to realistically simulate the sludge fluid characteristics that have an impact on safety analysis. The effort has employed both literature searches and data correlation to provide an encyclopedia of tank waste properties in forms that are relatively easy to use in modeling waste behavior. These properties submodels will be used in other tasks to simulate waste behavior in the tanks. Density, viscosity, yield strength, surface tension, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, salt solubility, and ammonia and water vapor pressures were compiled for solutions and suspensions of sodium nitrate and other salts (where data were available), and the data were correlated by linear regression. In addition, data for simulated Hanford waste tank supernatant were correlated to provide density, solubility, surface tension, and vapor pressure submodels for multi-component solutions containing sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate

  11. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  12. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, E.G.; Leshikar, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  13. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PORJECT -9225

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed ∼ 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of ∼ 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the 'Status of Chemical

  14. STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, R

    2009-01-06

    The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the &apos

  15. Case study to remove radioactive hazardous sludge from long horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Cummins, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The removal of radioactive hazardous sludge from waste tanks is a significant problem at several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The use of submerged jets produced by mixing pumps lowered into the supernatant/sludge interface to produce a homogeneous slurry is being studied at several DOE facilities. The homogeneous slurry can be pumped from the tanks to a treatment facility or alternative storage location. Most of the previous and current studies with this method are for flat-bottom tanks with vertical walls. Because of the difference in geometry, the results of these studies are not directly applicable to long horizontal tanks such as those used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Mobilization and mixing studies were conducted with a surrogate sludge (e.g., kaolin clay) using submerged jets in two sizes of horizontal tanks. The nominal capacities of these tanks were 0.87 m 3 (230 gal) and 95 m 3 (25,000 gal). Mobilization efficiencies and mixing times were determined for single and bidirectional jets in both tanks with the discharge nozzles positioned at two locations in the tanks. Approximately 80% of the surrogate sludge was mobilized in the 95-m 3 tank using a fixed bidirectional jet (inside diameter = 0.035 m) and a jet velocity of 6.4 m/s (21 ft/s)

  16. Factors influencing suspended solids concentrations in activated sludge settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Pipes, W O

    1999-05-31

    A significant fraction of the total mass of sludge in an activated sludge process may be in the settling tanks if the sludge has a high sludge volume index (SVI) or when a hydraulic overload occurs during a rainstorm. Under those conditions, an accurate estimate of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks is needed in order to calculate the mean cell residence time or to determine the capacity of the settling tanks to store sludge. Determination of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks requires estimation of the average concentration of suspended solids in the layer of sludge (XSB) in the bottom of the settling tanks. A widely used reference recommends averaging the concentrations of suspended solids in the mixed liquor (X) and in the underflow (Xu) from the settling tanks (XSB=0. 5{X+Xu}). This method does not take into consideration other pertinent information available to an operator. This is a report of a field study which had the objective of developing a more accurate method for estimation of the XSB in the bottom of the settling tanks. By correlation analysis, it was found that only 44% of the variation in the measured XSB is related to sum of X and Xu. XSB is also influenced by the SVI, the zone settling velocity at X and the overflow and underflow rates of the settling tanks. The method of averaging X and Xu tends to overestimate the XSB. A new empirical estimation technique for XSB was developed. The estimation technique uses dimensionless ratios; i.e., the ratio of XSB to Xu, the ratio of the overflow rate to the sum of the underflow rate and the initial settling velocity of the mixed liquor and sludge compaction expressed as a ratio (dimensionless SVI). The empirical model is compared with the method of averaging X and Xu for the entire range of sludge depths in the settling tanks and for SVI values between 100 and 300 ml/g. Since the empirical model uses dimensionless ratios, the regression parameters are also dimensionless and the model can be

  17. Hanford Tanks 241-AY-102 and 241-BX-101: Sludge Composition and Contaminant Release Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Deutsch, William J.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Hess, Nancy J.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of testing sludge samples from Hanford tanks 241-AY-102 (AY-102) and 241-BX-101 (BX-101). These tests were conducted to characterize the sludge and assess the water leachability of contaminants from the solids. This work is being conducted to support the tank closure risk assessments being performed by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy. This is the first report of testing of BX-101 sludge and the second report of testing of AY-102. Lindberg and Deutsch (2003) described the first phase of testing on AY-102 material

  18. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Waste tank sludge rheology within a hot spot or during draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.; Cash, R.J.

    1993-11-01

    The conditions under which ferrocyanide waste sludge flows as a homogeneous non-Newtonian two-phase (solid precipitate-liquid) mixture rather than as a liquid through a porous medium (of stationary precipitate) are examined theoretically, based on the notion that the preferred rheological behavior of the sludge is the one which imposes the least resistance to the sludge flow. The homogeneous two-phase mixture is modeled as a power-law fluid and simple criteria are derived that show that the homogeneous power-law sludge-flow is a much more likely flow situation than the porous medium model of sludge flow. The implication of this finding is that the formation of a hot spot or the drainage of sludge from a waste tank are not likely to result in the uncovering (drying) and subsequent potential overheating of the reactive-solid component of the sludge

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE FRACTION OF GIBBSITE AND BOEHMITE FORMS OF ALUMINUM IN TANK 51H SLUDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M; Kofi Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a test to determine the fraction of the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in the sludge solids. Knowledge of the fractions of gibbsite and boehmite in the sludge contained in various waste tanks would facilitate better sludge mass reduction estimates and allow better planning/scheduling for sludge batch preparation. The composite sludge sample prepared for use in the test from several small samples remaining from the original 3-L sample appears to be representative of the original sample based on the characterization data. A Gibbsite/Boehmite Test was developed that uses 8 M NaOH and a temperature of 65 C to dissolve aluminum. The soluble aluminum concentration data collected during the test indicates that, for the three standards containing gibbsite, all of the gibbsite dissolved in approximately 2 hours. Under the test conditions boehmite dissolved at more than an order of magnitude more slowly than gibbsite. An estimate based on the soluble aluminum concentration from the sludge sample at two hours into the test indicates the sludge solids contain a form of aluminum that dissolves at a rate similar to the 100% Boehmite standard. Combined with the XRD data from the original 3-L sample, these results provide substantial evidence that the boehmite form of aluminum predominates in the sludge. A calculation from the results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicates the sludge contains ∼3% gibbsite and ∼97% boehmite. The sludge waste in Tank 51H was recently treated under Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD) conditions and a substantial fraction of aluminum (i.e., sludge mass) was removed, avoiding production of over 100 glass canisters in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicate that the aluminum in this sludge was in the form of the more difficult to dissolve boehmite form of aluminum. Since boehmite may be the dominant form of

  20. Status Report on Phase Identification in Hanford Tank Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, B.M.; Lumetta, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to vitrify Hanford's tank wastes. The vitrified wastes will be divided into low-activity and high-level fractions. There is an effort to reduce the quantity of high-activity wastes by removing nonradioactive components because of the high costs involved in treating high-level waste. Pretreatment options, such as caustic leaching, to selectively remove nonradioactive components are being investigated. The effectiveness of these proposed processes for removing nonradioactive components depends on the chemical phases in the tank sludges. This review summarizes the chemical phases identified to date in Hanford tank sludges

  1. Radioactivity in sludge: tank cleaning procedures and sludge disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry management of alpha-active sludge is made more complex by the presence of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. This presentation discusses the origin of radioactivity in sludge, management of risk in terms of safe working procedures, storage and possible disposal options. The several options will generally involve aspects of dilution or of concentration; issues to be discussed will include sludge farming, bioremediation and incineration. (author)

  2. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both 137 Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report

  3. High level caves rheological studies of tanks 15H, 42H, and 8F sludge/slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of sludge were diluted to varying solids loading with salt-supernate, deionized water or pH 12 solution (0.01M NaOH). Rheological and physical property determinations were made. There was not a large change in rhelogical properties of sludge following aluminum dissolution, and a dissolved solids contribution to yield stress was not observed. The tank 15/42 and GIW-79 sludges had aluminum concentrations from 14 to 28 wt %. The tank 8 and GIW-82 sludges had aluminum concentrations from 6 to 8 wt %. The high aluminum sludges showed a more rapid increase in yield stress as a function of insoluble solids than the low aluminum sludges. The synthetic sludge formulation used in the GIW-79 study was a fairly good match for tank 15/42 sludge and the GIW-82 formulation was a fairly food match for tank 8 sludge when comparing yield stress and consistency relationship to insoluble solids. The tank 15/42 results indicate a yield stress of about 200 dynes/cm 2 at 13 wt % insoluble solids. The tank 8 results show a yield stress of about 80 dynes/cm 2 at 19 wt % insoluble solids. The calculational procedure used yields a conservative upper limit on the value of yield stress. For sludge transfer from F to H-area (30 to 50 dynes/cm 2 ), the tank 8 sludge concentration range was 3 to 18 wt % insoluble solids. For transfer from H to S-area (30 to 100 dynes/cm 2 ), the tank 8 concentration range was 3 to 22 wt % insoluble solids and the tank 15/42 range was found to be 6 to 11 wt % insoluble solids

  4. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code

  5. Characterization and leaching study of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of the 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation processes for use in a comprehensive sludge-processing flow sheet for concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tanks wastes for final disposal. This report discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge. Approximately 5 L of sludge/supernate from MVST W-25 was retrieved and transferred to a stainless steel tank for mixing and storage in a hot cell. Samples were centrifuged to separate the sludge liquid and the sludge solids. Air-dried samples of sludge were analyzed to determine the concentrations of radionuclides, other metals, and anions. Based upon the air-dried weight, about 41% of the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was water. The major alpha-, gamma-, and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were 137 Cs, 60 Co, 154 Eu, 241 Am, 244 Cm, 90 Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and the anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO 3 - , CO 3 2- , OH - , and O 2- . The organic carbon content was 3.0 ± 1.0%. The pH was 13

  6. Characterization and leaching study of sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of the 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation processes for use in a comprehensive sludge-processing flow sheet for concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tanks wastes for final disposal. This report discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge. Approximately 5 L of sludge/supernate from MVST W-25 was retrieved and transferred to a stainless steel tank for mixing and storage in a hot cell. Samples were centrifuged to separate the sludge liquid and the sludge solids. Air-dried samples of sludge were analyzed to determine the concentrations of radionuclides, other metals, and anions. Based upon the air-dried weight, about 41% of the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was water. The major alpha-, gamma-, and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and the anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, OH{sup {minus}}, and O{sub 2{minus}}. The organic carbon content was 3.0 {+-} 1.0%. The pH was 13.

  7. Assessment of alternative management techniques of tank bottom petroleum sludge in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Jamrah, Ahmad; Yaghi, Basma; Taha, Ramzi

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated several options for environmentally acceptable management techniques of tank bottom oily sludge. In particular, we tested the applicability of managing the sludge by three options: (1) as a fuel supplement; (2) in solidification; (3) as a road material. Environmental testing included determination of heavy metals concentration; toxic organics concentration and radiological properties. The assessment of tank bottom sludge as a fuel supplement included various properties such as proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and energy content. Solidified sludge mixtures and road application sludge mixtures were subjected to leaching using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Tank bottom sludge was characterized as having higher concentrations of lead, zinc, and mercury, but lower concentrations of nickel, copper and chromium in comparison with values reported in the literature. Natural occurring radioactive minerals (NORM) activity values obtained on different sludge samples were very low or negligible compared to a NORM standard value of 100 Bq/g. The fuel assessment results indicate that the heating values, the carbon content and the ash content of the sludge samples are comparable with bituminous coal, sewage sludge, meat and bone meal and petroleum coke/coal mixture, but lower than those in car tyres and petroleum coke. The nitrogen content is lower than those fuels mentioned above, while the sulfur content seems comparable with bituminous coal, petroleum coke and a petroleum coke/coal mixture. The apparent lack of leachability of metals from solidification and road material sludge applications suggests that toxic metals and organics introduced to these applications are not readily attacked by weak acid solutions and would not be expected to migrate or dissolved into the water. Thus, in-terms of trace metals and organics, the suggested sludge applications would not be considered hazardous as defined by the TCLP leaching procedure

  8. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options

  9. Grout and vitrification formula development for immobilization of hazardous radioactive tank sludges at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) has been identified as the preferred treatment option for hazardous radioactive sludges, and currently grouting and vitrification are considered the leading candidate S/S technologies. Consequently, a project was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define composition envelopes, or operating windows, for acceptable grout and glass formulations containing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludges. The resulting data are intended to be used as guidance for the eventual treatment of the MVST sludges by the government and/or private sector. Wastewater at ORNL is collected, evaporated, and stored in the MVSTs pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supernate. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating for several years and contain a high amount of radioactivity, with some classified as transuranic (TRU) sludges. The available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge indicates that the Resource and Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be potentially RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges have the potential to be designated as mixed TRU waste. S/S treatment must be performed to remove free liquids and reduce the leach rate of RCRA metals. This paper focuses on initial results for the development of the operating window for vitrification. However, sufficient data on grouting are presented to allow a comparison of the two options.

  10. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  11. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites

  12. Low-pressure hydraulic technique for slurrying radioactive sludges in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.F.; Parsons, F.A.; Goodlett, C.B.; Mobley, R.M.

    1977-11-01

    Present technology for the removal of sludges from radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) requires large volumes of fresh water added through high-pressure (approx.3000 psig) nozzles positioned to resuspend and slurry the sludge. To eliminate the cost of storing and evaporating these large volumes of water (several hundred thousand gallons per tank cleaned), a technique was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to use recirculating, radioactive, supernate solution to resuspend the sludge. The system consists in part of a single-stage centrifugal pump operating in the sludge at approx.100 psia. Recirculating supernate is drawn into the bottom of the pump and forced out through two oppositely directed nozzles to give liquid jets with a sludge-slurrying capability equal to that obtained with the present high-pressure system. In addition to eliminating the addition of large quantities of water to the tanks, the low-pressure recirculating technique requires only approximately one-sixth of the power required by the high-pressure system. Test results with clay (as a simulant for sludge) in a waste tank mockup confirmed theoretical predictions that jets with the same momentum gave essentially the same sludge-slurrying patterns. The effective cleaning radius of the recirculating jet was directly proportional to the product of the nozzle velocity and the nozzle diameter (U 0 D). At the maximum U 0 D developed by the pump (approx.14 ft 2 /s), the effective cleaning radius in the tank mockup was approx.20 feet

  13. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  14. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective

  15. CHEMICAL SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT 8183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaxton, D; Timothy Baughman, T

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Sludge Removal (CSR) is the final waste removal activity planned for some of the oldest nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. In 2008, CSR will be used to empty two of these waste tanks in preparation for final closure. The two waste tanks chosen to undergo this process have previously leaked small amounts of nuclear waste from the primary tank into an underground secondary containment pan. CSR involves adding aqueous oxalic acid to the waste tank in order to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The resultant acidic waste solution is then pumped to another waste tank where it will be neutralized and then stored awaiting further processing. The waste tanks to be cleaned have a storage capacity of 2.84E+06 liters (750,000 gallons) and a target sludge heel volume of 1.89E+04 liters (5,000 gallons) or less for the initiation of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the CSR process and to discuss the most significant technical issues associated with the development of CSR

  16. SLUDGE PARTICLE SEPAPATION EFFICIENCIES DURING SETTLER TANK RETRIEVAL INTO SCS-CON-230

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEARING JI; EPSTEIN M; PLYS MG

    2009-07-16

    The purpose of this document is to release, into the Hanford Document Control System, FA1/0991, Sludge Particle Separation Efficiencies for the Rectangular SCS-CON-230 Container, by M. Epstein and M. G. Plys, Fauske & Associates, LLC, June 2009. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) will retrieve sludge from the 105-K West Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Settler Tanks and transfer it to container SCS-CON-230 using the Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS). The sludge will enter the container through two distributors. The container will have a filtration system that is designed to minimize the overflow of sludge fines from the container to the basin. FAI/09-91 was performed to quantify the effect of the STRS on sludge distribution inside of and overflow out of SCS-CON-230. Selected results of the analysis and a system description are discussed. The principal result of the analysis is that the STRS filtration system reduces the overflow of sludge from SCS-CON-230 to the basin by roughly a factor of 10. Some turbidity can be expected in the center bay where the container is located. The exact amount of overflow and subsequent turbidity is dependent on the density of the sludge (which will vary with location in the Settler Tanks) and the thermal gradient between the SCS-CON-230 and the basin. Attachment A presents the full analytical results. These results are applicable specifically to SCS-CON-230 and the STRS filtration system's expected operating duty cycles.

  17. [Research on change process of nitrosation granular sludge in continuous stirred-tank reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fang-Fang; Liu, Wen-Ru; Wang, Jian-Fang; Wu, Peng; Shen, Yao-Liang

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different types of reactors on the nitrosation granular sludge, a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) was studied, using mature nitrosation granular sludge cultivated in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) as seed sludge. Results indicated that the change of reactor type and influent mode could induce part of granules to lose stability with gradual decrease in sludge settling ability during the initial period of operation. However, the flocs in CSTR achieved fast granulation in the following reactor operation. In spite of the changes of particle size distribution, e. g. the decreasing number of granules with diameter larger than 2.5 mm and the increasing number of granules with diameter smaller than 0.3 mm, granular sludge held the absolute predominance of sludge morphology in CSTR during the entire experimental period. Moreover, results showed that the change of reactor type and influent mode didn't affect the nitrite accumulation rate which was still kept at about 85% in effluent. Additionally, the average activity of the sludge in CSTR was stronger than that of the seed sludge, because the newly generated small particles in CSTR had higher specific reactive activity than the larger granules.

  18. Hydrothermal processing of inorganic components of Hanford tank sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenborg, R.; Buelow, S.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Anderson, G.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Funk, K.; Wilmanns, E.; Knutsen, K.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrothermal Processing (HTP) is an attractive approach for the treatment of Hanford tank sludge. Hydrothermal Processing refers to a waste treatment technique in which an aqueous waste stream is fed through a chemical reactor at elevated temperatures and pressures to effect desired chemical transformations and separations. Transformations such as organic and nitrate destruction and sludge reformulation have been demonstrated at pilot scale using simulants of Hanford tank wastes. At sufficiently high temperatures and pressures organics and nitrates are destroyed in seconds, producing primarily simple products such as CO 3 2- , H 2 O, N 2 , N 2 O and OH - , and sludges are reduced in volume and reformulated as rapid settling oxides amenable to downstream separation, or in some cases reformulated as soluble products. This report describes the hydrothermal dissolution of chromium and chromium oxide; the hydrothermal oxidation of chromium with nitrate; hydrothermal dissolution of aluminum-bearing sludges; the solubility of aluminum compounds in caustic hydrothermal media; experimental techniques for the study of solubility and phase behavior; optical cell studies of basic aluminate solution solubilities; and high temperature, low density salt solubility in the packed-bed flow apparatus

  19. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  20. Effect of enzymes on anaerobic digestion of primary sludge and septic tank performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, James; Örmeci, Banu; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    Enzyme additives are believed to improve septic tank performance by increasing the hydrolysis and digestion rates and maintaining a healthy microbial population. Previous studies reported mixed results on the effectiveness of enzymes on mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, and it is not clear whether enzymes would be effective under septic tank conditions where there is no heating or mixing, quantities of enzymes added are small, and they can be washed out quickly. In this study, batch reactors and continuous-flow reactors designed and operated as septic tanks were used to evaluate whether enzymatic treatment would increase the hydrolysis and digestion rates in primary sludge. Total solids, volatile solids, total suspended solids, total and soluble chemical oxygen demand, concentrations of protein, carbohydrate, ammonia and volatile acids in sludge and effluent samples were measured to determine the differences in digestion rates in the presence and absence of enzymes. Overall, no significant improvement was observed in enzyme-treated reactors compared with the control reactors.

  1. Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development: Results of FY 1993 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Barrington, R.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Carlson, C.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes experimental results from work conducted in FY 1993 under the Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experiments were conducted in the following six general areas: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge leaching, (3) sludge dissolution, (4) actinide separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, (5) Sr separation by solvent extraction, and (6) extraction of Cs from acidic solution

  2. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates

  3. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunker, B.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    'Insoluble colloidal sludges in hazardous waste streams such as tank wastes can pose serious problems for waste processing, interfering with retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification procedures. Properties of sediment layers and sludge suspensions such as slurry viscosities, sedimentation rates, and final sediment densities can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the particle types present, the degree to which the particles agglomerate or stick to each other, and on a wide range of processing parameters such as solution shear rates, pH, salt content, and temperature. The objectives of this work are to: (1) understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions; (2) determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation, and filtration; and (3) develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena. Insoluble colloidal sludges in hazardous waste streams such as tank wastes can pose serious problems for waste processing, interfering with retrieval, transport, separation, and solidification procedures. Properties of sediment layers and sludge suspensions such as slurry viscosities, sedimentation rates, and final sediment densities can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the particle types present, the degree to which the particles agglomerate or stick to each other, and on a wide range of processing parameters such as solution shear rates, pH, salt content, and temperature. The objectives of this work are to: (1) understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions; (2) determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation, and filtration; and (3) develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control

  4. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 42 radioactive sludges. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Bibler, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. At Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 42 sludge represents one of the first HLW radioactive sludges to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The rheological properties of unwashed Tank 42 sludge slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer. Rheological properties of Tank 42 radioactive sludge were measured as a function of weight percent total solids to ensure that the first DWPF radioactive sludge batch can be pumped and processed in the DWPF with the current design bases. The yield stress and consistency of the sludge slurries were determined by assuming a Bingham plastic fluid model

  5. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  6. Overall effect of carbon production and nutrient release in sludge holding tank on mainstream biological nutrient removal efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Pouria; Yuan, Qiuyan; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2017-09-11

    The potential of hydrolysis/fermentation of activated sludge in sludge holding tank (SHT) to produce additional carbon for the biological nutrient removal (BNR) process was investigated. The study was conducted in anaerobic batch tests using the BNR sludge (from a full-scale Westside process) and the mixture of BNR sludge with conventional non-BNR activated sludge (to have higher biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (bpCOD) in sludge). The BioWin 4.1 was used to simulate the anaerobic batch test of the BNR sludge. Also, the overall effect of FCOD production and nutrient release on BNR efficiency of the Westside process was estimated. The experimental results showed that the phosphorous uptake of sludge increased during hydrolysis/ fermentation condition up to the point when poly-P was completely utilized; afterwards, it decreased significantly. The BioWin simulation could not predict the loss of aerobic phosphorous uptake after poly-P was depleted. The results showed that in the case of activated sludge with relatively higher bpCOD (originating from plants with short sludge retention time or without primary sedimentation), beneficial effect of SHT on BNR performance is feasible. In order to increase the potential of SHT to enhance BNR efficiency, a relatively low retention time and high sludge load is recommended.

  7. Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

    2002-09-10

    This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

  8. Chemical characterization of SRP waste tank sludges and supernates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Donnan, M.Y.; Okamoto, B.Y.

    1979-08-01

    Most high-level liquid wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) are byproducts from plutonium and enriched uranium recovery processes. The high-level liquid wastes generated by these separations processes are stored in large, underground, carbon-steel tanks. The liquid wastes consist of: supernate (an aqueous solution containing sodium, nitrate, nitrite, hydroxyl, and aluminate ions), sludge (a gelatinous material containing insoluble components of the waste, such as ferric and aluminum hydroxides, and mercuric and manganese oxides), and salt cake (crystals, such as sodium nitrate, formed by evaporation of water from supernate). Analyses of SRP wastes by laser-Raman spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, spark-source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, colorimetry, ion chromatography, and various other wet-chemical and radiochemical methods are discussed. These analyses are useful in studies of waste tank corrosion and of forms for long-term waste storage

  9. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity

  10. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H

  11. Characterization and decant of Tank 42H sludge sample ESP-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.S.

    2000-04-25

    DWPF Engineering requested that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provide a demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet on sludge from Tank 42H in the Shielded Cell facility. A 5 liter sample of the Tank 42H sludge (ESP-200), obtained with the tank contents fully mixed, arrived at SRTC on January 20, 1998. This report details receipt of the 5 liter sample at SRTC, the decant of the sample, and the characterization of the pre- and post-decant Tank 42H sludge. Evaluation of the measured composition of the supernate indicates Sample ESP-200 became diluted approximately 20 percent by volume prior to receipt. This dilution complicates the relationship of the characterization of Post-Decant ESP-200 to the current contents of Tank 42H. For the purposes of modeling the current tank contents of Tank 42H, this report provides an estimated composition based on analytical data of recent samples from Tank 42H.

  12. Demonstration of the Defense Waste Processing Facility vitrification process for Tank 42 radioactive sludge -- Glass preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Fellinger, T.L.; Marshall, K.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Cozzi, A.D.; Edwards, T.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently processing and immobilizing the radioactive high level waste sludge at SRS into a durable borosilicate glass for final geological disposal. The DWPF has recently finished processing the first radioactive sludge batch, and is ready for the second batch of radioactive sludge. The second batch is primarily sludge from Tank 42. Before processing this batch in the DWPF, the DWPF process flowsheet has to be demonstrated with a sample of Tank 42 sludge to ensure that an acceptable melter feed and glass can be made. This demonstration was recently completed in the Shielded Cells Facility at SRS. An earlier paper in these proceedings described the sludge composition and processes necessary for producing an acceptable melter fee. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of the glass from that demonstration. Results substantiate that Tank 42 sludge after mixing with the proper amount of glass forming frit (Frit 200) can be processed to make an acceptable glass

  13. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S.; Hay, Michael; Zeigler, Kristine; Stone, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of ∼7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low (∼20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the

  14. Final report for Tank 100 Sump sludge (KON332) for polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Final Report for Tank 100 Sump Sludge (KON332) for Polychlorinated Biphenyl's (PCB) Sample Receipt Sample KON332 was received from Tank 100-Sump (WESF) on May 18, 1998. The laboratory number issued for this sample is S98BOO0207 as shown on the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) form (Attachment 4). The sample breakdown diagram (Attachment 3) provides a cross-reference of customer sample identification to the laboratory identification number. Attachment 4 provides copies of the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Chain of Custody (COC) forms. The sample was received in the laboratory in a 125-ml polybottle. Breakdown and subsampling was performed on June 6, 1998. PCB analysis was performed on the wet sludge. A discussion of the results is presented in Attachment 2. The 222-S extraction bench sheets are presented in Attachment 5. The PCB raw data are presented in Attachment 6

  15. Analytical results from Tank 38H criticality Sample HTF-093

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    Resumption of processing in the 242-16H Evaporator could cause salt dissolution in the Waste Concentration Receipt Tank (Tank 38H). Therefore, High Level Waste personnel sampled the tank at the salt surface. Results of elemental analysis of the dried sludge solids from this sample (HTF-093) show significant quantities of neutron poisons (i.e., sodium, iron, and manganese) present to mitigate the potential for nuclear criticality. Comparison of this sample with the previous chemical and radiometric analyses of H-Area Evaporator samples show high poison to actinide ratios

  16. Caustic leaching of composite AZ-101/AZ-102 Hanford tank sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, B.M.; Wagner, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    To reduce the quantity (and hence the cost) of glass canisters needed for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes from the Hanford tank farms, pretreatment processes are needed to remove as much nonradioactive material as possible. This report describes the results of a laboratory-scale caustic leaching test performed on a composite derived from a combination of 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 Hanford Tank sludges. The goals of this FY 1996 test were to evaluate the effectiveness of caustic leaching on removing key components from the sludge and to evaluate the effectiveness of varying the free-hydroxide concentrations by incrementally increasing the free hydroxide concentration of the leach steps up to 3 M free hydroxide. Particle-size analysis of the treated and untreated sludge indicated that the size and range of the sludge particles remained essentially unchanged by the caustic leaching treatment. Both before and after caustic leaching, a particle range of 0.2 microm to 50 microm was observed, with mean particle diameters of 8.5 to 9 microm based on the volume distribution and mean particle diameters of 0.3 to 0.4 microm based on the number distribution

  17. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L., Egan, B.Z., Beahm, E.C., Chase, C.W., Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm {sup 90}Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO{sub 3}{sup -},CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, and O{sup 2-} organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the {sup 137}Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the {sup 137}Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing {sup 137}Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Only 22% of the {sup 137}Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO{sub 3} for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the {sup 137}Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO{sub 3} leaching, and the use of HF with HNO{sub 3} in acidic leaching, increased the rate of {sup 137}Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO{sub 3

  18. Basic and Acidic Leaching of Sludge from Melton Valley Storage Tank W-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Beahm, E.C.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.

    1997-10-01

    Bench-scale leaching tests were conducted with samples of tank waste sludge from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology processes for use in concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volume of waste for final disposal. This paper discusses the hot cell apparatus, the characterization of the sludge, the leaching methodology, and the results obtained from a variety of basic and acidic leaching tests of samples of sludge at ambient temperature. Basic leaching tests were also conducted at 75 and 95 deg C. The major alpha-,gamma., and beta-emitting radionuclides in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids were 137 Cs, 60 Co, 154 Eu, 241 Am, 244 Cm 90 Sr, Pu, U, and Th. The other major metals (in addition to the U and Th) and anions were Na, Ca, Al, K, Mg, NO 3 - ,CO 3 2- , OH - , and O 2- organic carbon content was 3.0 +/- 1.0%. The pH was 13. A surprising result was that about 93% of the 137 Cs in the centrifuged, wet sludge solids was bound in the solids and could not be solubilized by basic leaching at ambient temperature and 75 deg C. However, the solubility of the 137 Cs was enhanced by heating the sludge to 95 deg C. In one of the tests,about 42% of the 137 Cs was removed by leaching with 6.3 M NaOH at 95 deg C.Removing 137 Cs from the W-25 sludge with nitric acid was a slow process. About 13% of the 137 Cs was removed in 16 h with 3.0 M HNO 3 . Only 22% of the 137 Cs was removed in 117 h usi 6.0 M HNO 3 . Successive leaching of sludge solids with 0.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.0 M; and 6.0 M HNO 3 for a total mixing time of 558 h removed 84% of the 137 Cs. The use of caustic leaching prior to HNO 3 leaching, and the use of HF with HNO 3 in acidic leaching, increased the rate of 137 Cs dissolution. Gel formation proved to be one of the biggest problems associated with HNO 3 leaching of the W-25 sludge

  19. Alternative treatment for septic tank sludge: co-digestion with municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfill simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; den Hamer, D; Komboi, J; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-02-01

    Co-disposal of septic tank sludge had a positive effect on the municipal solid waste (MSW) stabilisation process in Bioreactor Landfill simulators. Co-disposal experiments were carried out using the Bioreactor Landfill approach aiming to solve the environmental problems caused by indiscriminate and inadequate disposal of MSW and especially of septic tank sludge. The simulator receiving septic tank sludge exhibited a 200 days shorter lag-phase as compared to the 350 days required by the control simulator to start the exponential biogas production. Additionally, the simulator with septic sludge apparently retained more moisture (>60% w/w), which enhanced the overall conversion of organic matter hence increasing the biogas production (0.60 m3 biogas kg(-1)VS(converted)) and removal efficiency of 60% for VS from the simulator. Alkaline pH values (pH>8.5) did not inhibit the biogas production; moreover it contributed to reduce partially the negative effects of NH(4)(+) (>2 g L(-1)) due to NH(3) volatilisation thus reducing the nitrogen content of the residues. Associated risks and hazards with septage disposal were practically eliminated as total coliform and faecal coliform contents were reduced by 99% and 100%, respectively at the end of the experiment. These results indicate that co-disposal has two direct benefits, including the safe and environmentally sound disposal of septic tank sludge and an improvement of the overall performance of the Bioreactor Landfill by increasing moisture retention and supplying a more acclimatised bacterial population.

  20. Development of an in situ method to define the rheological properties of slurries and sludges stored in underground tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, W.O.

    1987-04-01

    A method for measuring the in situ flow properties of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) sludges has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, along with a preconceptual design for a shear vane device that can be installed in underground HLW storage tanks and used to make those measurements remotely. The data obtained with this device will assist in the design of mixing equipment used to resuspend and remove HLW sludges from their storage tanks for downstream processing. This method is also suitable for remotely characterizing other types of waste sludges and slurries. Commonly available viscometric methods were adapted to allow characterization of sludge samples in the laboratory such that the laboratory and in-tank data can be directly compared (scaled up). Procedures for conducting measurements and analyzing the results in terms of useful mathematical models describing both start-up and steady-state flow behavior are presented, as is a brief tutorial on the types of flow behavior that can be exhibited by tank sludges. 30 refs., 36 figs., 14 tabs

  1. Continuosly Stirred Tank Reactor Parameters That Affect Sludge Batch 6 Simulant Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Fernandez, A.

    2010-01-01

    The High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Sludge in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks was produced over a period of over 60 years by neutralizing the acidic waste produced in the F and H Separations Canyons with sodium hydroxide. The HLW slurries have been stored at free hydroxide concentrations above 1 M to minimize the corrosion of the carbon steel waste tanks. Sodium nitrite is periodically added as a corrosion inhibitor. The resulting waste has been subjected to supernate evaporation to minimize the volume of the stored waste. In addition, some of the waste tanks experienced high temperatures so some of the waste has been at elevated temperatures. Because the waste is radioactive, the waste is transforming through the decay of shorter lived radioactive species and the radiation damage that the decay releases. The goal of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) simulant development program is to develop a method to produce a sludge simulant that matches both the chemical and physical characteristics of the HLW without the time, temperature profile, chemical or radiation exposure of that of the real waste. Several different approaches have been taken historically toward preparing simulated waste slurries. All of the approaches used in the past dozen years involve some precipitation of the species using similar chemistry to that which formed the radioactive waste solids in the tank farm. All of the approaches add certain chemical species as commercially available insoluble solid compounds. The number of species introduced in this manner, however, has varied widely. All of the simulant preparation approaches make the simulated aqueous phase by adding the appropriate ratios of various sodium salts. The simulant preparation sequence generally starts with an acidic pH and ends up with a caustic pH (typically in the 10-12 range). The current method for making sludge simulant involves the use of a temperature controlled continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR

  2. Field study comparing the effect of hydraulic mixing on septic tank performance and sludge accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fares

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of hydraulic mixing on anaerobic digestion and sludge accumulation in a septic tank. The performance of a septic tank equipped with a hydraulic mixer was compared with that of a similar standard septic tank over a period of 10 months. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase-I--from May to November 2013 (6 months); Phase-II--from January to May 2014 (4 months). Hydraulic mixing effectively reduced the effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids, and reduced the sludge accumulation rate in the septic tank. The BOD removal efficiencies during Phase-II were 65% and 75% in the standard septic tank and a septic tank equipped with hydraulic mixer (Smart Digester™), respectively. The effect of hydraulic mixing reduced the rate of sludge accumulation from 0.64 cm/day to 0.27 cm/day, and increased the pump-out interval by a factor of 3.

  3. Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite trademark and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI trademark), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. This is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation

  4. Potential for criticality in Hanford tanks resulting from retrieval of tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Sterne, R.J.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1996-09-01

    This report assesses the potential during retrieval operations for segregation and concentration of fissile material to result in a criticality. The sluicing retrieval of C-106 sludge to AY-102 and the operation of mixer pumps in SY-102 are examined in some detail. These two tanks (C-106, SY-102) were selected because of the near term plans for retrieval of these tanks and their high plutonium inventories relative to other tanks. Although all underground storage tanks are subcritical by a wide margin if assumed to be uniform in composition, the possibility retrieval operations could preferentially segregate the plutonium and locally concentrate it sufficiently to result in criticality was a concern. This report examines the potential for this segregation to occur

  5. Chemical dissolving of sludge from a high level waste tank at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.F.; Hill, A.J. Jr.

    1977-11-01

    The concept for decontamination and retirement of radioactive liquid waste tanks at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) involves hydraulic slurrying to remove most of the settled sludges followed by chemical dissolving of residual sludges. Dissolving tests were carried out with small samples of sludge from SRP Tank 16H. Over 95 percent of the sludge was dissolved by 8 wt percent oxalic acid at 85 0 C with agitation in a two-step dissolving process (50 hours per step) and an initial reagent-to-sludge volume of 20. Oxalic acid does not attack the waste tank material of construction, appears to be compatible with the existing waste farm processes and equipment after neutralization, and with future processes planned for fixation of the waste into a high-integrity solid for packaging and shipping

  6. Grout and Glass Performance in Support of Stabilization/Solidification of the MVST Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Spence, R.D.

    1998-11-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) pending treatment for disposal. The waste separates into two phases: sludge and supematant. Some of the supematant from these tanks has been decanted, solidified into a grout, and stored for disposal as a solid low-level waste. The sludges in the tank bottoms have been accumulating ,for several years. Some of the sludges contain a high amount of gamma activity (e.g., `37CS concentration range of 0.01 3-11 MBq/g) and contain enough transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes to be classified as TRU wastes. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough in the available total constituent analysis for the MVST sludge to be classified as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste.

  7. Characterization of Tank 51 Sludge Slurry Samples (HTF-51-17-67, -68, -69, -74, -75, and -76) in Support of Sludge Batch 10 Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The six Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in August of 2017. These six Tank 51 sludge samples, after undergoing physical characterizations which included rheology, weight percent total solid, dissolved solids and density measurements, were combined into one composite Tank 51 sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids.

  8. Dynamic modeling of sludge compaction and consolidation processes in wastewater secondary settling tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abusam, A.; Keesman, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The double exponential settling model is the widely accepted model for wastewater secondary settling tanks. However, this model does not estimate accurately solids concentrations in the settler underflow stream, mainly because sludge compression and consolidation processes are not considered. In

  9. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-02-28

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing.

  10. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtrations Testing of Ferrocyanide Tank sludge (Group 8) Actual Waste Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Crum, J.V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Peterson, Reid A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report in a series of eight reports defining characterization, leach, and filtration testing of a wide variety of Hanford tank waste sludges. The information generated from this series is intended to supplement the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project understanding of actual waste behaviors associated with tank waste sludge processing through the pretreatment portion of the WTP. The work described in this report presents information on a high-iron waste form, specifically the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge. Iron hydroxide has been shown to pose technical challenges during filtration processing; the ferrocyanide tank waste sludge represented a good source of the high-iron matrix to test the filtration processing

  11. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Zhang, Pengchu; Arthur, Sara E.; Hutcherson, Sheila K.; Liu, J.; Qian, M.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies

  12. Examination of sludge accumulation rates and sludge characteristics for a decentralized community wastewater treatment systems with individual primary clarifier tanks located in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossing, Heather; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-01-01

    In conventional septic systems, settling and partial treatment via anaerobic digestion occurs in the septic tank. One of the byproducts of solids separation in the septic tank is a semi-liquid material known as septage, which must be periodically pumped out. Septage includes the liquid portion within the tank, as well as the sludge that settles at the bottom of the tank and the scum that floats to the surface of the liquid layer. A number of factors can influence septage characteristics, as well as the sludge and scum accumulation rates within the tank. This paper presents the results of a 2007 field sampling study conducted in Wardsville (Ontario, Canada). The field study examined 29 individual residential two-chamber septic tanks in a community serviced by a decentralized wastewater treatment system in operation for approximately 7 years without septage removal. The field investigation provided a comprehensive data set that allowed for statistical analysis of the data to assess the more critical factors influencing solids accumulation rates within each of the clarifier chambers. With this data, a number of predictive models were developed using water usage data for each residence as an explanatory variable.

  13. The reduction of oil pollutants of petroleum products storage-tanks sludge using low-cost adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari-Hosseini Zahra Beagom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of storage tank sludge in oil depots is a major environmental concern due to the high concentration of hydrocarbons involved. This paper investigates the reduction of the sludge oil pollutants with initial oil and grease concentration of about 50 mass% using low cost adsorbents. Among the examined adsorbents, sawdust indicated the maximum removal of oil and grease. The screening and optimizing of process parameters were evaluated employing Plackett-Burman design and response surface method. For the optimized conditions, more than 60 mass% of oil and grease from the sludge was removed. Moreover, it was found that sawdust adsorption of the oil and grease approximately followed the Freundlich isotherm. The results indicated that oil pollutants of sludge could be reduced using sawdust as a low-cost, available and flammable adsorbent so that thus saturated adsorbents could be used as fuel in certain industries.

  14. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge and their impact on waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Bunker, B.C.; Graff, G.L.; Keefer, K.D.; Lea, A.S.; Rector, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes in underground storage tanks is a major remediation activity for the US Department of Energy. These wastes include a substantial volume of insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Processing these sludges under the proposed processing conditions presents unique challenges in retrieval transport, separation, and solidification of these waste streams. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerated networks having high viscosities that could clog transfer lines or produce high volumes of low-density sediments that interfere with solid-liquid separations. Under different conditions, these particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that do not settle. Given the wide range of waste chemistries present at Department of Energy sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all treatment procedures. Under the current research activities, the underlying principles of colloid chemistry and physics are being studied to predict and eventually control the physical properties of sludge suspensions and sediment layers in tank wastes and other waste processing streams. Proposed tank processing strategies include retrieval transport, and solid-liquid separations in basic (pH 10 to 14), high ionic strength (0.1 to 1.0 M) salt solutions. The effect of salt concentration, ionic strength, and salt composition on the physical properties such as viscosity, agglomerate size, and sedimentation of model suspensions containing mixtures of one or two of the major components found in actual wastes have been measured to understand how agglomeration influences processing. Property models developed from theory and experiment on these simple suspensions are then applied to explain the results obtained on actual wastes

  15. Characterization of tank 51 sludge samples (HTF-51-17-44/ HTF-51-17-48) in support of sludge batch 10 processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Engineering (SRR-E) to provide sample characterization and analyses of Tank 51 sludge samples in support of Sludge Batch (SB) 10. The two Tank 51 sludge samples were sampled and delivered to SRNL in May of 2017. These two tank 51 sludge samples were combined into one composite sample and analyzed for corrosion controls analytes, select radionuclides, chemical elements, density and weight percent total solids and aluminum hydroxides (gibbsite and boehmite) by x-ray diffraction.

  16. Effect of micro-aeration on anaerobic digestion of primary sludge under septic tank conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, James; Örmeci, Banu; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2013-04-01

    Micro-aeration, which refers to the addition of very small amounts of air, is a simple technology that can potentially be incorporated in septic tanks to improve the digestion performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of micro-aeration on anaerobic digestion of primary sludge under septic tank conditions. 1.6 L batch reactor experiments were carried out in duplicate using raw primary sludge, with 4.1 % total solids, and diluted primary sludge, with 2.1 % total solids. Reactors were operated for 5 weeks at room temperature to simulate septic tank conditions. Micro-aeration rate of 0.00156 vvm effectively solubilised chemical oxygen demand (COD) and improved the subsequent degradation of COD. Micro-aeration also increased the generation of ammonia and soluble proteins, but did not improve the reduction in total and volatile solids, or the reduction in carbohydrates. Experiments using diluted sludge samples showed similar trends as the experiments with raw sludge, which suggest that initial solids concentration did not have a significant effect on the degradation of primary sludge under septic tank conditions.

  17. Solid-phase characterization in flammable-gas-tank sludges by electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Pederson, L.R.; Qang, L.Q.

    1995-09-01

    The crystallinity, morphology, chemical composition, and crystalline phases of several Tank 241-SY-101 (hereinafter referred to as SY-101) and Tank 241-SY-103 (hereinafter referred to as SY-103) solid samples were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and electron diffraction. The main focus is on the identification of aluminum hydroxide thought to be present in these tank samples. Aluminum hydroxide was found in SY-103, but not in SY-101. This difference can be explained by the different OH/Al ratios found in the two tank samples: a high OH/Al ratio in SY-101 favors the formation of sodium aluminate, but a low OH/Al ratio in SY-103 favors aluminum hydroxide. These results were confirmed by a magnetic resonance study on SY-101 and SY-103 simulant. The transition from aluminum hydroxide to sodium aluminate occurs at an OH/Al molar ratio of 3.6. It is believed that the study of Al(OH) 3 was not affected by sample preparation because all Al(OH) 3 is in the solid form according to the NMR experiments. There is no Al(OH) 3 in the liquid. It is, therefore, most likely that the observation of Al(OH) 3 is representative of the real sludge sample, and is not affected by drying. Similar conclusions also apply to other insoluble phases such as iron and chromium

  18. Influence of secondary settling tank performance on suspended solids mass balance in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, M; Kainz, H; Hunze, M; Józsa, J

    2012-05-01

    Secondary settling is the final step of the activated sludge-based biological waste water treatment. Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are therefore an essential unit of producing a clear effluent. A further important function of SSTs is the sufficient thickening to achieve highly concentrated return sludge and biomass within the biological reactor. In addition, the storage of activated sludge is also needed in case of peak flow events (Ekama et al., 1997). Due to the importance of a high SST performance the problem has long been investigated (Larsen, 1977; Krebs, 1991; Takács et al., 1991; Ekama et al., 1997; Freimann, 1999; Patziger et al., 2005; Bürger et al., 2011), however, a lot of questions are still to solve regarding e.g. the geometrical features (inflow, outflow) and operations (return sludge control, scraper mechanism, allowable maximum values of surface overflow rates). In our study we focused on SSTs under dynamic load considering both the overall unsteady behaviour and the features around the peaks, investigating the effect of various sludge return strategies as well as the inlet geometry on SST performance. The main research tool was a FLUENT-based novel mass transport model consisting of two modules, a 2D axisymmetric SST model and a mixed reactor model of the biological reactor (BR). The model was calibrated and verified against detailed measurements of flow and concentration patterns, sludge settling, accompanied with continuous on-line measurement of in- and outflow as well as returned flow rates of total suspended solids (TSS) and water. As to the inlet arrangement a reasonable modification of the geometry could result in the suppression of the large scale flow structures of the sludge-water interface thus providing a significant improvement in the SST performance. Furthermore, a critical value of the overflow rate (q(crit)) was found at which a pronounced large scale circulation pattern develops in the vertical plane, the density current in

  19. Optimization and control of the activated sludge process by adaptation of aeration tank volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staud, R

    1982-04-01

    Purpose of full scale studies conducted at a municipal wastewater treatment plant at Schwetzingen, Germany, was to optimize the activated sludge treatment process. Influent loading fluctuations were answered by operating a distinct number of the four parallel treatment plant units (aeration tank/clarifier) present. During the intermediate period of time the aerators were also switched off, and the activated sludge was kept anaerobically. The purpose of this particular technique is to equalize the nutrient supply of the microorganisms to gain an improved metabolic potential, as well as to decrease the energy demand for aeration. A mathematical algorithm for process control was developed to accomplish this technique. Initial parameters are inflow rate, MLSS and plateau-BOD to evaluate the substrate concentration. The results of the full scale studies prove the practicability of this concept. Equalization of the F:M ratio fluctuations leads to an increase of the average substrate loading but not to any decrease in the overall process efficiency. Anaerobic sludge storage did not cause any problem. Odor problems could be handled by limitation of the storage period to 24 hours. As far as energy consumption for aeration is concerned a decrease by 47% percent could be achieved.

  20. Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.

  1. Decision analysis for mobilizing and retrieving sludge from double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.J.; Williams, N.C.; Dukelow, J.S.; Hansen, R.I.

    1997-09-01

    This decision analysis evaluates alternative technologies for the initial mobilization and retrieval of sludges in double-shell tanks (DSTs). The analysis is from the perspective of the need to move sludges from one DST to another for interim retrieval. It supports the more general decision of which technologies to use to retreive various types of DST waste. The initial analysis is from the perspective of a typical DST with 2 ft of sludge to mobilize. During the course of the analysis, it became clear that it was important to also consider sludge mobilization in support of the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification demonstration plant, and in particular the risks associated with failing to meeting the minimum order requirements for the vendor, as well as the cost of mobilization and retrieval from the HLW vitrification source tanks

  2. Criticality safety evaluation of disposing of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation is made of the disposal of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank (DST) AW-105 located in the 200 east area of Hanford Site. The technical basis is provided for limits and controls to be used in the development of a criticality prevention specification (CPS). A model of K Basin sludge is developed to account for fuel burnup. The iron/uranium mass ration required to ensure an acceptable magrin of subcriticality is determined

  3. Characterization of the tank 51 alternate reductant sludge batch 9 slurry sample (HTF-51-15-130)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    Tank 51 slurry sample HTF-51-15-130 was collected following sludge washing at the Tank Farm. The sample was received at SRNL and then characterized in preparation for qualification of the alternate reductant Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) flowsheet. In this characterization, densities, solids distribution, elemental constituents, anionic constituents, carbon content, and select radioisotopes were quantified.

  4. The dissolution of metal decontamination sludges stored in tanks and their management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopowicz, R.A.; Phillips, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The decontamination of stainless steel components is accomplished by the use of alkaline permanganate solutions, followed by an application of solutions of complexing agents such as citric acid or oxalic acid. Spent decontamination solutions comprising residues from both steps were combined in several waste storage tanks, where they have been in storage for several years. In those tanks, a reaction between residual permanganate and unreacted complexing agents produced sludges, consisting mainly of manganese dioxide, that reside in the tanks along with supernatant liquid. In a campaign that was conducted a few years ago, the accumulated waste solution was partially treated and disposed. This treatment consisted of decanting only the supernatant liquid and transporting it to a liquid waste treatment facility that employed a Thin Film Evaporator (TFE) to concentrate the liquid and ultimately produce a bitumen-encapsulated solidified waste form for storage. A study of treatment options for the remaining sludge is reported here. The requirement was to determine a simple means of treating the sludge using existing routine processes and equipment. This will be a significant step toward the decommissioning of the decontamination waste storage tanks. The available equipment at the liquid waste treatment facility was not designed to process sludge or slurries containing a large volume fraction of solids. Laboratory testing was carried out to find a means of dissolving the decontamination waste sludges, preferably in situ, and filtering undissolved solids to meet the feed requirements of the TFE in the liquid waste treatment facility. A concentrated citric acid solution was applied to sludge samples, without the use of externally applied mixing of the reagent and sludge. In all of the samples of actual decontamination waste sludge that were tested, a quantity of undissolved material remained after treatment with citric acid. The quantities were relatively small in volume, and

  5. The dissolution of metal decontamination sludges stored in tanks and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopowicz, R.A.; Phillips, B.

    2011-01-01

    The decontamination of stainless steel components is accomplished by the use of alkaline permanganate solutions, followed by an application of solutions of complexing agents such as citric acid or oxalic acid. Spent decontamination solutions comprising residues from both steps were combined in several waste storage tanks, where they have been in storage for several years. In those tanks, a reaction between residual permanganate and unreacted complexing agents produced sludges, consisting mainly of manganese dioxide, that reside in the tanks along with supernatant liquid. In a campaign that was conducted a few years ago, the accumulated waste solution was partially treated and disposed. This treatment consisted of decanting only the supernatant liquid and transporting it to a liquid waste treatment facility that employed a Thin Film Evaporator (TFE) to concentrate the liquid and ultimately produce a bitumen-encapsulated solidified waste form for storage. A study of treatment options for the remaining sludge is reported here. The requirement was to determine a simple means of treating the sludge using existing routine processes and equipment. This will be a significant step toward the decommissioning of the decontamination waste storage tanks. The available equipment at the liquid waste treatment facility was not designed to process sludge or slurries containing a large volume fraction of solids. Laboratory testing was carried out to find a means of dissolving the decontamination waste sludges, preferably in situ, and filtering undissolved solids to meet the feed requirements of the TFE in the liquid waste treatment facility. A concentrated citric acid solution was applied to sludge samples, without the use of externally applied mixing of the reagent and sludge. In all of the samples of actual decontamination waste sludge that were tested, a quantity of undissolved material remained after treatment with citric acid. The quantities were relatively small in volume, and

  6. Tank 50H Tetraphenylborate Destruction Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted several scoping tests with both Tank 50H surrogate materials (KTPB and phenol) as well as with actual Tank 50H solids. These tests examined whether we could destroy the tetraphenylborate in the surrogates or actual Tank 50H material either by use of Fenton's Reagent or by hydrolysis (in Tank 50H conditions at a maximum temperature of 50 degrees C) under a range of conditions. The results of these tests showed that destruction of the solids occurred only under a minority of conditions. (1)Using Fenton's Reagent and KTPB as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at pH ranges greater than 9. (2)Using Fenton's Reagent and phenol as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at a pH of 14. (3)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, a reaction occurred at a pH of 9.5 in the presence of ECC additives. (4)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, after a thirty three day period, all attempts at hydrolysis (at pH 14) were too slow to be viable. This happened even in the case of higher temperature (50 degrees C) and added (100 ppm) copper. Tank 50H is scheduled to return to HLW Tank Farm service with capabilities of transferring and receiving salt supernate solutions to and from the Tank Farms and staging feed for the Saltstone Facility. Before returning Tank 50H to Tank Farm service as a non-organic tank, less than 5 kg of TPB must remain in Tank 50H. Recently, camera inspections in Tank 50H revealed two large mounds of solid material, one in the vicinity of the B5 Riser Transfer Pump and the other on the opposite side of the tank. Personnel sampled and analyzed this material to determine its composition. The sample analysis indicated presence of a significant quantity of organics in the solid material. This quantity of organic material exceeds the 5 kg limit for declaring only trace amounts of organic material remain in Tank 50H. Additionally, these large volumes of solids, calculated as approximately 61K gallons, present other

  7. SLUDGE BATCH 5 ACCEPTANCE EVALUATION RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN TANK 51 SB5 QUALIFICATION SAMPLE PREPARED AT SRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

    2008-01-01

    transferred to SRNL for measurement of these radionuclides. Data presented in this report represents the measured or estimated radionuclide concentrations obtained from several standard and special analytical methods performed by Analytical Development (AD) personnel within SRNL. The method for I-129 measurement in sludge is described in detail. Most of these methods were performed on solutions resulting from the dissolutions of the slurry samples. Concentrations are given for twenty-nine radionuclides along with total alpha and beta activity. Values for total gamma and total gamma plus beta activities are also calculated. Results also indicate that 98% of the Tc-99 and 92% of the I-129 that could have been in this sludge batch have been removed by chemical processing steps in the SRS Canyons or Tank Farm

  8. Technology study of Gunite tank sludge mobilization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J.R.; Herrick, T.J.; Lott, K.E.

    1994-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Tank Sludge Mobilization Technology Study was initiated to support the Gunite Tank Treatability Study effort. The technology study surveyed the methods and technologies available for tank cleaning and sludge mobilization in a radioactive environment. Technologies were identified and considered for applicability to the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) problems. These were then either accepted for further study or rejected as not applicable. Technologies deemed applicable to the GAAT sludge removal project were grouped for evaluation according to (1) deployment method, (2) types of remotely operated end effector equipment applicable to removal of sludge, (3) methods for removing wastes from the tanks, and (4) methods for concrete removal. There were three major groups of deployment technologies: ``past practice`` technologies, mechanical arm-based technologies, and vehicle-based technologies. The different technologies were then combined into logical sequences of deployment platform, problem, end effector, conveyance, post-removal treatment required (if any), and disposition of the waste. Many waste removal options are available, but the best technology in one set of circumstances at one site might not be the best type to use at a different site. No single technology is capable of treating the entire spectrum of wastes that will be encountered in GAAT. None of the systems used in other industries appears to be suitable, primarily because of the nature of the sludges in the GAAT Operable Unit (OU), their radiation levels, and tank geometries. Other commercial technologies were investigated but rejected because the authors did not believe them to be applicable.

  9. Technology study of Gunite tank sludge mobilization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, J.R.; Herrick, T.J.; Lott, K.E.

    1994-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Tank Sludge Mobilization Technology Study was initiated to support the Gunite Tank Treatability Study effort. The technology study surveyed the methods and technologies available for tank cleaning and sludge mobilization in a radioactive environment. Technologies were identified and considered for applicability to the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) problems. These were then either accepted for further study or rejected as not applicable. Technologies deemed applicable to the GAAT sludge removal project were grouped for evaluation according to (1) deployment method, (2) types of remotely operated end effector equipment applicable to removal of sludge, (3) methods for removing wastes from the tanks, and (4) methods for concrete removal. There were three major groups of deployment technologies: ''past practice'' technologies, mechanical arm-based technologies, and vehicle-based technologies. The different technologies were then combined into logical sequences of deployment platform, problem, end effector, conveyance, post-removal treatment required (if any), and disposition of the waste. Many waste removal options are available, but the best technology in one set of circumstances at one site might not be the best type to use at a different site. No single technology is capable of treating the entire spectrum of wastes that will be encountered in GAAT. None of the systems used in other industries appears to be suitable, primarily because of the nature of the sludges in the GAAT Operable Unit (OU), their radiation levels, and tank geometries. Other commercial technologies were investigated but rejected because the authors did not believe them to be applicable

  10. Treatment aerobic conjugate of sludges of septic tanks and household organic solid wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Barbosa da Silva Feitosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed at to evaluate the co-composting as technological alternative to the treatment of sludges of septic tanks with household organic solid wastes originating from cities of small and medium loads. The sludges and the domiciliary organic solid waste were collected in Cabaceiras, Caraúbas and Queimadas, state of Paraíba. The experiment consisted of four treatments with three repetitions, totaling 12 reactors, of cylindrical configuration in polyethylene of 100 L of capacity. Each reactor was fed with 50 kg substratum with variable composition in function of the sludge fraction: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The manual turning was accomplished three times a week and the temperature was monitored daily. The total destruction of helminth eggs in period differentiated in function of the sludges fraction (14, 28, 35 and 63 days and the medium transformation of 54.1% of sludges in biosolids class A and class B, with favorable characteristics to the use in agricultural cultures in 91 days, expressed the viability of the treatment for co-composting of sludges of tanks septic multichamber of collective use for the cities of small and medium load.

  11. Candidate reagents and procedures for the dissolution of Hanford Site single-shell tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    At least some of the waste in the 149 single-shell tanks (SST) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be retrieved, treated, and disposed of. Although the importance of devising efficient and cost-effective sludge dissolution procedures has long been recognized, a concerted bench-scale effort to devise and test such procedures with actual solids representative of those in Hanford Site SSTs has not been performed. Reagents that might be used, either individually or serially, to dissolve sludges include HNO 3 , HNO 3 -oxalic acid, and HNO 3 -HF. This report consolidates and updates perspectives and recommendations concerning reagents and procedures for dissolving Hanford Site SST and selected double-shell tank (DST) sludges. The principal objectives of this report are as follows: (1) Compile and review existing experimental data on dissolution of actual Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. (2) Further inform Hanford Site engineers and scientists concerning the utility of combinations of thermally unstable complexants (TUCS) reagents and various reducing agents for dissolving SST and DST sludges. (This latter technology has recently been explored at the Argonne National Laboratory.) (3) Provide guidance in laying out a comprehensive experimental program to develop technology for dissolving all types of Hanford Site SST and DST sludges. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Dynamic modeling of sludge compaction and consolidation processes in wastewater secondary settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusam, A; Keesman, K J

    2009-01-01

    The double exponential settling model is the widely accepted model for wastewater secondary settling tanks. However, this model does not estimate accurately solids concentrations in the settler underflow stream, mainly because sludge compression and consolidation processes are not considered. In activated sludge systems, accurate estimation of the solids in the underflow stream will facilitate the calibration process and can lead to correct estimates of particularly kinetic parameters related to biomass growth. Using principles of compaction and consolidation, as in soil mechanics, a dynamic model of the sludge consolidation processes taking place in the secondary settling tanks is developed and incorporated to the commonly used double exponential settling model. The modified double exponential model is calibrated and validated using data obtained from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Good agreement between predicted and measured data confirmed the validity of the modified model.

  13. Caustic Leaching of SRS Tank 12H Sludge With and Without Chelating Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure the effect of adding triethanolamine (TEA) to caustic leaching solutions to improve the solubility of aluminum in actual tank-waste sludge. High-level radioactive waste sludge that had a high aluminum assay was used for the tests. This waste, which originated with the processing of aluminum-clad/aluminum-alloy fuels, generates high levels of heat because of the high 90 Sr concentration and contains hard-to-dissolve boehmite phases. In concept, a chelating agent, such as TEA, can both improve the dissolution rate and increase the concentration in the liquid phase. For this reason, TEA could also increase the solubility of other sludge components that are potentially problematic to downstream processing. Tests were conducted to determine if this were the case. Because of its relatively high vapor pressure, process design should include methods to minimize losses of the TEA. Sludge was retrieved from tank 12H at the Savannah River Site by on-site personnel, and then shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the study. The sludge contained a small quantity of rocky debris. One slate-like flat piece, which had approximate dimensions of 1 1/4 x 1/2 x 1/8 in., was recovered. Additional gravel-like fragments with approximate diameters ranging from 1/8 to 1/4 in. were also recovered by sieving the sludge slurry through a 1.4-mm square-pitch stainless steel mesh. These particles ranged from a yellow quartz-like material to grey-colored gravel. Of the 32.50 g of sludge received, the mass of the debris was only 0.89 g, and the finely divided sludge comprised ∼97% of the mass. The sludge was successfully subdivided into uniform aliquots during hot-cell operations. Analytical measurements confirmed the uniformity of the samples. The smaller sludge samples were then used as needed for leaching experiments conducted in a glove box. Six tests were performed with leachate concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3.0 m NaOH, 0 to 3

  14. Innovative tank emptying system for the retrieval of salt, sludge and IX resins from storage tanks of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Froschauer; Holger Witing; Bernhard Christ

    2006-01-01

    RWE NUKEM recently developed a new Tank Emptying System (TESY) for the extraction of stored radioactive boric acid/borate salt blocks, sludge and IX resin from NPP stainless steel tanks of several hundred cubic meters content in Russia. RWE NUKEM has chosen the emptying concept consisting of a tracked submersible vehicle ('Crawler'), with jet nozzles for solution, agitation and fluidization, and a suction head to pick up the generated solution or suspension respectively. With the employment of RWE NUKEM's TESY system, spent radioactive salt deposits, ion-exchange resins and sludge, can be emptied and transferred out of the tank. The sediment, crystallized and settled during storage, will be agitated with increased temperature and suitable pH value and then picked up in form of a suspension or solution directly at the point of mobilization. This new Tank Emptying System concept enables efficiently to retrieve stored salt and other sediment waste, reduces operating time, safes cost for spare parts, increases the safety of operation and minimizes radiation exposure to personnel. All emptying tasks are performed remotely from a panel board and TV monitor located in a central control room. The TESY system consists of the following main components: glove box, crawler, submersible pump, heater, TV camera and spot light, control panel and monitor, water separation and feed unit, sodium hydroxide dosing unit. The system is specially requested for the removal of more than 2,500 cubic meter salt solution generated from the dissolution of some 300 cubic meter crystallized salt deposit per tank and per year. The TESY system is able to dissolve efficiently the salts and retrieve solutions and other liquefied suspensions. TESY is adaptable to all liquid waste storage facilities and especially deployable for tanks with limited access openings (<550 mm)

  15. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition. Transition metal hydroxide sludge contains strong passivating species for carbon steel. Washed precipitate contains organic species that lower solution pH and tend to reduce passivating films, requiring higher inhibitor concentrations than the 0.01 molar nitrite required for reactor fuel reprocessing wastes. Periodic agitation, to keep the organic phase suspended, or cathodic protection are possible alternatives to higher nitrite inhibitor concentrations

  16. Selective Leaching of Chromium from Hanford Tank Sludge 241-U-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the oxidants permanganate, MnO4-, and peroxynitrite, ONOO-, as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed 241-U-108 tank sludge under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time. The mass changes and final sludge compositions were evaluated using glass-property models to ascertain the relative impacts of the various oxidative alkaline leach conditions on the amount of borosilicate glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 Hanford tank sludge. Only permanganate leaching removes sufficient chromium to make the chromium concentration in the oxidatively alkaline leached solids non-limiting. In the absence of added oxidants, continued washing or caustic leaching have no beneficial effects. Peroxynitrite addition reduces the amount of glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 tank sludge by approximately a factor of two. Depending on the leach conditions and the exact chromium concentration limits, contact with alkaline permanganate solutions reduces the amount of immobilized high-level waste glass by a factor of 10 to 30

  17. Selective Leaching of Chromium from Hanford Tank Sludge 241-U-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-09-09

    This study evaluated the oxidants permanganate, MnO4-, and peroxynitrite, ONOO-, as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed 241-U-108 tank sludge under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time. The mass changes and final sludge compositions were evaluated using glass-property models to ascertain the relative impacts of the various oxidative alkaline leach conditions on the amount of borosilicate glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 Hanford tank sludge. Only permanganate leaching removes sufficient chromium to make the chromium concentration in the oxidatively alkaline leached solids non-limiting. In the absence of added oxidants, continued washing or caustic leaching have no beneficial effects. Peroxynitrite addition reduces the amount of glass required to immobilize a given amount of washed 241-U-108 tank sludge by approximately a factor of two. Depending on the leach conditions and the exact chromium concentration limits, contact with alkaline permanganate solutions reduces the amount of immobilized high-level waste glass by a factor of 10 to 30.

  18. CHEMICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SLUDGE SOLIDS AT THE F AND H AREA TANK FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.

    2012-08-29

    and HTF samples indicated that the primary crystalline compounds of iron in sludge solids are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and FeO(OH), and the primary crystalline compounds of aluminum are Al(OH){sub 3} and AlO(OH). Also identified were carbonate compounds of calcium, magnesium, and sodium; a nitrated sodium aluminosilicate; and various uranium compounds. Consistent with expectations, oxalate compounds were identified in solids associated with oxalic acid cleaning operations. The most likely oxidation states and chemical forms of technetium are assessed in the context of solubility, since technetium-99 is a key risk driver from an environmental fate and transport perspective. The primary oxidation state of technetium in SRS sludge solids is expected to be Tc(IV). In salt waste, the primary oxidation state is expected to be Tc(VII). The primary form of technetium in sludge is expected to be a hydrated technetium dioxide, TcO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O, which is relatively insoluble and likely co-precipitated with iron. In salt waste solutions, the primary form of technetium is expected to be the very soluble pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. The relative differences between the F and H Tank Farm waste provide a basis for anticipating differences that will occur as constituents of FTF and HTF waste residue enter the environment over the long-term future. If a constituent is significantly more dominant in one of the Tank Farms, its long-term environmental contribution will likely be commensurately higher, assuming the environmental transport conditions of the two Tank Farms share some commonality. It is in this vein that the information cited in this document is provided - for use during the generation, assessment, and validation of Performance Assessment modeling results.

  19. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  20. EXPECTED IMPACT OF HANFORD PROCESSING ORGANICS OF PLUTONIUM DURING TANK WASTE SLUDGE RETRIEVAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.; WINTERS, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    This document evaluates the potential for extracting plutonium from Hanford waste tanks into residual organic solvents and how this process may have an impact on criticality specifications during the retrieval of wastes. The two controlling factors for concentrating plutonium are the solubility of the plutonium in the wastes and the extraction efficiency of the potential organic extractants that may be found in these wastes. Residual Hanford tank sludges contain plutonium in solid forms that are expected to be primarily insoluble Pu(IV) hydroxides. Evaluation of thermodynamic Pourbaix diagrams, documentation on solubility studies of various components in waste tank matrices, and actual analysis of plutonium in tank supernates all indicate that the solubility of Pu in the alkaline waste is on the order of 10 -6 M. Based on an upper limit plutonium solubility of 10 -5 M in high pH and a conservative distribution coefficient for organic extractants of a 0 for plutonium in 30% TBP at 0.07 M HNO 3 ), the estimated concentration for plutonium in the organic phase would be -7 M. This is well below the process control criteria. A significant increase in plutonium solubility or the E a o would have to occur to raise this concentration to the 0.01 M concern level for organics. Measured tank chemical component values, expected operating conditions, and the characteristics of the expected chemistry and extraction mechanisms indicate that concentration of plutonium from Hanford tank residual sludges to associated process organic extractants is significantly below levels of concern

  1. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  2. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0

  3. Production of hydrogen in a granular sludge-based anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow [Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhang, Zhen-Peng; Tay, Joo-Hwa [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 637723 (Singapore); Tee Liang, David [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 637723 (Singapore); Lee, Duu-Jong [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, RO (China); Jiang, Wen-Ju [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2007-12-15

    An investigation on biohydrogen production was conducted in a granular sludge-based continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The reactor performance was assessed at five different glucose concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L and four hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h, resulting in the organic loading rates (OLRs) ranged between 2.5 and 20 g-glucose/L h. Carbon flow was traced by analyzing the composition of gaseous and soluble metabolites as well as the cell yield. Butyrate, acetate and ethanol were found to be the major soluble metabolite products in the biochemical synthesis of hydrogen. Carbon balance analysis showed that more than half of the glucose carbon was converted into unidentified soluble products at an OLR of 2.5 g-glucose/L h. It was found that high hydrogen yields corresponded to a sludge loading rate in between 0.6 and 0.8 g-glucose/g-VSS h. Substantial suppression in hydrogen yield was noted as the sludge loading rate fell beyond the optimum range. It is deduced that decreasing the sludge loading rate induced the metabolic shift of biochemical reactions at an OLR of 2.5 g-glucose/L h, which resulted in a substantial reduction in hydrogen yield to 0.36-0.41 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose. Optimal operation conditions for peak hydrogen yield (1.84 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose) and hydrogen production rate (3.26 L/L h) were achieved at an OLR of 20 g-glucose/L h, which corresponded to an HRT of 0.5 h and an influent glucose concentration of 10 g/L. Influence of HRT and substrate concentration on the reactor performance was interrelated and the adverse impact on hydrogen production was noted as substrate concentration was higher than 20 g/L or HRT was shorter than 0.5 h. The experimental study indicated that a higher OLR derived from appropriate HRTs and substrate concentrations was desirable for hydrogen production in such a granule-based CSTR. (author)

  4. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher [Wastren Advantage, Inc., Transuranic Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road, Lenoir City, Tennessee 37771 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct

  5. Transuranic Waste Processing Center (TWPC) Legacy Tank RH-TRU Sludge Processing and Compliance Strategy - 13255

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Ben C.; Heacker, Fred K.; Shannon, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to safely and efficiently treat its 'legacy' transuranic (TRU) waste and mixed low-level waste (LLW) from past research and defense activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) so that the waste is prepared for safe and secure disposal. The TWPC operates an Environmental Management (EM) waste processing facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The TWPC is classified as a Hazard Category 2, non-reactor nuclear facility. This facility receives, treats, and packages low-level waste and TRU waste stored at various facilities on the ORR for eventual off-site disposal at various DOE sites and commercial facilities. The Remote Handled TRU Waste Sludge held in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) was produced as a result of the collection, treatment, and storage of liquid radioactive waste originating from the ORNL radiochemical processing and radioisotope production programs. The MVSTs contain most of the associated waste from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the ORNL's Tank Farms in Bethel Valley and the sludge (SL) and associated waste from the Old Hydro-fracture Facility tanks and other Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) tanks. The SL Processing Facility Build-outs (SL-PFB) Project is integral to the EM cleanup mission at ORNL and is being accelerated by DOE to meet updated regulatory commitments in the Site Treatment Plan. To meet these commitments a Baseline (BL) Change Proposal (BCP) is being submitted to provide continued spending authority as the project re-initiation extends across fiscal year 2012 (FY2012) into fiscal year 2013. Future waste from the ORNL Building 3019 U-233 Disposition project, in the form of U-233 dissolved in nitric acid and water, down-blended with depleted uranyl nitrate solution is also expected to be transferred to the 7856 MVST Annex Facility (formally the Capacity Increase Project (CIP) Tanks) for co-processing with the SL. The SL-PFB project will construct and install

  6. Radiological assessment of worker doses during sludge mobilization and removal at the Melton Valley storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Coleman, R.L.; Kocher, D.C.; Wynn, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of potential radiation doses to workers during mobilization and removal of contaminated sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The assessment is based on (1) measurements of radionuclide concentrations in sludge and supernatant liquid samples from the waste storage tanks, (2) measurements of gamma radiation levels in various areas that will be accessed by workers during normal activities, (3) calculations of gamma radiation levels for particular exposure situations, especially when the available measurements are not applicable, and (4) assumed scenarios for worker activities in radiation areas. Only doses from external exposure are estimated in this assessment. Doses from internal exposure are assumed to be controlled by containment of radioactive materials or respiratory protection of workers and are not estimated

  7. Pathogen reduction in septic tank sludge through vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Canché, L G; Cardoso Vigueros, L; Maldonado-Montiel, T; Martínez-Sanmiguel, M

    2010-05-01

    This study evaluated the potential of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to remove pathogens from the sludge from septic tanks. Three earthworm population densities, equivalent to 1, 2, and 2.5kgm(-2), were tested for pathogen removal from sludge. The experimental phase lasted 60days, starting from the initial earthworm inoculation. After 60days, it was found that earthworms reduced concentrations of fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and helminth ova to permissible levels (<1000MPN/g, <3MPN/g, and <1viable ova/g on a dry weight basis, respectively) in accordance with Official Mexican Standard of environmental protection (NOM-004-SEMARNAT-2002) (SEMARNAT, 2002). Thus, sludge treatment with earthworms generated Class A biosolids, useful for forest, agricultural, and soil improvement. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Process Development for Permanganate Addition During Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tanks Sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.; Peterson, Reid A.; Blanchard, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI)-sponsored studies have targeted optimizing sodium permanganate for the selective oxidation of chromium from washed Hanford tank sludges (Rapko et al. 2004; Rapko et al. 2005). The recommendation from previous work was that contact with sodium permanganate in a minimally caustic solution, i.e., 0.1 to 0.25 M [OH-] initially, provided maximum Cr dissolution while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution. At the request of BNI, further work on oxidative alkaline leaching was performed

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 340-A building tank sludge clean out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060 and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96 for the removal of sludge from six storage tanks located inside the 340-A Building, which is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTINIDES IN SIMULATED ALKALINE TANK WASTE SLUDGES AND LEACHATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-11-20

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  11. Characterization Of Actinides In Simulated Alkaline Tank Waste Sludges And Leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    In this project, both the fundamental chemistry of actinides in alkaline solutions (relevant to those present in Hanford-style waste storage tanks), and their dissolution from sludge simulants (and interactions with supernatants) have been investigated under representative sludge leaching procedures. The leaching protocols were designed to go beyond conventional alkaline sludge leaching limits, including the application of acidic leachants, oxidants and complexing agents. The simulant leaching studies confirm in most cases the basic premise that actinides will remain in the sludge during leaching with 2-3 M NaOH caustic leach solutions. However, they also confirm significant chances for increased mobility of actinides under oxidative leaching conditions. Thermodynamic data generated improves the general level of experiemental information available to predict actinide speciation in leach solutions. Additional information indicates that improved Al removal can be achieved with even dilute acid leaching and that acidic Al(NO3)3 solutions can be decontaminated of co-mobilized actinides using conventional separations methods. Both complexing agents and acidic leaching solutions have significant potential to improve the effectiveness of conventional alkaline leaching protocols. The prime objective of this program was to provide adequate insight into actinide behavior under these conditions to enable prudent decision making as tank waste treatment protocols develop.

  12. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes

  13. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes.

  14. TANK 40 FINAL SB4 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for elemental and chemical composition including noble metals. These analyses along with the WAPS analyses will help define the composition of the sludge currently in Tank 40 which is currently being fed to DWPF and will become part of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). At SRNL the 3-L Tank 40 SB4 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 280 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO 3 /HCl in sealed Teflon(reg s ign) vessels and four in Na 2 O 2 using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Three glass standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, and cold vapor atomic absorption (CV-AA) analysis. Equivalent dilutions of the peroxide fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB4 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for ion chromatography (IC), total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC), and total base analyses. A sample of Tank 40 SB4 decant was collected by carefully removing the supernate phase

  15. Studies on sludge from storage tank of waxy crude oil. Part I: structure and composition of distillate fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-08-01

    Tank bottom sludge from storage tanks of Bombay High crude oil deposited during ten years have been studied. The yield of the sludge is approximately 0.1% wt. of the crude oil through-put. The residue boiling above 500{degree}C amounts to over 50%. The distillate fractions collected at 50{degree}C intervals have been analyzed extensively and compared to fractions from whole crude of same boiling range. The sludge distillate are distinctly more paraffinic in nature. 15 refs., 7 tabs.

  16. Engineering study of tank leaks related to hydraulic retrieval of sludge from tank 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.; Carlos, W.C.; Irwin, J.J.; Khaleel, R.; Kline, N.W.; Ludowise, J.D.; Marusich, R.M.; Rittman, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluates hydraulic retrieval (sluicing) of the waste in single-shell tank 241-C-106 with respect to the likelihood of tank leaks, gross volumes of potential leaks, and their consequences. A description of hydraulic retrieval is developed to establish a baseline for the study. Leak models are developed based on postulated leak mechanisms to estimate the amount of waste that could potentially leak while sluicing. Transport models describe the movement of the waste constituents in the surrounding soil and groundwater after a leak occurs. Environmental impact and risk associated with tank leaks are evaluated. Transport of leaked material to the groundwater is found to be dependent on the rate of recharge of moisture in the soil for moderate-sized leaks. Providing a cover over the tank and surrounding area would eliminate the recharge. The bulk of any leaked material would remain in the vicinity of the tank for remedial action

  17. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/27/1999, During Sludge Core Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VISWANATH, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371/Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA(trademark) canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2

  18. SBR treatment of tank truck cleaning wastewater: sludge characteristics, chemical and ecotoxicological effluent quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwé, Michel; Dobbeleers, Thomas; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny; Dries, Jan

    2017-08-02

    A lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to treat tank truck cleaning (TTC) wastewater with different operational strategies (identified as different stages). The first stage was an adaptation period for the seed sludge that originated from a continuous fed industrial plant treating TTC wastewater. The first stage was followed by a dynamic reactor operation based on the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Thirdly, dynamic SBR control based on OUR treated a daily changing influent. Lastly, the reactor was operated with a gradually shortened fixed cycle. During operation, sludge settling evolved from nearly no settling to good settling sludge in 16 days. The sludge volume index improved from 200 to 70 mL gMLSS -1 in 16 days and remained stable during the whole reactor operation. The average soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) removal varied from 87.0% to 91.3% in the different stages while significant differences in the food to mass ratio were observed, varying from 0.11 (stage I) to 0.37 kgCOD.(kgMLVSS day) -1 (stage III). Effluent toxicity measurements were performed with Aliivibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Low sensitivity of Aliivibrio was observed. A few samples were acutely toxic for Daphnia; 50% of the tested effluent samples showed an inhibition of 100% for Pseudokirchneriella.

  19. Removal of hydrocarbon from refinery tank bottom sludge employing microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Deka, Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Accumulation of oily sludge is becoming a serious environmental threat, and there has not been much work reported for the removal of hydrocarbon from refinery tank bottom sludge. Effort has been made in this study to investigate the removal of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge by isolated biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 strain and explore the biosurfactant for its composition and stability. Laboratory investigation was carried out with this strain to observe its efficacy of removing hydrocarbon from refinery sludge employing whole bacterial culture and culture supernatant to various concentrations of sand-sludge mixture. Removal of hydrocarbon was recorded after 20 days. Analysis of the produced biosurfactant was carried out to get the idea about its stability and composition. The strain could remove up to 85 ± 3 and 55 ± 4.5 % of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge when whole bacterial culture and culture supernatant were used, respectively. Maximum surface tension reduction (26.3 mN m(-1)) was achieved with the strain in just 24 h of time. Emulsification index (E24) was recorded as 100 and 80 % with crude oil and n-hexadecane, respectively. The biosurfactant was confirmed as rhamnolipid containing C8 and C10 fatty acid components and having more mono-rhamnolipid congeners than the di-rhamnolipid ones. The biosurfactant was stable up to 121 °C, pH 2-10, and up to a salinity value of 2-10 % w/v. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the potentiality of a native strain from the northeast region of India for the efficient removal of hydrocarbon from refinery sludge.

  20. An Assessment of Technologies to Provide Extended Sludge Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JA Bamberger

    2000-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify sludge mobilization technologies that can be readily installed in double-shell tanks along with mixer pumps to augment mixer pump operation when mixer pumps do not adequately mobilize waste. The supplementary technologies will mobilize sludge that may accumulate in tank locations out-of-reach of the mixer-pump jet and move the sludge into the mixer-pump range of operation. The identified technologies will be evaluated to determine if their performances and configurations are adequate to meet requirements developed for enhanced sludge removal systems. The study proceeded in three parallel paths to identify technologies that: (1) have been previously deployed or demonstrated in radioactive waste tanks, (2) have been specifically evaluated for their ability to mobilize or dislodge waste simulants with physical and theological properties similar to those anticipated during waste retrieval, and (3) have been used in similar industrial conditions, bu t not specifically evaluated for radioactive waste retrieval.

  1. An Assessment of Technologies to Provide Extended Sludge Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JA Bamberger

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify sludge mobilization technologies that can be readily installed in double-shell tanks along with mixer pumps to augment mixer pump operation when mixer pumps do not adequately mobilize waste. The supplementary technologies will mobilize sludge that may accumulate in tank locations out-of-reach of the mixer-pump jet and move the sludge into the mixer-pump range of operation. The identified technologies will be evaluated to determine if their performances and configurations are adequate to meet requirements developed for enhanced sludge removal systems. The study proceeded in three parallel paths to identify technologies that: (1) have been previously deployed or demonstrated in radioactive waste tanks, (2) have been specifically evaluated for their ability to mobilize or dislodge waste simulants with physical and theological properties similar to those anticipated during waste retrieval, and (3) have been used in similar industrial conditions, but not specifically evaluated for radioactive waste retrieval

  2. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics

  3. Characterization of underground storage tank sludge using fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, S.; Bajic, S.J.; Jones, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of underground storage tank (UST) contents is critical for the determination of proper disposal protocols and storage procedures of nuclear waste materials. Tank volume reduction processes during the 1940's and 50's have produced a waste form that compositionally varies widely and has a consistency that ranges from paste like sludge to saltcake. The heterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the waste form makes analysis difficult by most conventional methods which require extensive sample preparation. In this paper, a method is presented to characterize nuclear waste from UST's at the Westinghouse Hanford Site in Washington State, using Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). FTIR-PAS measurements on milligram amounts of surrogate sludge samples have been used to accurately identify phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate and ferrocyanide components. A simple sample preparation method was followed to provide a reproducible homogeneous sample for quantitative analysis. The sample preparation method involved freeze drying the sludge sample prior to analysis to prevent the migration of soluble species. Conventional drying (e.g., air or, oven) leads to the formation of crystals near the surface where evaporation occurs. Sample preparation as well as the analytical utility of this method will be discussed

  4. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author's previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B ± $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author's engineering judgment

  5. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian; Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth. L.

    2008-06-10

    The dissolution of synthetic boehmite (?-AlOOH) by 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) was examined in a series of batch adsorption/dissolution experiments. Additionally, the leaching behavior of {sup 233}U(VI) from boehmite was examined as a function of pH and HEDPA concentration. The results are discussed in terms of sludge washing procedures that may be utilized during underground tank waste remediation. In the pH range 4 to 10, complexation of Al(III) by HEDPA significantly enhanced dissolution of boehmite. This phenomenon was especially pronounced in the neutral pH region where the solubility of aluminum, in the absence of complexants, is limited by the formation of sparsely soluble aluminum hydroxides. At pH higher than 10, dissolution of synthetic boehmite was inhibited by HEDPA, likely due to sorption of Al(III):HEDPA complexes. Addition of HEDPA to equilibrated U(VI)-synthetic boehmite suspensions yielded an increase in the aqueous phase uranium concentration. Partitioning of uranium between the solid and aqueous phase is described in terms of U(VI):HEDPA speciation and dissolution of the boehmite solid phase.

  6. Phase chemistry of tank sludge residual components. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.V.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Liu, J.; Nagy, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    'The proposed research will provide a scientific basis for predicting the long-term fate of radionuclides remaining with the sludge in decommissioned waste tanks. Nuclear activities in the United States and elsewhere produce substantial volumes of highly radioactive semi-liquid slurries that traditionally are stored in large underground tanks while final waste disposal strategies are established. Although most of this waste will eventually be reprocessed a contaminated structure will remain which must either be removed or decommissioned in place. To accrue the substantial savings associated with in-place disposal will require a performance assessment which, in turn, means predicting the leach behavior of the radionuclides associated with the residual sludges. The phase chemistry of these materials is poorly known so a credible source term cannot presently be formulated. Further, handling of actual radioactive sludges is exceedingly cumbersome and expensive. This proposal is directed at: (1) developing synthetic nonradioactive sludges that match wastes produced by the various fuel processing steps, (2) monitoring the changes in phase chemistry of these sludges as they age, and (3) relating the mobility of trace amounts of radionuclides (or surrogates) in the sludge to the phase changes in the aging wastes. This report summarizes work carried out during the first year of a three year project. A prerequisite to performing a meaningful study was to learn in considerable detail about the chemistry of waste streams produced by fuel reprocessing. At Hanford this is not a simple task since over the last five decades four different reprocessing schemes were used: the early BiPO 4 separation for just Pu, the U recovery activity to further treat wastes left by the BiPO 4 activities, the REDOX process and most recently, the PUREX processes. Savannah River fuel reprocessing started later and only PUREX wastes were generated. It is the working premise of this proposal that most

  7. Fabrication of a Sludge-Conditioning System for processing legacy wastes from the Gunite and Associated Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, J.D.; Lewis, B.E.; Farmer, J.R.; Johnson, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Sludge Conditioning System (SCS) for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) is designed to receive, monitor, characterize and process legacy waste materials from the South Tank Farm tanks in preparation for final transfer of the wastes to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), which are located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SCS includes (1) a Primary Conditioning System (PCS) Enclosure for sampling and particle size classification, (2) a Solids Monitoring Test Loop (SMTL) for slurry characterization, (3) a Waste Transfer Pump to retrieve and transfer waste materials from GAAT consolidation tank W-9 to the MVSTs, (4) a PulsAir Mixing System to provide mixing of consolidated sludges for ease of retrieval, and (5) the interconnecting piping and valving. This report presents the design, fabrication, cost, and fabrication schedule information for the SCS

  8. Oxidative dissolution of chromium from Hanford tank sludges under alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, B.M.; Delegard, C.H.; Wagner, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    Alkaline oxidative leaching has been performed on caustic leached sludges from the three following Hanford waste tanks: BY-110, S-107, and SX-108. These samples were chosen because they represent types of waste where significant amounts of Cr are located and show relatively poor dissolution of Cr during standard caustic leaching. The experiments involved tests with three chemical oxidants, permanganate, ozone and oxygen, and a blank, argon. The effects of varying the hydroxide concentration of the leachate (from 0.1 M to 3 M) and of time and temperature (from room temperature to 80 degrees C) were also examined

  9. A comparison of BNR activated sludge systems with membrane and settling tank solid-liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphao, M C; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A; Alexander, W V

    2006-01-01

    Installing membranes for solid-liquid separation into biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems makes a profound difference not only to the design of the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) BNR system itself, but also to the design approach for the whole wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In multi-zone BNR systems with membranes in the aerobic reactor and fixed volumes for the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones (i.e. fixed volume fractions), the mass fractions can be controlled (within a range) with the inter-reactor recycle ratios. This zone mass fraction flexibility is a significant advantage of MBR BNR systems over BNR systems with secondary settling tanks (SSTs), because it allows changing the mass fractions to optimise biological N and P removal in conformity with influent wastewater characteristics and the effluent N and P concentrations required. For PWWF/ADWF ratios (fq) in the upper range (fq approximately 2.0), aerobic mass fractions in the lower range (f(maer) settling and long sludge age). However, the volume reduction compared with equivalent BNR systems with SSTs will not be large (40-60%), but the cost of the membranes can be offset against sludge thickening and stabilisation costs. Moving from a flow unbalanced raw wastewater system to a flow balanced (fq = 1) low (usually settled) wastewater strength system can double the ADWF capacity of the biological reactor, but the design approach of the WWTP changes away from extended aeration to include primary sludge stabilisation. The cost of primary sludge treatment then has to be offset against the savings of the increased WWTP capacity.

  10. Summary review of the chemical characterization of liquid and sludge contained in the Old Hydrofracture tanks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Herbes, S.E.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents analytical data developed from samples collected from the five inactive tanks located at the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The samples were collected during December 1995 and January 1996. The purpose of the sampling and analysis project was (1) to determine whether the tank contents meet ORNL waste acceptance criteria, as specified in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Liquid Waste Treatment Systems, Waste Evaluation Criteria; (2) to determine various physical properties of the tank contents that would affect the design of a sludge mobilization system; and (3) to gather information to support a baseline risk assessment. The report focuses on the analytical results used to evaluate the tank contents with regard to nuclear criticality safety requirements and to regulatory waste characterization

  11. Exploratory tests of washing radioactive sludge samples from the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Keller, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Exploratory tests were initiated to wash radioactive sludge samples from the waste storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose was to provide preliminary information about (1) the anions in the sludge phase that are soluble in water or dilute acid (e.g., the anions in the interstitial liquid) and (2) the solubilities of sludge constituents in water under process conditions. The experiments were terminated before completion due to changing priorities by the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum was prepared primarily for documentation purposes and presents the incomplete data. 3 refs., 13 tabs

  12. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste con- stituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  13. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste constituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  14. Effect of Antifoam Agent on Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Jones, Susan A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative leaching of simulant tank waste containing an antifoam agent (AFA) to reduce the chromium content of the sludge was tested using permanganate as the oxidant in 0.25 M NaOH solutions. AFA is added to the waste treatment process to prevent foaming. The AFA, Dow Corning Q2-3183A, is a surface-active polymer that consists of polypropylene glycol, polydimethylsiloxane, octylphenoxy polyethoxy ethanol, treated silica, and polyether polyol. Some of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste slurries contain high concentrations of undissolved solids that would exhibit undesirable behavior without AFA addition. These tests were conducted to determine the effect of the AFA on oxidative leaching of Cr(III) in waste by permanganate. It has not previously been determined what effect AFA has on the permanganate reaction. This study was conducted to determine the effect AFA has on the oxidation of the chromium, plus plutonium and other criticality-related elements, specifically Fe, Ni and Mn. During the oxidative leaching process, Mn is added as liquid permanganate solution and is converted to an insoluble solid that precipitates as MnO2 and becomes part of the solid waste. Caustic leaching was performed followed by an oxidative leach at either 25 C or 45 C. Samples of the leachate and solids were collected at each step of the process. Initially, Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted by Bechtel National, Inc. to perform these further scoping studies on oxidative alkaline leaching. The data obtained from the testing will be used by the WTP operations to develop procedures for permanganate dosing of Hanford tank sludge solids during oxidative leaching. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operating Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. In summary, this report describes work focused on determining

  15. Effect of Antifoam Agent on Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tank Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Jones, Susan A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2010-02-26

    Oxidative leaching of simulant tank waste containing an antifoam agent (AFA) to reduce the chromium content of the sludge was tested using permanganate as the oxidant in 0.25 M NaOH solutions. AFA is added to the waste treatment process to prevent foaming. The AFA, Dow Corning Q2-3183A, is a surface-active polymer that consists of polypropylene glycol, polydimethylsiloxane, octylphenoxy polyethoxy ethanol, treated silica, and polyether polyol. Some of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste slurries contain high concentrations of undissolved solids that would exhibit undesirable behavior without AFA addition. These tests were conducted to determine the effect of the AFA on oxidative leaching of Cr(III) in waste by permanganate. It has not previously been determined what effect AFA has on the permanganate reaction. This study was conducted to determine the effect AFA has on the oxidation of the chromium, plus plutonium and other criticality-related elements, specifically Fe, Ni and Mn. During the oxidative leaching process, Mn is added as liquid permanganate solution and is converted to an insoluble solid that precipitates as MnO2 and becomes part of the solid waste. Caustic leaching was performed followed by an oxidative leach at either 25°C or 45°C. Samples of the leachate and solids were collected at each step of the process. Initially, Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted by Bechtel National, Inc. to perform these further scoping studies on oxidative alkaline leaching. The data obtained from the testing will be used by the WTP operations to develop procedures for permanganate dosing of Hanford tank sludge solids during oxidative leaching. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operating Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. In summary, this report describes work focused on

  16. Sludge lancing and IBL: Results and experiences in the Spanish NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, E.; Pozo, C. del

    2013-01-01

    During the cycle of operation of the PWR plants, oxides (sludge) tanks are generated in the secondary circuit by corrosion, chemical additives, etc which are deposited onto the tubular steam generators (GVs), limiting its efficiency and service life.

  17. Hazardous waste management in pipeline terminal: a multi-pronged approach for safe disposal of tank bottom sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammanna, John [Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), Mumbai (India)

    2009-12-19

    Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Pipeline Division owns and operates the 1850 Km long Salaya-Mathura Crude Oil Pipeline (SMPL) with installed capacity of 21 MMTPA. Almost 25 types of crude [90% imported and 10% indigenous] are received into 13 on-shore tanks at Vadinar (the Mother Station of SMPL) through 2 Nos. SPM's anchored in the Arabian Sea and located on the west coast of India in the Gulf of Kutch. Larger quantities of tank bottom sludge that gets generated in the terminal during tank M and I pose serious environmental hazards, as procedures for handling, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste are not well established. With increasingly stringent Environmental norms being enforced by Statutory / Regulatory Authorities, storage of hazardous solid waste in lagoons and its disposal through designated approved agencies within the specified time frame, becomes extremely difficult. This paper seeks to address this issue by putting forth an innovative approach to hazardous waste management in pipeline terminals having large crude oil tank farms that has been adopted at Indian Oil Corporation's Vadinar terminal of SMPL where a multi-pronged approach for safe disposal of tank bottom sludge has been successfully implemented. The terminal has since become a 'Zero sludge location'. (author)

  18. Results of the Characterization and Dissolution Tests of Samples from Tank 16H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Samples from Tank 16H annulus and one sample from the tank interior were characterized to provide a source term for use in fate and transport modeling. Four of the annulus samples appeared to be similar based on visual examination and were combined to form a composite. One of the annulus samples appeared to be different from the other four based on visual examination and was analyzed separately. The analytical results of the tank interior sample indicate the sample is composed predominantly of iron containing compounds. Both of the annulus samples are composed mainly of sodium salts, however, the composite sample contained significantly more sludge/sand material of low solubilitity. The characterization of the tank 16H annulus and tank interior samples was hampered by the high dose rate and the nature of the samples. The difficulties resulted in large uncertainties in the analytical data. The large uncertainties coupled with the number of important species below detection limits indicate the need for reanalysis of the Tank 16H samples as funding becomes available. Recommendations on potential remedies for these difficulties are provided. In general, none of the reagents appeared to be effective in dissolving the composite sample even after two contacts at elevated temperature. In contrast to the composite sample, all of the reagents dissolved a large percentage of the HTF-087 solids after two contacts at ambient temperature

  19. Carbon-14 in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  20. Results of shear studies with 241-AY-101 sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WARRANT, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Tanks Focus Area (TFA) authorized a project to study the effect of shear on the settling properties of high-level waste sludge to support retrieval programs. A series of settling studies was conducted on a composite sample of tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101) material. Comparisons were made with duplicate samples that were sheared with a tissue homogenizer and allowed to settle. Aliquots of sheared and unsheared settled solids were submitted for chemical and radiological analyses. There are five major conclusions from the study that apply to AY-101 sludge: (1) Sludge settling rates are detectably decreased after shearing of particles by means of a tissue homogenizer. A significant decrease in the settling rates was measured after 2 minutes of shearing. A smaller additional decrease in the settling rates was observed after an additional 10 minutes of shearing. (2) Sodium and Cesium appear to be present in both the liquid and solid phases of the composite sample. (3) The shearing of the solids does not appear to significantly change the distribution of the radionuclides, ( 241 Am, 90 Sr, Total Alpha, or other radionuclides), within the solids. (4) The mean particle diameter decreases after shearing with the tissue homogenizer and affects the settling rate in proportion to the square of the particle diameter. (5) The sonication of the unsheared particles produces a similar particle size reduction to that of shearing with a tissue homogenizer. It is difficult to quantitatively compare the shear produced by a mixer pump installed in a double-shell tank with that produced by the tissue homogenizer in the laboratory. On a qualitative basis, the mixing pump would be expected to have less mechanical and more hydraulic shearing effect than the tissue homogenizer. Since the particle size distribution studies indicate that (for the AY-101 solids) the breaking up of particle aggregates is the main means of particle size reduction, then the hydraulic shearing

  1. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  2. Sludge lancing and IBL: Results and experiences in the Spanish NPP; SLUDGE LANCING e IBL: Resultados y experiencias en las central espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, E.; Pozo, C. del

    2013-07-01

    During the cycle of operation of the PWR plants, oxides (sludge) tanks are generated in the secondary circuit by corrosion, chemical additives, etc which are deposited onto the tubular steam generators (GVs), limiting its efficiency and service life.

  3. Partitioning of Tank Waste Sludge in a 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Under Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdwell, Jr. J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of solids on the hydraulic performance of a 5-cm centrifugal contactor under conditions present in the extraction section of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. In addition to determining if the ability to separate the aqueous and organic phases is affected by the presence of solids in a feed solution, the extent to which solids are accumulated in the contactor was also assessed. The reported task was motivated by the need to determine if removal of cesium from Savannah River Site tank waste can be performed using a contactor-based CSSX process without first removing sludge that is suspended in the feed solution. The ability to pass solids through the CSSX process could facilitate placement of CSSX upstream of a process in which alpha-decaying actinides and strontium are removed from the waste stream by precipitation with monosodium titanate (MST). This relative placement of the CSSX and MST processes is desirable because removal of cesium would greatly reduce the activity level of the feed stream to the MST process, thereby reducing the level of shielding needed and mitigating remote maintenance design features of MST equipment. Both results would significantly reduce the cost of the Salt Processing Project. Test results indicate conclusively that a large fraction of suspended sludge that enters the centrifugal contactor remains inside. It is expected that extended operation would result in continued accumulation of solids and that hydraulic performance would be adversely affected. Results also indicate that a fraction of the solids partitions to the phase boundary and could affect phase separation as contactor operations progress

  4. Performance of a system with full- and pilot-scale sludge drying reed bed units treating septic tank sludge in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Vallejo, Luisa Fernanda; Andrade, Cynthia Franco; Manjate, Elias Sete; Madera-Parra, Carlos Arturo; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of sludge drying reed beds (SDRB) at full- and pilot-scale treating sludge from septic tanks in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The treatment units, planted with Cynodon spp., were based on an adaptation of the first-stage of the French vertical-flow constructed wetland, originally developed for treating sewage. Two different operational phases were investigated; in the first one, the full-scale unit was used together with six pilot-scale columns in order to test different feeding strategies. For the second phase, only the full-scale unit was used, including a recirculation of the filtered effluent (percolate) to one of the units of the French vertical wetland. Sludge application was done once a week emptying a full truck, during 25 weeks. The sludge was predominantly diluted, leading to low solids loading rates (median values of 18 kgTS m(-2) year(-1)). Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency in the full-scale unit was reasonable (median of 71%), but the total solids removal was only moderate (median of 44%) in the full-scale unit without recirculation. Recirculation did not bring substantial improvements in the overall performance. The other loading conditions implemented in the pilot columns also did not show statistically different performances.

  5. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the open-quote normal close-quote configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge

  6. Double-Shell Tank Visual Inspection Changes Resulting from the Tank 241-AY-102 Primary Tank Leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardot, Crystal L.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Engeman, Jason K.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Program, remote visual inspections are utilized to perform qualitative in-service inspections of the DSTs in order to provide a general overview of the condition of the tanks. During routine visual inspections of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) in August 2012, anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. Following identification of the tank AY-102 probable leak cause, evaluations considered the adequacy of the existing annulus inspection frequency with respect to the circumstances of the tank AY-102 1eak and the advancing age of the DST structures. The evaluations concluded that the interval between annulus inspections should be shortened for all DSTs, and each annulus inspection should cover > 95 percent of annulus floor area, and the portion of the primary tank (i.e., dome, sidewall, lower knuckle, and insulating refractory) that is visible from the annulus inspection risers. In March 2013, enhanced visual inspections were performed for the six oldest tanks: 241-AY-101, 241-AZ-101,241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103, and no evidence of leakage from the primary tank were observed. Prior to October 2012, the approach for conducting visual examinations of DSTs was to perform a video examination of each tank's interior and annulus regions approximately every five years (not to exceed seven years between inspections). Also, the annulus inspection only covered about 42 percent of the annulus floor

  7. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (``burps``) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections.

  8. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (''burps'') a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections

  9. Minimization of Excess Sludge in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Reza Momeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plant represents a rising challenge in activated sludge processes. Hence, the minimization of excess sludge production was investigated by increasing the dissolved oxygen in aeration basin. Units of the pilot include: Primary sedimentation tank, aeration basin, secondary sedimentation tank, and return sludge tank. Volume of aeration basin is 360 l and influent flow rate is 90 L/h. Influent of pilot is taken from effluent of grit chamber of Isfahan's North Wastewater treatment plant. The experiments were done on different parts of pilot during the 5 month of study. Results show that increase of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank affect on decrease of excess sludge. Increase of dissolved oxygen from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L resulted in 25% decrease of excess sludge. Variation of dissolved oxygen affect on settleability of sludge too. By increase of dissolved oxygen, SVI decreased and then increased. Value of 1-3 mg/L was the adequate range of dissolved oxygen by settleability of sludge and optimum range was 2-2.5 mg/L. It could be concluded by increasing of dissolved oxygen up to of 3 mg/L, sludge settleability significant decreased.

  10. Development of an efficient anaerobic co-digestion process for garbage, excreta, and septic tank sludge to create a resource recycling-oriented society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Liu, Kai; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    In order to develop a resource recycling-oriented society, an efficient anaerobic co-digestion process for garbage, excreta and septic tank sludge was studied based on the quantity of each biomass waste type discharged in Ooki machi, Japan. The anaerobic digestion characteristics of garbage, excreta and 5-fold condensed septic tank sludge (hereafter called condensed sludge) were determined separately. In single-stage mesophilic digestion, the excreta with lower C/N ratios yielded lower biogas volumes and accumulated higher volumes of volatile fatty acid (VFA). On the other hand, garbage allowed for a significantly larger volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiency as well as biogas yield by thermophilic digestion. Thus, a two-stage anaerobic co-digestion process consisting of thermophilic liquefaction and mesophilic digestion phases was proposed. In the thermophilic liquefaction of mixed condensed sludge and household garbage (wet mass ratio of 2.2:1), a maximum VTS loading rate of 24g/L/d was achieved. In the mesophilic digestion of mixed liquefied material and excreta (wet mass ratio of 1:1), biogas yield reached approximately 570ml/g-VTS fed with a methane content of 55% at a VTS loading rate of 1.0g/L/d. The performance of the two-stage process was evaluated by comparing it with a single-stage process in which biomass wastes were treated separately. Biogas production by the two-stage process was found to increase by approximately 22.9%. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a two-stage anaerobic co-digestion process in enhancement of biogas production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND SETTLING TESTS WITH TANK 51H SLURRY SAMPLES HTF-076-081

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAY, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is the next sludge batch being prepared for feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SB4 includes sludge from Tanks 5F, 6F, and 11H and heels from Tanks 7F and 51H. In preparation of SB4, sludge was transferred from Tank 11H to Tank 51H. The sludge currently in Tank 51H has been found to settle at slower rates than previous sludge batches. The slow sludge settling in Tank 51H impacts the ability to wash SB4 to the desired final weight percent insoluble solids and sodium endpoint. This could impact the ability to have SB4 ready on time to support DWPF and result in increased recycle back to the Tank Farm, reduced waste loading at DWPF, and lengthened cycle time in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to characterize and investigate the slower settling rate with six slurry dip samples of Tank 51H sludge. The filtered supernate and the total dried solids of the sludge were analyzed and summaries of the results published in the references listed below. The sludge composition was found to be consistent with H-Area high aluminum sludge. Difficulties were encountered with dissolving all of the material in the dried sludge solids. An analysis of the undissolved material from the digestions found the main constituent was Boehmite (AlO(OH)). This report provides all of the compositional data and an analysis of the data with recommended values to use for the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Tables 3-2 through 3-4 provide the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Settling tests conducted with the Tank 51H sludge showed a much slower settling rate than with the sludge in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3). A mixture of Tank 51H and sludge from SB3 was prepared to mimic the projected final composition of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The mixture showed minimal improvement in the settling rate versus Tank 51H sludge alone. An attempt to

  12. Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2014, Waste Tanks 26, 27, 28 and 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Vandekamp, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-29

    Ultrasonic nondestructive examinations (NDE) were performed on waste storage tanks 26, 27, 28 and 33 at the Savannah River Site as a part of the “In-Service Inspection (ISI) Program for High Level Waste Tanks.” No reportable conditions were identified during these inspections. The results indicate that the implemented corrosion control program continues to effectively mitigate corrosion in the SRS waste tanks. Ultrasonic inspection (UT) is used to detect general wall thinning, pitting and interface attack, as well as vertically oriented cracks through inspection of an 8.5 inch wide strip extending over the accessible height of the primary tank wall and accessible knuckle regions. Welds were also inspected in tanks 27, 28 and 33 with no reportable indications. In a Type III/IIIA primary tank, a complete vertical strip includes scans of five plates (including knuckles) so five “plate/strips” would be completed at each vertical strip location. In FY 2014, a combined total of 79 plate/strips were examined for thickness mapping and crack detection, equating to over 45,000 square inches of area inspected on the primary tank wall. Of the 79 plate/strips examined in FY 2014 all but three have average thicknesses that remain at or above the construction minimum thickness which is nominal thickness minus 0.010 inches. There were no service induced reportable thicknesses or cracking encountered. A total of 2 pits were documented in 2014 with the deepest being 0.032 inches deep. One pit was detected in Tank 27 and one in Tank 33. No pitting was identified in Tanks 26 or 28. The maximum depth of any pit encountered in FY 2014 is 5% of nominal thickness, which is less than the minimum reportable criteria of 25% through-wall for pitting. In Tank 26 two vertical strips were inspected, as required by the ISI Program, due to tank conditions being outside normal chemistry controls for more than 3 months. Tank 28 had an area of localized thinning on the exterior wall of the

  13. Studies on sludge from waxy crude oil storage tank. II. Solvent fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The sludge formed from crude oil (Bombay Hindu Crude oil) dump storage has been analysed by solvent extraction with a series of solvents of increasing polarity. The extract fractions so obtained have been analysed extensively. The nature of the sludge is compared with the similar sludges reported by other workers. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Assessment of the application of an ecotoxicological procedure to screen illicit toxic discharges in domestic septic tank sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gastey, J; Choucri, A; Robidoux, P Y; Sunahara, G I

    2000-06-01

    An innovative screening procedure has been developed to detect illicit toxic discharges in domestic septic tank sludge hauled to the Montreal Urban Community waste-water treatment plant. This new means of control is based on an integrative approach, using bioassays and chemical analyses. Conservative criteria are applied to detect abnormal toxicity with great reliability while avoiding false positive results. The complementary data obtained from toxicity tests and chemical analyses support the use of this efficient and easy-to-apply procedure. This study assesses the control procedure in which 231 samples were analyzed over a 30-month period. Data clearly demonstrate the deterrent power of an efficient control procedure combined with a public awareness campaign among the carriers. In the first 15 months of application, between January 1996 and March 1997, approximately 30% of the 123 samples analyzed showed abnormal toxicity. Between April 1997 and June 1998, that is, after a public hearing presentation of this procedure, this proportion dropped significantly to approximately 9% based on 108 analyzed samples. The results of a 30-month application of this new control procedure show the superior efficiency of the ecotoxicological approach compared with the previously used chemical control procedure. To be able to apply it effectively and, if necessary, to apply the appropriate coercive measures, ecotoxicological criteria should be included in regulatory guidelines.

  15. [Analysis of carbon balance and study on mechanism in anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic sludge reduction process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiao-Min; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Man-Man; Jia, Li; Guo, Jin-Song

    2012-07-01

    In order to deeply explore the mechanism of sludge reduction in OSA system, carbon balance was performed in an anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic (A + OSA) system and a reference AO system to investigate effects of inserting a sludge holding tank in sludge cycle line on the sludge reduction process. Meanwhile, carbon mass change in each reaction unit was identified in terms of solid, liquid and gas phases. The causes of excess sludge reduction in A + OSA system were deduced. The carbon balance results show that when the hydraulic retention time in the sludge holding tank is 7.14 h, carbon percent in solid phase of the sludge reduction system is nearly 50% higher than that of the reference system, supporting the consequence that sludge reduction rate of 49.98% had been achieved. The insertion of a sludge holding tank in the sludge return circuit can be effective in sludge reduction. Carbon changes in each unit reveal that the amount of carbon consumed for biosynthesis in the anoxic and oxic tanks (main reaction zone) of the sludge reduction system is higher than in that of the reference system. Sludge decay is observed in the sludge holding tank. Furthermore, CH4 released from the sludge holding tank is significantly higher than that from the main reaction zone. The DGGE profiles show that there are hydrolytic-fermentative bacteria in the sludge holding tank related to sludge decay. The excess sludge reduction in the A + OSA system could be a result of the combination of sludge decay in the sludge holding tank and sludge compensatory growth in the main reaction cell.

  16. Tank 214-AW-105, grab samples, analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AW-105 grab samples. Twenty grabs samples were collected from risers 10A and 15A on August 20 and 21, 1996, of which eight were designated for the K Basin sludge compatibility and mixing studies. This document presents the analytical results for the remaining twelve samples. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DO). The results for the previous sampling of this tank were reported in WHC-SD-WM-DP-149, Rev. 0, 60-Day Waste Compatibility Safety Issue and Final Results for Tank 241-A W-105, Grab Samples 5A W-95-1, 5A W-95-2 and 5A W-95-3. Three supernate samples exceeded the TOC notification limit (30,000 microg C/g dry weight). Appropriate notifications were made. No immediate notifications were required for any other analyte. The TSAP requested analyses for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) for all liquids and centrifuged solid subsamples. The PCB analysis of the liquid samples has been delayed and will be presented in a revision to this document

  17. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition

  18. Results of Fall 1994 sampling of gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This Technical Memorandum, was developed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.1.01.41.12.02. 11 (Activity Data Sheet 3301, ''WAG 1''). This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with analytical results from liquid and sludge samples from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). Information provided in this report forms part of the technical basis for criticality safety, systems safety, engineering design, and waste management as they apply to the GAAT treatability study and remediation

  19. Rheology and TIC/TOC results of ORNL tank samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Hansen, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)) was requested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and rheological measurements for several Oak Ridge tank samples. As received slurry samples were diluted and submitted to SRNL-Analytical for TIC and TOC analyses. Settled solids yield stress (also known as settled shear strength) of the as received settled sludge samples were determined using the vane method and these measurements were obtained 24 hours after the samples were allowed to settled undisturbed. Rheological or flow properties (Bingham Plastic viscosity and Bingham Plastic yield stress) were determined from flow curves of the homogenized or well mixed samples. Other targeted total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations samples were also analyzed for flow properties and these samples were obtained by diluting the as-received sample with de-ionized (DI) water

  20. Determination of the Removal Efficiency of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Acids (LAS in Fixed Bed Aeration Tank and Conventional Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Ebrahimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonate Acids (LAS are one of the anionic surfactants that are produced and used in large quantities in different countries and find their way into the natural environment through sewer systems. These compounds may potentially cause environmental hazards in such surface waters as rivers. It is, therefore, necessary to remove as much of these compounds as possible by biological processes in wastewater treatment plants. For this purpose, four parallel biological reactors were constructed that used the conventional activated sludge and aeration tanks with fixed bed on the bench scale in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of LAS. The reactors were operated under conditions similar to domestic wastewater treatment plants. Parameters of interest were measured according to standard methods and ANOVA and T-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. The results showed that aeration tanks with fixed beds yielded higher values of LAS and COD removal and air consumption compared to the conventional activated sludge system. It was shown that the two systems studied achieved LAS removal efficiencies of 96% and 94% for an influent LAS concentration of 5 mg/L. Further, it was found that the effluents from both systems satisfied water quality standards for discharge into surface waters (

  1. Concentrations and environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks and accumulation in sludge, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Z.; Jacobsen, E.; Kraemer, T.F.; Parsa, B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of Ra in liquid and solid wastes generated from 15 softeners treating domestic well waters from New Jersey Coastal Plain aquifers (where combined Ra (226Ra plus 228Ra) concentrations commonly exceed 0.185 Bq L-1) were determined. Softeners, when maintained, reduced combined Ra about 10-fold (septic-tank effluents receiving brine waste were less than in the untreated ground waters. The maximum combined Ra concentration in aquifer sands (40.7 Bq kg-1 dry weight) was less than that in sludge from the septic tanks (range, 84-363 Bq kg-1), indicating Ra accumulation in sludge from effluent. The combined Ra concentration in sludge from the homeowners' septic systems falls within the range reported for sludge samples from publicly owned treatment works within the region.

  2. Optimization of combined in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation for remediation of bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Saeedi, Reza

    2017-07-31

    In this research, removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated under the optimized conditions of in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 and Fenton. After determining the optimum conditions, the sludge was pre-treated with the optimum state of the oxidation process. Then, the determined optimum ratios of the sludge to immature compost were composted at a C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and moisture content of 55% for a period of 10 weeks. Finally, both pre-treated and composted mixtures were again oxidized with the optimum conditions of the oxidants. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of the 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with H 2 O 2 were 88.34% and 90.4%, respectively. In addition, reduction of TPH in 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with Fenton were 83.90% and 84.40%, respectively. Without applying the pre-treatment step, the composting reactors had a removal rate of about 80%. Therefore, pre-treatment of the reactors increased the TPH removal. However, post-oxidation of both pre-treated and composted mixtures reduced only 13-16% of TPH. Based on the results, remarkable overall removal of TPH (about 99%) was achieved by using chemical oxidation and subsequent composting process. The study showed that chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 followed by in-vessel composting is a viable choice for the remediation of the sludge.

  3. Computer simulation of laboratory leaching and washing of tank waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.D.; MacLean, G.T.; Landeene, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The process simulator ESP (Environmental Simulation Program) was used to simulate laboratory caustic leaching and washing of core samples from Tanks B-110, C-109, and C-112. The results of the laboratory tests and the computer simulations are compared. The results from both, agreed reasonably well for elements contained in solid phases included in the ESP Public data bank. The use of the GEOCHEM data bank and/or a custom Hanford Data bank should improve the agreement, making ESP a useful process simulator for aqueous based processing

  4. Ultrasonic reduction of excess sludge from the activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Zhang Panyue; Yang Jinmei; Chen Yanming

    2007-01-01

    Sludge treatment has long become the most challenging problem in wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies showed that ozone or chlorine effectively liquefies sludge into substrates for bio-degradation in the aeration tank, and thus reduces the excess sludge. This paper employs ultrasound to reduce the excess sludge from the sequential batch reactor (SBR) system. Partial sludge was disintegrated into dissolved substrates by ultrasound in an external sono-tank and was then returned to the SBR for bio-degradation. The results showed that ultrasound (25 kHz) effectively liquefied the sludge. The most effective conditions for sludge reduction were as following: sludge sonication ratio of 3/14, ultrasound intensity of 120 kW/kgDS, and sonication duration of 15 min. The amount of excess sludge was reduced by 91.1% to 17.8 mg/(L d); the organic content and settleability of sludge in the SBR were not impacted. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 81.1%, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 17-66%, and high phosphorus concentration in the effluent was observed

  5. Comparison between different models for rheological characterization of sludge from settling tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malczewska Beata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The municipal sludge characterized non-Newtonian behaviour, therefore the viscosity of the sewage sludge is not a constant value. The laboratory investigation was made using coaxial cylinder with rotating torque and gravimetric concentration of the investigated sludge ranged from 4.40% to 2.09%. This paper presents the investigation on the effect of concentration of rheological sludge behaviour. The three different rheological models: Bingham (plastic model, Ostwald-de Waele (power-law, Hershel-Bulkley’s were calculated by fitting the experimental data of shear stress as a function of shear rate to these models. In this study, the 3-parameter Herschel- Bulkley’s model fits the experimental data best.

  6. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  7. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  8. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  9. Sludge Lancing IBL: results and experiences in the Spanish NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, E.; Pozo, C. del

    2014-01-01

    During the operation cycle of the PWR plants, oxides deposits (sludge) generated in the secondary circuit by erosion corrosion, chemical additives, etc. Which are deposited on the tube plate of GVs, limiting their efficiency and lifespan. To reduce them, Iberdrola Engineering and Construction, together with SRA SAVAC cleaned by high-pressure water means and tele visual inspection between tubes of the GVs. After Sludge Lancing cleanings performed by 250 bar from the center line, an area of solidified sludge remaining on the tubular plate was identified. Late 2010, Iberdrola Engineering and Construction, together with SRA SAVAC developed the Inner Bundle Lancing (IBL) system, which is based on a jet of water of high pressure>500 bar directly impacting areas of hard sludge within the tube bundle to detach and break the deposits into small pieces that can be extracted from GV through a closed circuit suction. (Author)

  10. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 18F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.

    2010-09-02

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Shine [1]. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL [2]. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results [3] to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL{sub 95%}) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 18F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL{sub 95%}) on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL{sub 95%} was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  11. Statistical Analysis Of Tank 19F Floor Sample Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.

    2010-01-01

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  12. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  13. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D; Dan Lambert, D; Michael Stone, M; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Amanda Billings, A; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-11-10

    Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) is predominantly a combination of H-modified (HM) sludge from Tank 11 that underwent aluminum dissolution in late 2007 to reduce the total mass of sludge solids and aluminum being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Purex sludge transferred from Tank 7. Following aluminum dissolution, the addition of Tank 7 sludge and excess Pu to Tank 51, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) a 3-L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB5 qualification. SB5 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of a Pu/Be stream from H Canyon), DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass chemical durability evaluation. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernatant) and concentration (decanting of supernatant) of the Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF CPC simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. This includes a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid is added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and remove mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit is added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters for the CPC processing were based on work with a non radioactive simulant. (3) Vitrification of a portion of the SME product and Product Consistency Test (PCT) evaluation of the resulting glass. (4) Rheology measurements of the initial slurry samples and samples after each phase of CPC processing. This work is controlled by a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) , and analyses are guided by an Analytical Study Plan. This work is Technical Baseline Research and Development (R

  14. Evaluation of Flygt Mixers for Application in Savannah River Site Tank 19. Test Results from Phase B: Mid-Scale Testing at PNNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Combs, W.H.; Farmer, J.R.; Gladki, H.; Hatchell, B.K.; Johnson, M.A.; Poirier, M.R.; Rodwell, P.O.

    1999-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed mixer tests using 3-kW (4-hp) Flygt mixers in 1.8- and 5.7-m-diameter tanks at the 336 building facility in Richland, Washington to evaluate candidate scaling relationships for Flygt mixers used for sludge mobilization and particle suspension. These tests constituted the second phase of a three-phase test program involving representatives from ITT Flygt Corporation, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and PNNL. The results of the first phase of tests, which were conducted at ITT Flygt's facility in a 0.45-m-diameter tank, are documented in Powell et al. (1999). Although some of the Phase B tests were geometrically similar to selected Phase A tests (0.45-m tank), none of the Phase B tests were geometrically, cinematically, and/or dynamically similar to the planned Tank 19 mixing system. Therefore, the mixing observed during the Phase B tests is not directly indicative of the mixing expected in Tank 19 and some extrapolation of the data is required to make predictions for Tank 19 mixing. Of particular concern is the size of the mixer propellers used for the 5.7-m tank tests. These propellers were more than three times larger than required by geometric scaling of the Tank 19 mixers. The implications of the lack of geometric similarity, as well as other factors that complicate interpretation of the test results, are discussed in Section 5.4

  15. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AN-105 ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AN-105. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AN-105 primary tank wall primary knuckle, and secondary tank bottom. The inspection found some indication of general and local wall thinning with no cracks detected

  16. Energy consumption of agitators in activated sludge tanks - actual state and optimization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füreder, K; Svardal, K; Frey, W; Kroiss, H; Krampe, J

    2018-02-01

    Depending on design capacity, agitators consume about 5 to 20% of the total energy consumption of a wastewater treatment plant. Based on inhabitant-specific energy consumption (kWh PE 120 -1 a -1 ; PE 120 is population equivalent, assuming 120 g chemical oxygen demand per PE per day), power density (W m -3 ) and volume-specific energy consumption (Wh m -3 d -1 ) as evaluation indicators, this paper provides a sound contribution to understanding energy consumption and energy optimization potentials of agitators. Basically, there are two ways to optimize agitator operation: the reduction of the power density and the reduction of the daily operating time. Energy saving options range from continuous mixing with low power densities of 1 W m -3 to mixing by means of short, intense energy pulses (impulse aeration, impulse stirring). However, the following correlation applies: the shorter the duration of energy input, the higher the power density on the respective volume-specific energy consumption isoline. Under favourable conditions with respect to tank volume, tank geometry, aeration and agitator position, mixing energy can be reduced to 24 Wh m -3 d -1 and below. Additionally, it could be verified that power density of agitators stands in inverse relation to tank volume.

  17. Conventional fuel tank blunt impact tests : test and analysis results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. A series of impact tests are planned to : measure fuel tank deformation under two types of dynamic : loading conditi...

  18. Results of a conventional fuel tank blunt impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into passenger : locomotive fuel tank crashworthiness. A series of impact tests is : being conducted to measure fuel tank deformation under two : type...

  19. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-08-05

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  20. 241-Z-361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-29

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the type, quantity, and quality of data needed to support characterization of the sludge that remains in Tank 241-2-361. The procedures described in this SAP are based on the results of the 241-2-361 Sludge Characterization Data Quality Objectives (DQO) (BWHC 1999) process for the tank. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the contents of Tank 241-2-361 in order to resolve safety and safeguards issues and to assess alternatives for sludge removal and disposal.

  1. Analysis of the dependence of sludge digestion efficiency on the mixing process in the digestion tank. Interim report. Untersuchung der Abhaengigkeit des Wirkungsgrades der Schlammfaulung von der Durchmischung im Faulbehaelter. Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The results of previously studied septic tanks show that the flow conditions in these reactors deviate from those of the ideal stirring reactor. This is at first apparent through the short-time analyses, in which different time periods were determined for the tracer merging by the different circulation systems. It was furthermore found that flow anomalies occur, i.e. dead or stagnation zones, and short-circuit flows. The comparison of different circulation systems leads to the hypothesis that mixing by means of external sludge pumps alone cannot suffice to counteract the formation of flow anomalies. (orig.).

  2. Results of sampling the contents of the liquid low-level waste evaporator feed tank W-22 at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fall 1994 sampling of the contents of the liquid low- level waste (LLLW) tank W-22 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Tank W-22 is the central collection and holding tank for LLLW at ORNL before the waste is transferred to the evaporators. Samples of the tank liquid and sludge were analyzed to determine (1) the major chemical constituents, (2) the principal radionuclides, (3) the metals listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program Inorganic Target Analyte List, (4) organic compounds, and (5) some physical properties. The organic chemical characterization consisted of the determinations of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List semivolatile compounds, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water-soluble volatile organic compounds were also determined. Information provided in this report forms part of the technical basis in support of (1) waste management for the active LLLW system and (2) planning for the treatment and disposal of the waste

  3. Sludge Settling Rate Observations and Projections at the Savannah River Site - 13238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillam, Jeffrey M.; Shah, Hasmukh B.; Keefer, Mark T. [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, sludge batches have included a high percentage of stored sludge generated from the H- modified (HM) process. The slow-settling nature of HM sludge means that the settling is often the major part of the washing tank quiescent period between required pump runs to maintain flammability control. Reasonable settling projections are needed to wash soluble salts from sludge in an efficient manner, to determine how much sludge can be washed in a batch within flammability limits, and to provide composition projections for batch qualification work done in parallel with field preparation. Challenges to providing reasonably accurate settling projections include (1) large variations in settling behavior from tank-to-tank, (2) accounting for changing initial concentrations, sludge masses, and combinations of different sludge types, (3) changing the settling behavior upon dissolving some sludge compounds, and (4) sludge preparation schedules that do not allow for much data collection for a particular sludge before washing begins. Scaling from laboratory settling tests has provided inconsistent results. Several techniques have been employed to improve settling projections and therefore the overall batch preparation efficiency. Before any observations can be made on a particular sludge mixture, projections can only be made based on historical experience with similar sludge types. However, scaling techniques can be applied to historical settling models to account for different sludge masses, concentrations, and even combinations of types of sludge. After sludge washing/settling cycles begin, the direct measurement of the sludge height, once generally limited to a single turbidity meter measurement per settle period, is now augmented by examining the temperature profile in the settling tank, to help determine the settled sludge height over time. Recently, a settling model examined at PNNL [1,2,3] has been applied to observed thermocouple and turbidity meter readings to

  4. Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.

    1994-01-01

    sludge. Phenomena as free and hindered settling and the Bingham plastic characteristic of activated sludge suspensions are included in the numerical model. Further characterisation and test tank experiments are described. The characterisation experiments were designed to measure calibration parameters...... for model description of settling and density differences. In the test tank experiments, flow velocities and suspended sludge concentrations were measured with different tank inlet geomotry and hydraulic and sludge loads. The test tank experiments provided results for the calibration of the numerical model......A numerical model and measurements of flow and settling in activated sludge suspension is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and interrelated hydraulic and sedimentation phenomena by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended...

  5. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Vapor space characterization of waste Tank A-101, Results from samples collected on June 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-A-101 (Tank A-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  6. Joint NRC/EPA Sewage Sludge Radiological Survey: Survey Design & Test Site Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains the results of a radiological survey of nine publicly POTWs around the country, which was commissioned by the Sewage Sludge Subcommittee, to determine whether and to what extent radionuclides concentrate in sewage treatment wastes.

  7. Distributions of 14 elements on 63 absorbers from three simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge, acidified supernate, and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 63 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste (HLW). These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with three solutions prepared to simulate acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6), acidified supernate (pH 3.5), and alkaline supernate (pH 13.9) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. To these simulants we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of more than 2500 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate those elements most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of greater interest. On the basis of nearly 7500 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of these absorbers appear suitable for processing HLW. This study supersedes the previous version of LA-12654, in which results attributed to a solution identified as an alkaline supernate simulant were misleading because that solution contained insufficient hydroxide

  8. Final Report on the Analytical Results for Tank Farm Samples in Support of Salt Dissolution Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Recent processing of dilute solutions through the 2H-Evaporator system caused dissolution of salt in Tank 38H, the concentrate receipt tank. This report documents analytical results for samples taken from this evaporator system

  9. Tank 103, 219-S Facility at 222-S Laboratory, analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for the polychlorinated biphenyls analysis of Tank-103 (TK-103) in the 219-S Facility at 222-S Laboratory. Twenty 1-liter bottles (Sample numbers S98SO00074 through S98SO00093) were received from TK-103 during two sampling events, on May 5 and May 7, 1998. The samples were centrifuged to separate the solids and liquids. The centrifuged sludge was analyzed for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures. The results are discussed on page 6. The sample breakdown diagram (Page 114) provides a cross-reference of sample identification of the bulk samples to the laboratory identification number for the solids. The request for sample analysis (RSA) form is provided as Page 117. The raw data is presented on Page 43. Sample Description, Handling, and Preparation Twenty samples were received in the laboratory in 1-Liter bottles. The first 8 samples were received on May 5, 1998. There were insufficient solids to perform the requested PCB analysis and 12 additional samples were collected and received on May 7, 1998. Breakdown and sub sampling was performed on May 8, 1998. Sample number S98SO00084 was lost due to a broken bottle. Nineteen samples were centrifuged and the solids were collected in 8 centrifuge cones. After the last sample was processed, the solids were consolidated into 2 centrifuge cones. The first cone contained 9.7 grams of solid and 13.0 grams was collected in the second cone. The wet sludge from the first centrifuge cone was submitted to the laboratory for PCB analysis (sample number S98SO00102). The other sample portion (S98SO00103) was retained for possible additional analyses

  10. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project. Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1998-06-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process

  11. Bench-scale crossflow filtration of Hanford tank C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110 sludge slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1997-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has a bench-scale crossflow filter installed in a shielded hot cell for testing radioactive feeds. During FY97 experiments were conducted on slurries from radioactive Hanford waste from tanks C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110. Each tank was tested at three slurry concentrations (8, 1.5, and 0.05 wt% solids). A two-parameter central composite design which tested transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. Crossflow filtration was found to remove solids effectively, as judged by filtrate clarity and radiochemical analysis. If the filtrates from these tests were immobilized in a glass matrix, the resulting transuranic and ( 90 Sr) activity would not breach low activity waste glass limits of 100nCi/g (TRU) and 20 μCi/ml ( 90 Sr). Two exceptions were the transuranic activity in filtrates from processing 1.5 and 8 wt% C-106 tank waste. Subsequent analyses indicated that the source of the TRU activity in the filtrate was most likely due to soluble activity, but obviously proved ineffective at removing the soluble plutonium species. Re-testing of the C-106 supported this hypothesis. These data suggest the need to control carbonate and pH when processing tank wastes for immobilization

  12. FY 1999 cold demonstration of the Multi-Point Injection (MPI) process for stabilizing contaminated sludge in buried horizontal tanks with limited access at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Spence, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the U.S. Department of Energy is the remediation of buried tank waste. Exhumation of the sludge is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation does not typically remove all the contaminated material from the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and uniformly mixed with the sludge. Ground Environmental Services, Inc., has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity, jet-delivery system, which is termed Multi-Point-Injection (MPItrademark). This robust jet-delivery system has been used to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow-buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in a cylindrical test tank (FY 1998). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process was able to successfully form a 32-ton uniform monolith in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of a zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within the 40-inch-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies of Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily mixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing

  13. Analytical results of Tank 38H core samples -- Fall 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swingle, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Two samples were pulled from Tank 38H in the Fall of 1999: a variable depth sample (VDS) of the supernate was pulled in October and a core sample from the salt layer was pulled in December. Analysis of the rinse from the outside of the core sample indicated no sign of volatile or semivolatile organics. Both supernate and solids from the VDS and the dried core sample solids were analyzed for isotopes which could pose a criticality concern and also for elements which could serve as neutron poisons, as well as other elements. Results of the elemental analyses of these samples show significant elements present to mitigate the potential for nuclear criticality. However, it should be noted the results given for the VDS solids elemental analyses may be higher than the actual concentration in the solids, since the filter paper was dissolved along with the sample solids

  14. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 7A QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Billings, A.; Click, D.

    2011-07-08

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry (Sludge Batch 7a*) be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) is composed of portions of Tanks 4, 7, and 12; the Sludge Batch 6 heel in Tank 51; and a plutonium stream from H Canyon. SRNL received the Tank 51 qualification sample (sample ID HTF-51-10-125) following sludge additions to Tank 51. This report documents: (1) The washing (addition of water to dilute the sludge supernate) and concentration (decanting of supernate) of the SB7a - Tank 51 qualification sample to adjust sodium content and weight percent insoluble solids to Tank Farm projections. (2) The performance of a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation using the washed Tank 51 sample. The simulation included a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, where acid was added to the sludge to destroy nitrite and reduce mercury, and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, where glass frit was added to the sludge in preparation for vitrification. The SME cycle also included replication of five canister decontamination additions and concentrations. Processing parameters were based on work with a non

  15. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AZ-101. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found one reportable indication of thinning and no reportable pitting, corrosion, or cracking

  16. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AY-102 ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AY-102. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AY-102 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found some indication of insignificant general and local wall thinning with no cracks detected

  17. Tank 241-BY-109, cores 201 and 203, analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final laboratory report for tank 241-BY-109 push mode core segments collected between June 6, 1997 and June 17, 1997. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (Bell, 1997), the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow, et al, 1995). The analytical results are included

  18. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2007-02-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to global

  19. Waste conditioning for tank heel transfer. Preliminary data and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) for the fiscal year 1998 (FY98) under the Tank Focus Area (TFA) project ''Waste Conditioning for Tank Slurry Transfer.'' The objective of this project is to determine the effect of chemical and physical properties on the waste conditioning process and transfer. The focus of this research consisted in building a waste conditioning experimental facility to test different slurry simulants under different conditions, and analyzing their chemical and physical properties. This investigation would provide experimental data and analysis results that can make the tank waste conditioning process more efficient, improve the transfer system, and influence future modifications to the waste conditioning and transfer system. A waste conditioning experimental facility was built in order to test slurry simulants. The facility consists of a slurry vessel with several accessories for parameter control and sampling. The vessel also has a lid system with a shaft-mounted propeller connected to an air motor. In addition, a circulation system is connected to the slurry vessel for simulant cooling and heating. Experimental data collection and analysis of the chemical and physical properties of the tank slurry simulants has been emphasized. For this, one waste slurry simulant (Fernald) was developed, and another two simulants (SRS and Hanford) obtained from DOE sites were used. These simulants, composed of water, soluble metal salts, and insoluble solid particles, were used to represent the actual radioactive waste slurries from different DOE sites. The simulants' chemical and physical properties analyzed include density, viscosity, pH, settling rate, and volubility. These analyses were done to samples obtained from different experiments performed at room temperature but different mixing time and strength. The experimental results indicate that the

  20. Effect of lime addition during sewage sludge treatment on characteristics of resulting SSA when it is used in cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouk, D; Nakic, D; Štirmer, N; Baricevic, A

    2017-02-01

    Final disposal of sewage sludge is important not only in terms of satisfying the regulations, but the aspect of choosing the optimal wastewater treatment technology, including the sludge treatment. In most EU countries, significant amounts of stabilized and dewatered sludge are incinerated, and sewage sludge ash (SSA) is generated as a by product. At the same time, lime is one of the commonly used additives in the sewage sludge treatment primarily to stabilize the sludge. In doing so, the question arose how desirable is such addition of lime if the sludge is subsequently incinerated, and the generated ash is further used in the production of cementitious materials. A series of mortars were prepared where 10-20% of the cement fraction was replaced by SSA. Since all three types of analyzed SSA (without lime, with lime added during sludge stabilization and with extra lime added during sludge incineration) yielded nearly same results, it can be concluded that if sludge incineration is accepted solution, lime addition during sludge treatment is unnecessary even from the standpoint of preserving the pozzolanic properties of the resulting SSA. Results of the research carried out on cement mortars point to the great possibilities of using SSA in concrete industry.

  1. Effects of oxidation reduction potential in the bypass micro-aerobic sludge zone on sludge reduction for a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexun; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongpin; Liu, Dongfang

    2014-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) on sludge reduction in a bypass micro-aerobic sludge reduction system. The system was composed of a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process with a sludge holding tank in the sludge recycle loop. The ORPs in the micro-aerobic tanks were set at approximately +350, -90, -150, -200 and -250 mV, by varying the length of aeration time for the tanks. The results show that lower ORP result in greater sludge volume reduction, and the sludge production was reduced by 60% at the lowest ORP. In addition, low ORP caused extracellular polymer substances dissociation and slightly reduced sludge activity. Comparing the sludge backflow characteristics of the micro-aerobic tank's ORP controlled at -250 mV with that of +350 mV, the average soluble chemical oxygen (SCOD), TN and TP increased by 7, 0.4 and 2 times, median particle diameter decreased by 8.5 μm and the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) decreased by 0.0043 milligram O2 per gram suspended solids per minute. For the effluent, SCOD and TN and TP fluctuated around 30, 8.7 and 0.66 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the effective assignment of ORP in the micro-aerobic tank can remarkably reduce sludge volume and does not affect final effluent quality.

  2. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  3. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly

  4. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  5. Results For The Third Quarter 2010 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminant Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (i) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (ii) The reported detection limits for 94 Nb, 247 Cm and 249 Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 4. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (iii) The reported detection limit for 242m Am is greater than the requested limit from Attachment 8.4 of the WAC. (iv) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (v) The reported concentration of Isopropanol is greater than the limit from Table 4 of the WAC. (vi) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  6. Test Results for Caustic Demand Measurements on Tank 241-AX-101 and Tank 241-AX-103 Archive Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Stephanie R.; Bolling, Stacie D.

    2016-01-01

    Caustic demand testing is used to determine the necessary amount of caustic required to neutralize species present in the Hanford tank waste and obtain a target molarity of free hydroxide for tank corrosion control. The presence and quantity of hydroxide-consuming analytes are just as important in determining the caustic demand as is the amount of free hydroxide present. No single data point can accurately predict whether a satisfactory hydroxide level is being met, as it is dependent on multiple factors (e.g., free hydroxide, buffers, amphoteric metal hydroxides, bicarbonate, etc.). This enclosure contains the caustic demand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the tank 241-AX-101 (AX-101) and 241-AX-103 (AX-103) samples. The work was completed to fulfill a customer request outlined in the test plan, WRPS-1505529, ''Test Plan and Procedure for Caustic Demand Testing on Tank 241-AX-101 and Tank 241-AX-103 Archive Samples.'' The work results will provide a baseline to support planned retrieval of AX-101 and AX-103.

  7. Test Results for Caustic Demand Measurements on Tank 241-AX-101 and Tank 241-AX-103 Archive Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Stephanie R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Bolling, Stacie D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Caustic demand testing is used to determine the necessary amount of caustic required to neutralize species present in the Hanford tank waste and obtain a target molarity of free hydroxide for tank corrosion control. The presence and quantity of hydroxide-consuming analytes are just as important in determining the caustic demand as is the amount of free hydroxide present. No single data point can accurately predict whether a satisfactory hydroxide level is being met, as it is dependent on multiple factors (e.g., free hydroxide, buffers, amphoteric metal hydroxides, bicarbonate, etc.). This enclosure contains the caustic demand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the tank 241-AX-101 (AX-101) and 241-AX-103 (AX-103) samples. The work was completed to fulfill a customer request outlined in the test plan, WRPS-1505529, “Test Plan and Procedure for Caustic Demand Testing on Tank 241-AX-101 and Tank 241-AX-103 Archive Samples.” The work results will provide a baseline to support planned retrieval of AX-101 and AX-103.

  8. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  9. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, 'Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge'). The purpose of this technical

  10. Initial tank calibration at NUCEF critical facility. 1. Measurement procedure and its result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Hiroshi; Mineo, Hideaki; Tonoike, Kotaro; Takeshita, Isao; Hoshi, Katsuya; Hagiwara, Hiroyuki.

    1994-07-01

    Initial tank calibrations were carried out prior to hot operation of critical facilities in NUCEF: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, for the purpose of the nuclear material accountancy and control for the facility. Raw calibration data were collected from single run per one tank by measuring differential pressure with dip-tube systems, weight of calibration liquid (demineralized water) poured into the tank, temperature in the tank and so on, without operation of tank ventilation system. Volume and level data were obtained by applying density and buoyancy corrections to the raw data. As a result, the evaluated measurement errors of volume and level were small enough, e.g. within 0.2 lit. and 1.0 mm, respectively, for Pu accountancy tanks. This paper summarizes the above-mentioned measurement procedures, collected data, data correction procedures and evaluated measurement errors. (author)

  11. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  12. Results of vapor space monitoring of flammable gas Watch List tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization Systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, release rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed

  13. Results For The Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-11-26

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  14. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-01-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System

  15. Tank 241-S-102, Core 232 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1998-11-04

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-S-102 push mode core segments collected between March 5, 1998 and April 2, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-S-102 Retained Gas Sampler System Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (McCain, 1998), Letter of Instruction for Compatibility Analysis of Samples from Tank 241-S-102 (LOI) (Thompson, 1998) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Mulkey and Miller, 1998). The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1).

  16. Results of Vapor Space Monitoring of Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCAIN, D.J.

    2000-09-27

    This report documents the measurement of headspace gas concentrations and monitoring results from the Hanford tanks that have continuous flammable gas monitoring. The systems used to monitor the tanks are Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems. Further characterization of the tank off-gases was done with Gas Characterization systems and vapor grab samples. The background concentrations of all tanks are below the action level of 6250 ppm. Other information which can be derived from the measurements (such as generation rate, released rate, and ventilation rate) is also discussed.

  17. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  18. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  19. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  20. 45-Day safety screen results for tank 241-U-202, push mode, cores 75 and 78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a report of the analytical results for samples collected from the radioactive wastes in Tank 241-U-202 at the Hanford Reservation. Core samples were collected from the solid wastes in the tank and underwent safety screening analyses including differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and total alpha analysis. Results indicate that no safety screening notification limits were exceeded

  1. Tank 4 Characterization, Settling, And Washing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na 2 SO 4 · Na 2 CO 3 ). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form

  2. Tank 101-SY Window E core sample: Interpretation of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    A full depth core sample was taken for tank 241-SY-101 in December 1991 during a time period called ''Window E.'' This was the second full depth core sample from this tank during the year. The core had two major portions that are known as the convective zone and the nonconvective zone. A crust was on the top of tank but as poorly sampled. The analysis of the Window E core sample stressed segment composite chemical analysis instead of segment by segment as in Window C. Adiabatic calorimetry on samples from both cores showed a slow self heating reaction above 150 degrees C on dried samples. The exothermic events were milder than similar synthetic samples. The chemical and physical properties complemented the information from Window C. The Window E material from the convective zone was more viscous than the Window C convective zone material. The nonconvective zone viscosities were similar for both cores. Heating and dilution tests were made to test mitigation concepts

  3. Tank 101-SY Window E core sample: Interpretation of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    A full depth core sample was taken for tank 241-SY-101 in December 1991 during a time period called ``Window E.`` This was the second full depth core sample from this tank during the year. The core had two major portions that are known as the convective zone and the nonconvective zone. A crust was on the top of tank but as poorly sampled. The analysis of the Window E core sample stressed segment composite chemical analysis instead of segment by segment as in Window C. Adiabatic calorimetry on samples from both cores showed a slow self heating reaction above 150{degrees}C on dried samples. The exothermic events were milder than similar synthetic samples. The chemical and physical properties complemented the information from Window C. The Window E material from the convective zone was more viscous than the Window C convective zone material. The nonconvective zone viscosities were similar for both cores. Heating and dilution tests were made to test mitigation concepts.

  4. Technology for improving sludge concentration; Odei noshukusei kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Sludge generating in a sewage treatment plant is disposed through the processes such as concentration, dehydration, and incineration in sludge disposal facilities. In recent years, there has been a trend that this sludge increases in volume as well as worsens in the concentration. A case is predictable where the sludge load to the dehydrating process is so large that the sludge can no longer be processed in sufficient quantity. In the meantime, if sludge is ozone-treated, viscous substance on the surface of sludge particles can be separated with a comparatively small amount of ozone, with sludge concentration enhanced. At Meidensha, an experimental plant was set up for the ozone treatment of sludge in a sludge intensive treatment plant of a metropolis, with a verification experiment carried out for a sludge concentration improving system by ozone. As a result of comparison of the treatment performance between an assessment system for performing ozone treatment and a reference system for not performing, the average value of the sludge concentration of a gravity concentration tank was 1.9% of the reference system against 1.7% of the assessment system in a continuous treatment experiment in the summer, while the solid collection ratio was 65.8% of the reference system against 95.5% of the assessment system, enabling a superior improving effect to be obtained. (NEDO)

  5. Irradiated sewage sludge for application to cropland. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Modern urban societies produce large volumes of sewage, which are transported through a network of underground sewers to wastewater treatment plants, where one or more stages of physical, biological and chemical treatment are imposed. Considerable tonnages of aerobically, and sometimes anaerobically, digested sludge are produced, and treated or untreated effluent is discharged to lagoons, waterways or the ocean. The disposal of sewage sludge is a major issue for municipal authorities. There are increasing legislative restrictions in many countries on disposal methods (e.g. incineration, landfill, composting) including surface application to agricultural land. Sludge can either be viewed as a dangerous waste requiring expensive disposal procedures, or it can be seen as a resource for possible use in agriculture as a soil conditioning agent and a source of plant nutrients. Untreated sewage sludge presents a public-health hazard as it contains human pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and other harmful organisms. Although it has been demonstrated that an appropriate dose of gamma-irradiation can eliminate human parasites and bacterial pathogens from sewage sludge, there is still public concern about the presence of viruses, as well as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds from industrial sources that could enter the food chain if sludge is applied to croplands. More information is also needed on the value of sludge as a source of plant nutrients, expressed in terms of fertilizer equivalence. In this regard, isotopic labelling techniques have a unique role to play in estimating the contribution of sewage sludge to crop nutrition. As a result of recommendations formulated at a Consultants Meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the IAEA Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, 5-9 December 1994 (IAEA-TECDOC-971, Sewage Sludge and Wastewater for Use in Agriculture) the Joint Division implemented a Co

  6. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  7. USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2005-01-01

    This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters

  8. Hydrogen production during processing of radioactive sludge containing noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.; Ferrara, D.M.; Bibler, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced when radioactive sludge from Savannah River Site radioactive waste containing noble metals was reacted with formic acid. This will occur in a process tank in the Defense Waste Facility at SRS when waste is vitrified. Radioactive sludges from four tanks were tested in a lab-scale apparatus. Maximum hydrogen generation rates varied from 5 x10 -7 g H 2 /hr/g of sludge from the least reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 51) to 2 x10 -4 g H 2 /hr/g of sludge from the most reactive sludge (from Waste Tank 11). The time required for the hydrogen generation to reach a maximum varied from 4.1 to 25 hours. In addition to hydrogen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were produced and the pH of the reaction slurry increased. In all cases, the carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were generated before the hydrogen. The results are in agreement with large-scale studies using simulated sludges

  9. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  10. Flammable gas project expert elicitation results for Hanford Site double-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of the second phase of parameter quantification by the flammable gas expert panel. This second phase is focused on the analysis of flammable gas accidents in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks. The first phase of parameter quantification, performed in 1997 was focused on the analysis of Hanford single-shell tanks

  11. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  12. Tank 241-T-204, core 188 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-07-24

    TANK 241-T-204, CORE 188, ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR THE FINAL REPORT. This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241 -T-204. Push mode core segments were removed from Riser 3 between March 27, 1997, and April 11, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-8 Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-204 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TRAP) (Winkleman, 1997), Letter of instruction for Core Sample Analysis of Tanks 241-T-201, 241- T-202, 241-T-203, and 241-T-204 (LAY) (Bell, 1997), and Safety Screening Data Qual@ Objective (DO) ODukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group and are not considered in this report.

  13. Tank 241-T-105, cores 205 and 207 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final laboratory report for tank 241-T-105 push mode core segments collected between June 24, 1997 and June 30, 1997. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Field,1997), the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Safety DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995) and Tank 241-T-105 Sample Analysis (memo) (Field, 1997a). The analytical results are included in Table 1. None of the subsamples submitted for the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis or total alpha activity (AT) exceeded the notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Field, 1997). The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and not considered in this report

  14. DESIGN OF LIQUID-STORAGE TANK: RESULTS OF SOFTWARE MODELING VS CALCULATIONS ACCORDING TO EUROCODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matko Gulin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show the design process of a liquid-storage tank shell according to Eurocode and compare the results obtained using the norms with those from a finite element method (FEM analysis. The calculations were performed for an aboveground vertical steel water-storage tank with a variable thickness wall and stiffening ring on top. First, the types of liquid storage tanks are briefly explained. Second, the given tank is described. Third, an analysis of the tank wall according to the Eurocode was carried out. The FEM analysis was performed using the Scia Engineer ver. 17 software. Finally, all the results are presented in tables and compared.

  15. Co-digestion of food and garden waste with mixed sludge from wastewater treatment in continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Boe, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Co-digestions of urban organic waste were conducted to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio between sludge, food waste, grass clippings and green waste at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). Compared to the digestion of 100% sludge, the methane yield increased by 48% and 35%, when co...... days. However, the methane yield dropped significantly to 356 (R1) and 315 (R2) NmL CH4/g VS when reducing the HRT to 10 days, indicating that the process was stressed. Since the methane production rate improved significantly with decreasing HRT, the trade-off between yield and productivity...

  16. TEMPEST code modifications and testing for erosion-resisting sludge simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The TEMPEST computer code has been used to address many waste retrieval operational and safety questions regarding waste mobilization, mixing, and gas retention. Because the amount of sludge retrieved from the tank is directly related to the sludge yield strength and the shear stress acting upon it, it is important to incorporate the sludge yield strength into simulations of erosion-resisting tank waste retrieval operations. This report describes current efforts to modify the TEMPEST code to simulate pump jet mixing of erosion-resisting tank wastes and the models used to test for erosion of waste sludge with yield strength. Test results for solid deposition and diluent/slurry jet injection into sludge layers in simplified tank conditions show that the modified TEMPEST code has a basic ability to simulate both the mobility and immobility of the sludges with yield strength. Further testing, modification, calibration, and verification of the sludge mobilization/immobilization model are planned using erosion data as they apply to waste tank sludges

  17. Results and preliminary analysis of critical experiments with interacting slab solution tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Victor N.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Sviridov, Victor I.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the main results of several sets of critical experiments with two interacting similar slab tanks filled with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate with uranium of 90% enrichment. These experiments were carried out at the RF-GS facility, Obninsk, Russia. Tanks with the thickness of 15 cm, width of 100 cm and height of 120 cm were used in these experiments. The experiments were conducted with partitions made of concrete, brick, polyethylene, cadmium, borated polyethylene. Consideration was given to the dependence of critical volume in each tank on the distance between the tanks and on the partition thickness. The tanks were filled with solutions of highly enriched uranium with its concentrations of 75 g/L and 250 g/L. Critical experiments were analysed with the MCNP 4A code based on the Monte-Carlo method and with the ENDF/B-V library. (author)

  18. Distributions of 14 elements on 60 selected absorbers from two simulant solutions (acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate) for Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1993-10-01

    Sixty commercially available or experimental absorber materials were evaluated for partitioning high-level radioactive waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. The distributions of 14 elements onto each absorber were measured from simulated solutions that represent acid-dissolved sludge and alkaline supernate solutions from Hanford high-level waste (HLW) Tank 102-SY. The selected elements, which represent fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y); actinides (U, Pu, and Am); and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr), were traced by radionuclides and assayed by gamma spectrometry. Distribution coefficients for each of the 1680 element/absorber/solution combinations were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to provide sorption kinetics information for the specified elements from these complex media. More than 5000 measured distribution coefficients are tabulated

  19. Oxidative-Alkaline Leaching of Washed 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101 Tank Sludges and Its Impact on Immobilized High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Geeting, John GH; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Vienna, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes work designed to evaluate the effectiveness of alkaline permanganate contacts at selectively removing chromium from the Hanford tank sludges 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101. The key variables examined in this study, as compared to contact with the standard conditions of stoichiometric permanganate in 3 M hydroxide at elevated temperature, were: (a) excess permanganate and hydroxide at elevated temperature, (b) the separation of an elevated temperature 3 M hydroxide leach with either a room temperature permanganate contact or an elevated temperature permanganate contact at 0.25 M hydroxide. It was determined that sequential permanganate and caustic leaching can provide as effective removal of Cr as the combined high hydroxide permanganate contact at elevated temperature while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution

  20. Best-basis estimates of solubility of selected radionuclides in sludges in Hanford single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Defined Waste (HDW) model (Rev. 4) (Agnew et al. 1997) projects inventories (as of January 1, 1994) of 46 radionuclides in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. To model the distribution of the 46 radionuclides among the 177 tanks, it was necessary for Agnew et al. to estimate the solubility of each radionuclide in the various waste types originally added to the single-shell tanks. Previous editions of the HDW model used single-point solubility estimates. The work described in this report was undertaken to provide more accurate estimates of the solubility of all 46 radionuclides in the various wastes

  1. Best-basis estimates of solubility of selected radionuclides in sludges in Hanford single-shell tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARMSEN, R.W.

    1999-02-24

    The Hanford Defined Waste (HDW) model (Rev. 4) (Agnew et al. 1997) projects inventories (as of January 1, 1994) of 46 radionuclides in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. To model the distribution of the 46 radionuclides among the 177 tanks, it was necessary for Agnew et al. to estimate the solubility of each radionuclide in the various waste types originally added to the single-shell tanks. Previous editions of the HDW model used single-point solubility estimates. The work described in this report was undertaken to provide more accurate estimates of the solubility of all 46 radionuclides in the various wastes.

  2. Sludge lancing and inner bundle lancing: results and experiences in the Spanish central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, Esteban; Del Pozo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    During the operation cycle of the PWR plants oxide deposits (sludge) are generated in the secondary circuit by erosion-corrosion, chemical additives, etc. which are deposited on the tube plate of Steam Generators (SGs), limiting their efficiency and lifetime. To reduce them, Iberdrola Engineering and Construction with SRA SAVAC perform cleaning works by high-pressure water jets and tele-visual inspections between GV tubes. Results are shown in the text. (authors)

  3. Preliminary results of lab-scale investigations of products of incomplete combustion during incineration of primary and mixed digested sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Bagnuolo, G; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Pastore, C; Mascolo, G

    2016-03-01

    Separation between primary and secondary sludge treatment could be a valuable solution for sludge management. According to this approach, secondary sludge can be conveniently used in agriculture while primary sludge could be easily dried and incinerated. It follows that some concern may arise from incinerating primary sludge with respect to the current practice to incinerate mixed digested sludge. Incineration of primary and mixed digested municipal sludge was investigated with a lab-scale equipment in terms of emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) during incineration failure modes. PICs can be grouped in three sub-categories, namely aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), compounds with a single aromatic ring, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After-burning temperature was the most important parameter to be controlled in order to minimize emissions of alkanes and alkenes. As for mono-aromatic compounds, benzene and toluene are the most thermally resistant compounds, and in some cases, an after-burning temperature of 1100 °C was not enough to get the complete destruction of benzene leading to a residual emission of 18 mg/kgsludge. PAHs showed an opposite trend with respect to aliphatic and mono-aromatic hydrocarbons being the thermal failure mode the main responsible of PIC emissions. A proper oxygen concentration is more important than elevated temperature thus reflecting the high thermal stability of PAHs. Overall, obtained results, even though obtained under flameless conditions that are different from those of the industrial plants, demonstrated that separation of primary and secondary sludge does not pose any drawbacks or concern regarding primary sludge being disposed of by incineration even though it is more contaminated than mixed digested sludge in terms of organic pollutants.

  4. Results of exploitation of a pilot-plant installation for bituminization of radioactive sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinski, M.; Ksiazak, Z.; Surala, J.; Dziubecki, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are discussed of exploitation of a pilot-plant installation for bituminization of radioactive sludges of an efficiency of 25 l/h. In a time period of 20 month 120 cycles were carried out in which 60 m 3 of 2-4% sludges from treatment of low-level waste by the phosphate-ferrocyanide method were solidified. The P-60 asphalt was used for bituminization. The bituminization products contained 5-13.5% of mineral substances. Their activity was in the range 5 x 10 -4 - 5 x 10 -3 μCi/g for alpha emitters and 1.2 - 3.8 x 10 -2 μCi/g for beta emitters. (author)

  5. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-112: Results from samples collected on July 11, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage Tank 241-S-112 (Tank S-112) at the Hanford. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5044. Samples were collected by WHC on July 11, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  6. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank SX-102: Results from samples collected on July 19, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-102 (Tank SX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed under the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5046. Samples were collected by WHC on July 19, 1995, using the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  7. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-T-110: Results from samples collected on August 31, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-T-110 (Tank T-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5056. Samples were collected by WHC on August 31, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  8. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-TX-111: Results from samples collected on October 12, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-TX-111 (Tank TX-111) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5069. Samples were collected by WHC on October 12, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  9. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-103: Results from samples collected on June 21, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-103 (Tank AX-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5029. Samples were collected by WHC on June 21, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  10. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-101: Results from samples collected on June 15, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-AX-101 (Tank AX-101) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) under the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5028. Samples were collected by WHC on June 15, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  11. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-109: Results from samples collected on August 1, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-109 (Tank SX-109) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5048. Samples were collected by WHC on August 1, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  12. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-104: Results from samples collected on July 25, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-104 (Tank SX-104) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5049. Samples were collected by WHC on July 25, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  13. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-SX-105: Results from samples collected on July 26, 1995. Tank Vapor Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-SX-105 (Tank SX-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze samples for inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The analytical work was performed by the PNNL Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) by the Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Work performed was based on a sample and analysis plan (SAP) prepared by WHC. The SAP provided job-specific instructions for samples, analyses, and reporting. The SAP for this sample job was open-quotes Vapor Sampling and Analysis Planclose quotes, and the sample job was designated S5047. Samples were collected by WHC on July 26, 1995, using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS), a truck-based sampling method using a heated probe inserted into the tank headspace

  14. Results for the Third Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC slurry sample: Chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-08

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  15. Tank 241-SY-102, January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results

  16. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  17. Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers

  18. Tank 241-AP-105, cores 208, 209 and 210, analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-10-24

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-AP-105. Push mode core segments were removed from Risers 24 and 28 between July 2, 1997, and July 14, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-AP-105 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997) and Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, or total organic carbon (TOC) analysis exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP and DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Two cores, each consisting of four segments, were expected from Tank 241-AP-105. Three cores were sampled, and complete cores were not obtained. TSAP states core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three calendar days from the time each segment is removed from the tank. This requirement was not met for all cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory sample numbers.

  19. Biogas recovery from tanning sludges. Anaerobic digestion of lime fleshings, tanning sludge, and unhairing baths, laboratory and pilot scale results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrup, W.; Hansen, S.; Petersen, G.

    1983-11-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of various types of tannery and other wastes, separately or in mixtures, has been investigated. The following materials were used: Lime fleshings, Tannery sludge, Beamhouse sludge, Municipal sludge, Chrome leather shavings, Liquid manure. The investigations have shown anaerobic digestion to be possible with untanned tannery wastes as well as tannery effluent sludge as a substrate. Specially high gas yields were found by digestion of mixtures of tannery wastes and manure. This may be applicable to mixtures of tannery wastes and municipal sludge, too. The gas contains 0.5 - 1.0% H2S. About 25% of the gross energy (methane) output is used for sustaining the temperature necessary for the digestion together with the mixing and conveying of the material to be digested. If electricity is produced, 25% of the gross output is obtained as useful electric energy and 35% as useful thermic energy. If the gas is burned, 60% of the gross output is obtained as useful thermic energy. With the price relations found in most countries (e.g. Denmark, Finland and Sweden) it will be most profitable to produce electricity, whereas in some cases (e.g. Norway) the opposite may be true. The energy requirement of a typic Scandinavian tannery is 14.200 MJ/t rawhide as thermic energy and 2.300 MJ/t rawhide as electric energy, which means that maximum 14% of the thermic energy requirement or maximum 35% of the electricity requirement could be covered by the wastes digestion. Profitability calculations are made for each Scandinavian country. The calculations show that too small digestion plants are not profitable.

  20. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  1. Computer modeling of jet mixing in INEL waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of using submerged jet mixing pumps to mobilize and suspend settled sludge materials in INEL High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks. Scenarios include removing the heel (a shallow liquid and sludge layer remaining after tank emptying processes) and mobilizing and suspending solids in full or partially full tanks. The approach used was to (1) briefly review jet mixing theory, (2) review erosion literature in order to identify and estimate important sludge characterization parameters (3) perform computer modeling of submerged liquid mixing jets in INEL tank geometries, (4) develop analytical models from which pump operating conditions and mixing times can be estimated, and (5) analyze model results to determine overall feasibility of using jet mixing pumps and make design recommendations

  2. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety

  3. Summary of uncertainty estimation results for Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferryman, T.A.; Amidan, B.G.; Chen, G.

    1998-09-01

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of radioactive waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known in sufficient detail to support safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. The Hanford Engineering Analysis Best-Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the analytes and tanks for which the Hanford Best-Basis team has made point estimates. Uncertainty intervals can then be calculated for the Best-Basis inventories and should facilitate the cleanup missions. The methodology used to generate the results published in the Tank Characterization Database (TCD) and summarized in this paper is based on scientific principles, sound technical knowledge of the realities associated with the Hanford waste tanks, the chemical analysis of actual samples from the tanks, the Hanford Best-Basic research, and historical data records. The methodology builds on research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) over the last few years. Appendix A of this report summarizes the results of the study. The full set of results (in percentiles, 1--99) is available through the TCD, (http://twins.pnl.gov:8001)

  4. Summary of uncertainty estimation results for Hanford tank chemical and radionuclide inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferryman, T.A.; Amidan, B.G.; Chen, G. [and others

    1998-09-01

    The exact physical and chemical nature of 55 million gallons of radioactive waste held in 177 underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site is not known in sufficient detail to support safety, retrieval, and immobilization missions. The Hanford Engineering Analysis Best-Basis team has made point estimates of the inventories in each tank. The purpose of this study is to estimate probability distributions for each of the analytes and tanks for which the Hanford Best-Basis team has made point estimates. Uncertainty intervals can then be calculated for the Best-Basis inventories and should facilitate the cleanup missions. The methodology used to generate the results published in the Tank Characterization Database (TCD) and summarized in this paper is based on scientific principles, sound technical knowledge of the realities associated with the Hanford waste tanks, the chemical analysis of actual samples from the tanks, the Hanford Best-Basic research, and historical data records. The methodology builds on research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) over the last few years. Appendix A of this report summarizes the results of the study. The full set of results (in percentiles, 1--99) is available through the TCD, (http://twins.pnl.gov:8001).

  5. Results for the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-11

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Fourth Quarter CY15 Tank 50H samples were obtained on October 29, 2015 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on October 30, 2015. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan.

  6. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  7. Sample Results From Tank 48H Samples HTF-48-14-158, -159, -169, and -170

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hang, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 48H in support of determining the cause for the unusually high dose rates at the sampling points for this tank. A set of two samples was taken from the quiescent tank, and two additional samples were taken after the contents of the tank were mixed. The results of the analyses of all the samples show that the contents of the tank have changed very little since the analysis of the previous sample in 2012. The solids are almost exclusively composed of tetraphenylborate (TPB) salts, and there is no indication of acceleration in the TPB decomposition. The filtrate composition shows a moderate increase in salt concentration and density, which is attributable to the addition of NaOH for the purposes of corrosion control. An older modeling simulation of the TPB degradation was updated, and the supernate results from a 2012 sample were run in the model. This result was compared to the results from the 2014 recent sample results reported in this document. The model indicates there is no change in the TPB degradation from 2012 to 2014. SRNL measured the buoyancy of the TPB solids in Tank 48H simulant solutions. It was determined that a solution of density 1.279 g/mL (~6.5M sodium) was capable of indefinitely suspending the TPB solids evenly throughout the solution. A solution of density 1.296 g/mL (~7M sodium) caused a significant fraction of the solids to float on the solution surface. As the experiments could not include the effect of additional buoyancy elements such as benzene or hydrogen generation, the buoyancy measurements provide an upper bound estimate of the density in Tank 48H required to float the solids.

  8. History of waste tank 16, 1959 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Jones, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1977-07-01

    Tank 16 was placed in service as a receiver of fresh high heat waste (HW) on May 9, 1959, and was filled to capacity in May 1960. Approximately half the tank contents were transferred to tanks 14 and 15 during September and October 1960 because of leakage into the annulus. Use of tank 16 was resumed in October 1967 when authorization (TA 2-603) was obtained to receive LW, and the tank was filled to capacity by June 1968. Subsequently, supernate was removed from the tank, and a blend of fresh LW and evaporator bottoms was added. In March 1972, the supernate was transferred to tank 13 because leakage had resumed. The sludge was left in the tank bottom and the use of tank 16 for any additional waste storage was discontinued. In September 1960 liquid waste overflowed the annulus pan. Leakage essentially stopped after the tank liquid level was lowered below the middle horizontal weld. After exhaustive study, tank cracking and resultant leakage was concluded to have been caused by stress corrosion due to the action of NaOH or NaNO 3 on areas of high local stress in the steel plate such as welds. Samples of sludge, supernate, tank vapors, and leaked material in the annulus were analyzed, and tank temperature and radiation profiles were taken. Two disk samples were cut from the primary tank wall for metallurgical examination. Test coupons of various metals were exposed to tank 16 waste to aid new tank design and to study stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. In addition, samples of SRP bedrock were placed in tank 16 to study reactions between bedrock and HW. 18 figures, 2 tables

  9. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-101: Results from samples collected on 06/06/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-101. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed

  10. Results For The Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-13

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Third Quarter Calendar Year 2016 (CY16) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Third Quarter CY16 Tank 50H samples (a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-5-16-63) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-16-64)) were obtained on July 14, 2016 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on the same day. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours, and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Third Quarter CY16 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL TTQAP.

  11. Results for the first quarter calendar year 2017 tank 50H salt solution sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-12

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the First Quarter Calendar Year 2017 (CY17) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The First Quarter CY17 Tank 50H samples [a 200 mL sample obtained 6” below the surface (HTF-50-17-7) and a 1 L sample obtained 66” from the tank bottom (HTF-50-17-8)] were obtained on January 15, 2017 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on January 16, 2017. Prior to obtaining the samples from Tank 50H, a single pump was run at least 4.4 hours and the samples were pulled immediately after pump shut down. All volatile organic analysis (VOA) and semi-volatile organic analysis (SVOA) were performed on the surface sample and all other analyses were performed on the variable depth sample. The information from this characterization will be used by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the First Quarter CY17 sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP). This memorandum is part of Deliverable 2 from SRR request. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the TTQAP for the Tank 50H saltstone task.

  12. Effect of sludge solids to mono-sodium titanate (MST) ratio on MST-treated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team has selected two cesium removal technologies for further development to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process: small tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange. In the CST ion exchange process, incoming salt solution from storage tanks containing entrained sludge solids is pretreated with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and plutonium. The resulting slurry is filtered using a cross-flow filter, with the permeate sent forward to CST ion exchange columns for cesium removal prior to conversion into Class A grout at the Saltstone Facility. The MST and sludge solids are to be sent for vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The High Level Waste Division (HLWD) requested that the Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) study varying the insoluble sludge solids to MST ratio to determine the relative impact of sludge and MST on filter performance. The purpose of this study was not for an exhaustive comprehensive search for an optimized insoluble sludge solids to monosodium titanate (MST) ratio, but as a scoping study to identify any effects of having an excess of either material. This document reports the results obtained

  13. Verification Of The Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF) Process Digestion Methods For The Sludge Batch 8 Qualification Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Click, D. R.; Edwards, T. B.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Brown, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    This report contains the results and comparison of data generated from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of Aqua Regia (AR), Sodium Peroxide/Sodium Hydroxide Fusion Dissolution (PF) and Cold Chem (CC) method digestions and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption analysis of Hg digestions from the DWPF Hg digestion method of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples. The SB8 SRAT Receipt and SB8 SRAT Product samples were prepared in the SRNL Shielded Cells, and the SRAT Receipt material is representative of the sludge that constitutes the SB8 Batch or qualification composition. This is the sludge in Tank 51 that is to be transferred into Tank 40, which will contain the heel of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), to form the SB8 Blend composition

  14. Tank 241-S-106, cores 183, 184 and 187 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final laboratory report for tank 241-S-106 push mode core segments collected between February 12, 1997 and March 21, 1997. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP), the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Safety DQO), the Historical Model Evaluation Data Requirements (Historical DQO) and the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO). The analytical results are included in Table 1. Six of the twenty-four subsamples submitted for the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis exceeded the notification limit of 480 Joules/g stated in the DQO. Appropriate notifications were made. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyses were performed on all samples that produced exotherms during the DSC analysis. All results were less than the notification limit of three weight percent TOC. No cyanide analysis was performed, per agreement with the Tank Safety Program. None of the samples submitted for Total Alpha Activity exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP. Statistical evaluation of results by calculating the 95% upper confidence limit is not performed by the 222-S Laboratory and is not considered in this report. No core composites were created because there was insufficient solid material from any of the three core sampling events to generate a composite that would be representative of the tank contents

  15. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-203, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-203 (Tank U-203) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  16. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank U-204, Results from samples collected on August 8, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-204 (Tank U-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the results is listed. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  17. Tank Vapor Characterization Project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank AX-102: Results from samples collected on June 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-AX-102 (Tank AX-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  18. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-S-107: Results from samples collected on 06/18/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-107 (Tank S-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National. Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  19. Tank 241-AN-104, cores 163 and 164 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-AN-104 push mode core segments collected between August 8, 1996 and September 12, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-AAr-1 04 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Winkelman, 1996), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et at., 1995) and the Flammable Gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Benar, 1995). The analytical results are included in a data summary table. None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Total Alpha Activity (AT), Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Plutonium analyses (239,240 Pu) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and not considered in this report

  20. Tank 241-AX-103, cores 212 and 214 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-AX-103 push mode core segments collected between July 30, 1997 and August 11, 1997. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-AX-103 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Comer, 1997), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995) and the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1). None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Total Alpha Activity (AT), plutonium 239 (Pu239), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Conner, 1997). The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and not considered in this report

  1. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 11 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 11 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 11 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amounts of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  2. Effect of organic loading rate on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Nie, Qiulin; Zhao, Hongting; Tang, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m 3 d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m 3 d) and 32kgCOD/(m 3 d), respectively. Carbon recovery ranged from 75.2-84.1% in the CSTR and CMISR with the balance assumed to be converted to biomass. One gram waste pastry could produce 0.33g (1.83mmol) glucose which could be further converted to 79.24mL (3.54mmol) hydrogen in the CMISR or 91.66mL (4.09mmol) hydrogen in the CSTR. This is the first study which reports dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioremediation of storage tank bottom sludge by using a two-stage composting system: Effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Rajaei, Mohammad Sadegh; Ghanadzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Hamid; Godini, Kazem

    2017-07-01

    The effect of mixing ratio and nutrients addition on the efficiency of a two-stage composting system in removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from storage tank bottom sludge (STBS) was investigated. The system consisted of ten windrow piles as primary composting (PC) followed by four in-vessel reactors as secondary composting (SC). Various initial C/N/P and mixing ratios of STBS to immature compost (IC) were examined in the PC and SC for 12 and 6weeks, respectively. The removal rates of TPH in the two-stage system (93.72-95.24%) were higher than those in the single-stage one. Depending on the experiments, TPH biodegradation fitted to the first- and second-order kinetics with the rate constants of 0.051-0.334d -1 and 0.002-0.165gkg -1 d -1 , respectively. The bacteria identified were Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp., and Proteus sp. The study verified that a two-stage composting system is effective in treating the STBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cathodic protection simulation of above ground storage tank bottom: Experimental and numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Marcelo [Inspection Department, Rio de Janeiro Refinery - REDUC, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brasil, Simone L.D.C. [Chemistry School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baptista, Walmar [Corrosion Department, Research Centre - CENPES, Petrobras (Brazil); Miranda, Luiz de [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Program, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brito, Rosane F. [Corrosion Department, Research Centre, CENPES, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The deterioration history of Above ground Storage Tanks (AST) of Petrobras' refineries - shows that the great incidence of corrosion in the AST bottom is at the external side. This is a problem in the disposability of storage crude oil and other final products. At this refinery, all AST's are built over a concrete base with a lot of pile to support the structure and distribute the charge homogeneously. Because of this it is very difficult to use cathodic protection as an anti-corrosive method for each one of these tanks. This work presents an alternative cathodic protection system to protect the external side of the tank bottom using a new metallic bottom, placed at different distance from the original one. The space between the two bottoms was filled with one of two kinds of soils, sand or clay, more conductive than the concrete. Using a prototype tank it was studied the potential distributions over the new tank bottom for different system parameters, as soil resistivity, number and position of anodes localized in the old bottom. These experimental results were compared to numerical simulations, carried out using a software based on the Boundary Element Method. The computer simulation validates this protection method, confirming to be a very useful tool to define the optimized cathodic protection system configuration. (authors)

  5. Tank 241-T-201, core 192 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-08-07

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-201. Push mode core segments were removed from Riser 3 between April 24, 1997, and April 25, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-201 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997), Letter of Instruction for Core Sample Analysis of Tanks 241-T-201, 241-T-202, 241-T-203, and 241-T-204 (LOI) (Bell, 1997), Additional Core Composite Sample from Drainable Liquid Samples for Tank 241-T-2 01 (ACC) (Hall, 1997), and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report.

  6. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi [School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the {sup 131}I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of {sup 131}I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  7. Tank 241-T-201, core 192 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-201. Push mode core segments were removed from Riser 3 between April 24, 1997, and April 25, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-201 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1997), Letter of Instruction for Core Sample Analysis of Tanks 241-T-201, 241-T-202, 241-T-203, and 241-T-204 (LOI) (Bell, 1997), Additional Core Composite Sample from Drainable Liquid Samples for Tank 241-T-2 01 (ACC) (Hall, 1997), and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group, and are not considered in this report

  8. STP-ECRTS - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSES FOR SLUDGE TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CONTAINER (STSC) STORAGE AT T PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; LEE SJ; PLYS MG

    2010-04-29

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of sludge contained in the six engineered containers and Settler tank within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. The STP is retrieving and transferring sludge from the Settler tank into engineered container SCS-CON-230. Then, the STP will retrieve and transfer sludge from the six engineered containers in the KW Basin directly into a Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) contained in a Sludge Transport System (STS) cask. The STSC/STS cask will be transported to T Plant for interim storage of the STSC. The STS cask will be loaded with an empty STSC and returned to the KW Basin for loading of additional sludge for transportation and interim storage at T Plant. CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with Fauske & Associates, LLC (FAI) to perform thermal and gas generation analyses for interim storage of STP sludge in the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSCs) at T Plant. The sludge types considered are settler sludge and sludge originating from the floor of the KW Basin and stored in containers 210 and 220, which are bounding compositions. The conditions specified by CHPRC for analysis are provided in Section 5. The FAI report (FAI/10-83, Thermal and Gas Analyses for a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) at T Plant) (refer to Attachment 1) documents the analyses. The process considered was passive, interim storage of sludge in various cells at T Plant. The FATE{trademark} code is used for the calculation. The results are shown in terms of the peak sludge temperature and hydrogen concentrations in the STSC and the T Plant cell. In particular, the concerns addressed were the thermal stability of the sludge and the potential for flammable gas mixtures. This work was performed with preliminary design information and a preliminary software configuration.

  9. Fiscal year 1994 1/25-scale sludge mobilization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Gates, C.M.; Hymas, C.R.; Sprecher, M.A.; Morter, N.J.

    1995-07-01

    There are 28 one-million-gallon double-shell radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Reservation in southeastern Washington State. The waste in these tanks was generated during processing of nuclear materials. Solids-laden slurries were placed into many of the tanks. Over time, the waste solids have settled to form a layer of sludge in the bottom of these tanks. The sludge layer thickness varies from tank to tank with some having only a few centimeters or no sludge up to some tanks which have about 4.5 m (15 ft) of sludge. It is planned that the waste will be removed from these tanks as part of the overall Hanford site cleanup efforts. Jet mixer pumps are to be placed into the tanks to stir up (mobilize) the sludge and form a uniform slurry suitable for pumping to downstream processing facilities. These mixer pumps use powerful jets of tank fluid directed horizontally out of two, diametrically opposed nozzles near the tank bottom. These fluid jets impinge upon the sludge and stir it up. The amount of sludge mobilized by the mixer pump jets depends not only on the jet properties, but also on the ability of the sludge to resist the jets. It is the goal of the work described in this document to develop the ability to predict how much sludge will be mobilized by the mixer pumps based on the size and velocity of the mixer pump jets and the physical and chemical properties of the tank sludge

  10. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI) ; High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone

  11. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-03-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

  12. Results of ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge in practice; Ergebnisse des Praxiseinsatzes der Schlammdesintegration mittels Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, E. [IWE-Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Wasser und Entsorgung mbH, Radebeul (Germany); Friedrich, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Sinterwerkstoffe (IKTS), Dresden (Germany); Hielscher, H. [Hielscher GmbH, Teltow (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Using high-performance ultrasonic sludge disintegration in different stages of sewage and sludge treatment is found to be an innovative approach for reducing the accruing amounts of sewage sludge in terms of both mass and volume. By means of practical tests with sludge disintegration at sewage treatment plants, its effects are demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Der Einsatz einer Hochleistungs-Ultraschalltechnik zur Schlammdesintegration in verschiedenen Stufen der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung zeigt sich als innovativer Loesungsweg zur weitestgehenden massenmaessigen sowie volumenmaessigen Minimierung des Klaerschlammanfalles. An Hand von Einsatzerprobungen der Desintegration in der Klaeranlagenpraxis werden die Effekte der Desintegration vorgestellt. (orig.)

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.

    2007-01-01

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  14. Tank 241-U-106, cores 147 and 148, analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, F.H.

    1996-09-27

    This document is the final report deliverable for tank 241-U-106 push mode core segments collected between May 8, 1996 and May 10, 1996 and received by the 222-S Laboratory between May 14, 1996 and May 16, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-U-106 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP), the Historical Model Evaluation Data Requirements (Historical DQO), Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). The analytical results are included in Table 1.

  15. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-B-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-B-104. Sampling and analyses meet safety screening and historical data quality objectives. This report supports the requirements of Tri-party Agreement Milestone M-44-09. his characterization report summoned the available information on the historical uses and the current status of single-shell tank 241-B-104, and presents the analytical results of the June 1995 sampling and analysis effort. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-44-09 (Ecology et al. 1994). Tank 241-B-104 is a single-shell underground waste storage tank located in the 200 East Area B Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. It is the first tank in a three-tank cascade series. The tank went into service in August 1946 with a transfer of second-cycle decontamination waste generated from the bismuth phosphate process. The tank continued to receive this waste type until the third quarter of 1950, when it began receiving first-cycle decontamination waste also produced during the bismuth phosphate process. Following this, the tank received evaporator bottoms sludge from the 242-B Evaporator and waste generated from the flushing of transfer lines. A description and the status of tank 241-B-104 are sum in Table ES-1 and Figure ES-1. The tank has an operating capacity of 2,010 kL (530 kgal), and presently contains 1,400 kL (371 kgal) of waste. The total amount is composed of 4 kL (1 kgal) of supernatant, 260 kL (69 kgal) of saltcake, and 1,140 kL (301 kgal) of sludge (Hanlon 1995). Current surveillance data and observations appear to support these results

  16. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  17. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-U-112: Results from samples collected on 7/09/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-112 at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company

  18. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL and SEISMIC PROJECT-BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS and RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Johnson, K.I.; Deibler, J.E.; Pilli, S.P.; Rinker, M.W.; Karri, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive I-bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads, based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the I-bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive I-bolt failure leading to

  19. Distribution of 14 elements from two solutions simulating Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY (acid-dissolved sludge and acidified supernate) on four cation exchange resins and five anion exchange resins having different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated a series of cation exchange and anion exchange resins for their ability to remove hazardous components from radioactive high-level waste (HLW). The anion exchangers were Reillex TM HPQ, a polyvinyl pyridine resin, and four strong-base polystyrene resins having trimethyl, tri ethyl, tri propyl, and tributyl amine as their respective functional groups. The cation exchange resins included Amberlyst TM 15 and Amberlyst tM XN-1010 with sulfonic acid functionality, Duolite TM C-467 with phosphonic acid functionality, and poly functional Diphonix TM with di phosphonic acid, sulfonic acid, and carboxylic acid functionalities. We measured the distributions of 14 elements on these resins from solutions simulating acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6) and acidified supernate (pH 3.5) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, USA. To these simulants, we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of the 252 element/resin/solution combinations, distribution coefficients (Kds) were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours to obtain information about sorption kinetics from these complex media. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate which unwanted elements are most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of special interest. On the basis of these 756 measured Kd values, we conclude that some of the tested resins appear suitable for partitioning hazardous components from Hanford HLW. (author). 10 refs., 11 tabs

  20. SLUDGE WASHING AND DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 QUALIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Pickenheim, B.; Bannochie, C.; Billings, A.; Bibler, N.; Click, D.

    2010-10-01

    Prior to initiating a new sludge batch in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is required to simulate this processing, including Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulation, waste glass fabrication, and chemical durability testing. This report documents this simulation for the next sludge batch, Sludge Batch 6 (SB6). SB6 consists of Tank 12 material that has been transferred to Tank 51 and subjected to Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), Tank 4 sludge, and H-Canyon Pu solutions. Following LTAD and the Tank 4 addition, Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) provided SRNL a 3 L sample of Tank 51 sludge for SB6 qualification. Pu solution from H Canyon was also received. SB6 qualification included washing the sample per LWO plans/projections (including the addition of Pu from H Canyon), DWPF CPC simulations, waste glass fabrication (vitrification), and waste glass characterization and chemical durability evaluation. The following are significant observations from this demonstration. Sludge settling improved slightly as the sludge was washed. SRNL recommended (and the Tank Farm implemented) one less wash based on evaluations of Tank 40 heel projections and projections of the glass composition following transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40. Thorium was detected in significant quantities (>0.1 wt % of total solids) in the sludge. In past sludge batches, thorium has been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS), seen in small quantities, and reported with the radionuclides. As a result of the high thorium, SRNL-AD has added thorium to their suite of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) elements. The acid stoichiometry for the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing of 115%, or 1.3 mol acid per liter of SRAT receipt slurry, was adequate to accomplish some of the goals of SRAT processing: nitrite was destroyed to below 1,000 mg/kg and mercury was removed to

  1. A laboratory study of washing of SRS high-level waste radioactive sludge-evidence for insoluble sodium and cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.; Bibler, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center were undertaken to simulate the full-scale sludge washing process and thereby identify potential problems, wash water requirements, sludge settling rates and the fate of various radioactive and non-radioactive species present in the sludge. The laboratory sludge washing experiments were conducted on a radioactive sludge sample taken from one of three processing tanks in Extended Sludge Processing. The sample of Tank 42H sludge was extensively characterized for both soluble and insoluble species (radioactive and non-radioactive) before beginning the washing study. The results of the washing experiments using inhibited water (0.01 M NaOH) indicate there is essentially no dissolution of species from the insoluble phase of the sludge during the washing. The addition of wash water to the sludge merely dilutes the salt dissolved in the interstitial supernate of the sludge. Another result from the experiments is that approximately 30% of the sodium and 86% of the Cs-137 in the original unwashed sludge is present in an insoluble form and does not wash out of the sludge

  2. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-U-108: Results from samples collected on 8/29/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Evans, J.C.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsten, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-108 (Tank U-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in the report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC

  3. Tank vapor characterization project - Tank 241-U-112 headspace gas and vapor characterization: Results for homogeneity samples collected on December 6, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklarew, D.S.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Hayes, J.C. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-U-112 (Tank U-112) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Samples were collected to determine the homogeneity of selected inorganic and organic headspace constitutents. Two risers (Riser 3 and Riser 6) were sampled at three different elevations (Bottom, Middle, and Top) within the tank. Tank headspace samples were collected by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation (SESC) and were analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine headspace concentrations of selected non-radioactive analytes. Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Ammonia was determined to be above the immediate notification limit specified by the sampling and analysis plan.

  4. Sludge Washing and Demonstration of the DWPF Nitric/Formic Flowsheet in the SRNL Shielded Cells for Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to qualify the next batch of sludgeSludge Batch 9 (SB9). Current practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge to Tank 51 from other tanks. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to sludge transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Tank 51 sludge must be qualified. SRNL qualifies the sludge in multiple steps. First, a Tank 51 sample is received, then characterized, washed, and again characterized. SRNL then demonstrates the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet with the sludge. The final step of qualification involves chemical durability measurements of glass fabricated in the DWPF CPC demonstrations. In past sludge batches, SRNL had completed the DWPF demonstration with Tank 51 sludge. For SB9, SRNL has been requested to process a blend of Tank 51 and Tank 40 at a targeted ratio of 44% Tank 51 and 56% Tank 40 on an insoluble solids basis.

  5. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-104: Results from samples collected on June 24, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from Hanford waste Tank 241-BY-104 (referred to as Tank BY-104) on June 24, 1994. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and analyze inorganic and organic samples collected from the tank headspace. The sample job was designated S4019 and was performed by WHC on June 24, 1994 using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The results of the analyses are expected to be used in the determination of safety and toxicological issues related to the tank-headspace gas as described in the WHC report entitled Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Vapor Issue Resolution, WHC-SD-WM-DQO-002, Rev. 0. Sampling devices, including 16 sorbent trains (for inorganic analyses), and 5 SUMMA trademark canisters (for organic analyses), were supplied to the WHC sampling staff on June 20, 1994. Samples were taken (by WHC) on June 24. The samples were returned from the field on June 27. The inorganic samples delivered to PNL on chain-of-custody (COC) 006893 included 16 sorbent trains as described in Tables 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Additional inorganic blank spikes were obtained from related sample jobs. SUMMA trademark samples delivered to PNL on COC 006896 included one ambient air sample, one ambient-air sample through the sampling system, and three tank-headspace SUMMA trademark canister samples. The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL laboratory record book 55408. Custody of the sorbent trains was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated (≤10 degrees C) temperature until the time of analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program

  6. Effect of colloidal aggregation on the sedimentation and rheological properties of tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, D.R.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-09-01

    Tank farm experience and work performed under the Tank Waste Treatment Science task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project indicate that colloidal interactions can have an enormous impact on tank waste processing. This report provides the theoretical and experimental background required to understand how such agglomeration phenomena control the sedimentation and theological behavior of colloidal tank wastes. First, the report describes the conditions under which the colloidal particles present in tank sludge are expected to aggregate. Computational models have been developed to predict solution conditions leading to agglomeration, and to predict the rate and size of aggregate growth. The models show that tank sludge should be heavily agglomerated under most baseline processing conditions. Second, the report describes models used to predict sedimentation rates and equilibrium sediment density profiles based on knowledge of agglomerate structures. The sedimentation models provide a self-consistent picture that explains the apparent discrepancies between bench-top experiments and tank-farm experience. Finally, both discrete and empirical models are presented that can be used to rationalize and predict the rheological properties of colloidal sludge suspensions. In all cases, model predictions are compared and contrasted with experimental results. The net results indicate that most of the observed behaviors of real sludges can be predicted, understood, and perhaps ultimately controlled by understanding a few key central concepts regarding agglomeration phenomena

  7. Results Of Physicochemical Characterization And Caustic Dissolution Tests On Tank 241-C-108 Heel Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, W.S.; Huber, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ENRAF waste surface measurement taken February 1, 2009, double-shell tank (DST) 241-AN-106 (AN-106) contained approximately 278.98 inches (793 kgal) of waste. A zip cord measurement from the tank on February 1, 2009, indicated a settled solids layer of 91.7 inches in height (280 kgal). The supernatant layer in February 2009, by difference, was approximately 187 inches deep (514 kgal). Laboratory results from AN-106 February 1, 2009 (see Table 2) grab samples indicated the supernatant was below the chemistry limit that applied at the time as identified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements, Administrative Control (AC) 5.16, 'Corrosion Mitigation Controls.' (The limits have since been removed from the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) and are captured in OSD-T-151-00007, Operating Specifications for the Double-Shell Storage Tanks.) Problem evaluation request WRPS-PER-2009-0218 was submitted February 9, 2009, to document the finding that the supernatant chemistry for grab samples taken from the middle and upper regions of the supernatant was noncompliant with the chemistry control limits. The lab results for the samples taken from the bottom region of the supernatant met AC 5.16 limits.

  8. Tank 241-T-203, core 190 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-T-203 push mode core segments collected on April 17, 1997 and April 18, 1997. The segments were subsainpled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-T-203 Push Mode Core Sampling andanalysis Plan (TSAP) (Schreiber, 1997a), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO)(Dukelow, et al., 1995) and Leffer oflnstructionfor Core Sample Analysis of Tanks 241-T-201, 241-T-202, 241-T-203, and 241-T-204 (LOI)(Hall, 1997). The analytical results are included in the data summary report (Table 1). None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Total Alpha Activity (AT) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Schreiber, 1997a). The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997b) and not considered in this report

  9. RESULTS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND CAUSTIC DISSOLUTION TESTS ON TANK 241-C-108 HEEL SOLIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALLAWAY WS; HUBER HJ

    2010-07-01

    Based on an ENRAF waste surface measurement taken February 1, 2009, double-shell tank (DST) 241-AN-106 (AN-106) contained approximately 278.98 inches (793 kgal) of waste. A zip cord measurement from the tank on February 1, 2009, indicated a settled solids layer of 91.7 inches in height (280 kgal). The supernatant layer in February 2009, by difference, was approximately 187 inches deep (514 kgal). Laboratory results from AN-106 February 1, 2009 (see Table 2) grab samples indicated the supernatant was below the chemistry limit that applied at the time as identified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements, Administrative Control (AC) 5.16, 'Corrosion Mitigation Controls.' (The limits have since been removed from the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) and are captured in OSD-T-151-00007, Operating Specifications for the Double-Shell Storage Tanks.) Problem evaluation request WRPS-PER-2009-0218 was submitted February 9, 2009, to document the finding that the supernatant chemistry for grab samples taken from the middle and upper regions of the supernatant was noncompliant with the chemistry control limits. The lab results for the samples taken from the bottom region of the supernatant met AC 5.16 limits.

  10. Characterization Of The As-Received Sludge Batch 9 Qualification Sample (Htf-51-15-81)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has sent SRNL a 3-L slurried sample of Tank 51H (HTF-51-15-81) to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (potentially after combining with Tank 40H sludge). This report documents the first steps of the qualification process – characterization of the as-received Tank 51H qualification sample. These results will be used to support a reprojection of SB9 by SRR from which final Tank 51H washing, frit development, and Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) activities will be based.

  11. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  12. Mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of testing phases A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Chvala, W.D.; Friley, J.R.; Gregory, W.B.; Hudson, J.D.; Michener, T.E.; Panisko, F.E.; Stewart, C.W.; Wise, B.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Efferding, L.E.; Fadeff, J.G.; Irwin, J.J.; Kirch, N.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    A spare mixing pump from the Hanford Grout Program was installed in Hanford double-shell waste Tank 241-SY-101 on July 3, 1993, after being modified to take advantage of waste stratification. It was anticipated that pump mixing would prevent large episodic flammable gas releases that had been occurring about every 100-150 days. A cautious initial test plan, called Phase A, was run to find how the pump and tank would behave in response to very brief and gentle pump operation. No large gas releases were triggered, and the pump performed well except for two incidents of nozzle plugging. On October 21, 1993, the next test series, Phase B, began, and the pump was applied more aggressively to mix the tank contents and mitigate uncontrolled gas releases. Orienting the pump in new directions released large volumes of gas and reduced the waste level to a near-record low. Results of the entire period from pump installation to the end of Phase B on December 17, 1993, are presented in detail in this document. Though long-term effects require further evaluation, we conclude from these data that the jet mixer pump is an effective means of controlling flammable gas release and that it has met the success criteria for mitigation in this tank.

  13. Tank 241-TX-104, cores 230 and 231 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-TX-104 push mode core segments collected between February 18, 1998 and February 23, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-TX-104 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (McCain, 1997), the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al., 1995) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et.al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table. None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Total Alpha Activity (AT) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and are not considered in this report. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore/LIMS sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analyses are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. Core 230: Three push mode core segments were removed from tank 241-TX-104 riser 9A on February 18, 1998. Segments were received by the 222-S Laboratory on February 19, 1998. Two segments were expected for this core. However, due to poor sample recovery, an additional segment was taken and identified as 2A. Core 231: Four push mode core segments were removed from tank 241-TX-104 riser 13A between February 19, 1998 and February 23, 1998. Segments were received by the 222-S Laboratory on February 24, 1998. Two segments were expected for this core. However, due to poor sample recovery, additional segments were taken and identified as 2A and 2B. The TSAP states the core samples should be transported to the laboratory within three

  14. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-T-107. Results from samples collected on January 18, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-T-107 (referred to as Tank T-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, I was observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Six organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The estimated concentration of all 7 organic analytes observed in the tank headspace are listed in Table I and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank T-107. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected in the tank-headspace samples

  15. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2009-01-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor bolt

  16. HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT-BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, T.C.; Johnson, K.I.; Deibler, J.E.; Pilli, S.P.; Rinker, M.W.; Karri, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor

  17. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  18. Ferrocyanide safety program: An assessment of the possibility of ferrocyanide sludge dryout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Fauske, H.K.; Dickinson, D.R.; Crippen, M.D.; McCormack, J.D.; Cash, R.J.; Meacham, J.E.; Simmons, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    Much attention has been focused on the Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tanks as a results of problems that have been envisioned for them. One problem is the potential chemical reaction between ferrocyanide precipitate particles and nitrates in the absence of water. This report addresses the question of whether dryout of a portion of ferrocyanide sludge would render it potentially reactive. Various sludge dryout mechanisms were examined to determine if any of them could occur. The mechanisms are: (1) bulk heating of the entire sludge inventory to its boiling point; (2) loss of liquid to the atmosphere via sludge surface evaporation; (3) local drying by boiling in a hot spot region; (4) sludge drainage through a leak in the tank wall; and (5) local drying by evaporation from a warm segment of surface sludge. From the simple analyses presented in this report and more detailed published analyses, it is evident that global loss of water from bulk heating of the sludge to its boiling point or from surface evaporation and vapor transport to the outside air is not credible. Also, from the analyses presented in this report and experimental and analytical work presented elsewhere, it is evident that formation of a dry local or global region of sludge as a result of tank leakage (draining of interstitial liquid) is not possible. Finally, and most importantly, it is concluded that formation of dry local regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hot spots or warm surface regions is not possible. The conclusion that local or global dryout is incredible is consistent with four decades of waste storage history, during which sludge temperature have gradually decreased or remained constant and the sludge moisture content has been retained. 54 refs

  19. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Results on the effect of differently treated sewage sludge on plants and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, A.; Rosopulo, A.; Borchert, H.; Beck, Th.; Bauchhenss, J.; Schurmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Since hygienization of sewage sludge will be important for an agricultural application it is necessary to study the effect of differently treated sewage sludge on plants and soil. In bean and maize experiments in 1973 and 1974 it was found that the treatment of sewage sludge is less important than soil properties and water capacity. Analysis on the efficiency of nutrients, minor elements and heavy metals from differently treated sewage sludge to plants were performed. Microbiological greenhouse studies indicated that there is a distinct tendency for different reactions, that irradiated sewage sludge gives a slightly better effect than untreated sludge, while the heat-treated sewage sludge indicates always a decrease, especially with the increase of applied amounts (respiration, protease and nitrification). In the field experiments there were almost no differences between untreated and irradiated sewage sludge, whereas there was always a smaller microbial activity after application of heat-treated sewage sludge. Studies on soil fauna (especially on Collemboles and Oribatidae) in the field trials indicate the influences of abiotic factors on the different locations. Besides these influences there was a decrease in the number of Collemboles and mites (in comparison with a normal fertilized plot) on the plots with 800 m 3 /ha treated sewage sludge. There was a remarkably large decrease in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge after an application of 800 m 3 /ha. Depending on the soil type, physical and chemical studies indicated an increase in the effective field capacity after the application of sewage sludge, and sometimes the best effects occurred with irradiated sewage sludge. Relative high aggregate values were observed (6-2, 6-5 mm diameter) in the plots with irradiated sewage sludge. (author)

  20. Tank vapor characterization project - headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-107: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/26/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  1. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-BY-108: Second comparison study results from samples collected on 3/28/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-BY-108 (Tank BY-108) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report is the second in a series comparing vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ), permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA trademark canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC

  2. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 4 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H to qualify them for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 4 processing. All sample results agree with expectations based on prior analyses where available. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 4 strategy are identified. This revision includes additional data points that were not available in the original issue of the document, such as additional plutonium results, the results of the monosodium titanate (MST) sorption test and the extraction, scrub strip (ESS) test. This report covers the revision to the Tank 21H qualification sample results for Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 4 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). A previous document covers initial characterization which includes results for a number of non-radiological analytes. These results were used to perform aluminum solubility modeling to determine the hydroxide needs for Salt Batch 4 to prevent the precipitation of solids. Sodium hydroxide was then added to Tank 21 and additional samples were pulled for the analyses discussed in this report. This work was specified by Task Technical Request and by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP).

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  4. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  5. DEWATERING TREATMENT SCALE-UP TESTING RESULTS OF HANFORD TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI AR

    2008-01-01

    This report documents CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CH2M HILL) 2007 dryer testing results in Richland, WA at the AMEC Nuclear Ltd., GeoMelt Division (AMEC) Horn Rapids Test Site. It provides a discussion of scope and results to qualify the dryer system as a viable unit-operation in the continuing evaluation of the bulk vitrification process. A 10,000 liter (L) dryer/mixer was tested for supplemental treatment of Hanford tank low-activity wastes, drying and mixing a simulated non-radioactive salt solution with glass forming minerals. Testing validated the full scale equipment for producing dried product similar to smaller scale tests, and qualified the dryer system for a subsequent integrated dryer/vitrification test using the same simulant and glass formers. The dryer system is planned for installation at the Hanford tank farms to dry/mix radioactive waste for final treatment evaluation of the supplemental bulk vitrification process

  6. Waste acceptance and waste loading for vitrified Oak Ridge tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.; Andrews, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Office of Science and Technology of the DOE has funded a joint project between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to evaluate vitrification and grouting for the immobilization of sludge from ORNL tank farms. The radioactive waste is from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT), the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), and the Old Hydrofractgure Tanks (OHF). Glass formulation development for sludge from these tanks is discussed in an accompanying article for this conference (Andrews and Workman). The sludges contain transuranic radionuclides at levels which will make the glass waste form (at reasonable waste loadings) TRU. Therefore, one of the objectives for this project was to ensure that the vitrified waste form could be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In order to accomplish this, the waste form must meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). An alternate pathway is to send the glass waste forms for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A sludge waste loading in the feed of 6 wt percent will lead to a waste form which is non-TRU and could potentially be disposed of at NTS. The waste forms would then have to meet the requirements of the NTS WAC. This paper presents SRTC''s efforts at demonstrating that the glass waste form produced as a result of vitrification of ORNL sludge will meet all the criteria of the WIPP WAC or NTS WAC

  7. Characterization Results for the January 2017 H-Tank Farm 2H Evaporator Overhead Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nicholson, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-11

    This report contains the radioanalytical results of the 2H evaporator overhead sample received at SRNL on January 19, 2017. Specifically, concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I are reported and compared to the corresponding Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits of the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Water Collection Tank (WWCT) (rev. 6). All of the radionuclide concentrations in the sample were found to be in compliance with the ETP WAC limits.

  8. Sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. Results of the DWA Sewage Sludge Study of 2003; Stand der Klaerschlammbehandlung und -entsorgung in Deutschland. Ergebnisse der DWA-Klaerschlammerhebung 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    In 2003, DWA carried out a nation-wide enquiry on sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany among operators of communal sewage treatment plant. Information was obtained on sewage sludge volumes and qualities as well as on methods of treatment and disposal pathways. Data were also compiled on the volumes and disposal of filtered-out material. This publication also includes results of other studies, e.g. by the Federal Office of Statistics (StBA) and Federal Environmental Office (UBA). The studies were initiated by the DWA Waste and Sewage Sludge Section. (orig.)

  9. Underground storage tank soft waste dislodging and conveyance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellner, A.F.S.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate potential technical solutions and to acquire engineering data and information on the retrieval technologies applicable for use in retrieving waste from underground storage tanks. This task focuses on soft waste dislodging and conveyance technologies that would be used in conjunction with a manipulator-based retrieval system. This retrieval task focuses on Hanford single-shell tanks, but the results may also have applications to other waste retrieval problems. This work is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development, sponsored by the DOE's Richland Operations Office under the Underground Storage Tanks Integrated Demonstration (USTID) program. This task is one element of the whole waste dislodging and conveyance system in the USTID. The tank wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive constituents. This task focuses on the processes for dislodging and retrieving soft wastes, mainly sludge. Sludge consists primarily of heavy-metal, iron, and aluminum precipitates. Sludges vary greatly in their physical properties and may contain pockets of liquid. Sludges have been described as varying in consistency from thick slurry to sticky clay and as sandy with hard chunks of material. The waste is believed to have adhesive and cohesive properties. The quantitative physical properties of the wastes have yet to be measured. The waste simulants used in the testing program emulate the physical properties of the tank waste

  10. 45-Day safety screening results for tank 241-U-102, push mode cores 143 and 144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the 45-day report deliverable for tank 241-U-102 push mode core segments collected between April 16, 1996 and May 6, 1996 and received by the 222-S Laboratory between April 17, 1996 and May 8, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance, with the Tank 241-U-102 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1996) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in Table 1. Attachment I is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. The diagram identifying the hydrostatic head fluid (HHF) blank is also included, Primary safety screening results and the raw data from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analyses are included in this report. Two of the samples submitted for DSC analysis exceeded notification limits as stated in the Safety Screening DQO (Dukelow, et al., 1995). Cyanide analysis was requested on these samples and a Reactive System Screening Tool analysis was requested for the sample exhibiting the highest exothenn in accordance with the TSAP (Hu, 1996). The results for these analyses will be reported in a revision to this document

  11. 45-Day safety screen results for Tank 241-C-101, auger sample 95-AUG-019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    One auger sample from Tank 241-C-101 was received by the 222-S Laboratory and underwent safety screening analyses--differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha analysis--in accordance with the tank characterization plan. Analytical results for the TGA on the crust sample (the uppermost portion of the auger sample) (sample number S95T000823) were less than the safety screening notification limit of 17 weight percent water. Verbal and written notifications were made on May 3, 1995. No exotherms were observed in the DSC analyses and the total alpha results were well below the safety screening notification limit. This report includes the primary safety screening results obtained from the analyses and copies of all DSC and TGA raw data scans as requested per the TCP. Although not included in this report, a photograph of the extruded sample was taken and is available. This report also includes bulk density measurements required by Characterization Plant Engineering. Additional analyses (pH, total organic carbon, and total inorganic carbon) are being performed on the drainable liquid at the request of Characterization Process Control; these analyses will be reported at a later date in a final report for this auger sample. Tank C-101 is not part of any of the four Watch Lists

  12. Tank 241-TX-118, core 236 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESCH, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for tank 241-TX-118 push mode core segments collected between April 1, 1998 and April 13, 1998. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the Tank 241-TX-118 Push Mode Core sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Benar, 1997), the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995), the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue (Organic DQO) (Turner, et al, 1995) and the Historical Model Evaluation Data Requirements (Historical DQO) (Sipson, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1). None of the samples submitted for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) exceeded notification limits as stated in the TSAP (Benar, 1997). One sample exceeded the Total Alpha Activity (AT) analysis notification limit of 38.4microCi/g (based on a bulk density of 1.6), core 236 segment 1 lower half solids (S98T001524). Appropriate notifications were made. Plutonium 239/240 analysis was requested as a secondary analysis. The statistical results of the 95% confidence interval on the mean calculations are provided by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Technical Basis Group in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding (Schreiber, 1997) and are not considered in this report

  13. Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 Heel Slurry Samples PSD Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of INTEC Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 heel slurry samples were performed using a modified Horiba LA-300 PSD analyzer at the RAL facility. There were two types of testing performed: typical PSD analysis, and setting rate testing. Although the heel slurry samples were obtained from two separate vessels, the particle size distribution results were quite similar. The slurry solids were from approximately a minimum particle size of 0.5 mm to a maximum of 230 mm with about 90% of the material between 2-to-133 mm, and the cumulative 50% value at approximately 20 mm. This testing also revealed that high frequency sonication with an ultrasonic element may break-up larger particles in the WM-182 and WM-183 tank from heel slurries. This finding represents useful information regarding ultimate tank heel waste processing. Settling rate testing results were also fairly consistent with material from both vessels in that it appears that most of the mass of solids settle to an agglomerated, yet easily redispersed layer at the bottom. A dispersed and suspended material remained in the ''clear'' layer above the settled layer after about one-half an hour of settling time. This material had a statistical mode of approximately 5 mm and a maximum particle size of 30 mm

  14. Waste mixing and diluent selection for the planned retrieval of Hanford Tank 241-SY-102: A preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Hudson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This preliminary assessment documents a set of analyses that were performed to determine the potential for Hanford waste Tank 241-SY-102 waste properties to be adversely affected by mixing the current tank contents or by injecting additional diluent into the tank during sludge mobilization. As a part of this effort, the effects of waste heating that will occur as a result of mixer pump operations are also examined. Finally, the predicted transport behavior of the resulting slurries is compared with the waste acceptance criteria for the Cross-Site Transfer System (CSTS). This work is being performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of Westinghouse Hanford Company's W-211 Retrieval Project. We applied the equilibrium chemical code, GMIN, to predict potential chemical reactions. We examined the potential effects of mixing the current tank contents (sludge and supernatant liquid) at a range of temperatures and, separately, of adding pure water at a volume ratio of 1:2:2 (sludge:supernatant liquid:water) as an example of further diluting the current tank contents. The main conclusion of the chemical modeling is that mixing the sludge and the supernate (with or without additional water) in Tank 241-SY-102 dissolves all sodium-containing solids (i.e., NaNO 3 (s), thenardite, NaF(s), and halite), but does not significantly affect the amorphous Cr(OH) 3 and calcite phase distribution. A very small amount of gibbsite [Al(OH) 3 (s)] might precipitate at 25 degrees C, but a somewhat larger amount of gibbsite is predicted to dissolve at the higher temperatures. In concurrence with the reported tank data, the model affirmed that the interstitial solution within the sludge is saturated with respect to many of the solids species in the sludge, but that the supernatant liquid is not in saturation with many of major solids species in sludge. This indicates that a further evaluation of the sludge mixing could prove beneficial

  15. Detection of leaks in underground storage tanks using electrical resistance methods: 1996 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.

    1996-10-01

    This document provides a summary of a field experiment performed under a 15m diameter steel tank mockup located at the Hanford Reservation, Washington. The purpose of this test was to image a contaminant plume as it develops in soil under a tank already contaminated by previous leakage and to determine whether contaminant plumes can be detected without the benefit of background data. Measurements of electrical resistance were made before and during a salt water release. These measurements were made in soil which contained the remnants of salt water plumes released during previous tests in 1994 and in 1995. About 11,150 liters of saline solution were released along a portion of the tank's edge in 1996. Changes in electrical resistivity due to release of salt water conducted in 1996 were determined in two ways: (1) changes relative to the 1996 pre-spill data, and (2) changes relative to data collected near the middle of the 1996 spill after the release flow rate was increased. In both cases, the observed resistivity changes show clearly defined anomalies caused by the salt water release. These results indicate that when a plume develops over an existing plume and in a geologic environment similar to the test site environment, the resulting resistivity changes are easily detectable. Three dimensional tomographs of the resistivity of the soil under the tank show that the salt water release caused a region of low soil resistivity which can be observed directly without the benefit of comparing the tomograph to tomographs or data collected before the spill started. This means that it may be possible to infer the presence of pre-existing plumes if there is other data showing that the regions of low resistivity are correlated with the presence of contaminated soil. However, this approach does not appear reliable in defining the total extent of the plume due to the confounding effect that natural heterogeneity has on our ability to define the margins of the anomaly

  16. Monitoring the aeration efficiency and carbon footprint of a medium-sized WWTP: experimental results on oxidation tank and aerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Marianna; Bellandi, Giacomo; Mancini, Ignazio M; Masi, Salvatore; Brienza, Rosanna; Panariello, Simona; Gori, Riccardo; Caniani, Donatella

    2017-03-01

    The efficiency of aeration systems should be monitored to guarantee suitable biological processes. Among the available tools for evaluating the aeration efficiency, the off-gas method is one of the most useful. Increasing interest towards reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from biological processes has resulted in researchers using this method to quantify N 2 O and CO 2 concentrations in the off-gas. Experimental measurements of direct GHG emissions from aerobic digesters (AeDs) are not available in literature yet. In this study, the floating hood technique was used for the first time to monitor AeDs. The floating hood technique was used to evaluate oxygen transfer rates in an activated sludge (AS) tank of a medium-sized municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Italy. Very low values of oxygen transfer efficiency were found, confirming that small-to-medium-sized plants are often scarcely monitored and wrongly managed. Average CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from the AS tank were 0.14 kg CO2 /kg bCOD and 0.007 kg CO2,eq /kg bCOD , respectively. For an AeD, 3 × 10 -10  kg CO2 /kg bCOD direct CO 2 emissions were measured, while CO 2,eq emissions from N 2 O were 4 × 10 -9  kg CO2,eq /kg bCOD . The results for the AS tank and the AeD were used to estimate the net carbon and energy footprint of the entire plant.

  17. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE MAY 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval of waste from single-shell tank C-110 resumed in January making it the first waste retrieval operation for WRPS since taking over Hanford's Tank Operations Contract last October. Now, with approximately 90 percent of the waste removed, WRPS believes that modified sluicing has reached the limits of the technology to remove any further waste and is preparing documentation for use in decision making about any future retrieval actions. Tank C-110 is located in C Fann near the center of the Hanford Site. It is a 530,000 gallon tank, built in 1946, and held approximately 126,000 gallons of sludge and other radioactive and chemical waste materials when retrieval resumed. Modified sluicing technology uses liquid waste from a nearby double-shell tank to break up, dissolve and mobilize the solid material so it can be pumped. Because of the variety of waste fon11S, sluicing is often not able to remove all of the waste. The remaining waste will next be sampled for analysis, and results will be used to guide decisions regarding future actions. Work is moving rapidly in preparation to retrieve waste from a second single-shell tank this summer and transfer it to safer double-shell tank storage. Construction activities necessary to retrieve waste from Tank C-104, a 530,000 gallon tank built in 1943, are approximately 60 percent complete as WRPS maintains its focus on reducing the risk posed by Hanford's aging single-shell waste tanks. C-104 is one of Hanford's oldest radioactive and chemical waste storage tanks, containing approximately 263,000 gallons of wet sludge with a top layer that is dry and powdery. This will be the largest sludge volume retrieval ever attempted using modified sluicing technology. Modified sluicing uses high pressure water or liquid radioactive waste sprayed from nozzles above the waste. The liquid dissolves and/or mobilizes the waste so it can be pumped. In addition to other challenges, tank C-104 contains a significant amount of plutonium and

  18. Status of test results of electrochemical organic oxidation of a tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents scoping test results of an electrochemical waste pretreatment process to oxidize organic compounds contained in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks. Electrochemical oxidation was tested on laboratory scale to destroy organics that are thought to pose safety concerns, using a nonradioactive, simulated tank waste. Minimal development work has been applied to alkaline electrochemical organic destruction. Most electrochemical work has been directed towards acidic electrolysis, as in the metal purification industry, and silver catalyzed oxidation. Alkaline electrochemistry has traditionally been associated with the following: (1) inefficient power use, (2) electrode fouling, and (3) solids handling problems. Tests using a laboratory scale electrochemical cell oxidized surrogate organics by applying a DC electrical current to the simulated tank waste via anode and cathode electrodes. The analytical data suggest that alkaline electrolysis oxidizes the organics into inorganic carbonate and smaller carbon chain refractory organics. Electrolysis treats the waste without adding chemical reagents and at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Cell performance was not affected by varying operating conditions and supplemental electrolyte additions

  19. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-TY-102: Results from samples collected on 04/12/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-TY-102 (Tank TY-102) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to'characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes, and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  20. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Tank 241-B-105: Results from samples collected on 07/30/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-105 (Tank B-105) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  1. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-S-103: Results from samples collected on 06/12/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-103 (Tank S-103) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  2. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-204: Results from samples collected on 07/02/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-204 (Tank C-204) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in Table S.1. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in Table S.1. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  3. Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge.

  4. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Mackey, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  5. Sample results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 9 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H.

  6. Results of a diesel multiple unit fuel tank blunt impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-04

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into passenger locomotive fuel tank crashworthiness. A series of impact tests is being conducted to measure fuel tank deformation under two types of dyn...

  7. HANFORD WASTE TANK BUMP ACCIDENT & CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2005-02-22

    Postulated physical scenarios leading to tank bumps were examined. A combination of a substantial supernatant layer depth, supernatant temperatures close to saturation, and high sludge temperatures are required for a tank bump to occur. Scenarios postulated at various times for sludge layers lacking substantial supernatant, such as superheat within the layer and fumarole formation leading to a bump were ruled out.

  8. Results of gas monitoring of double-shell flammable gas watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Tanks 103-SY; 101-AW; 103-, 104-, and 105-AN are on the Flammable Gas Watch List. Recently, standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS) cabinets have been installed in the vent header of each of these tanks. Grab samples have been taken once per week, and a gas chromatograph was installed on tank 104-AN as a field test. The data that have been collected since gas monitoring began on these tanks are summarized in this document

  9. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-201: Results from samples collected on 06/19/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-C-201 (Tank C-201) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, on sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary, of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  11. History of waste tank 13, 1956 through 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.L.; Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1978-06-01

    Tank 13 was placed in service as a receiver of LW from the Building 221-H Purex process in December 1956. Five years later, the supernate was decanted to evaporator feed tank 21. It has since served as a transfer tank for HW supernate being sent to tank 21 and has received sludge removed from other tanks four times. The tank annulus has been inspected with an optical periscope and a lead-shielded camera. No indication of tank leakage had been seen through December 1974. However, subsequent to this report (on April 14, 1977), an arrested leak was discovered, making tank 13 the last of the four type II tanks to leak. Analytical samples of supernate and sludge have been taken. Tank 13 has had no cooling coil failures. Primary tank wall thicknesses, sludge level determinations, and temperature profiles have been obtained. Tank 13 has been included in various tests. Equipment modifications and various equipment repairs were made. 11 figures, 2 tables

  12. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-T-111. Results from samples collected on January 20, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-T-111. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  13. Waste Tank Vapor Program: Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241; C-102: Results from samples collected on August 23, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-C-102. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  14. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-U-111: Results from samples collected on February 28, 1995. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Bredt, O.P.; Goheen, S.C.; Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Klinger, G.S.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the details of the inorganic and organic analysis that was performed on samples from the headspace of Hanford waste tank 241-U-111. The results described were obtained to support the safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for the inorganic and organic analytes is included, as well as, a detailed description of the results which appears in the text

  15. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Onishi; KP Recknagle; BE Wells

    2000-08-09

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m{sup 3}) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m{sup 3}) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom.

  16. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Recknagle, K.P.; Wells, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m 3 ) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m 3 ) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom

  17. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  18. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  19. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-B-107: Results from samples collected on 7/23/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-B-107 (Tank B-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwestern National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  20. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-S-106: Results from samples collected on 06/13/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-S-106 (Tank S-106) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the same table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices

  1. Surface Geophysical Exploration Of SX Tank Farm At The Hanford Site Results Of Background Characterization With Magnetics And Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.; Rucker, D.; Levit, M.; Cubbage, B.; Henderson, C.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy and Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

  2. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  3. Results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR). Further work will report the results of the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing (Task 5 of the TTR) using the Tank 21H material. Task 4 of the TTR (MST Strike) will not be completed for Salt Batch 10.

  4. Tank 241-SY-102 January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-05-11

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results.

  5. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.S.; Kindinger, J.P.; Deremer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives results from the first comprehensive level-3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the Hanford tank farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM). At the HTF, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/saltcake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is ∼60 million gal, containing ∼200 million Ci of radioactivity

  6. Data quality objectives for sampling of sludge from the K West and K East Basin floor and from other Basin areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document addresses the characterization strategy for those types of sludge not previously characterized or discussed in previous DQO documents. It seeks to ascertain those characteristics of uncharacterized Sludge which are unique with respect to the properties already determined for canister and K East Basin floor Sludge. Also recent decisions have resulted in the need for treatment of the Sludge prior to its currently identified disposal path to the Hanford waste tanks. This has resulted in a need for process development testing for the treatment system development

  7. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  8. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-TX-118 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 9/7/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.L.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TX-118 (referred to as Tank TX-118). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen cyanide (CHN), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 13 analytes. Hexane, normally included in the additional analytes, was removed because a calibration standard was not available during analysis of Tank TX-118 SUMMA trademark canisters. Of these, 12 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Fourteen tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 86% of the total organic components in Tank TX-118. Permanent gas analysis was not conducted on the tank-headspace samples. Tank TX-118 is on both the Ferrocyanide and Organic Watch List

  9. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  10. Tank vapor characterization project. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank SX-101: Results from samples collected on 07/21/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    Results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank-farm operations. They include air concentrations of inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples. The vapor concentrations are based either on whole-volume samples or on sorbent traps exposed to sample flow. No immediate notifications were needed because analytical results indicated no specific analytes exceeded notification levels. Summary of results: NH3, 3.8 ppmv; NO2, 0.10 ppmv; NO, 0.13 ppm; H2O, 11.8 mg/L; CO2, 338 ppmv; CO, 3 ; methanol, 0.060 ppmv; acetone, 0.033 ppmv; trichlorofluoromethane, 0.023 ppmv; and acetone, 0.034 ppmv

  11. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  12. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  13. Improving of Mixing by Submerged Rotary Jet (SRJ) System in a Large Industrial Storage Tank by CFD Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, H.; Hashemabadi, S. H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports the result of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study on the Submerged Rotary Jet (SRJ) mixing system in a large industrial crude oil storage tank (one million barrels). This system has been installed on the tank just for reduction of sludge, but improper installation causes more accumulation of sludge on one side of tank. The main question is: How can we improve the mixing operation in this tank? For the purpose, a three dimensional modeling is carried out using an in-house CFD code and RNG k-ɛ model for turbulence prediction. The results show that pump suction location and crude oil velocity in tank are most effective factors on the sludge amount. Then, different ways such as increasing of jet flow rate, increasing and decreasing of tank height and reducing of nozzle diameter have been investigated. Finally, in this case, the results show the sedimentation of sludge in whole tank can be removed by 20% increasing of jet flow rate.

  14. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION MST, ESS AND PODD SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-04-24

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 5 processing. This qualification material was a composite created from recent samples from Tank 21H and archived samples from Tank 49H to match the projected blend from these two tanks. Additionally, samples of the composite were used in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and extraction-scrub-strip (ESS) tests. ARP and ESS test results met expectations. A sample from Tank 21H was also analyzed for the Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) requirements. SRNL was able to meet all of the requirements, including the desired detection limits for all the PODD analytes. This report details the results of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP), Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) and Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) samples of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP).

  15. Underground storage tank integrated demonstration: Evaluation of pretreatment options for Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Colton, N.G.; Jones, E.O.

    1993-06-01

    Separation science plays a central role inn the pretreatment and disposal of nuclear wastes. The potential benefits of applying chemical separations in the pretreatment of the radioactive wastes stored at the various US Department of Energy sites cover both economic and environmental incentives. This is especially true at the Hanford Site, where the huge volume (>60 Mgal) of radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks could be partitioned into a very small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a relatively large volume of low-level waste (LLW). The cost associated with vitrifying and disposing of just the HLW fraction in a geologic repository would be much less than those associated with vitrifying and disposing of all the wastes directly. Futhermore, the quality of the LLW form (e.g., grout) would be improved due to the lower inventory of radionuclides present in the LLW stream. In this report, we present the results of an evaluation of the pretreatment options for sludge taken from two different single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site-Tanks 241-B-110 and 241-U-110 (referred to as B-110 and U-110, respectively). The pretreatment options examined for these wastes included (1) leaching of transuranic (TRU) elements from the sludge, and (2) dissolution of the sludge followed by extraction of TRUs and 90 Sr. In addition, the TRU leaching approach was examined for a third tank waste type, neutralized cladding removal waste

  16. Underground tank remediation by use of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a remedial action technology for underground storage tanks through the adaptation of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process. The ISV process is a thermal treatment processes that was originally developed for the stabilization of contaminated soil contaminated with transuranic waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for the Department of Energy (DOE). The application of ISV to underground storage tanks represents an entirely new application of the ISV technology and is being performed in support of the DOE primarily for the Hanford site and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A field scale test was conducted in September 1990 at Hanford on a small cement and stainless steel tank (1-m dia.) that contained a simulated refractory sludge representing a worst-case sludge composition. The tank design and sludge composition was based on conditions present at the ORNL. The sludge contained high concentrations of heavy metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium, and also contained high levels of stable cesium and strontium to represent the predominant radionuclide species present in the tank wastes. The test was highly successful in that the entire tank and surrounding soil was transformed into a highly leach resistant glass and crystalline block with a mass of approximately 30 tons. During the process, the metal shell of the tank forms a metal pool at the base of the molten soil. Upon cooling, the glass and metal phases were subjected to TCLP (toxic characteristic leach procedure) testing and passed the TCLP criteria. Additional sampling and analyses are ongoing to determine the bulk composition of the waste forms, the fraction of volatile or semi-volatile species released to the off-gas treatment system, and to determine whether any soil surrounding the monolith was contaminated as a result of the ISV process. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  18. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  19. Tank 241-BY-112, cores 174 and 177 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Results from bulk density tests ranged from 1.03 g/mL to 1.86 g/mL. The highest bulk density result of 1.86 g/mL was used to calculate the solid total alpha activity notification limit for this tank (33.1 uCi/g), Total Alpha (AT) Analysis. Attachment 2 contains the Data Verification and Deliverable (DVD) Summary Report for AT analyses. This report summarizes results from AT analyses and provides data qualifiers and total propagated uncertainty (TPU) values for results. The TPU values are based on the uncertainties inherent in each step of the analysis process. They may be used as an additional reference to determine reasonable RPD values which may be used to accept valid data that do not meet the TSAP acceptance criteria. A report guide is provided with the report to assist in understanding this summary report

  20. Results of 1995 characterization of Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This technical memorandum (TM) documents the 1995 characterization of eight underground radioactive waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These tanks belong to the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) operable unit, and the characterization is part of the ongoing GAAT remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. This TM reports both field observations and analytical results; analytical results are also available from the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) data base under the project name GAAT (PROJ-NAME = GAAT). This characterization effort (Phase II) was a follow-up to the {open_quotes}Phase I{close_quotes} sampling campaign reported in Results of Fall 1994 Sampling of Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL/ER/Sub/87-99053/74, June 1995. The information contained here should be used in conjunction with that in the previous TM. The sampling plan is documented in ORNL Inactive Waste Tanks Sampling and Analysis Plan, ORNL/RAP/LTR-88/24, dated April 1988, as amended by Addendum 1, Revision 2: ORNL Inactive Tanks Sampling and Analysis Plan, DOE/OR/02-1354&D2, dated February 1995. Field team instructions are found in ORNL RI/FS Project Field Work Guides 01-WG-20, Field Work Guide for Sampling of Gunite and Associated Tanks, and 01-WG-21, Field Work Guide for Tank Characterization System Operations at ORNL. The field effort was conducted under the programmatic and procedural umbrella of the ORNL RI/FS Program, and the analysis was in accordance with ORNL Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division (CASD) procedures. The characterization campaign is intended to provide data for criticality safety, engineering design, and waste management as they apply to the GAAT treatability study and remediation. The Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad office was interested in results of this sampling campaign and provided funding for certain additional sample collection and analysis.

  1. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days.

  2. Mechanisms of gas retention and release: Experimental results for Hanford waste tanks 241-AW-101 and 241-AN-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassat, S.D.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Bredt, P.R.; Mahoney, L.A.; Forbes, S.V.; Tingey, S.M.

    1997-09-01

    The 177 storage tanks at Hanford contain a vast array of radioactive waste forms resulting, primarily, from nuclear materials processing. Through radiolytic, thermal, and other decomposition reactions of waste components, gaseous species including hydrogen, ammonia, and the oxidizer nitrous oxide are generated within the waste tanks. Many of these tanks are known to retain and periodically release quantities of these flammable gas mixtures. The primary focus of the Flammable Gas Project is the safe storage of Hanford tank wastes. To this end, we strive to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford tanks through laboratory investigations on actual tank wastes. These results support the closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) on the safe storage of waste tanks known to retain flammable gases and support resolution of the broader Flammable Gas Safety Issue. The overall purpose of this ongoing study is to develop a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the mechanisms of flammable gas retention and release. The first objective of the current study was to classify bubble retention and release mechanisms in two previously untested waste materials from Tanks 241-AN-103 (AN-103) and 241-AW-101 (AW-101). Results were obtained for retention mechanisms, release characteristics, and the maximum gas retention. In addition, unique behavior was also documented and compared with previously studied waste samples. The second objective was to lengthen the duration of the experiments to evaluate the role of slowing bubble growth on the retention and release behavior. Results were obtained for experiments lasting from a few hours to a few days

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gunite and Associated Tanks Stabilization Project-Low-Tech Approach with High-Tech Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.; Alsup, T.; Bolling, D.

    2002-01-01

    accordance with the Action Memorandum. Tank stabilization activities began on April 23, 2001, and were completed one month ahead of schedule on August 31, 2001. Over 7400 cubic yards of grout were placed in these tanks stabilizing over 4,000 Ci of radioactive material in place. This schedule acceleration was the result of good pre-planning during pre-mobilization by working with BJC, grout vendor, and pumping company, and other subcontractors. This planning allowed refinement of the pump and hose system used to convey the grout and the formulation of the grout mixture. Because of expediting the work, additional activities could be accomplished at the GAAT site that resulted in complete site restoration to a paved area for future parking, which was completed by September 30, 2001. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful environmental restoration project: regulatory process; integrated safety management systems used to achieve zero accident performance while expediting the schedule; tank stabilization design and implementation; and implementation strategies involving partnering of multiple subcontractors, DOE, and regulators

  4. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-U-106: Results from samples collected on March 7, 1995. Waste Tank Vapor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O) Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. The NH 3 concentration was 16% greater than that determined from an ISS sample obtained in August 1994; the H 2 O concentration was about 10% less. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 5 were observed in two or more canisters above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed in two or more canisters above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations account for approximately 90% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Three permanent gases, nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon dioxide (COD were also detected

  5. Sludge Washing And Demonstration Of The DWPF Flowsheet In The SRNL Shielded Cells For Sludge Batch 8 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Crawford, C. L.

    2013-04-26

    The current Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks to Tank 51. Tank 51 sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes using a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). WSE requested the SRNL to perform characterization on a Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) sample and demonstrate the DWPF flowsheet in the SRNL shielded cells for SB8 as the final qualification process required prior to SB8 transfer from Tank 51 to Tank 40. A 3-L sample from Tank 51 (the SB8 qualification sample; Tank Farm sample HTF-51-12-80) was received by SRNL on September 20, 2012. The as-received sample was characterized prior to being washed. The washed material was further characterized and used as the material for the DWPF process simulation including a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle, a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle, and glass fabrication and chemical durability measurements.

  6. Tank 241-AP-103 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples, Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-103 (AP-103) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-103 samples were performed as directed in ''Compatibility Grub Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999'' (Sasaki 1999a). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. No notification limits were exceeded

  7. Pathogens\\' Reduction in Vermicompost Process Resulted from the Mixed Sludge Treatments-Household Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Hossien Karimi; Mohammad Rezvani; Morteza Mohammadzadeh; Yaser Eshaghi; Mehdi Mokhtari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of pathogenic microbial agents and pathogens in organic fertilizers causes health problems and disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of vermicomposting process in improve the microbial quality of the compost produced. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted as a pilot-scale one, in the laboratory of school of Health. In order to produce vermicompost, some perishable domestic waste were mixed whit sludge o...

  8. [Formation Mechanism of Aerobic Granular Sludge and Removal Efficiencies in Integrated ABR-CSTR Reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai-cheng; Wu, Peng; Xu, Yue-zhong; Li, Yue-han; Shen, Yao-liang

    2015-08-01

    Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was altered to make an integrated anaerobic-aerobic reactor. The research investigated the mechanism of aerobic sludge granulation, under the condition of continuous-flow. The last two compartments of the ABR were altered into aeration tank and sedimentation tank respectively with seeded sludge of anaerobic granular sludge in anaerobic zone and conventional activated sludge in aerobic zone. The HRT was gradually decreased in sedimentation tank from 2.0 h to 0.75 h and organic loading rate was increased from 1.5 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) to 2.0 kg x (M3 x d)(-1) while the C/N of 2 was controlled in aerobic zone. When the system operated for 110 days, the mature granular sludge in aerobic zone were characterized by compact structure, excellent sedimentation performance (average sedimentation rate was 20.8 m x h(-1)) and slight yellow color. The system performed well in nitrogen and phosphorus removal under the conditions of setting time of 0.75 h and organic loading rate of 2.0 kg (m3 x d)(-1) in aerobic zone, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH4+ -N, TP and TN were 90%, 80%, 65% and 45%, respectively. The results showed that the increasing selection pressure and the high organic loading rate were the main propulsions of the aerobic sludge granulation.

  9. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  10. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction, Project W-320, 241-C-106 tank sluicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-01-28

    This document serves as a Notice of Construction for the Phase 2 activities of Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Codes (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. Phased permitting for Project W-320 was discussed with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on November 2, 1993. In April 1994, it was deemed unnecessary because the Phase 1 activities did not constitute a new source of emissions and therefore did not require approval from Ecology. The 241-C-106 tank is a 2-million liter capacity, single-shell tank (SST) used for radioactive waste storage since 1947. Between mid-1963 and mid-1969, 241-C-106 tank received high-heat waste, PUREX (plutonium-uranium extraction) Facility high-level waste, and strontium-bearing solids from the strontium and cesium recovery activities. In 1971, temperatures exceeding 99 C were observed in the tank, and therefore, a ventilation system was installed to cool the tank. In addition, approximately 22,712 liters of cooling water are added to the tank each month to prevent the sludge from drying out and overheating. Excessive drying of the sludge could result in possible structural damage. The current radiolytic heat generation rate has been calculated at 32 kilowatts (kW) plus or minus 6 kW. The 241-C-106 tank was withdrawn from service in 1979 and currently is categorized as not leaking. The heat generation in 241-C-106 tank has been identified as a key safety issue on the Hanford Site. The evaporative cooling provided by the added water during operation and/or sluicing maintains the 241-C-106 tank within its specified operating temperature limits. Project W-320, 241-C-106 Tank Sluicing, will mobilize and remove the heat-generating sludge, allowing the water additions to cease. Following sludge removal, the 241-C-106 tank could be placed in a safe, interim stabilized condition. Tank-to-tank sluicing, an existing, proven technology, will provide the earliest possible

  11. Manufacturing ceramic bricks with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) sludge from a water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E M; Morita, D M; Lima, A C M; Teixeira, L Girard

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work is to assess the viability of manufacturing ceramic bricks with sludge from a water treatment plant (WTP) for use in real-world applications. Sludge was collected from settling tanks at the Bolonha WTP, which is located in Belém, capital of the state of Pará, Brazil. After dewatering in drainage beds, sludge was added to the clay at a local brickworks at different mass percentages (7.6, 9.0, 11.7, 13.9 and 23.5%). Laboratory tests were performed on the bricks to assess their resistance to compression, water absorption, dimensions and visual aspects. Percentages of 7.6, 9.0, 11.7 and 13.9% (w/w) of WTP sludge presented good results in terms of resistance, which indicates that technically, ceramic bricks can be produced by incorporating up to 13.9% of WTP sludge.

  12. Application of contact stabilization activated sludge for enhancing biological phosphorus removal (EBPR in domestic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Rashed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment has been performed in order to investigate the effect of using contact stabilization activated sludge as an application of enhancing biological phosphorous removal (EBPR by using contact tank as a phosphorus uptake zone and using thickening tank as a phosphorus release zone. The study involved the construction of a pilot plant which was setup in Quhafa waste water treatment plant (WWTP that included contact, final sedimentation, stabilization and thickening tanks, respectively with two returns sludge in this system one of them to contact tank and another to stabilization tank. Then observation of the uptake and release of total phosphorus by achievement through two batch test using sludge samples from thickener and final sedimentations. Results showed the removal efficiencies of COD, BOD and TP for this pilot plant with the range of 94%, 85.44% and 80.54%, respectively. On the other hand the results of batch tests showed that the reason of high ability of phosphorus removal for this pilot plant related to the high performance of microorganisms for phosphorus accumulating. Finally the mechanism of this pilot plant depends on the removal of the phosphorus from the domestic waste water as a concentrated TP solution from the supernatant above the thickening zone not through waste sludge like traditional systems.

  13. Treatment of radioactive wastes from DOE underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Spencer, B.B.; Chase, C.W.; Anderson, K.K.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge and supernate tank waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology process for use in a comprehensive sludge processing flow sheet as a means of concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tank waste at national sites for final disposal. This paper discusses the separation of the sludge solids and supernate, the basic washing of the sludge solids, the acidic dissolution of the sludge solids, and the removal of the radionuclides from the supernate

  14. Heat pipe cooling system for underground, radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.C.; Prenger, F.C.

    1980-02-01

    An array of 37 heat pipes inserted through the central hole at the top of a radioactive waste storage tank will remove 100,000 Btu/h with a heat sink of 70 0 F atmospheric air. Heat transfer inside the tank to the heat pipe is by natural convection. Heat rejection to outside air utilizes a blower to force air past the heat pipe condenser. The heat pipe evaporator section is axially finned, and is constructed of stainless steel. The working fluid is ammonia. The finned pipes are individually shrouded and extend 35 ft down into the tank air space. The hot tank air enters the shroud at the top of the tank and flows downward as it is cooled, with the resulting increased density furnishing the pressure difference for circulation. The cooled air discharges at the center of the tank above the sludge surface, flows radially outward, and picks up heat from the radioactive sludge. At the tank wall the heated air rises and then flows inward to comple the cycle

  15. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  16. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-C-101: Results from samples collected on 9/1/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes results of the analyses of tank-headspace samples taken from the Hanford waste Tank 241-C-101 (referred to as Tank C-101) and the ambient air collected - 30 ft upwind near the tank and through the VSS near the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) contracted with Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to provide sampling devices and to analyze inorganic and organic analytes collected from the tank headspace and ambient air near the tank. The sample job was designated S4056, and samples were collected by WHC on September 1, 1994, using the vapor sampling system (VSS). The samples were inspected upon delivery to the 326/23B laboratory and logged into PNL record book 55408 before implementation of PNL Technical Procedure PNL-TVP-07. Custody of the sorbent traps was transferred to PNL personnel performing the inorganic analysis and stored at refrigerated (≤ 10 degrees C) temperature until the time of analysis. The canisters were stored in the 326/23B laboratory at ambient (25 degrees C) temperature until the time of the analysis. Access to the 326/23B laboratory is limited to PNL personnel working on the waste-tank safety program. Analyses described in this report were performed at PNL in the 300 area of the Hanford Reservation. Analytical methods that were used are described in the text. In summary, sorbent traps for inorganic analyses containing sample materials were either weighed (for water analysis) or desorbed with the appropriate aqueous solutions (for NH 3 , NO 2 , and NO analyses). The aqueous extracts were analyzed either by selective electrode or by ion chromatography (IC). Organic analyses were performed using cryogenic preconcentration followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)

  17. Status of FRJ-2 refurbishment of tank pipes and essential results of aging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.; Thamm, G.; Thome, M.

    1993-01-01

    An aging evaluation program for FRJ-2 (DIDO) of the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH has been developed and is currently executed in cooperation with the licensing and regulatory and TUV experts in order to determine the overall life expectancy of the facility and to identify critical systems and components that need to be upgraded or refurbished for future safe reactor operation. In Phase A (completed) a so called master list of the FRJ-2 mechanical, electrical and structural components was compiled on a system-by system basis and the operational documentation with respect to regular inspections, maintenance, repair and unusual occurences was carefully examined. Critical components were selected and their ageing respectively life limiting mechanisms identified. In Phase (currently under way) special inspections, examinations and tests for critical systems/components are being elaborated, executed and evaluated. Current work is being concentrated on non replaceable components (e.g. reactor aluminium tank (RAT) and the connecting pipes to the primary cooling circuit, the reactor steel tank and pipe work inside the concrete reactor block). As a consequence of first results of the aging evaluation program and due to leaks in the weir and drain pipes of the RAT a repair/refurbishment program was set up for the Al-RAT pipes (risers, downcomers weir and drain pipes) and the steel guide tubes. Details of the r/r program which is in far progress and first essential results of the aging evaluation will be presented. The results achieved until today are encouraging with respect to safe reactor operation on short and medium term. (author)

  18. Status of FRJ-2 Refurbishment of tank pipes and essential results of aging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.; Thamm, G.; Thome, M.

    1994-01-01

    An aging evaluation program for FRJ-2 (DIDO) of the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH has been developed and is currently executed in cooperation with the licensing and regulatory and TUEV experts in order to determine the overall life expectancy of the facility and to identify critical systems and components that need to be upgraded or refurbished for future safe reactor operation. In Phase A (completed) a so called master list of the FRJ-2 mechanical, electrical and structural components was compiled on a system-by system basis and the operational documentation with respect to regular inspections, maintenance, repair and unusual occurrences was carefully examined. Critical components were selected and their ageing respectively life limiting mechanisms identified. In Phase B (currently under way) special inspections, examinations and tests for critical systems/components are being elaborated, executed and evaluated. Current work is being concentrated on non replaceable components (e.g. reactor aluminium tank (RAT) and the connecting pipes to the primary cooling circuit, the reactor steel tank and pipe work inside the concrete reactor block). As a consequence of first results of the aging evaluation program and due to leaks in the weir and drain pipes of the RAT a repair/refurbishment program was set up for the Al-RAT pipes (risers, downcomers, weir and drain pipes) and the steel guide tubes. Details of the r/r program which is in far progress and first essential results of the aging evaluation will be presented. The results achieved until today are encouraging with respect to safe reactor operation on short and medium term. (J.P.N.)

  19. Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 11 Tank 21H Acceptance Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of verification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 11 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) for processing. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H and fulfills the requirements of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  20. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel

  1. Characterization of Tank 16H Annulus Samples Part II: Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-01-01

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO 2 ) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na 8 (Al 6 Si 6 O 24 )(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ), sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), gibbsite (Al(OH) 3 ), hydrated sodium bicarbonate (Na 3 H(CO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O), and muscovite (KAl 2 (AlSi 3 O 10 )(OH) 2 ). Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and approximately 1/3 of the 99 Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The oxalic acid leaching test result indicate approximately 34-47% of the solids in the four annulus samples will dissolve after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of acid to solids at 45 C. The same sodium salts found in the water leaching test comprise the majority of dissolved material in the oxalic acid leaching test. However, the oxalic acid was somewhat more effective in dissolving radionuclides than the water leach. In

  2. Removing Phosphate from Hanford High-Phosphate Tank Wastes: FY 2010 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.; Carter, Jennifer C.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2010-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for environmental remediation at the Hanford Site in Washington State, a former nuclear weapons production site. Retrieving, processing, immobilizing, and disposing of the 2.2 × 105 m3 of radioactive wastes stored in the Hanford underground storage tanks dominates the overall environmental remediation effort at Hanford. The cornerstone of the tank waste remediation effort is the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). As currently designed, the capability of the WTP to treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes in the expected lifetime of the plant is questionable. For this reason, DOE has been pursuing supplemental treatment options for selected wastes. If implemented, these supplemental treatments will route certain waste components to processing and disposition pathways outside of WTP and thus will accelerate the overall Hanford tank waste remediation mission.

  3. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-TY-104: Results from samples collected on 4/27/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Clauss, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-104 (referred to as Tank TY-104). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 8 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Five tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 94% of the total organic components in Tank TY-104. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank TY-104 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List

  4. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-105: Results from samples collected on 2/24/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-105 (referred to as Tank U-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. All nine of the organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for 100% of the total organic components in Tank U-105. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace sample. Tank U-105 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  5. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-107: Results from samples collected on 2/17/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-107 (referred to as Tank U-107). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 10 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Sixteen organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv, and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 88% of the total organic components in Tank U-107. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank U-107 is on the Organic and the Hydrogen Watch Lists

  6. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-SX-103: Results from samples collected on 3/23/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage tank 241-SX-103 (referred to as Tank SX-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, two were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Two tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The four organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank SX-103. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) was the only permanent gas detected in the tank-headspace samples. Tank SX-103 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  7. Vapor space characterization of waste tank 241-BY-105 (in situ): Results from samples collected on May 9, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeety, B.D.; Pool, K.H.; Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Sharma, A.K.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the tank headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-BY-105 (referred to as Tank BY-105). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds NH 3 , NO 2 , NO, HCN, and H 2 O. Sampling for sulfur oxides was not requested. Results of the inorganic samples were affected by sampling errors that led to an undefined uncertainty in sample volume. Consequently, tank-headspace concentrations are estimated only. Thirty-nine tentatively identified organic analytes were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and their quantitation is beyond the scope of this study. In addition, we looked for the 41 standard TO-14 analytes. Of these, only a few were observed above the 2-ppbv detection limit. The 16 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed. These 16 analytes account for approximately 68% of the total or organic components in Tank BY-105

  8. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  9. Hydrogen generation during melter feed preparation of Tank 42 sludge and salt washed loaded CST in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of these scoping tests was to measure the rate of hydrogen generation in a series of experiments designed to duplicate the expected SRAT and SME processing conditions in laboratory scale vessels. This document details the testing performed to determine the maximum hydrogen generation expected with a coupled flowsheet of sludge, loaded CST [crystalline silicotitanate], and frit

  10. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste tank 241-U-109: Results from samples collected on 8/10/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Thomas, B.L.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-U-109 (Tank U-109) At the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. This tank is on the Hydrogen Waste List. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases and total non-methane hydrocarbons is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples is also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the text

  11. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-U-106 (in situ): Results from samples collected on 8/25/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Lucke, R.B.; Pool, K.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from in situ samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-106 (referred to as Tank U-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not performed. In addition, the authors looked for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 target analytes. Of these, six were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Ten organic tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv in two or more of the three samples collected and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 89% of the total organic components in Tank U-106. Methyl isocyanate, a compound of possible concern in Tank U-106, was not detected. Tank U-106 is on the Organic Watch List

  12. NEPHELINE FORMATION STUDY FOR SLUDGE BATCH 4: PHASE 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K

    2006-01-01

    This Phase 3 study was undertaken to complement the previous phases of the nepheline formation studies1, 2 by continuing the investigation into the ability of the nepheline discriminator to predict the occurrence of nepheline crystallization in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) glasses and into the impact of such phases on the durability of the SB4 glasses. The Phase 3 study had two primary objectives. The first was to continue to demonstrate the ability of the discriminator value to adequately predict the nepheline formation potential for specific glass systems of interest. The second was to generate additional data that have a high probability of supporting the SB4 variability study. To support these two objectives, sixteen glasses were selected based on the most recent SB4 compositional projection, Case 15C Blend 1.3 Four different frits were included, based on previous assessments of projected operating windows and melt rate,4, 5 with four WLs selected for each frit. Eight of these frit-sludge combinations covered WLs which tightly bound the nepheline discriminator value of 0.62, with the intent of refining this value to a level of confidence where it can be incorporated into offline administrative controls and/or the Process Composition Control System (PCCS) to support Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability decisions. The remaining eight frit-sludge combinations targeted lower WLs (35 and 40%) and were prepared and analyzed to contribute needed data to the ComPro database6 to support a potential variability study for SB4

  13. History of waste tank 9 , 1955--1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharin, D.W.; Lohr, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Tank 9 was placed in service as a receiver for Purex HLW on July 19, 1955. Filling was essentially completed in December 1955, and this original complement of waste remained in the tank until December 1965, when most of the liquid was decanted to allow refilling. In July 1966, the remaining liquid and approximately 15 inches of sludge were removed using 3000 to 3500 psi water introduced through nozzles to mobilize the sludge. The tank was then used as a receiver and cooler for aged HLW solution concentrated by the tank farm evaporator; the resulting crystallized salt, covered with saturated solution, is now stored in this tank. Inspections have been made of the tank interior and annulus by direct observation and with a 40-ft optical periscope. Analytical samples have been taken of the sludge, supernate, vapor, and leaked material in the annulus. Top-to-bottom profiles of radiation and temperature have been obtained in the annulus and tank, respectively, and measurements have been made of roof deflection caused by salt adhering to roof-supported cooling coils. Leaked waste was discovered in the annulus pan in October 1957. During 1958-59, the annulus pan was flushed nine times with water in 2000-gallon batches, jetting the waste and flush water into the primary tank. However, waste leakage into the annulus continued. The maximum liquid depth reached in the annulus was about 12 inches. This was jetted out in 1961., but some leakage continued theeeafter as indicated by roddings. The roddings showed no standing liquid by August 1964, but some liquid may have been present undera salt crust. In March 1972, salt depth in the annulus was measured to be 8 to 10 in., and the bottom 3 in. was quite wet. The salt remains although most of the liquid has been removed

  14. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Cunnane, J.C.; Helt, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  15. Fiscal year 1993 1/25-scale sludge mobilization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Golcar, G.R.; Hymas, C.R.; McKay, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Sixteen 1/25-scale sludge mobilization experiments were conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1993. The results of this testing are presented in this document. The ability of a single, centrally-located, scale model mixer pump to resuspend a layer of simulated tank sludge was evaluated for five different simulant types. The resistance of these simulants to the mobilizing action of the mixer pump jets was not found to adequately correlate with simulant vane shear strength. The data indicate that the simulant cohesion, as quantified by tensile strength, may provide a good measure of mobilization resistance. A single test was done to evaluate whether indexed mixer pump rotation is significantly more effective than the planned continuous oscillation. No significant difference was found in the sludge mobilization caused by these two modes of operation. Two tests were conducted using a clay-based sludge simulant that contained approximately 5 wt% soluble solids. The distance to which the mixer pump jets were effective for this simulant was approximately 50% greater than on similar simulants that did not contain soluble solids. The implication is that sludge dissolution effects may significantly enhance the performance of mixer pumps in some tanks. The development of a means to correlate the magnitude of this effect with waste properties is a direction for future work. Two tests were performed with the goal of determining whether the 1/25-scale sludge mobilization data can be scaled linearly to 1/12-scale. The two 1/25-scale tests were conducted using the same simulant recipe as had been used in previous 1/12-scale tests. The difficulty of matching the 1/25-scale simulants, with those used previously is thought to have adversely affected the results. Further tests are needed to determine whether the data from sludge mobilization tests can be linearly scaled

  16. Assessment of microbial viability in municipal sludge following ultrasound and microwave pretreatments and resulting impacts on the efficiency of anaerobic sludge digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Monica Angela; Akgul, Deniz; Eskicioglu, Cigdem

    2016-03-01

    A range of ultrasonication (US) and microwave irradiation (MW) sludge pretreatments were compared to determine the extent of cellular destruction in micro-organisms within secondary sludge and how this cellular destruction translated to anaerobic digestion (AD). Cellular lysis/inactivation was measured using two microbial viability assays, (1) Syto 16® Green and Sytox® Orange counter-assay to discern the integrity of cellular membranes and (2) a fluorescein diacetate assay to understand relative enzymatic activity. A range of MW intensities (2.17-6.48 kJ/g total solids or TS, coinciding temperatures of 60-160 °C) were selected for comparison via viability assays; a range of corresponding US intensities (2.37-27.71 kJ/g TS, coinciding sonication times of 10-60 min at different amplitudes) were also compared to this MW range. The MW pretreatment of thickened waste activated sludge (tWAS) caused fourfold to fivefold greater cell death than non-pretreated and US-pretreated tWAS. The greatest microbial destruction occurred at MW intensities greater than 2.62 kJ/g TS of sludge, after which increased energy input via MW did not appear to cause greater microbial death. In addition, the optimal MW pretreatment (80 °C, 2.62 kJ/g TS) and corresponding US pretreatment (10 min, 60 % amplitude, 2.37 kJ/g TS) were administered to the tWAS of a mixed sludge and fed to anaerobic digesters over sludge retention times (SRTs) of 20, 14, and 7 days to compare effects of feed pretreatment on AD efficiency. The digester utilizing MW-pretreated tWAS (80 °C, 2.62 kJ/g TS) had the greatest fecal coliform removal (73.4 and 69.8 % reduction, respectively), greatest solids removal (44.2 % TS reduction), and highest overall methane production (248.2 L CH4/kg volatile solids) at 14- and 7-day SRTs. However, despite the fourfold to fivefold increases in cell death upon pretreatment, improvements from the digester fed MW-pretreated sludge were marginal (i.e., increases in efficiency of less

  17. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  18. Development and demonstration of a stabilization system for buried mixed waste tanks: Initital results of the tank V-9 hot demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthern, G.E.; Kuhns, D.J.; Meservey, R.H.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach for the stabilization of buried mixed waste tanks and presents the status of an application of this approach to a specific hot waste tank demonstration to be performed in FY-96. The approach uses the cradle-to-grave concept and includes technical, health and safety, and regulatory considerations and requirements. It starts with the identification of the tank and continues to the final disposition and monitoring of the tank

  19. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications

  20. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  1. Sludge busters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  2. Sludge busters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-07-15

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  3. Relative importance of secondary settling tank models in WWTP simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained in a study using the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 (BSM1) show that a one-dimensional secondary settling tank (1-D SST) model structure and its parameters are among the most significant sources of uncertainty in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) simulations [Ramin et al., 2011......]. The sensitivity results consistently indicate that the prediction of sludge production is most sensitive to the variation of the settling parameters. In the present study, we use the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2), a plant-wide benchmark, that combines the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1...

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned

  5. Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors is the fifth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The first part of the book is devoted to the activated sludge process, covering the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus.A detailed analysis of the biological reactor (aeration tank) and the final sedimentation tanks is provided. The second part of the book covers aerobic biofilm reactors, especially trickling filters, rotating biological contractors and submerged ae...

  6. Treatment of radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.; Payne, B.J.; Pegler, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sludge e.g. that which may accumulate in irradiated nuclear fuel element storage ponds, is treated by pumping it from a settling tank to a particle separator, conveniently a hydrocyclone and a sloping plate separator, the liquid being returned to the settling tank and the solids being metered into a drum pre-lined with dry cement. The drums are in a containment box in which they are transferred to a mixing station where the particles and cement are mixed and thence to a curing station. After curing the drums are embedded in cement in outer containers for transport to a long-term storage site. (author)

  7. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  8. Tank 241-C-111 headspace gas and vapor sample results - August 1993 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Tank 241-C-111 is on the ferrocyanide Watch List. Gas and vapor samples were collected to assure safe conditions before planned intrusive work was performed. Sample analyses showed that hydrogen is about ten times higher in the tank headspace than in ambient air. Nitrous oxide is about sixty times higher than ambient levels. The hydrogen cyanide concentration was below 0.04 ppbv, and the average NO x concentration was 8.6 ppmv

  9. SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

    2012-01-25

    leak detection. In-tank parameters can include temperature of the supernatant and sludge, types of waste, and chemical determination by either transfer or sample analysis. Ex-tank information can be assembled from many sources including design media, construction conditions, technical specifications, and other sources. Five conditions may have contributed to SX Farm tank liner failure including: tank design, thermal shock, chemistry-corrosion, liner behavior (bulging), and construction temperature. Tank design did not apparently change from tank to tank for the SX Farm tanks; however, there could be many unknown variables present in the quality of materials and quality of construction. Several significant SX Farm tank design changes occurred from previous successful tank farm designs. Tank construction occurred in winter under cold conditions which could have affected the ductile to brittle transition temperature of the tanks. The SX Farm tanks received high temperature boiling waste from REDOX which challenged the tank design with rapid heat up and high temperatures. All eight of the leaking SX Farm tanks had relatively high rate of temperature rise. Supernatant removal with subsequent nitrate leaching was conducted in all but three of the eight leaking tanks prior to leaks being detected. It is possible that no one characteristic of the SX Farm tanks could in isolation from the others have resulted in failure. However, the application of so many stressors - heat up rate, high temperature, loss of corrosion protection, and tank design - working jointly or serially resulted in their failure. Thermal shock coupled with the tank design, construction conditions, and nitrate leaching seem to be the overriding factors that can lead to tank liner failure. The distinction between leaking and sound SX Farm tanks seems to center on the waste types, thermal conditions, and nitrate leaching.

  10. Single-Shell Tanks Leak Integrity Elements/ SX Farm Leak Causes and Locations - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardot, Crystal [URS- Safety Management Solutions, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Harlow, Don [ELR Consulting Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Venetz, Theodore; Washenfelder, Dennis [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Johnson, Jeremy [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    leak detection. In-tank parameters can include temperature of the supernatant and sludge, types of waste, and chemical determination by either transfer or sample analysis. Ex-tank information can be assembled from many sources including design media, construction conditions, technical specifications, and other sources. Five conditions may have contributed to SX Farm tank liner failure including: tank design, thermal shock, chemistry-corrosion, liner behavior (bulging), and construction temperature. Tank design did not apparently change from tank to tank for the SX Farm tanks; however, there could be many unknown variables present in the quality of materials and quality of construction. Several significant SX Farm tank design changes occurred from previous successful tank farm designs. Tank construction occurred in winter under cold conditions which could have affected the ductile to brittle transition temperature of the tanks. The SX Farm tanks received high temperature boiling waste from REDOX which challenged the tank design with rapid heat up and high temperatures. All eight of the leaking SX Farm tanks had relatively high rate of temperature rise. Supernatant removal with subsequent nitrate leaching was conducted in all but three of the eight leaking tanks prior to leaks being detected. It is possible that no one characteristic of the SX Farm tanks could in isolation from the others have resulted in failure. However, the application of so many stressors - heat up rate, high temperature, loss of corrosion protection, and tank design working jointly or serially resulted in their failure. Thermal shock coupled with the tank design, construction conditions, and nitrate leaching seem to be the overriding factors that can lead to tank liner failure. The distinction between leaking and sound SX Farm tanks seems to center on the waste types, thermal conditions, and nitrate leaching. (authors)

  11. Mercury Dispersion Modeling And Purge Ventilation Stack Height Determination For Tank 40H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Giboyeaux, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-19

    The SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group performed an analysis for mercury emissions from H-Tank Farm - Tank 40 ventilation system exhaust in order to assess whether the Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL), or Threshold Limit Value (TLV) levels for mercury will be exceeded during bulk sludge slurry mixing and sludge removal operations. The American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was used as the main dispersion modelling tool for this analysis. The results indicated that a 45-foot stack is sufficient to raise the plume centerline from the Tank 40 release to prevent mercury exposure problems for any of the stack discharge scenarios provided. However, a 42-foot stack at Tank 40 is sufficient to prevent mercury exposure concerns in all emission scenarios except the 50 mg/m3 release. At a 42-foot stack height, values exceeding the exposure standards are only measured on receptors located above 34 feet.

  12. Hydrogen Evolution and Sludge Suspension During the Preparation of the First Batch of Sludge at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.; Lee, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The first batch of High Level Radioactive Sludge for the Defense Waste Processing Facility is being prepared in two 4.9 million liter waste tanks. The preparation involves removing water soluble salts by washing (water addition, sludge suspension, settling and decantation). Sludge suspension is accomplished using long shafted slurry pumps that are mounted on rotating turntables. During the sludge suspension runs in 1993 and 1994, the slurry pumps' cleaning radius was determined to be less than that expected from previous determinations using synthetic sludge in a full size waste tank mockup. Hydrogen concentrations in the tanks' vapor space were monitored during the sludge suspension activities. As expected, the initial agitation of the sludge increased the hydrogen concentration, however, with the controls in place the hydrogen concentration was maintained below seven percent of the lower flammability limit

  13. RESULTS OF COPPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION (CCPO) OF TANK 48H SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Pareizs, J.; Newell, J.; Fondeur, F.; Nash, C.; White, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. The following observations were made with respect to the major processing variables investigated. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. Testing with simulated slurries continues. Current testing is examining lower copper concentrations, refined peroxide addition rates, and alternate acidification methods. A revision of this report will provide updated findings with emphasis on defining recommended conditions for similar tests with actual waste samples.

  14. Vapor space characterization of Waste Tank 241-S-111: Results from samples collected on 3/21/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-S-111 (referred to as Tank S-111). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, seven were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Five tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 98% of the total organic components in Tank S-111. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected. Tank S-111 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  15. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-U-103: Results from samples collected on 2/15/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; Clauss, T.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Klinger, G.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-U-103 (referred to as Tank U-103). The results described her were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 11 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Eleven tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 10 organic analytes with the highest estimated concentrations are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 90% of the total organic components in Tank U-103. Two permanent gases, hydrogen (H 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected. Tank U-103 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  16. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-SX-106: Results from samples collected on 3/24/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Litgotke, M.W.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-SX-106 (referred to as Tank SX-106). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Of these, 4 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. Three tentatively identified compounds (TICs) were observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The 7 organic analytes identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank SX-106. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) was the only permanent gas detected. Tank SX-106 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List

  17. Vapor space characterization of waste Tank 241-TY-101: Results from samples collected on 4/6/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; Pool, K.H.; McVeety, B.D.; Olsen, K.B.; Bredt, O.P.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes inorganic and organic analyses results from samples obtained from the headspace of the Hanford waste storage Tank 241-TY-101 (referred to as Tank TY-101). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed in Table 1. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text. Quantitative results were obtained for the inorganic compounds ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), and water vapor (H 2 O). Sampling for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) was not requested. In addition, quantitative results were obtained for the 39 TO-14 compounds plus an additional 14 analytes. Off these, 5 were observed above the 5-ppbv reporting cutoff. One tentatively identified compound (TIC) was observed above the reporting cutoff of (ca.) 10 ppbv and are reported with concentrations that are semiquantitative estimates based on internal-standard response factors. The six organic analyses identified are listed in Table 1 and account for approximately 100% of the total organic components in Tank TY-101. Two permanent gases, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), were also detected. Tank TY-101 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List

  18. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R L; Fernandes, L; Sun, X [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-BX-110: Results from samples collected on 04/30/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Thomas, B.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of the waste storage tank 241-BX-110 (Tank BX-110) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to characterize the vapors present in the tank headspace and to support safety evaluations and tank farm operations. The results include air concentrations of selected inorganic and organic analytes and grouped compounds from samples obtained by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and provided for analysis to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volumes provided by WHC. A summary of the inorganic analytes, permanent gases, and total non-methane organic compounds is listed in a table. The three highest concentration analytes detected in SUMMA trademark canister and triple sorbent trap samples are also listed in the table. Detailed descriptions of the analytical results appear in the appendices