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Sample records for tank containers regulations

  1. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  2. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  3. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  4. Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yu

    1994-01-01

    A study of the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, the sloshing wave height and associated frequencies, and the base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, the height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids is controlled by three parameters: the height-to-radius ratio and the mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. It is found that some of the response quantities for a tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the corresponding response quantities for an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. ((orig.))

  5. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks and...

  6. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  7. Hydrodynamic pressure in a tank containing two liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yu.

    1992-01-01

    A study on the dynamic response of a tank containing two different liquids under seismic excitation is presented. Both analytical and numerical (FEM) methods are employed in the analysis. The results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement. The response functions examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, base shear and base moments. A simple approach that can be used to estimate the fundamental natural frequency of the tank-liquid system containing two liquids is proposed. This simple approach is an extension of the method used for estimating the frequency of a tank-liquid system containing only one liquid. This study shows that the dynamic response of a tank filled with two liquids is quite different from that of an identical tank filled with only one liquid

  8. Secondary Containment Design for the LLNL B801 Diala Oil Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Design is to add an extension to the secondary containment of tank T1-A3 at building 801. Piping from the inner tank penetrates the secondary containment tank below the liquid level of the primary tank. To meet Oil Pollution Prevention Regulation 40 CFR 120.7 the single wall piping needs to be provided with secondary containment. Steel Tank Institute (STI) conference publication states: §112.3(d)(1)(iii) –SPCC Plan requirements- Systems shall be designed in accordance with good engineering practice, including consideration of applicable industry standards and that procedures for required inspections and testing have been established. Section 112.7(a)(2) allows for deviations from specific rule requirements, provided the Owner/operator responsible to select, document and implement alternate measure and a PE certifies the SPCC Plan in accordance with good engineering practices, including consideration of industry standards

  9. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  10. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system

  11. High organic containing tanks: Assessing the hazard potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.C.P.; Babad, H.

    1991-09-01

    Eight Hanford Site tanks contain organic chemicals at concentrations believed to be greater than 10 mole percent sodium acetate equivalent mixed with the oxidizing salts sodium nitrate/sodium nitrite. Also, three of the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tanks appear on the organic tank list. Concentrations of organics that may be present in some tanks could cause an exothermic reaction given a sufficient driving force, such as high temperatures. However, the difference between ignition temperatures and actual tank temperatures measured is so large that the probability of such a reaction is considered very low. The consequences of the postulated reaction are about the same as the scenarios for an explosion in a ''burping'' hydrogen tank. Although work on this issue is just beginning, consideration of hazards associated with heating nitrate-nitrite mixtures containing organic materials is an integral part of both the hydrogen and ferrocyanide tank efforts. High concentrations of organic compounds have been inferred (from tank transfer, flow sheet records, and limited analytical data) in eight single-shell tanks. Many organic chemicals, if present in concentrations above 10 dry weight percent (sodium acetate equivalent), have the potential to react with nitrate-nitrites constituents at temperatures above 200 degree C (392 degree F) in an exothermic manner. The concentrations of organic materials in the listed single-shell tanks, and their chemical identity, is not accurately known at present. A tank sampling program has been planned to provide more information on the contents of these tanks and to serve as a basis for laboratory testing and safety evaluations. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Salt removal from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), there are 23 waste storage tanks containing high-level radioactive wastes that are to be retired. These tanks contain about 23 million liters of salt and about 10 million liters of sludge, that are to be relocated to new Type III, fully stress-relieved tanks with complete secondary containment. About 19 million liters of salt cake are to be dissolved. Steam jet circulators were originally proposed for the salt dissolution program. However, use of steam jet circulators raised the temperature of the tank contents and caused operating problems. These included increased corrosion risk and required long cooldown periods prior to transfer. Alternative dissolution concepts were investigated. Examination of mechanisms affecting salt dissolution showed that the ability of fresh water to contact the cake surface was the most significant factor influencing dissolution rate. Density driven and mechanical agitation techniques were developed on a bench scale and then were demonstrated in an actual waste tank. Actual waste tank demonstrations were in good agreement with bench-scale experiments at 1/85 scale. The density driven method utilizes simple equipment, but leaves a cake heel in the tank and is hindered by the presence of sludge or Zeolite in the salt cake. Mechanical agitation overcomes the problems found with both steam jet circulators and the density driven technique and is the best method for future waste tank salt removal

  13. SSI effects for a tank containing two liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Following a brief review of a mechanical model which permits consideration of the flexibility of the tank wall and the supporting medium, the effects of the soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of a laterally excited tank that contains two liquids are examined. The quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, base shear and moments. The results are compared with those obtained with no soil-structure interaction. Only the impulsive component of response is examined; the convective component is for all practical purposes unaffected by soil-structure interaction. It is shown that for the conditions considered, soil-structure interaction reduces the peak response of the tank-liquid system

  14. Thermographic inspection of pipes, tanks, and containment liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B., E-mail: jrenshaw@epri.com; Muthu, Nathan [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West WT Harris Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States); Lhota, James R.; Shepard, Steven M., E-mail: sshepard@thermalwave.com [Thermal Wave Imaging, 845 Livernois St., Ferndale, MI 48220 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Nuclear power plants are required to operate at a high level of safety. Recent industry and license renewal commitments aim to further increase safety by requiring the inspection of components that have not traditionally undergone detailed inspected in the past, such as tanks and liners. NEI 09-14 requires the inspection of buried pipes and tanks while containment liner inspections are required as a part of license renewal commitments. Containment liner inspections must inspect the carbon steel liner for defects - such as corrosion - that could threaten the pressure boundary and ideally, should be able to inspect the surrounding concrete for foreign material that could be in contact with the steel liner and potentially initiate corrosion. Such an inspection requires a simultaneous evaluation of two materials with very different material properties. Rapid, yet detailed, inspection results are required due to the massive size of the tanks and containment liners to be inspected. For this reason, thermal NDE methods were evaluated to inspect tank and containment liner mockups with simulated defects. Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) was utilized to enhance the images and provide detailed information on the sizes and shapes of the observed defects. The results show that thermographic inspection is highly sensitive to the defects of interest and is capable of rapidly inspecting large areas.

  15. 46 CFR 182.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 182.465, a space containing a diesel fuel tank and no machinery must meet the requirements of this...

  16. Underground storage tanks: State regulations and compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to resolve underground storage tank (UST) management problems, several states and localities have moved ahead of EPA in the promulgation of UST regulations. Developed independently, these regulations represent different strategies for ensuring compliance: from an extensive set of permitting requirements that allow for the implementation of site-specific control measures to a uniform set of technical and operational requirements that vary according to installation date. For the tank owner, complying with these regulations can be a time-consuming and frustrating endeavor. However, during the course of several environmental audits of similar facilities in different states, useful strategies were observed or developed that enabled facilities to respond more effectively to requirements: these included computerization of files, designation of tank custodians, installation of low-maintenance equipment, and increased use of above-ground tanks. Of special additional interest was the wide variation in costs for similar tank services quoted by both private and government sources. These strategies are coupled with general observations on the efficacy of the various regulatory approaches to provide a field view that may be useful to tank owners and others involved in underground tank management and evaluation

  17. 46 CFR 119.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 119... fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 119.465 of this part, a space containing a diesel fuel tank and no machinery must meet one of the following requirements: (1) A space of 14...

  18. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural...

  19. 7 CFR 987.48 - Container regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container regulation. 987.48 Section 987.48... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Container Regulation § 987.48 Container regulation. Whenever the Committee deems it advisable to establish a container regulation for any variety of...

  20. Characterization of Settler Tank and KW Container Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-12

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL on February 12, 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

  1. Evaluation of Flammable Gas Monitoring and Ventilation System Alternatives for Double-Contained Receiver Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This study identifies possible flammable gas monitoring and ventilation system alternatives to ensure adequate removal of flammable gases from the Double-Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) primary tanks during temporary storage of small amounts of waste. The study evaluates and compares these alternatives to support closure of the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ TF-96-04330)

  2. Sloshing analysis of tanks containing multiple fluid layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.A.; Tang, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of liquid density changes in high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks is studied. The density variations with the liquid depth is modeled by layers of piece wise constant densities. A computational formulation based on the finite element method is presented. The computer code FLUSTR-ANL has been modified for the analysis of the sloshing response under seismic excitation

  3. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  4. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations

  5. Precipitation of Aluminum Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Hobbs, David; Parker, Kent E.; McCready, David E.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminisilicate deposit buildup experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down in October 1999. The Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) of Westinghouse Savannah River Company at SRS is now collaborating with team members from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to verify the steady-state thermodynamic stability of aluminosilicate compounds under waste tank conditions in an attempt to eliminate the deposition and clogging problems. The data obtained at 40?C showed that formation and persistence of crystalline phases was dependent on the initial hydroxide concentrations. The formation and persistence of zeolite A occurred only at lower hydroxide concentrations, whereas increasing hydroxide concentrations appeared to promote the formation of sodalite and cancrinite. The data also showed that although zeolite A forms initially, it is a metastable phase that converts to more stable crystalline materials such as sodalite and cancrinite. Additionally, the rate of transformation of zeolite A appeared to increase with increasing hydroxide concentration. The data from tests conducted at 80?C revealed relatively rapid formation of sodalite and cancrinite. Although minor amounts of zeolite A were initially detected in some cases, the higher reaction temperatures seemed to promote very rapid transformation of this phase into more stable phases. Also, the higher temperature and hydroxide concentrations appeared to initiate kinetically fast crystallization of sodalite and cancrinite. More recent testing at SRS in support of the HLW evaporator plugging issue has shown similar trends in the formation of aluminosilicate phases. These tests were carried out under conditions more similar to those that occur in HLW tanks and evaporators. Comparison of our results with those reported above show very similar trends

  6. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may be...

  7. Analysis on engineering application of CNP1000 in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Wang Yong; Qiu Jian; Weng Minghui

    2005-01-01

    Based on the basic design of CNP1000 (three loops), which is self-reliance designed by China National Nuclear Cooperation, and investigation results from abroad advanced nuclear power plant design of In-containment Refueling Water Storage tank, this paper describe the system flowsheet, functional requirements, structural design and piping arrangement about In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank. The design takes the lower structural space as the IRWST. Four areas are configured to meet the diverse functional requirements, including depressurization area, water collection area, safety injection and/or containment spray suction area, TSP storage area / reactor cavity flooding holdup tank. Also the paper depict the corresponding analysis and demonstration, such as In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank pressure transient on depressurization area of IRWST, suction and internal flow stream of IRWST, configuration of strains, the addition method and amount of chemical addition, design and engineering applicant of Reactor Cavity Flooding System. All the analysis results show the basic design of IRWST meeting with the Utility Requirement Document's requirements on performance of safety function, setting of overfill passage, overpressure protection, related interference, etc., and show the reliability of Engineering Safety Features being improved for CNP1000 (three loops). Meanwhile, it is demonstrated that the design of In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank can apply on the future nuclear power plant project in China. (authors)

  8. Ferrocyanide-containing waste tanks: Ferrocyanide chemistry and reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Tingey, J.M.; Bryan, S.A.; Borsheim, G.L.; Simpson, B.C.; Cash, R.J.; Cady, H.H.

    1991-09-01

    The complexing constant for hexacyano-iron complexes, both Fe(2) and Fe(3), are exceptionally large. The derived transition metal salts or double salts containing alkali metal ions are only slightly soluble. The various nickel compounds examined in this study, i.e., those predicted to have been formed in the Hanford waste scavenging program, are typical examples. In spite of their relative stability towards most reagents under ambient conditions, they are all thermodynamically unstable towards oxidation and react explosively with oxidants such as nitrate or nitrate salts when heated to temperatures in excess of 200 degree C. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  10. Control of stress corrosion cracking in storage tanks containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.; Rideout, S.P.; Donovan, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Stress corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline nitrate radioactive waste, at the Savannah River Plant is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Cases of cracking have been observed in the primary steel shell of tanks designed and built before 1960 that were attributed to a combination of high residual stresses from fabrication welding and aggressiveness of fresh wastes from the reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The fresh wastes have the highest concentration of nitrate, which has been shown to be the cracking agent. Also as the waste solutions age and are reduced in volume by evaporation of water, nitrite and hydroxide ions become more concentrated and inhibit stress corrosion. Thus, by providing a heel of aged evaporated waste in tanks that receive fresh waste, concentrations of the inhibitor ions are maintained within specified ranges to protect against nitrate cracking. Tanks designed and built since 1960 have been made of steels with greater resistance to stress corrosion; these tanks have also been heat treated after fabrication to relieve residual stresses from construction operations. Temperature limits are also specified to protect against stress corrosion at elevated temperatures

  11. 46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. 182.460 Section 182.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline must have a ventilation...

  12. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Hobbs, David T.; Wang, Li-Qiong; Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases represent the most prevalent solids that can appear or disappear during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes such as sludge washing and leaching are designed to dissolve Al-containing phases and thereby minimize the volume of high-level waste glass required to encapsulate radioactive sludges. Unfortunately, waste-processing steps that include evaporation can involve solutions that are supersaturated with respect to cementitious aluminosilicates that result in unwanted precipitation and scale formation. Of all the constituents of tank waste, limited solubility cementitious aluminosilicates have the greatest potential for clogging pipes and transfer lines, fouling highly radioactive components such as ion exchangers, and completely shutting down processing operations. For instance, deposit buildup and clogged drain lines experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down in October 1999. The Waste Processing Technology Section of Westinghouse Savannah River Company at SRS now is collaborating with team members from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to verify the thermodynamic stability of aluminosilicate compounds under waste tank conditions in an attempt to solve the deposition and clogging problems. The primary objectives of this study are (1) to understand the major factors controlling precipitation, heterogeneous nucleation, and growth phenomena of relatively insoluble aluminosilicates; (2) to determine the role of organics for inhibiting aluminosilicate formation, and (3) to develop a predictive tool to control precipitation, scale formation, and cementation under tank waste processing conditions. The results of this work will provide crucial information for (1) avoiding problematical sludge processing steps and (2) identifying and developing effective technologies to process retrieved sludges and supernatants before ultimate

  13. Status of containment integrity studies for continued in-tank storage of Hanford defense high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Beitel, G.A.; Mercier, P.F.; Moore, E.L.; Vollert, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    Information is provided on the technical studies that have been implemented for evaluating the containment integrity of the single-shell waste storage tanks. The major areas of study are an analysis of storage tank integrity, a failure mode analysis, and storage tank improvements. Evaluations of tank structural integrity include theoretical studies on static and dynamic load responses, laboratory studies on concrete durability, and experimental studies on the potential for exothermic reactions of salt cake. The structural analyses completed to date show that the tanks are in good condition and have a safety margin against overload. Environmental conditions that could cause a loss of durability are limited to the waste chemicals stored (which do not have access to the concrete). Concern that a salt cake exothermic reaction may initiate a loss of containment is not justifiable based on extensive testing completed. A failure mode analysis of a tank liner failure, a sidewall failure, and a dome collapse shows that no radiologic hazard to man results. Storage tank improvement studies completed show that support of a tank dome is achievable. Secondary containment provided by chemical grouts and bentonite clay slurry walls does not appear promising. It is now estimated that the single-shell tanks will be serviceable for the storage of salt cake waste for decades under currently established operating temperature and load limits

  14. Underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental contamination from leaking underground storage tanks poses a significant threat to human health and the environment. An estimated five to six million underground storage tanks containing hazardous substances or petroleum products are in use in the US. Originally placed underground as a fire prevention measure, these tanks have substantially reduced the damages from stored flammable liquids. However, an estimated 400,000 underground tanks are thought to be leaking now, and many more will begin to leak in the near future. Products released from these leaking tanks can threaten groundwater supplies, damage sewer lines and buried cables, poison crops, and lead to fires and explosions. As required by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA), the EPA has been developing a comprehensive regulatory program for underground storage tanks. The EPA proposed three sets of regulations pertaining to underground tanks. The first addressed technical requirements for petroleum and hazardous substance tanks, including new tank performance standards, release detection, release reporting and investigation, corrective action, and tank closure. The second proposed regulation addresses financial responsibility requirements for underground petroleum tanks. The third addressed standards for approval of state tank programs

  15. Impacts and Compliance Implementation Plans and Required Deviations for Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Regulation of Double Shell Tanks (DST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held meetings regarding the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) contain waste which will become subject to the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor (TFC) to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. Two components of the PCB management plans are this assessment of the operational impacts of TSCA regulation and the identifications of deviations from TSCA that are required to accommodate tank farm unique limitations. This plan provides ORP and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) with an outline of TSCA PCB requirements and their applicability to tank farm activities, and recommends a compliance/implementation approach. Where strict compliance is not possible, the need for deviations from TSCA PCB requirements is identified. The purpose of assembling this information is to enhance the understanding of PCB management requirements, identify operational impacts and select impact mitigation strategies. This information should be useful in developing formal agreements with EPA where required

  16. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition

  17. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT), Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan

  18. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  19. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition. Transition metal hydroxide sludge contains strong passivating species for carbon steel. Washed precipitate contains organic species that lower solution pH and tend to reduce passivating films, requiring higher inhibitor concentrations than the 0.01 molar nitrite required for reactor fuel reprocessing wastes. Periodic agitation, to keep the organic phase suspended, or cathodic protection are possible alternatives to higher nitrite inhibitor concentrations

  20. Underground disposal of tanks containing liquid and inflammable hydrocarbons; Mise sous talus ou sous terre des reservoirs contenant des hydrocarbures liquides inflammables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuczka, P.; Giovannini, B.; Caumont, M.; Varin, F

    2001-09-15

    The protection from thermal and mechanical stresses, of hazardous products tanks, by earth covering, is often used since many years in France and in many countries of Europe. In the case of hydrocarbons tanks, only small capacity tanks are covering. The aim of this report is to evaluate the feasibility of this technique for big capacity tanks as refinery tanks. It details the different typologies of tanks containing inflammable liquids and the associated systems, examines if the covering technique presents some special difficulties and precises the specifications needed for the new tanks being covering. (A.L.B.)

  1. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  2. Using of polyamide in construction of supporting blocks of cryogenic tanks on example of LNG container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lisowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in using of cryogenic gases is increasing recently. It particularly applies to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas, which is relatively inexpensive and environmental friendly. In the liquefied form this gas is highly compressed. One cubic meter of liquefied LNG can be expanded to 660 cubic meters of normal usable gas. At the atmospheric pressure, the liquefaction temperature of LNG is under minus 160 Celsius degrees. Therefore, there is a necessity to store it in a cryogenic tank. A system of reloading port terminals is built in several UE countries, as Spain, Italy. The LNG is delivered to these terminals using the adequately equipped ships. However, there are significant problems with delivering LNG to recipients not connected to the gas network directly. Delivering of liquefied LNG to recipients using the road or rail transport is one of the simplest solutions of this problem. This kind of transport is possible only with using suitable tanks with the adequate insulation and fulfilling the transport requirements. Many scientific research centers carry out investigations on high insulating-power materials. The problem to design and build universal container for road and rail transport was taken on by Cracow University of Technology together with the company Chemet from Tarnowskie Góry. Designed cryogenic tank is a two-walledconstruction with the vacuum between them. Distance between walls is provided by system of supporting blocks made of plastic. Thispaper presents problem of heat transfer between the walls through the supporting blocks. The investigations were carried out both:numerically, using the finite element method and experimentally, using the especially designed and built laboratory test stand, whichallowed to determine heat transfer coefficient.

  3. 7 CFR 906.340 - Container, pack, and container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container, pack, and container marking regulations... AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Container and Pack Requirements § 906.340 Container, pack, and container marking regulations. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1313 Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and...

  5. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations. The principal focus of our research was to maintain the fluidity of aluminum- or silicon-containing suspensions and solutions during transport, whether by preventing particle formation, stabilizing colloidal particles in suspension, or by combining partial dissolution with particle stabilization. We have found that all of these can be effected in aluminum-containing solutions using the simple organic, citric acid. Silicon-containing solutions were found to be less tractable, but we have strong indications that chemistries similar to the citric acid/aluminum suspensions can be effective in maintaining silicon suspensions at high alkalinities. In the first phase of our study, we focused on the use of simple organics to raise the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in high alkaline aqueous solvents. In a limited survey of common organic acids, we determined that citric acid had the highest potential to achieve our goal. However, our subsequent investigation revealed that the citric acid appeared to play two roles in the solutions: first, raising the concentration of aluminum in highly alkaline solutions by breaking up or inhibiting 'seed' polycations and thereby delaying the nucleation and growth of particles; and second, stabilizing nanometer-sized particles in suspension when nucleation did occur. The second phase of our work involved the solvation of silicon, again in solutions of high alkalinity. Here, the use of polyols was determined to be effective in

  6. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-06-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a technical basis or reference document for flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases

  7. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a reference document describing the current knowledge of flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases. The report incorporates these analyses into two models for calculating headspace flammability, one based on instantaneous equilibrium between dissolved gases and the headspace and one incorporating limited release rates based on mass-transfer considerations. Finally, it demonstrates the use of both models to estimate headspace flammable gas concentrations and minimum ventilation rates required to maintain concentrations below 25% of the LFL

  8. Flammable gas issues in double-contained receiver tanks. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.; Shepard, C.L.

    1998-06-01

    Four double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) at Hanford will be used to store salt-well pumped liquids from tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. This document was created to serve as a technical basis or reference document for flammable gas issues in DCRTs. The document identifies, describes, evaluates, and attempts to quantify potential gas carryover and release mechanisms. It estimates several key parameters needed for these calculations, such as initial aqueous concentrations and ventilation rate, and evaluates the uncertainty in those estimates. It justifies the use of the Schumpe model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibrium constants. It identifies several potential waste compatibility issues (such as mixing and pH or temperature changes) that could lead to gas release and provides a basis for calculating their effects. It evaluates the potential for gas retention in precipitated solids within a DCRT and whether retention could lead to a buoyant displacement instability (rollover) event. It discusses rates of radiolytic, thermal, and corrosive hydrogen generation within the DCRT. It also describes in detail the accepted method of calculating the lower flammability limit (LFL) for mixtures of flammable gases.

  9. Conceptual design of passive containment cooling system with air holdup tanks of improved APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byong Guk; Cheon No, Hee

    2014-01-01

    In Korea, after the successful validation of passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS), a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) gets attention for future development. We suggested PCCS design based on APR+, an advanced PWR developed in Korea, and performed scoping analysis. On the extension of the simple scoping analysis, MARS simulation is performed to incorporate the behavior of water pool outside the containment as well as steam-air mixture inside the containment. Through the simulation we demonstrated the effectiveness of the air holdup tank (AHT). Also we investigated the effect of the models of heat transfer coefficients between steam-air mixture side and water side, and flow instability inside HX tubes. The presence of AHT enables us to reduce the number of required HX tubes more than half through an increase in the heat transfer coefficients due to the reduction of air fraction in the containment. Finally flow instability was observed and mitigated by putting orifice plates at the inlet of tubes, increasing height of return nozzle, and increasing a tube angle. (authors)

  10. Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) steel-containment-vessel and floodwater-storage-tank structural-dynamics tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendts, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Inertance (vibration) testing of two significant vessels at the Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) facility, located near Kahl, West Germany, was recently completed. Transfer functions were obtained for determination of the modal properties (frequencies, mode shapes and damping) of the vessels using two different test methods for comparative purposes. One of the vessels tested was the steel containment vessel (SCV). The SCV is approximately 180 feet high and 65 feet in diameter with a 1.2-inch wall thickness. The other vessel, called the floodwater storage tank (FWST), is a vertically standing vessel approximately 40 feet high and 10 feet in diameter with a 1/2-inch wall thickness. The FWST support skirt is square (in plan views) with its corners intersecting the ellipsoidal bottom head near the knuckle region

  11. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) made at control decision meetings on November 16, 17, and 18, 1999, on April 19,2000, and on May 10,2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996) for DCRTs. Following the contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval.

  12. A dynamic model of liquid containers (tanks) with legs and probability analysis of response to simulated earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi; Shimosaka, Haruo

    1980-01-01

    This paper is described on the results of analysis of the response of liquid containers (tanks) to earthquakes. Sine wave oscillation was applied experimentally to model tanks with legs. A model with one degree of freedom is good enough for the analysis. To investigate the reason of this fact, the response multiplication factor of tank displacement was analysed. The shapes of the model tanks were rectangular and cylindrical. Analyses were made by a potential theory. The experimental studies show that the characteristics of attenuation of oscillation was non-linear. The model analysis of this non-linear attenuation was also performed. Good agreement between the experimental and the analytical results was recognized. The probability analysis of the response to earthquake with simulated shock waves was performed, using the above mentioned model, and good agreement between the experiment and the analysis was obtained. (Kato, T.)

  13. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  14. 7 CFR 920.303 - Container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container marking regulations. 920.303 Section 920.303... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.303 Container marking regulations. No handler shall ship any kiwifruit except in accordance with the following terms and conditions: (a) Each package or container of kiwifruit shall bear on...

  15. Continual approach to the dynamics problems of tanks containing rod bundles or particle groups and fluid at vibrational actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotovskii, V.S.

    1988-02-01

    The vibration of tanks with liquid and non deformed cylindrical or spherical inclusions are considered. It is shown that for calculating dynamic characteristics of such systems it is advisable to use continual approach i.e. consider-heterogeneous media formed by liquid and weighted inclusions in it as homogeneous media with effective or vibroreological properties. On the base of the problem on vibrations of the tank, containing liquid and localized inclusions, rod assemblies vibrations are considered and relationships for the added mass and resistance coefficient determining dynamic characteristics of such systems are obtained. Considered are also liquid tank vibrations containing spherical inclusions. The results obtained are used for calculating dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow pipelines at bubble and annular flow mode. The theoretical relationships are compared with available experimental data [fr

  16. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) induced by RANKL negatively regulates osteoclasts survival and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengrui; Wang, Yiping; Deng, Lianfu; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation, and confirmed by western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) transduced with lentivirus carrying tank-shRNA were induced to form osteoclast in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. Tank expression was downregulated by 90% by Tank-shRNA, which is confirmed by western blot. Compared with wild-type (WT) cells, osteoclastogenesis of Tank-silenced BMMs was increased, according to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain on day 5 and day 7. Number of bone resorption pits by Tank-silenced osteoclasts was increased by 176% compared with WT cells, as shown by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) stain and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis. Survival rate of Tank-silenced mature osteoclast is also increased. However, acid production of Tank-knockdown cells was not changed compared with control cells. IκBα phosphorylation is increased in tank-silenced cells, indicating that TANK may negatively regulate NF-κB activity in osteoclast. In conclusion, Tank, whose expression is increased during osteoclastogenesis, inhibits osteoclast formation, activity and survival, by regulating NF-κB activity and c-FLIP expression. Tank enrolls itself in a negative feedback loop in bone resorption. These results may provide means for therapeutic intervention in diseases of excessive bone resorption.

  17. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements

  18. Non-uniform regulations of underground storage tanks in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadim, F.; Hoag, G.E.; Liu, S.; Carley, R.J.; Zack, P.

    2000-01-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) are one of the major sources of ground water contamination. United States federal regulations for USTs were established in September of 1988. Since that time little or no amendments have been made to these regulations. In order to protect sensitive areas such as aquifer recharge zones for public water supply wells and wetlands, different states have been obligated to apply more stringent standards than the federal UST regulations. This practice however, has led to a non-uniform application of regulations for USTs throughout the country. In this article, United States regulations for USTs are reviewed and its deficits are highlighted. Based on these regulations and the experience of northeastern states of United States, a sequence of leak and spill preventive measures for USTs is proposed. Application of the proposed measures could substantially reduce the possibility of UST failure and would be more protective of the subsurface environment. (author)

  19. Corrective action strategy for single-shell tanks containing organic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    A Waste Tank Organic Safety Program (Program) Plan is to be transmitted to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) for approval by December 31, 1993. In April 1993 an agreement was reached among cognizant U.S. Department of Energy - Headquarters (HQ), RL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff that the Program Plan would be preceded by a ''Corrective Action Strategy,'' which addressed selected planning elements supporting the Program Plan. The ''Corrective Action Strategy'' would be reviewed and consensus reached regarding the planning elements. A Program Plan reflecting this consensus would then be prepared. A preliminary ''corrective action strategy'' is presented for resolving the organic tanks safety issue based on the work efforts recommended in the ISB (Interim Safety Basis for Hanford Site tank farm facilities). A ''corrective action strategy'' logic was prepared for individual SSTs (single-shell tanks), or a group of SSTs having similar characteristics, as appropriate. Four aspects of the organic tanks safety issue are addressed in the ISB: SSTs with the potential for combustion in the tank's headspace; combustion of a floating organic layer as a pool fire; surface fires in tanks that formerly held floating organic layers; SSTs with the potential for organic-nitrate reactions. A preliminary ''corrective action strategy'' for each aspect of the organic tanks safety issue is presented

  20. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic α-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) α-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of α-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion.

  1. Scaling and Parametric Studies of Condensation Oscillation in an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; No, Hee Cheon

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a multihole sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The thickness of the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Three key scaling parameters were identified and correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation: flow restriction coefficient, area ratio of discharge hole to steam cavity, and density ratio of water to steam. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multihole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger. The results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the in-containment refueling water storage tank for the Advanced Power Reactor 1400

  2. Degradation of safety injection system and containment spray piping and tank fracture toughness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, A.; Doubel, P.; Wicker, C.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive stress corrosion cracking (SCC), induced by the marine environment and the presence of high residual stresses arising from the respective manufacturing processes has been encountered in the safety injection system piping (RIS), containment spray system piping (EAS) and reactor and spent fuel storage tank (PTR), or refuelling water storage tank (RWST) of the Koeberg plant. Type 304L steels from the RIS system and replacement components for the RIS and RWST systems have been subject to mechanical and fracture toughness testing. The following conclusions have been drawn. -) The piping sections of both the original and replacement components exhibit residual cold work. The level of cold work imparted to the piping and elbow have been estimated to be 2, 2 to 3, 9% and 5, 7 to 7, 3% respectively. -) Re-annealing produces different responses in type 304L as a function of prior cold work level. Re-annealing of material cold worked to low levels i.e. 3.5% maintain the cold worked level of UTS but can exhibit 0, 2% PS. levels below that of the mill annealed condition. There is the potential for the ASTM A312 minimum 0, 2% level to be breached. At higher levels of cold work i.e. 7% re-annealing results in extensive grain growth, a significant reduction in 0, 2% PS from the mill annealed condition and the recovery of the UTS to the mill annealed level. -) Cold work at the levels obtained significantly reduces the SOL initiation toughness Ji. The reduction in toughness can be greater than 50%. The resistance to ductile crack propagation, dJ/da, remains unchanged at least up to 5 % cold work. -) The defect assessment for the RIS/EAS systems have used highly conservative values of initiation toughness such that no crack initiation would occur under the loading conditions considered and in a non-hostile environment. -) Under the marine environment to which the RIS/EAS components are still subjected, the limiting criterion for operation of the RIS/EAS system remains a

  3. Tank 241-C-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for the Tank 241-C-107 (C-107) sampling activities. Currently tank C-107 is categorized as a sound, low-heat load tank with partial isolation completed in December 1982. The tank is awaiting stabilization. Tank C-107 is expected to contain three primary layers of waste. The bottom layer should contain a mixture of the following wastes: ion exchange, concentrated phosphate waste from N-Reactor, Hanford Lab Operations, strontium semi-works, Battelle Northwest, 1C, TBP waste, cladding waste, and the hot semi-works. The middle layer should contain strontium recovery supernate. The upper layer should consist of non-complexed waste

  4. Technical basis for a minimum hydroxide concentration in tanks containing dilute waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1995-05-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to address the protection of waste tank steel from corrosion in situations of elevated temperatures up to 75 C (hot spots) in the sludge layer of Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) tanks. Coupon immersion tests were conducted at 75 C in two ESP simulants at four hydroxide (or pH) levels. The nitrite concentrations of the simulants were calculated from the ESP technical standards based on a temperature of 40 C. The results showed that a hydroxide concentration of at least 0.01 M prevented significant corrosion of the steel at the elevated temperature. This conclusion provides the technical basis for the revised minimum hydroxide concentration of 0.01 M in the draft WSRC 241-82H Control Room Process Requirements, for the ESP tanks

  5. Notice of construction work in tank farm waste transfer pit 244-TX double contained receiver-tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions and Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide less than 0.1 millired year total effective dose equivalent to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual, and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. The activities described in this NOC are estimated to provide a potential offsite (unabated) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) of 2.36 E-02 millirem per year

  6. Double-contained receiver tank 244-TX, grab samples, 244TX-97-1 through 244TX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for the double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) 244-TX grab samples. Three grabs samples were collected from riser 8 on May 29, 1997. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in a table

  7. Using of polyamide in construction of supporting blocks of cryogenic tanks on example of LNG container

    OpenAIRE

    E. Lisowski; W. Czyżycki; K. Łazarczyk

    2010-01-01

    Interest in using of cryogenic gases is increasing recently. It particularly applies to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), which is relatively inexpensive and environmental friendly. In the liquefied form this gas is highly compressed. One cubic meter of liquefied LNG can be expanded to 660 cubic meters of normal usable gas. At the atmospheric pressure, the liquefaction temperature of LNG is under minus 160 Celsius degrees. Therefore, there is a necessity to store it in a cryogenic tank. A system o...

  8. Experimental tests performed with liquid waste contained in the tank F-710/D at EUREX plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasso, G.; Momo, S.; Pietrelli, L.; Troiani, F.

    1989-11-01

    In this report the result of experimental test performed with real liquid waste earning from reprocessing of MTR nuclear fuel is reported. The aim of the research is to separate the actinides and long-lived radioactive fission products from bulk salt matrix of HLW. Taking into account the chemical and radiochemical composition of the liquid waste, process based on the chemical precipitation and/or adsorption were studied by using the radioactive waste sampled from the tank. The results show that decontamination factors of 100, 1000, 5000 were obtained for Sr, Cs and Pu respectively. (author)

  9. 7 CFR 915.305 - Florida Avocado Container Regulation 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulation 5. (a) No handler shall handle any avocados for the fresh market from the production area to any... handler shall handle any avocados for the fresh market in 20 bushel plastic field bins to destinations inside the production area. (d) Avocados handled for the fresh market in containers other than those...

  10. A Consequence Analysis of the Explosion of Spherical Tanks Containing Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zareei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A consequence analysis was performed in one of the gas refineries in Iran to investigate the risks andpotential losses resulted from accidents. Specifically, the consequences of an explosion in LPGspherical tanks were modeled using PHAST and MATLAB software. In this paper, three methods ofcalculation of PHAST software TNT, multi-energy, and BST were used. The results showed thatmulti energy method is the best method to evaluate overpressure. It was 0.150 bar and 0.159 bar in adistance of 1000 m far from the blast using PHAST and MATLAB respectively. This overpressurecan damage a wall with 30 cm thickness. It also affects the human threshold (1% ruptured eardrum.Finally, it was found that 100% lethality in a minute happened at 285.5 m and 37.5 kW/m2 when theexplosion happened.

  11. Scaling and parametric studies of condensation oscillation in an in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; No, Hee Cheon

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. In additon, the results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the IRWST for the Advanced Passive Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The scaling-related parameters experimentally considered were water temperatures, mass flux, discharge system volumes, tank sizes, source pressure, steam-jetting directions, and numbers of sparger discharge holes. To preserve the scaling similarity, the thickness of the minimum water volume created by the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Four key scaling parameters were identified and empirically correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation. They are as follows: Volume of the steam cavity, flow restriction coefficient, discharge hole area, and density ratio of steam to water. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multi-hole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger

  12. 7 CFR 1955.57 - Real property containing underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of.... The State Environmental Coordinator should be consulted whenever there is a question regarding the...

  13. Decay tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Seiichi; Tagishi, Akinori; Sakata, Yuji; Kontani, Koji; Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori; Kameyama, Iwao; Ando, Koei; Ishiki, Masahiko.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an decay tank for decaying a radioactivity concentration of a fluid containing radioactive material. The inside of an decay tank body is partitioned by partitioning plates to form a flow channel. A porous plate is attached at the portion above the end of the partitioning plate, that is, a portion where the flow is just turned. A part of the porous plate has a slit-like opening on the side close to the partitioning plate, that is, the inner side of the flow at the turning portion thereof. Accordingly, the primary coolants passed through the pool type nuclear reactor and flown into the decay tank are flow caused to uniformly over the entire part of the tank without causing swirling. Since a distribution in a staying time is thus decreased, the effect of decaying 16 N as radioactive nuclides in the primary coolants is increased even in a limited volume of the tank. (I.N.)

  14. 49 CFR 179.101 - Individual specification requirements applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to pressure tank car tanks. 179.101 Section 179.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT... tank car tanks. Editorial Note: At 66 FR 45186, Aug. 28, 2001, an amendment published amending a table...

  15. 49 CFR 179.301 - Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-unit tank car tanks. 179.301 Section 179.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.301 Individual specification requirements for multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) In...

  16. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks. ...

  17. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank B-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Toth, J.J.; Ryan, F.M.; Hartley, S.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Tank 241-B-111 (hereafter referred to as B-111) is a 2,006,300 liter (530,000 gallon) single-shell waste tank located in the 200 East B tank farm at Hanford. Two cores were taken from this tank in 1991 and analysis of the cores was conducted by Battelle's 325-A Laboratory in 1993. Characterization of the waste in this tank is being done to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-44-05. Tank B-111 was constructed in 1943 and put into service in 1945; it is the second tank in a cascade system with Tanks B-110 and B-112. During its process history, B-111 received mostly second-decontamination-cycle waste and fission products waste via the cascade from Tank B-110. This tank was retired from service in 1976, and in 1978 the tank was assumed to have leaked 30,300 liters (8,000 gallons). The tank was interim stabilized and interim isolated in 1985. The tank presently contains approximately 893,400 liters (236,000 gallons) of sludge-like waste and approximately 3,800 liters (1,000 gallons) of supernate. Historically, there are no unreviewed safety issues associated with this tank and none were revealed after reviewing the data from the latest core sampling event in 1991. An extensive set of analytical measurements was performed on the core composites. The major constituents (> 0.5 wt%) measured in the waste are water, sodium, nitrate, phosphate, nitrite, bismuth, iron, sulfate and silicon, ordered from largest concentration to the smallest. The concentrations and inventories of these and other constituents are given. Since Tanks B-110 and B-111 have similar process histories, their sampling results were compared. The results of the chemical analyses have been compared to the dangerous waste codes in the Washington Dangerous Waste Regulations (WAC 173-303). This assessment was conducted by comparing tank analyses against dangerous waste characteristics 'D' waste codes; and against state waste codes

  18. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Aksay, I.A.

    2005-12-01

    In the first phase of our study, we focused on the use of simple organics to raise the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in high alkaline aqueous solvents. In a limited survey of common organic acids, we determined that citric acid had the highest potential to achieve our goal. However, our subsequent investigation revealed that the citric acid appeared to play two roles in the solutions: first, raising the concentration of aluminum in highly alkaline solutions by breaking up or inhibiting ''seed'' polycations and thereby delaying the nucleation and growth of particles; and second, stabilizing nanometer-sized particles in suspension when nucleation did occur. The results of this work were recently published in Langmuir: D.M. Dabbs, U. Ramachandran, S. Lu, J. Liu, L.-Q. Wang, I.A. Aksay, ''Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid'' Langmuir, 21, 11690-11695 (2005). The second phase of our work involved the solvation of silicon, again in solutions of high alkalinity. Citric acid, due to its unfavorable pKa values, was not expected to be useful with silicon-containing solutions. Here, the use of polyols was determined to be effective in maintaining silicon-containing particles under high pH conditions but at smaller size with respect to standard suspensions of silicon-containing particles. There were a number of difficulties working with highly alkaline silicon-containing solutions, particularly in solutions at or near the saturation limit. Small deviations in pH resulted in particle formation or dissolution in the absence of the organic agents. One of the more significant observations was that the polyols appeared to stabilize small particles of silicon oxyhydroxides across a wider range of pH, albeit this was difficult to quantify due to the instability of the solutions.

  19. Tank 241-U-203: Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1995-01-01

    The revised Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order states that a tank characterization plan will be developed for each double-shell tank and single-shell tank using the data quality objective process. The plans are intended to allow users and regulators to ensure their needs will be met and resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-U-203 sampling activities

  20. TRAF Family Member-Associated NF-κB Activator (TANK) Induced by RANKL Negatively Regulates Osteoclasts Survival and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mengrui Wu, Yiping Wang, Lianfu Deng, Wei Chen, Yi-Ping Li

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation...

  1. TRAF Family Member-Associated NF-κB Activator (TANK) Induced by RANKL Negatively Regulates Osteoclasts Survival and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Mengrui; Wang, Yiping; Deng, Lianfu; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation, and...

  2. Underground storage tank program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Underground storage tanks, UST'S, have become a major component of the Louisville District's Environmental Support Program. The District's Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering Branch has spear-headed an innovative effort to streamline the time, effort and expense for removal, replacement, upgrade and associated cleanup of USTs at military and civil work installations. This program, called Yank-A-Tank, creates generic state-wide contracts for removal, remediation, installation and upgrade of storage tanks for which individual delivery orders are written under the basic contract. The idea is to create a ''JOC type'' contract containing all the components of work necessary to remove, reinstall or upgrade an underground or above ground tank. The contract documents contain a set of generic specifications and unit price books in addition to the standard ''boiler plate'' information. Each contract requires conformance to the specific regulations for the state in which it is issued. The contractor's bid consists of a bid factor which in the multiplier used with the prices in the unit price book. The solicitation is issued as a Request for Proposal (RPP) which allows the government to select a contractor based on technical qualification an well as bid factor. Once the basic contract is awarded individual delivery orders addressing specific areas of work are scoped, negotiated and awarded an modifications to the original contract. The delivery orders utilize the prepriced components and the contractor's factor to determine the value of the work

  3. An optimal hydrogen control analysis for the in-containment refueling storage tank (IRWST) of the Korean next generation reactor (KNGR) containment under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Chul, Lee; Hee-Jin, Ko; Se-Won, Lee

    2001-01-01

    Under severe accidents that a large amount of hydrogen is expected to release, the In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST) air space has more worse condition with respect to the hydrogen control since, as one of hydrogen source compartment, normally it is separated from the other compartments and has relatively small volume. The hydrogen concentrations in the IRWST gas space, when the hydrogen was directly released into this area, were analyzed using the MAAP4 code in order to investigate if locally very high concentrations could be reduced so that inadvertent detonation or detonation-to-deflagration (DDT) in this area might be prevented. For this purpose, the thermo-hydraulic and combustion phenomena being capable of occurring in the IRWST were also considered. As a result of numerical calculations with 12-compartment containment model, the time duration that the flammable gas mixture was formed was greatly decreased via oxygen-starved or steam-rich conditions, although instantaneously peak concentration itself could not be avoided. Moreover, if the diffusion flame or steam stripping can be occurred in the IRWST, it was expected to have more chance to control the hydrogen in the IRWST gas space. After the hydrogen finished to be rapidly released, the hydrogen in this area could be controlled by the PARs' hydrogen depletion and by igniter's deliberate burning. Especially, the review on the analyses for two typical, but most probable sequences of quite a different hydrogen release modes gives an insight that the flammable gas mixture in the IRWST can be avoid by rapid depressurization operation, which is recommendable for being implemented into accident management program. (authors)

  4. Tank 241-BY-108 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQOs identity information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for tank BY-108 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given. Single-shell tank BY-108 is classified as a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank. The tank was declared an assumed leaker and removed from service in 1972; interim stabilized was completed in February 1985. Although not officially an Organic Watch List tank, restrictions have been placed on intrusive operations by Standing Order number-sign 94-16 (dated 09/08/94) since the tank is suspected to contain or to have contained a floating organic layer

  5. 49 CFR 179.100 - General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.100 Section 179.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100 General specifications applicable to pressure tank car tanks. ...

  6. 49 CFR 179.102 - Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.102 Section 179.102 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102 Special commodity requirements for pressure tank car tanks. (a) In addition to...

  7. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft 3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  8. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  9. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  10. Peak Load Regulation and Cost Optimization for Microgrids by Installing a Heat Storage Tank and a Portable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of electricity demands, many traditional distributed networks cannot cover their peak demands, especially in the evening. Additionally, with the interconnection of distributed electrical and thermal grids, system operational flexibility and energy efficiency can be affected as well. Therefore, by adding a portable energy system and a heat storage tank to the traditional distributed system, this paper proposes a newly defined distributed network to deal with the aforementioned problems. Simulation results show that by adding a portable energy system, fossil fuel energy consumption and daily operation cost can be reduced by 8% and 28.29%, respectively. Moreover, system peak load regulating capacity can be significantly improved. However, by introducing the portable energy system to the grid, system uncertainty can be increased to some extent. Therefore, chance constrained programming is proposed to control the system while considering system uncertainty. By applying Particle Swarm Optimization—Monte Carlo to solve the chance constrained programming, results show that power system economy and uncertainty can be compromised by selecting appropriate confidence levels α and β. It is also reported that by installing an extra heat storage tank, combined heat and power energy efficiency can be significantly improved and the installation capacity of the battery can be reduced.

  11. Effects of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Aluminate on the Precipitation of Aluminum Containing Species in Tank Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Hobbs, David T.; Parker, Kent E.; McCready, David E.; Wang, Li Q.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminisilicate deposit buildup experienced during the tank waste volume-reduction process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) required an evaporator to be shut down. Studies were conducted at 80 C to identify the insoluble aluminosilicate phase(s) and to determine the kinetics of their formation and transformation. These tests were carried out under conditions more similar to those that occur in HLW tanks and evaporators. Comparison of our results with those reported from the site show very similar trends. Initially, an amorphous phase precipitates followed by a zeolite phase that transforms to sodalite and which finally converts to cancrinite. Our results also show the expected trend of an increased rate of transformation into denser aluminosilicate phases (sodalite and cancrinite) with time and increasing hydroxide concentrations

  12. Extended tank use analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFigh-Price, C.; Green, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site were originally designed for open-quotes temporaryclose quotes use. The newer double-shell tanks were designed for 50 years of use. A number of single-shell tanks failed their original design criteria to contain liquid waste soon after they were constructed. These single-shell and double-shell tanks now will be required to contain semi-solid high-activity waste well beyond their design lives. It must be determined that the waste contained in these tanks will remain stable for up to an additional 30 years of storage. This paper describes the challenge of demonstrating that the tanks that have exceeded or will exceed their design lifetime can safely store high-level waste until planned disposal actions are taken. Considerations will include structural and chemical analyses

  13. Tank Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  14. 76 FR 71707 - Revising Underground Storage Tank Regulations-Revisions to Existing Requirements and New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    .... Executive Order 13211: Actions That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National... (air, water, 481, 483-486, 48811. truck, transit, pipeline, and airport operations). Communications and... space that is monitored for leaks. Under-dispenser containment (UDC)--Containment underneath a dispenser...

  15. Tank 244A tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Double-Shell Tank (DST) System currently receives waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System in support of SST stabilization efforts or from other on-site facilities which generate or store waste. Waste is also transferred between individual DSTs. The mixing or commingling of potentially incompatible waste types at the Hanford Site must be addressed prior to any waste transfers into the DSTs. The primary goal of the Waste Compatibility Program is to prevent the formation of an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as a result of improper waste management. Tank 244A is a Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) which serves as any overflow tank for the East Area Farms. Waste material is able to flow freely between the underground storage tanks and tank 244A. Therefore, it is necessary to test the waste in tank 244A for compatibility purposes. Two issues related to the overall problem of waste compatibility must be evaluated: Assurance of continued operability during waste transfer and waste concentration and Assurance that safety problems are not created as a result of commingling wastes under interim storage. The results of the grab sampling activity prescribed by this Tank Characterization Plan shall help determine the potential for four kinds of safety problems: criticality, flammable gas accumulation, energetics, and corrosion and leakage

  16. Hydrodynamics of Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device in Recent Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device (FD) has been used in several APR1400 nuclear power plants. It was designed to provide a longer passive safety injection than the existing accumulator to improve the safety for Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) by changing the injected flow through the FD and the standpipe of the SIT. As a result, high flow injection phase and the subsequent low flow one can be achieved as longer than the existing accumulator. The present paper discusses the major concerns related to SIT hydrodynamics and the directions to resolution recently concerned. Modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing are included. Based on the discussion, a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The present paper discussed the SIT hydrodynamics including the modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing. Also a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The following conclusions are obtained uncertainty due to the assumption of the total Kfactor as constant for high flow, transition phase, and low flow phase should be considered and nitrogen intrusion phenomena during the transition phase should be considered with a conservatism, especially considering the current situation of nonmeasuring the standpipe level.

  17. Hydrodynamics of Safety Injection Tank with Fluidic Device in Recent Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Yoo, Seung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with Fluidic Device (FD) has been used in several APR1400 nuclear power plants. It was designed to provide a longer passive safety injection than the existing accumulator to improve the safety for Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) by changing the injected flow through the FD and the standpipe of the SIT. As a result, high flow injection phase and the subsequent low flow one can be achieved as longer than the existing accumulator. The present paper discusses the major concerns related to SIT hydrodynamics and the directions to resolution recently concerned. Modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing are included. Based on the discussion, a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The present paper discussed the SIT hydrodynamics including the modeling of SIT/FD by total hydraulic resistances, potential of nitrogen intrusion, and effect of initial pressure of SIT testing. Also a table of the important phenomena of the SIT/FD was proposed with the relevancy of the calculation models applied. The following conclusions are obtained uncertainty due to the assumption of the total Kfactor as constant for high flow, transition phase, and low flow phase should be considered and nitrogen intrusion phenomena during the transition phase should be considered with a conservatism, especially considering the current situation of nonmeasuring the standpipe level

  18. Mouse ribosomal RNA genes contain multiple differentially regulated variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Tseng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous cytogenetic studies suggest that various rDNA chromosomal loci are not equally active in different cell types. Consistent with this variability, rDNA polymorphism is well documented in human and mouse. However, attempts to identify molecularly rDNA variant types, which are regulated individually (i.e., independent of other rDNA variants and tissue-specifically, have not been successful. We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of seven mouse rDNA variants (v-rDNA. The identification of these v-rDNAs was based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, which are conserved among individuals and mouse strains. The total copy number of the identified variants is less than 100 and the copy number of each individual variant ranges from 4 to 15. Sequence analysis of the cloned v-rDNA identified variant-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcribed region. These SNPs were used to develop a set of variant-specific PCR assays, which permitted analysis of the v-rDNAs' expression profiles in various tissues. These profiles show that three v-rDNAs are expressed in all tissues (constitutively active, two are expressed in some tissues (selectively active, and two are not expressed (silent. These expression profiles were observed in six individuals from three mouse strains, suggesting the pattern is not randomly determined. Thus, the mouse rDNA array likely consists of genetically distinct variants, and some are regulated tissue-specifically. Our results provide the first molecular evidence for cell-type-specific regulation of a subset of rDNA.

  19. Positioning of AMPA Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Esteves da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lateral diffusion in the membrane and endosomal trafficking both contribute to the addition and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. However, the spatial coordination between these mechanisms has remained unclear, because little is known about the dynamics of AMPAR-containing endosomes. In addition, how the positioning of AMPAR-containing endosomes affects synapse organization and functioning has never been directly explored. Here, we used live-cell imaging in hippocampal neuron cultures to show that intracellular AMPARs are transported in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, which frequently enter dendritic spines and depend on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. By using chemically induced dimerization systems to recruit kinesin (KIF1C or myosin (MyosinV/VI motors to Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, we controlled their trafficking and found that induced removal of recycling endosomes from spines decreases surface AMPAR expression and PSD-95 clusters at synapses. Our data suggest a mechanistic link between endosome positioning and postsynaptic structure and composition.

  20. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and robust controller design for Francis hydraulic turbine regulating system with a straight-tube surge tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji; Yuan, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yanbin; Chen, Zhihuan; Li, Yuanzheng

    2017-02-01

    The safety and stability of hydraulic turbine regulating system (HTRS) in hydropower plants become increasingly important since the rapid development and the broad application of hydro energy technology. In this paper, a novel mathematical model of Francis hydraulic turbine regulating system with a straight-tube surge tank based on a few state-space equations is introduced to study the dynamic behaviors of the HTRS system, where the existence of possible unstable oscillations of this model is studied extensively and presented in the forms of the bifurcation diagram, time waveform plot, phase trajectories, and power spectrum. To eliminate these undesirable behaviors, a specified fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed. In this hybrid controller, the sliding mode control law makes full use of the proposed model to guarantee the robust control in the presence of system uncertainties, while the fuzzy system is applied to approximate the proper gains of the switching control in sliding mode technique to reduce the chattering effect, and particle swarm optimization is developed to search the optimal gains of the controller. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the designed controller, and the results show that the performances of the nonlinear HTRS system assisted with the proposed controller is much better than that with the commonly used optimal PID controller.

  1. 252Cf-source-driven neutron noise measurements of subcriticality for a slab tank containing aqueous Pu-U nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ragan, G.E.; Kryter, R.C.; Robinson, R.C.; Seino, H.

    1987-08-01

    In order to study nuclear criticality safety related to the development of fast breeder technology, 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis measurements were performed with a Pu-U nitrate solution in a slab tank of various heights and thickness varying 11.43 cm to 19.05 cm. The results and conclusions of these experiments are (1) a capability to measure the subcriticality of a multiplying system of slab geometry to a k/sub eff/ as low as 0.7 was demonstrated, (2) calculated neutron multiplication factors agreed with those from the experiments within ∼0.02, and (3) the applicability of the method for plutonium solution systems was demonstrated. This paper describes measurements in which the height of the slab was varied for a fixed thickness and the thickness varied for a fixed height, which are the first applications of this measurement method to slab geometry

  2. Upgrading a 1950s tank farm to meet the environmental standards of the 1990S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.F.; Peterson, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Texaco Inc. Research and Development (Texaco) facility in Beacon, New York includes an above ground storage tank (AST) farm, known as Tank Farm No. 1, which consists of eighteen tanks with capacities ranging from 10,000 to 21,000 gallons. A second tank farm, at the Texaco, Beacon facility, designated as the Boiler House Tank Farm, includes three additional tanks with capacities from 10,000 to 44,900 gallons. The Tank Farm No. 1 AST systems are all vertical, carbon steel tanks which were initially installed in several phases in the 1950s. The Boiler House Tank Farm ASTs are also vertical, carbon steel tanks, including one riveted construction tank that was installed in 1931. Each of the Texaco ASTs are used to store a variety of petroleum products, including diesel fuel, stoddard solvent, used oil, and various grades of gasoline and gasoline components. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) has established regulations for petroleum bulk storage in 6 NYCRR Parts 612 through 614. These regulations include requirements for monitoring and inspecting AST systems, including a rigorous ''out of service'' inspection, to be completed at least once every ten years. Although several revisions had been completed at Tank Farm No. 1 in recent years, including installation of a reinforced concrete secondary containment dike system and new above ground piping, the tank shells and most appurtenances (e.g. water drawoff valves), were unmodified since they were initially installed. On this basis, Texaco decided to upgrade the AST systems in conjunction with the NYSDEC ten-year inspections, by installing reinforced fiberglass liners in the tank floors, and by removing and/or replacing tank appurtenances to meet current industry standards and fire code requirements. This paper presents a summary of the program implemented to upgrade the Texaco, Beacon tank farm AST systems

  3. Parametric and scaling studies of condensation oscillation in subcooled water of the in-containment refueling water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; No, Hee Cheon

    1999-01-01

    Condensation oscillation by jetting the steam into subcooled water through spargers is studied. To provide a suitable guideline for oscillation phenomena in the IRWST of the next generation reactor, scaling methodology is introduced. Through scaling methodology and subsequent tests, it shows that the volume of steam cavity determines the dynamic characteristics of condensation oscillation. The second-order linear differential equation for frequency analysis is derived and its results are compared with those from the test data. Two types of condensation phenomena exist according to steam flow rates. At subsonic jet, condensation interface becomes irregular in shape and upper system volumes affect the dynamic characteristics of condensation oscillation. At sonic jet, a regular steam cavity forms at the exit of discharge holes. Parametric effects and subsequent dynamic responses of the pool tank are investigated through experiments in applicable test ranges. When the temperature of pool water becomes lower, the amplitude becomes larger. Critical parameters are derived from the scaling methodology and are system volume, cavity volume, discharge hole area, and density ration. It is found that system friction factors affect frequency components of condensation oscillation. Oscillations of a steam cavity occur mainly on the face of the axial direction and pressure amplitudes become larger than that of the lateral direction

  4. HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 1.14 million liter (300,000 gallon) tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities. The basic tank closure sequence is as follows: Empty the tank to the residual heel using the existing jets; Video and sample the heel; Replace steam jets with new jet at a lower position in the tank, and remove additional material; Flush tank, piping and secondary containment with demineralized water; Video and sample the heel; Evaluate decontamination effectiveness; Displace the residual heel with multiple placements of grout; and Grout piping, vaults and remaining tank volume. Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in June 2002. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system is cost-effective since it also utilizes existing waste transfer technology (steam jets), to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and

  5. TANK-Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1 Isoforms Negatively Regulate Type I Interferon Induction by Inhibiting TBK1-IRF3 Interaction and IRF3 Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wei Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1 is an important serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3, which contributes to induction of type I interferons (IFNs in the innate antiviral response. In mammals, TBK1 spliced isoform negatively regulates the virus-triggered IFN-β signaling pathway by disrupting the interaction between retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I and mitochondria antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. However, it is still unclear whether alternative splicing patterns and the function of TBK1 isoform(s exist in teleost fish. In this study, we identify two alternatively spliced isoforms of TBK1 from zebrafish, termed TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2. Both TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 contain an incomplete STKc_TBK1 domain. Moreover, the UBL_TBK1_like domain is also missing for TBK1_tv2. TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 are expressed in zebrafish larvae. Overexpression of TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 inhibits RIG-I-, MAVS-, TBK1-, and IRF3-mediated activation of IFN promoters in response to spring viremia of carp virus infection. Also, TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 inhibit expression of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes induced by MAVS and TBK1. Mechanistically, TBK1_tv1 and TBK1_tv2 competitively associate with TBK1 and IRF3 to disrupt the formation of a functional TBK1-IRF3 complex, impeding the phosphorylation of IRF3 mediated by TBK1. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TBK1 spliced isoforms are dominant negative regulators in the RIG-I/MAVS/TBK1/IRF3 antiviral pathway by targeting the functional TBK1-IRF3 complex formation. Identification and functional characterization of piscine TBK1 spliced isoforms may contribute to understanding the role of TBK1 expression in innate antiviral response.

  6. Facility for remote filling and discharging of containers and tanks in nuclear power plants with radioactive concentrates and sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharik, D.

    1987-01-01

    The facility consists of a remote controlled filling and discharge head pressed with a pneumatic cylinder to the container adapters. The head is provided with hoses for the feeding and/or withdrawal of the concentrate and for container ventilation. It is suspended on the pneumatic cylinder which is mounted on a revolving arm. On the pin of the revolving arm there is a drip tray which captures drops of the concentrate when the container has been filled and the head unsealed. The ball valves in the container adapters are electromagnetically controlled. The machine serves to mechanize certain manual operations, improves work safety and reduces contact of personnel with radioactive concentrates. (J.B.). 1 fig

  7. Assessment of the Mechanisms for Sr-90 and TRU Removal from Complexant-Containing Tank Wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallen, Richard T.; Geeting, John GH; Lilga, Michael A.; Hart, Todd R.; Hoopes, Francis V.

    2005-01-01

    Small-scale tests (∼20 mL) were conducted with samples from Hanford underground storage tanks AN-102 and AN-107 to assess the mechanisms for removing Sr-90 and transuranics (TRU) from the liquid (supernatant) portion of the waste. The Sr-90 and TRU must be removed (decontaminated), in addition to Cs-137 and the entrained solids, before the supernatant can be disposed of as low-activity waste. Experiments were conducted with various reagents and modified Sr/TRU removal process conditions to more fully understand the reaction mechanisms. The optimized treatment conditions--no added hydroxide, addition of Sr (0.02M target concentration) followed by sodium permanganate (0.02M target concentration) with mixing at ambient temperature--were used as a reference for comparison. The waste was initially two orders of magnitude undersaturated with Sr; the addition of nonradioactive Sr(NO?) ? saturated the supernatant, resulting in isotopic dilution and precipitation of Sr-90 as SrCO?. The reaction chemistry of Mn species relevant to the mechanism of TRU removal by permanganate treatment was evaluated, along with the importance of various mechanisms for decontamination, such as precipitation, absorption, ligand exchange, and oxidation of organic complexants. For TRU removal, permanganate addition generally gave the highest DF. The addition of Mn of lower oxidation states (II, IV, and VI) also resulted in good TRU removal, as did complexant oxidation with periodate and addition of Zr(IV) for ligand exchange. These results suggest that permanganate treatment leads to TRU removal by multiple routes

  8. Regulation of above-ground oil and waste containers. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Tourism, and Hazardous Materials of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, January 26, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Representatives from the petroleum industry, US EPA, National Bureau of Standards and Congress were among those testifying at a hearing to discuss one of the worst inland environmental disasters in this Nation's history. The January 2 collapse of the Ashland Oil Co.'s storage tank in Floreffe, Pennsylvania resulted in the release of some 4 million gallons of diesel fuel. Approximately a million gallons escaped the containment structures and spilled over into the Monongahela River. This spill has contaminated the drinking water sources for millions of people downstream, from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati to Louisville, and beyond. Attention is focused on the causes of this tank's collapse, the response measures taken by Ashland Oil, the Coast Guard, the EPA, and the need for tighter federal regulations of above-ground tanks used for the storage of petroleum and hazardous substances.

  9. Tank 241-B-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has advised the US Department of Energy (DOE) to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify sampling and analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement or TPA) milestone M-44-00 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users (e.g., Hanford Facility user groups, regulators) to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information.'' This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-B-103 (B-103) sampling activities. Tank B-103 was placed on the Organic Watch List in January 1991 due to review of TRAC data that predicts a TOC content of 3.3 dry weight percent. The tank was classified as an assumed leaker of approximately 30,280 liters (8,000 gallons) in 1978 and declared inactive. Tank B-103 is passively ventilated with interim stabilization and intrusion prevention measures completed in 1985

  10. Radiological risk curves for the liquid radioactive waste transfer from Angra 1 to Angra 2 nuclear power plants by a container tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.S.M.; Passos, E.M. dos; Duarte, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Eletrobras Termonuclear has a radiowaste management program focused on reducing the produced volumes, for which it has considered to transfer Angra 1 liquid radioactive waste by a container tank to be processed and packed in Angra 2. This paper presents a radiological risk study for providing the necessary technical foundations to obtain the license from the regulatory agency for implementing this transfer operation. Out of the 92 accident scenarios identified with the help of a preliminary hazard analysis, the greatest risk of fatal cancer for members of the public was equal to 6.9 x 10 -13 fatalities/yr, which refers to the accident scenario involving intrinsic failures of valves, hoses, flanges, seals, gaskets and instrumentation lines, while filling the container tank at Angra 1 filling station. This risk figure is about ten million times less than the one adopted by Eletronuclear for such a waste transfer. The highest frequency was also associated with this type of scenario, and its value was equal to 1.4 x 10 -6 yr -1 . This paper also presents and discusses the radiological risk curves for the three possible in-plant transfer routes, the Angra 1 filling station and Angra 2 discharging station and the overall risk curve in order to allow for a broader perspective of the results obtained. These risk curves display the accident scenarios frequencies against radiation doses by considering relevant in-plant and surroundings release paths. In these curves, the extreme scenarios mentioned earlier can be clearly identified in terms of occurrence frequencies and radiation doses. (author)

  11. 45 CFR 91.18 - Age distinctions contained in HHS regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....18 Section 91.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by HHS shall be presumed to be necessary to the achievement of a statutory objective of the program or activity to which the rule or regulation applies...

  12. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60 degrees F but insoluble in water above 90 degrees F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL's Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination

  13. Tank drive : ZCL takes its composite tank technology worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-06-15

    Edmonton-based ZCL Composites Inc. is North America's largest manufacturer and supplier of fibreglass reinforced plastic (FRP) underground storage tanks. The company has aggressively pursued new markets in the oil sands, shale gas gas, and other upstream petroleum industries. The manufacturer also targets water and sewage applications, and provides customized corrosion solutions for a variety of industries. The company developed its double-walled FRP tanks in response to Canadian Environmental Protection Act rules requiring cathodic protection for steel tanks, leak detection, and secondary containment. ZCL supplies approximately 90 per cent of the new tanks installed by gasoline retailers in Canada. Future growth is expected to be strong, as many old tanks will soon need to be replaced. The company has also developed a method of transforming underground single wall tanks into secondarily contained systems without digging them out. The company has also recently signed licence agreements with tank manufacturers in China. 3 figs.

  14. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  15. Tank farm nuclear criticality review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site

  16. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  17. Production of Cellulases by Rhizopus stolonifer from Glucose-Containing Media Based on the Regulation of Transcriptional Regulator CRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingyiing; Tang, Bin; Du, Guocheng

    2017-03-28

    Carbon catabolite repression is a crucial regulation mechanism in microorganisms, but its characteristic in Rhizopus is still unclear. We extracted a carbon regulation gene, cre , that encoded a carbon catabolite repressor protein (CRE) from Rhizopus stolonifer TP-02, and studied the regulation of CRE by real-time qPCR. CRE responded to glucose in a certain range, where it could significantly regulate part of the cellulase genes ( eg, bg, and cbh2 ) without cbh1 . In the comparison of the response of cre and four cellulase genes to carboxymethylcellulose sodium and a simple carbon source (lactose), the effect of CRE was only related to the concentration of reducing sugars. By regulating the reducing sugars to range from 0.4% to 0.6%, a glucose-containing medium with lactose as the inducer could effectively induce cellulases without the repression of CRE. This regulation method could potentially reduce the cost of enzymes produced in industries and provide a possible solution to achieve the large-scale synthesis of cellulases.

  18. Tank design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that aboveground tanks can be designed with innovative changes to complement the environment. Tanks can be constructed to eliminate the vapor and odor emanating from their contents. Aboveground tanks are sometimes considered eyesores, and in some areas the landscaping has to be improved before they are tolerated. A more universal concern, however, is the vapor or odor that emanates from the tanks as a result of the materials being sorted. The assertive posture some segments of the public now take may eventually force legislatures to classify certain vapors as hazardous pollutants or simply health risks. In any case, responsibility will be leveled at the corporation and subsequent remedy could increase cost beyond preventive measures. The new approach to design and construction of aboveground tanks will forestall any panic which might be induced or perceived by environmentalists. Recently, actions by local authorities and complaining residents were sufficient to cause a corporation to curtail odorous emissions through a change in tank design. The tank design change eliminated the odor from fuel oil vapor thus removing the threat to the environment that the residents perceived. The design includes reinforcement to the tank structure and the addition of an adsorption section. This section allows the tanks to function without any limitation and their contents do not foul the environment. The vapor and odor control was completed successfully on 6,000,000 gallon capacity tanks

  19. Regulation and practice of workers' protection from chemical exposures during container handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Fløe Pedersen, Randi; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Ádám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    instructions relate to container handling, the provided information is not sufficiently detailed to conduct safe practice in many aspects. In accordance with the scientific literature, the interviewees estimate that there is a high frequency (5 to 50%) of containers with hazardous chemical exposure......Background: Fumigation of freight containers to prevent spread of pests and off-gassing of freight are sources of volatile chemicals that may constitute significant health risks when released. The aim of the study was to investigate the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark...... with focus on preventive measures to reduce risk of chemical exposure. Methods: A comprehensive systematic search of scientific literature, legislation and recommendations related to safe work with transport containers from international and Danish regulatory bodies was performed. The practice of handling...

  20. 49 CFR 172.326 - Portable tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... petroleum gas (LPG) that is unodorized as authorized in § 173.315(b)(1) unless it is legibly marked NON... the portable tank are not visible. (d) NON-ODORIZED marking on portable tanks containing LPG. After...

  1. Summary review of the chemical characterization of liquid and sludge contained in the Old Hydrofracture tanks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Herbes, S.E.

    1997-02-01

    This report presents analytical data developed from samples collected from the five inactive tanks located at the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The samples were collected during December 1995 and January 1996. The purpose of the sampling and analysis project was (1) to determine whether the tank contents meet ORNL waste acceptance criteria, as specified in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Liquid Waste Treatment Systems, Waste Evaluation Criteria; (2) to determine various physical properties of the tank contents that would affect the design of a sludge mobilization system; and (3) to gather information to support a baseline risk assessment. The report focuses on the analytical results used to evaluate the tank contents with regard to nuclear criticality safety requirements and to regulatory waste characterization

  2. 9 CFR 316.14 - Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. 316.14 Section 316.14 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... CONTAINERS § 316.14 Marking tank cars and tank trucks used in transportation of edible products. Each tank...

  3. Law regulations concerning food supplements, dietetic food and novel food containing herbal substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraniak Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients and/or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. However, they often contain herbal substances or their preparations. Food supplements belong to category of food and for that reason are regulated by food legislation. European Union regulations and directives established general directions for dietary supplements, dietetic food, which due to their special composition or manufacturing process are prepared for specific groups of people with special nutritional needs, and novel food/novel food ingredients to ensure product safety, suitability and appropriate consumer information.

  4. 1990 waste tank inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Tank conditions are evaluated by inspection using periscopes, still photography, and video systems for visual imagery. Inspections made in 1990 are the subject of this report

  5. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAMBERT, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues

  6. Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of the Building 943 Tank System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abri Environmental Engineering Inc.

    2015-01-01

    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of Building 943 (B943) Tank System has been prepared using the guidelines of 40 CFR 265.192(a) and 22 CCR 66265.192(a) for tank systems* that manage hazardous waste and have secondary containment. The regulations require that this assessment be completed and certified by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer. This technical assessment has been reviewed by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer, who has certified the tank system for the following: • sufficient structural integrity, • acceptability for storing of hazardous waste, • compatibility with the waste, and • suitability of tank and containment system design to achieve the requirements of the applicable regulations so they will not collapse, rupture, or fail.

  7. 49 CFR 179.10 - Tank mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank mounting. 179.10 Section 179.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Design Requirements § 179.10 Tank mounting. (a) The manner in which tanks are attached to the car...

  8. 7 CFR 58.427 - Paraffin tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paraffin tanks. 58.427 Section 58.427 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....427 Paraffin tanks. The metal tank should be adequate in size, have wood rather than metal racks to...

  9. Regulations and control of in-transit fumigated containers as well as of fumigated cargo ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Anthony; Hüsing, Ulf-Peter; Preisser, Alexandra; Baur, Xaver

    2003-01-01

    According to IMO's international regulations, e.g. "Recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships", fumigated containers and ship cargoes must be labeled giving specifications about dates of fumigation and the fumigation gas used. Furthermore, appropriate certificates are necessary and these records have to be forwarded to the Port Health Authorities without their explicitly asking for them. According to IMO (DSC/Circ.8.24.7.2001) a recent inspection of containers unloaded in ports showed that some were under fumigation, but not declared as such and in a few cases these ventilated containers arrive with "Degas Certificates" stating that fumigant has been removed, but still have a high fumigant concentration inside when opened. There are similar reports from The Netherlands, where 21% of the fumigated containers had missing or false declarations and contained measurable amounts of toxic gas. In England 6% were mentioned to be allegedly false. Reports exist of a number of other incidents with containers under fumigation arriving in English ports with no accompanying documents on the ship or at the port of discharge as to the type of cargo. In one case several people were hospitalized after exposure to phosphine gas because the fumigant tablets were not yet totally decomposed before the ship arrived at its destination port. In Bavaria, Germany, a bad accident recently occurred through a non declared fumigated container (see press release). Our sample: a large container ship in the Port of Hamburg where 27 of the cargo's containers were found fumigated with 27 non/incomplete/false declarations. These examples show that missing/false labelling is frequent. Clearance of in-transit fumigated containers in ports is complicated and time-consuming for the captain and shipping company. The above mentioned accident and also the results of our spot check prove, as do the experiences in The Netherlands and England, that false declarations of fumigated containers seem

  10. Choline Catabolism in Burkholderia thailandensis Is Regulated by Multiple Glutamine Amidotransferase 1-Containing AraC Family Transcriptional Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Adam M; Wargo, Matthew J

    2016-09-15

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium that shares many metabolic pathways with the ecologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among the diverse nutrients it can utilize is choline, metabolizable to the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and subsequently catabolized as a source of carbon and nitrogen, similar to P. aeruginosa Orthologs of genes in the choline catabolic pathway in these two bacteria showed distinct differences in gene arrangement as well as an additional orthologous transcriptional regulator in B. thailandensis In this study, we showed that multiple glutamine amidotransferase 1 (GATase 1)-containing AraC family transcription regulators (GATRs) are involved in regulation of the B. thailandensis choline catabolic pathway (gbdR1, gbdR2, and souR). Using genetic analyses and sequencing the transcriptome in the presence and absence of choline, we identified the likely regulons of gbdR1 (BTH_II1869) and gbdR2 (BTH_II0968). We also identified a functional ortholog for P. aeruginosa souR, a GATR that regulates the metabolism of sarcosine to glycine. GbdR1 is absolutely required for expression of the choline catabolic locus, similar to P. aeruginosa GbdR, while GbdR2 is important to increase expression of the catabolic locus. Additionally, the B. thailandensis SouR ortholog (BTH_II0994) is required for catabolism of choline and its metabolites as carbon sources, whereas in P. aeruginosa, SouR function can by bypassed by GbdR. The strategy employed by B. thailandensis represents a distinct regulatory solution to control choline catabolism and thus provides both an evolutionary counterpoint and an experimental system to analyze the acquisition and regulation of this pathway during environmental growth and infection. Many proteobacteria that occupy similar environmental niches have horizontally acquired orthologous genes for metabolism of compounds useful in their shared environment. The arrangement and differential

  11. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. As... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT...

  12. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  13. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P.R.

    1994-12-27

    A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

  14. Remediating the INEL's buried mixed waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhns, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.; Reese, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), formerly the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), encompasses 890 square miles and is located in southeast Idaho. In 1949, the United States Atomic Energy Commission, now the Department of Energy (DOE), established the NRTS as a site for the building and testing of nuclear facilities. Wastes generated during the building and testing of these nuclear facilities were disposed within the boundaries of the site. These mixed wastes, containing radionuclides and hazardous materials, were often stored in underground tanks for future disposal. The INEL has 11 buried mixed waste storage tanks regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) ranging in size from 400 to 50,000 gallons. These tanks are constructed of either stainless or carbon steel and are located at 3 distinct geographic locations across the INEL. These tanks have been grouped based on their similarities in an effort to save money and decrease the time required to complete the necessary remediation. Environmental Restoration and Technology Development personnel are teaming in an effort to address the remediation problem systematically

  15. Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of the 177-R2 tank system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graser, D.A.; Schwartz, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of retention tanks 177-R2U1, 177-R2Al, and 177-R2A2 has been prepared in response to 40 CFR 265.192(a) and 22 CCR 66265.192(a) for new tank systems that store hazardous waste and have secondary containment. The regulations require that this assessment be completed and certified by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer before the tank system is placed in use as a hazardous waste storage tank system. The technical assessments for the 177-R2Ul, 177-R2A1, and 177-R2A2 tank systems have been reviewed by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer, who has certified that the tank systems have sufficient structural integrity, are acceptable for transferring and storing hazardous waste, are compatible with the stored waste, and the tanks and containment system are suitably designed to achieve the requirements of the applicable regulations so they will not collapse, rupture, or fail. This document will be kept on file by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Environment Protection Department

  16. Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of the 490-Q1 tank system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, W.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gee, C.W.; Graser, D.A. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (US)

    1993-07-01

    This Engineering Assessment and Certification of Integrity of used freon storage tanks 490-Q1A1 and 490-Q1A2 has been prepared in response to 40 CFR 265.192(a) and 22 CCR 66265.192(a) for new tank systems that store hazardous waste and have secondary containment. The regulations require that this assessment be completed and certified by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer before the tank system is placed in use as a hazardous waste storage tank system. The technical assessments for the 490-Q1A1 and 490-Q1A2 tank systems have been reviewed by an independent, qualified, California-registered professional engineer, who has certified that the tank systems have sufficient structural integrity, are acceptable for transferring and storing hazardous waste, are compatible with the stored waste, and the tanks and containment system are suitably designed to achieve the requirements of the applicable regulations so they will not collapse, rupture, or fail.

  17. Aboveground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. it should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this paper are: Safety, Product Losses, Cost Comparison of USTs vs AGSTs, Space Availability/Accessibility, Precipitation Handling, Aesthetics and Security, Pending and Existing Regulations

  18. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  19. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  20. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  1. An intracellular motif of GLUT4 regulates fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Catherine A; Pettitt, Trevor R; Leney, Sophie E; Welsh, Gavin I; Tavaré, Jeremy M; Wakelam, Michael J O

    2008-05-20

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake by adipocytes through increasing translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. Fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles at the cell surface is thought to involve phospholipase D activity, generating the signalling lipid phosphatidic acid, although the mechanism of action is not yet clear. Here we report the identification of a putative phosphatidic acid-binding motif in a GLUT4 intracellular loop. Mutation of this motif causes a decrease in the insulin-induced exposure of GLUT4 at the cell surface of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via an effect on vesicle fusion. The potential phosphatidic acid-binding motif identified in this study is unique to GLUT4 among the sugar transporters, therefore this motif may provide a unique mechanism for regulating insulin-induced translocation by phospholipase D signalling.

  2. An intracellular motif of GLUT4 regulates fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welsh Gavin I

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin stimulates glucose uptake by adipocytes through increasing translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. Fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles at the cell surface is thought to involve phospholipase D activity, generating the signalling lipid phosphatidic acid, although the mechanism of action is not yet clear. Results Here we report the identification of a putative phosphatidic acid-binding motif in a GLUT4 intracellular loop. Mutation of this motif causes a decrease in the insulin-induced exposure of GLUT4 at the cell surface of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via an effect on vesicle fusion. Conclusion The potential phosphatidic acid-binding motif identified in this study is unique to GLUT4 among the sugar transporters, therefore this motif may provide a unique mechanism for regulating insulin-induced translocation by phospholipase D signalling.

  3. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ''waste'' data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment

  4. Ferrocyanide tank safety program: Cesium uptake capacity of simulated ferrocyanide tank waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the capacity for 137 Cs uptake by mixed metal ferrocyanides present in Hanford Site waste tanks, and to assess the potential for aggregation of these 137 Cs-exchanged materials to form ''hot-spots'' in the tanks. This research, performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company, stems from concerns regarding possible localized radiolytic heating within the tanks. After ferrocyanide was added to 18 high-level waste tanks in the 1950s, some of the ferrocyanide tanks received considerable quantities of saltcake waste that was rich in 137 Cs. If radioactive cesium was exchanged and concentrated by the nickel ferrocyanide present in the tanks, the associated heating could cause tank temperatures to rise above the safety limits specified for the ferrocyanide-containing tanks, especially if the supernate in the tanks is pumped out and the waste becomes drier

  5. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*

  6. Neurons Containing Orexin or Melanin Concentrating Hormone Reciprocally Regulate Wake and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda Rani eKonadhode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable amount of data on arousal neurons whereas there is a paucity of knowledge regarding neurons that make us fall asleep. Indeed, current network models of sleep-wake regulation list many arousal neuronal populations compared to only one sleep group located in the preoptic area. There are neurons outside the preoptic area that are active during sleep, but they have never been selectively manipulated. Indeed, none of the sleep-active neurons have been selectively stimulated. To close this knowledge gap we used optogenetics to selectively manipulate neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH. The MCH neurons are located in the posterior hypothalamus intermingled with the orexin arousal neurons. Our data indicated that optogenetic stimulation of MCH neurons in wildtype mice (J Neuroscience, 2013 robustly increased both non-REM and REM sleep. MCH neuron stimulation increased sleep during the animal’s normal active period, which is compelling evidence that stimulation of MCH neurons has a powerful effect in counteracting the strong arousal signal from all of the arousal neurons. The MCH neurons represent the only group of sleep-active neurons that when selectively stimulated induce sleep. From a translational perspective this is potentially useful in sleep disorders, such as insomnia, where sleep needs to be triggered against a strong arousal drive. Our studies indicate that the MCH neurons belong within an overall model of sleep-wake regulation.

  7. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  8. Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol-containing fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulopoulos, S. G.; Samaras, D. P.; Philippopoulos, C. J.

    In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on regulated and unregulated emissions is studied. A 4-cylinder OPEL 1.6 L internal combustion engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. For exhaust emissions treatment a typical three-way catalyst was used. Among the various compounds detected in exhaust emissions, the following ones were monitored at engine and catalyst outlet: methane, hexane, ethylene, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, acetic acid and ethanol. Addition of ethanol in the fuel up to 10% w/w had as a result an increase in the Reid vapour pressure of the fuel, which indicates indirectly increased evaporative emissions, while carbon monoxide tailpipe emissions were decreased. For ethanol-containing fuels, acetaldehyde emissions were appreciably increased (up to 100%), especially for fuel containing 3% w/w ethanol. In contrast, aromatics emissions were decreased by ethanol addition to gasoline. Methane and ethanol were the most resistant compounds to oxidation while ethylene was the most degradable compound over the catalyst. Ethylene, methane and acetaldehyde were the main compounds present at engine exhaust while methane, acetaldehyde and ethanol were the main compounds in tailpipe emissions for ethanol fuels after the catalyst operation.

  9. Survey of Regulations Applicable to the Finned Containment in Korean Nuclear Power Plant for Light Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Hyung Gyun; Kang, Hie Chan

    2016-01-01

    In severe accident, the molten corium would discharge into the reactor cavity and interact with water and concrete of cavity. Molten corium includes non-oxidation metals such as Zr, Fe and Cr. These metal species reacted with water emit hydrogen gas. In addition to this, a mount of steam can be emitted to the containment such as steam line break accident. As a result, steam and hydrogen gas can pressurize containment over the design pressure and threaten its integrity. For this reasons, a concept equipped with finned on the containment building was proposed for coping with prolonged accident. Finned containment can enhance heat transfer to the ambient, and the building itself is working as a heat sink. Multiple metal fins and metal rod are penetrated into containment wall, and the rods are working as an additional path of heat removal. To be accepted in the nuclear power plants, this configuration should satisfy the requirement of heat removal and follow all regulations related with containment also. For applying to Korean nuclear power plants, the finned containment should follow all regulations specialized in Korea such as Nuclear regulatory criteria for light water reactor and Guidelines of nuclear safety examination for light water reactor. A concept of containment as a passive cooling system has been proposed. Furthermore, the new containment concept can be applied on the real containment which satisfies the various regulations. Finned containment would be expected positive effects on heat removal from the containment. If the fins are properly welded to the liner, finned containment could satisfy the leak tightness and prevention of external influences. Finned containment could be favorable to protect external impact like aircraft crash because of the additional structural integrity by the fins

  10. Survey of Regulations Applicable to the Finned Containment in Korean Nuclear Power Plant for Light Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hyung Gyun [Pohang University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hie Chan [Kunsan University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In severe accident, the molten corium would discharge into the reactor cavity and interact with water and concrete of cavity. Molten corium includes non-oxidation metals such as Zr, Fe and Cr. These metal species reacted with water emit hydrogen gas. In addition to this, a mount of steam can be emitted to the containment such as steam line break accident. As a result, steam and hydrogen gas can pressurize containment over the design pressure and threaten its integrity. For this reasons, a concept equipped with finned on the containment building was proposed for coping with prolonged accident. Finned containment can enhance heat transfer to the ambient, and the building itself is working as a heat sink. Multiple metal fins and metal rod are penetrated into containment wall, and the rods are working as an additional path of heat removal. To be accepted in the nuclear power plants, this configuration should satisfy the requirement of heat removal and follow all regulations related with containment also. For applying to Korean nuclear power plants, the finned containment should follow all regulations specialized in Korea such as Nuclear regulatory criteria for light water reactor and Guidelines of nuclear safety examination for light water reactor. A concept of containment as a passive cooling system has been proposed. Furthermore, the new containment concept can be applied on the real containment which satisfies the various regulations. Finned containment would be expected positive effects on heat removal from the containment. If the fins are properly welded to the liner, finned containment could satisfy the leak tightness and prevention of external influences. Finned containment could be favorable to protect external impact like aircraft crash because of the additional structural integrity by the fins.

  11. The epigenetic regulator Smchd1 contains a functional GHKL-type ATPase domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kelan; Dobson, Renwick C J; Lucet, Isabelle S; Young, Samuel N; Pearce, F Grant; Blewitt, Marnie E; Murphy, James M

    2016-06-15

    Structural maintenance of chromosomes flexible hinge domain containing 1 (Smchd1) is an epigenetic regulator that plays critical roles in gene regulation during development. Mutations in SMCHD1 were recently implicated in the pathogenesis of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), although the mechanistic basis remains of outstanding interest. We have previously shown that Smchd1 associates with chromatin via its homodimeric C-terminal hinge domain, yet little is known about the function of the putative GHKL (gyrase, Hsp90, histidine kinase, MutL)-type ATPase domain at its N-terminus. To formally assess the structure and function of Smchd1's ATPase domain, we have generated recombinant proteins encompassing the predicted ATPase domain and the adjacent region. Here, we show that the Smchd1 N-terminal region exists as a monomer and adopts a conformation resembling that of monomeric full-length heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) protein in solution, even though the two proteins share only ∼8% overall sequence identity. Despite being monomeric, the N-terminal region of Smchd1 exhibits ATPase activity, which can be antagonized by the reaction product, ADP, or the Hsp90 inhibitor, radicicol, at a nanomolar concentration. Interestingly, introduction of an analogous mutation to that identified in SMCHD1 of an FSHD patient compromised protein stability, suggesting a possible molecular basis for loss of protein function and pathogenesis. Together, these results reveal important structure-function characteristics of Smchd1 that may underpin its mechanistic action at the chromatin level. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griebenow, B.L.; Martinson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy. The ICPP's mission is to process government-owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel, extracting off uranium, and calcining the waste to a solid form for storage, Prior to calcining, WINCO temporarily stores the liquid waste from this process in eleven 1,135,600-l(300,000-gal), 15,2-m (50-ft)-diam, high-level liquid waste tanks. Each of these stainless steel tanks is contained within an underground concrete vault. The only access to the interior of the tanks is through risers that extend from ground level to the dome of the tanks. WINCO is replacing these tanks because of their age and the fact that they do not meet all of the current design requirements. The tanks will be replaced in two phases. WINCO is now in the Title I design stage for four new tank and vault systems to replace five of the existing systems. The integrity of the six remaining tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced in the second phase. To perform any integrity analysis, the inner surface of the tanks must be inspected. The remote tank inspection (RTI) robotic system, designed by RedZone Robotics of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was developed to access the interior of the tanks and position various end effectors required to perform tank wall inspections

  13. Stabilization of In-Tank Residual Wastes and External-Tank Soil Contamination for the Hanford Tank Closure Program: Applications to the AX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.L.; Dwyer, B.P.; Ho, C.; Krumhansl, J.L.; McKeen, G.; Molecke, M.A.; Westrich, H.R.; Zhang, P.

    1998-11-01

    Technical support for the Hanford Tank Closure Program focused on evaluation of concepts for immobilization of residual contaminants in the Hanford AX tanks and underlying soils, and identification of cost-effective approaches to improve long-term performance of AX tank farm cIosure systems. Project objectives are to develop materials or engineered systems that would significantly reduce the radionuclide transport to the groundwater from AX tanks containing residual waste. We pursued several studies that, if implemented, would help achieve these goals. They include: (1) tank fill design to reduce water inilltration and potential interaction with residual waste; (2) development of in-tank getter materials that would specifically sorb or sequester radionuclides; (3) evaluation of grout emplacement under and around the tanks to prevent waste leakage during waste retrieval or to minimize water infiltration beneath the tanks; (4) development of getters that will chemically fix specific radionuclides in soils under tanks; and (5) geochemical and hydrologic modeling of waste-water-soil-grout interactions. These studies differ in scope from the reducing grout tank fill employed at the Savannah River Site in that our strategy improves upon tank fill design by providing redundancy in the barriers to radionuclide migration and by modification the hydrogeochemistry external to the tanks.

  14. Proposed federal petroleum products and allied petroleum products storage tank systems regulations under CEPA 1999 : report of consultation sessions February 2003 to September 2003 : summary of input from participants and response from Environment Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    Between February and September of 2003, Environment Canada held a series of consultation sessions on a set of proposed regulations in order to eliminate the contamination of groundwater and soil caused by petroleum products and allied petroleum products stored by the federal house in storage tank systems. This document presents a summary of comments, issues, ideas and perspectives raised throughout consultation sessions. It also outlines Environment Canada's responses to generated input. Sessions took place in each of Environment Canada's five regions. A full description of the consultation procedures and methodology was provided. The document provides a rationale for cases where Environment Canada has rejected or only partially accepted stakeholder recommendations. A list of general prohibitions and obligations was provided along with details of registration and tagging; provincially-approved installers and installation procedures; monitoring and leak detection; operation and maintenance; upgrading; withdrawal, re-use and removal of storage tank systems; report of releases; and an environmental emergency plan and record keeping. First Nation issues were also discussed. Several changes to proposed regulations have been made during the course of the consultations, including an extension of timelines for compliance with proposed regulations; the definition of a storage tank system is now defined as the delivery point first connection to the discharge of the pump; and records are now required for only 7 years as opposed to the life of the tank. It was also stated that a draft regulation will be published in the Canadian Gazette, followed by a 60 day comment period. The final regulation will be published a few months later

  15. 18 CFR 1304.405 - Fuel storage tanks and handling facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used to contain a regulated substance (such as a petroleum product) and has 10 percent or more of its... or remedy pollution or violations of law, including removal of the UST system, with costs charged to... flammable and combustible liquids storage tanks at marine service stations. (d) Fuel handling on private...

  16. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented

  17. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  18. Portable apparatus for containing and regulating flow of a liquid into a drainage inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of using an apparatus suitable for containing a mixture of spilled petroleum liquid and water and regulating the flow of water into a storm drain, having a drainage inlet with a recess area extending about a perimeter of the drainage inlet, while minimizing the flow of the petroleum liquid into the storm drain, the apparatus comprising, flange means, defining a central opening therein, for engaging the recess area of the storm drain, the flange means being substantially the same size and shape as a cover of the storm drain so that when the cover is removed from the storm drain, the method comprising the steps of: positioning the apparatus over a storm drain with the flange means being received and supported by the recess area of the storm drain with the central opening overlying the drainage inlet; allowing the mixture of petroleum liquid and water to collect around the apparatus; controlling the position of the movable hollow member, relative to the flange means, to control the flow of water into the drainage inlet, through the sidewall and central openings, while maintaining the petroleum liquid floating on the water and preventing entry of the petroleum liquid into the at least sidewall opening; and collecting the petroleum liquid after a sufficient quantity of water has been allowed to flow into the drainage inlet

  19. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  20. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation tank 241-SX-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980

  1. 49 CFR 174.304 - Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 3 (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars... (flammable liquid) materials in tank cars. A tank car containing a Class 3 (flammable liquid) material, other... the liquid from the tank car to permanent storage tanks of sufficient capacity to receive the entire...

  2. Tanks focus area. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM's technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE's four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program

  3. Calcium-containing scaffolds induce bone regeneration by regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino-Martínez, Rubén; Angelo, Alcira P; Pujol, Francesc Ventura

    2017-11-16

    Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca 2+ -containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ) on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO 4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. A circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter) was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO 4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO 4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO 4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. CaSO 4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO 4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO 4 -containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO 4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO 4 effects on MSC migration. Specific CaSO 4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host's undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO 4 regulates BMP-2-induced MSC migration by differentially activating the PI3

  4. Calcium-containing scaffolds induce bone regeneration by regulating mesenchymal stem cell differentiation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Aquino-Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoinduction and subsequent bone formation rely on efficient mesenchymal stem cell (MSC recruitment. It is also known that migration is induced by gradients of growth factors and cytokines. Degradation of Ca2+-containing biomaterials mimics the bone remodeling compartment producing a localized calcium-rich osteoinductive microenvironment. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of calcium sulfate (CaSO4 on MSC migration. In addition, to evaluate the influence of CaSO4 on MSC differentiation and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Methods A circular calvarial bone defect (5 mm diameter was created in the parietal bone of 35 Balb-C mice. We prepared and implanted a cell-free agarose/gelatin scaffold alone or in combination with different CaSO4 concentrations into the bone defects. After 7 weeks, we determined the new bone regenerated by micro-CT and histological analysis. In vitro, we evaluated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration by both wound healing and agarose spot assays. Osteoblastic gene expression after BMP-2 and CaSO4 treatment was also evaluated by qPCR. Results CaSO4 increased MSC migration and bone formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Micro-CT analysis showed that the addition of CaSO4 significantly enhanced bone regeneration compared to the scaffold alone. The histological evaluation confirmed an increased number of endogenous cells recruited into the cell-free CaSO4-containing scaffolds. Furthermore, MSC migration in vitro and active AKT levels were attenuated when CaSO4 and BMP-2 were in combination. Addition of LY294002 and Wortmannin abrogated the CaSO4 effects on MSC migration. Conclusions Specific CaSO4 concentrations induce bone regeneration of calvarial defects in part by acting on the host’s undifferentiated MSCs and promoting their migration. Progenitor cell recruitment is followed by a gradual increment in osteoblast gene expression. Moreover, CaSO4 regulates BMP-2-induced

  5. Sizing of an Ammonia Discharge Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuliagenda Beckfords

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate companies use well-stirred tanks to regulate the concentration of ammonia they discharge via their wastewater, preventing ammonia spikes from exceeding the cap set by the Environmental Protection Agency. This report discusses the methods used to determine the minimum possible volume of the tank required to regulate wastewater discharge. With this information, it was determined that the use of a stirring tank is an efficient and cost effective way to regulate ammonia discharge. Based on these results many other companies may use this method to decrease the negative effects of ammonia on the environment.

  6. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks

  7. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  8. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  9. A performance-oriented and risk-based regulation for containment testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.

    1994-01-01

    In August 1992, the NRC initiated a major initiative to develop requirements for containment testing that are less prescriptive, and more performance-oriented and risk-based. This action was a result of public comments and several studies that concluded that the economic burden of certain, present containment testing requirements are not commensurate with their safety benefits. The rulemaking will include consideration of relaxing the allowable containment leakage rate, increasing the interval for the integrated containment test, and establishing intervals for the local containment leak rate tests based on their performance. A study has been conducted to provide technical information for establishing the performance criteria for containment tests, the allowable leakage rate, commensurate with its significance to total public risk. The study used results of a recent comprehensive study conducted by the NRC, NUREG-1150, 'Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five U.S. Nuclear Power Plants,' to examine the sensitivity of containment leakage to public risk. Risk was found to be insensitive to containment leakage rate up to levels of about 100 percent-volume per day for certain types of containments. PRA methods have also been developed to establish risk-based intervals for containment tests based on their past experience. Preliminary evaluations show that increasing the interval for the integrated containment leakage test from three times to once every ten years would have an insignificant impact on public risk. Preliminary analyses of operational experience data for local leak rate tests show that performance-based testing, valves and penetrations that perform well are tested less frequently, is feasible with marginal impact on safety. The above technical studies are being used to develop efficient (cost-effective) requirements for containment tests. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  10. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program: 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1995 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  11. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  12. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1992 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  13. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G.

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1991 to evaluate these vessels and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report

  14. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawindaran Nair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  15. Differential regulation by AMP and ADP of AMPK complexes containing different γ subunit isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Fiona A; Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Hardie, D Grahame

    2016-01-01

    The g subunits of heterotrimeric AMPK complexes contain the binding sites for the regulatory adenine nucleotides AMP, ADP and ATP. We addressed whether complexes containing different g isoforms display different responses to adenine nucleotides by generating cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged ve...

  16. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  17. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  18. 49 CFR 229.97 - Grounding fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding fuel tanks. 229.97 Section 229.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 229.97 Grounding fuel tanks. Fuel tanks and related piping shall be electrically grounded. ...

  19. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  20. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-101: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a preliminary Tank Characterization Report (TCR). It only contains the current best-basis inventory (Appendix D) for single-shell tank 241-TX-101. No TCRs have been previously issued for this tank, and current core sample analyses are not available. The best-basis inventory, therefore, is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  1. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TY-102: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a preliminary Tank Characterization Report (TCR). It only contains the current best-basis inventory (Appendix D) for single-shell tank 241-TY-102. No TCRs have been previously issued for this tank, and current core sample analyses are not available. The best-basis inventory, therefore, is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  2. Preliminary tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-113: best-basis inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a preliminary Tank Characterization Report (TCR). It only contains the current best-basis inventory (Appendix D) for single-shell tank 241-TX-113. No TCRs have been previously issued for this tank, and current core sample analyses are not available. The best-basis inventory, therefore, is based on an engineering assessment of waste type, process flowsheet data, early sample data, and/or other available information. The Standard Inventories of Chemicals and Radionuclides in Hanford Site Tank Wastes describes standard methodology used to derive the tank-by-tank best-basis inventories. This preliminary TCR will be updated using this same methodology when additional data on tank contents become available

  3. Tank 241-BY-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling and analytical needs associated with the 51 Hanford Site underground storage tanks classified on one or more of the four Watch Lists (ferrocyanide, organic, flammable gas, and high heat), and the safety screening of all 177 tanks have been identified through the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process. DQO's identify information needed by a program group in the Tank Waste Remediation System concerned with safety issues, regulatory requirements, or the transporting and processing of tank waste. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives for Tank BY-111 pertaining to sample collection, sample preparation and analysis, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements. In addition, an estimate of the current contents and status of the tank is given

  4. Hydrogen storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus and system is described for storing high-pressure fluids such as hydrogen. An inner tank and pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel share the structural and/or pressure load on the inner tank. The system and apparatus provide a high performance and low cost container while mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of the metal tank. System is useful for distributing hydrogen to a power grid or to a vehicle refueling station.

  5. Tank calibration; Arqueacao de tanques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ana [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work relates the analysis of the norms ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks used in fiscal measurement, established on Joint Regulation no 1 of June 19, 2000 between the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum) and the INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Industrial Quality). In this work a comparison between norms ISO and norms published by the API (American Petroleum Institute) and the IP (Institute of Petroleum) up to 2001 was made. It was concluded that norms ISO are wider than norms API, IP, and INMETRO methods in the calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks. (author)

  6. Mixer pump test plan for double shell tank AZ-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mixer pump systems have been chosen as the method for retrieval of tank wastes contained in double shell tanks at Hanford. This document describes the plan for testing and demonstrating the ability of two 300 hp mixer pumps to mobilize waste in tank AZ-101. The mixer pumps, equipment and instrumentation to monitor the test were installed by Project W-151

  7. Hanford Tank Cleanup Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriochoa, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  8. Regulations for pressurized equipment in the European Single Market - construction of steam boilers, containers and pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassmuck, J.

    1992-01-01

    The impulses produced by the data of the standardized EC Single Market have now reached pressurized equipment in the field of EC Guidelines and European standardisation. This must be regarded as a great challenge to the interested and concerned parties. All efforts to represent the interested parties in European Committees must be made. In order to reach the goal quickly and successfully, a considerable readiness to compromise is, however, necessary. At the end of the development process, a comprehensible, standardized set of regulations will be available for pressurized equipment throughout Europe. The regulations will consist of national ones converted into European Guidelines and Standards. (orig.) [de

  9. Tank 241-C-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The data quality objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used to identify the sampling analytical needs for the resolution of safety issues. A Tank Characterization Plant (TCP) will be developed for each double shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. There are four Watch list tank classifications (ferrocyanide, organic salts, hydrogen/flammable gas, and high heat load). These classifications cover the six safety issues related to public and worker health that have been associated with the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. These safety issues are as follows: ferrocyanide, flammable gas, organic, criticality, high heat, and vapor safety issues. Tank C-103 is one of the twenty tanks currently on the Organic Salts Watch List. This TCP will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in accordance with the appropriate DQO documents. In addition, the current contents and status of the tank are projected from historical information. The relevant safety issues that are of concern for tanks on the Organic Salts Watch List are: the potential for an exothermic reaction occurring from the flammable mixture of organic materials and nitrate/nitrite salts that could result in a release of radioactive material and the possibility that other safety issues may exist for the tank

  10. Tank 241-AW-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    The first section gives a summary of the available information for Tank AW-101. Included in the discussion are the process history and recent sampling events for the tank, as well as general information about the tank such as its age and the risers to be used for sampling. Tank 241-AW-101 is one of the 25 tanks on the Flammable Gas Watch List. To resolve the Flammable Gas safety issue, characterization of the tanks, including intrusive tank sampling, must be performed. Prior to sampling, however, the potential for the following scenarios must be evaluated: the potential for ignition of flammable gases such as hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-nitrous oxide; and the potential for secondary ignition of organic-nitrate/nitrate mixtures in crust layer initiated by the burning of flammable gases or by a mechanical in-tank energy source. The characterization effort applicable to this Tank Characterization Plan is focused on the resolution of the crust burn flammable gas safety issue of Tank AW-101. To evaluate the potential for a crust burn of the waste material, calorimetry tests will be performed on the waste. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) will be used to determine whether an exothermic reaction exists

  11. Medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids containing products - Regulations in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhasira, Ran; Shbiro, Liat; Landschaft, Yuval

    2018-03-01

    In 1937, the United States of America criminalized the use of cannabis and as a result its use decreased rapidly. In recent decades, there is a growing interest in the wide range of medical uses of cannabis and its constituents; however, the laws and regulations are substantially different between countries. Laws differentiate between raw herbal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and cannabinoid-based medicines. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not approve the use of herbal cannabis or its extracts. The FDA approved several cannabinoid-based medicines, so did 23 European countries and Canada. However, only four of the reviewed countries have fully authorized the medical use of herbal cannabis - Canada, Germany, Israel and the Netherlands, together with more than 50% of the states in the United States. Most of the regulators allow the physicians to decide what specific indications they will prescribe cannabis for, but some regulators dictate only specific indications. The aim of this article is to review the current (as of November 2017) regulations of medical cannabis use in Europe and North America. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulated programmed lysis of recombinant Salmonella in host tissues to release protective antigens and confer biological containment

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy

    2008-01-01

    We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain χ8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis a...

  13. Recommendations for erosion-corrosion allowance for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.; Brehm, W.F.; Larrick, A.P.; Divine, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility carbon steel tanks will contain mixer pumps that circulate the waste. On the basis of flow characteristics of the system and data from the literature, an erosion allowance of 0.075 mm/y (3 mil/year) was recommended for the tank bottoms, in addition to the 0.025 mm/y (1 mil/year) general corrosion allowance

  14. Tank 241-Z-361 Sludge Retrieval and Treatment Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMPTON, B.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Tank 241-Z-361 (Z-361) contains legacy sludge resulting from waste discharges from past missions at PFP. A sketch of the tank is shown in Figure 1. In this view various risers and penetrations are shown along with the sludge level depicted by the horizontal line halfway up the tank, and the ground level depicted by the horizontal line above the tank. The HEPA filter installed for breathing is also shown on one of the risers

  15. Underground storage tank 431-D1U1, Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information about the decommissioning of Tank 431-D1U1. This tank was installed in 1965 for diesel fuel storage. This tank will remain in active usage until closure procedures begin. Soils and ground water around the tank will be sampled to check for leakage. Appendices include; proof of proper training for workers, health and safety briefing record, task hazard analysis summary, and emergency plans.

  16. Tank farms criticality safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FORT, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    This document defines the Tank Farms Contractor (TFC) criticality safety program, as required by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR-), Subpart 830.204(b)(6), ''Documented Safety Analysis'' (10 CFR- 830.204 (b)(6)), and US Department of Energy (DOE) 0 420.1A, Facility Safety, Section 4.3, ''Criticality Safety.'' In addition, this document contains certain best management practices, adopted by TFC management based on successful Hanford Site facility practices. Requirements in this manual are based on the contractor requirements document (CRD) found in Attachment 2 of DOE 0 420.1A, Section 4.3, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety,'' and the cited revisions of applicable standards published jointly by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Nuclear Society (ANS) as listed in Appendix A. As an informational device, requirements directly imposed by the CRD or ANSI/ANS Standards are shown in boldface. Requirements developed as best management practices through experience and maintained consistent with Hanford Site practice are shown in italics. Recommendations and explanatory material are provided in plain type

  17. 7 CFR 915.306 - Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, may be used for purposes of stamping and sealing... apply to individual packages of avocados weighing four pounds or less, net weight, in master containers...

  18. Heme regulates the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of chimaeric genes containing 5'-flanking soybean leghemoglobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A; Villadsen, IS

    1986-01-01

    The TM1 yeast mutant was transformed with a 2 micron-derived plasmid (YEp24) which carries a chimaeric gene containing the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene fused to the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the soybean leghemoglobin (Lb) c3 gene. Expression of the chimaeric...

  19. Locomotive fuel tank structural safety testing program : passenger locomotive fuel tank jackknife derailment load test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a passenger locomotive fuel tank load test simulating jackknife derailment (JD) load. The test is based on FRA requirements for locomotive fuel tanks in the Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 238, Ap...

  20. Fluidic Sampler. Tanks Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Problem Definition; Millions of gallons of radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored in underground tanks across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. To manage this waste, tank operators need safe, cost-effective methods for mixing tank material, transferring tank waste between tanks, and collecting samples. Samples must be collected at different depths within storage tanks containing various kinds of waste including salt, sludge, and supernatant. With current or baseline methods, a grab sampler or a core sampler is inserted into the tank, waste is maneuvered into the sample chamber, and the sample is withdrawn from the tank. The mixing pumps in the tank, which are required to keep the contents homogeneous, must be shut down before and during sampling to prevent airborne releases. These methods are expensive, require substantial hands-on labor, increase the risk of worker exposure to radiation, and often produce nonrepresentative and unreproducible samples. How It Works: The Fluidic Sampler manufactured by AEA Technology Engineering Services, Inc., enables tank sampling to be done remotely with the mixing pumps in operation. Remote operation minimizes the risk of exposure to personnel and the possibility of spills, reducing associated costs. Sampling while the tank contents are being agitated yields consistently homogeneous, representative samples and facilitates more efficient feed preparation and evaluation of the tank contents. The above-tank portion of the Fluidic Sampler and the replacement plug and pipework that insert through the tank top are shown.

  1. Performances in Tank Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanel-Viorel Panaitescu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several operations which must do to maximize the performance of tank cleaning. The new advanced technologies in tank cleaning have raised the standards in marine areas. There are many ways to realise optimal cleaning efficiency for different tanks. The evaluation of tank cleaning options means to start with audit of operations: how many tanks require cleaning, are there obstructions in tanks (e.g. agitators, mixers, what residue needs to be removed, are cleaning agents required or is water sufficient, what methods can used for tank cleaning. After these steps, must be verify the results and ensure that the best cleaning values can be achieved in terms of accuracy and reliability. Technology advancements have made it easier to remove stubborn residues, shorten cleaning cycle times and achieve higher levels of automation. In this paper are presented the performances in tank cleaning in accordance with legislation in force. If tank cleaning technologies are effective, then operating costs are minimal.

  2. In-Tank Peroxide Oxidation Process for the Decomposition of Tetraphenylborate in Tank 48H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANIEL, LAMBERT

    2005-01-01

    Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. The TPB was added during an in-tank precipitation process to removed soluble cesium, but excessive benzene generation curtailed this treatment method. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to routine Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains approximately 240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with approximately 19,000 kg (42,000 lb) of potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). Out of Tank processing of the Tank 48H has some distinct advantages as aggressive processing conditions (e.g., high temperature, low pH) are required for fast destruction of the tetraphenylborate. Also, a new facility can be designed with the optimum materials of construction and other design features to allow the safe processing of the Tank 48H waste. However, it is very expensive to build a new facility. As a result, an in-tank process primarily using existing equipment and facilities is desirable. Development of an in-tank process would be economically attractive. Based on success with Fentons Chemistry (i.e., hydrogen peroxide with an iron or copper catalyst to produce hydroxyl radicals, strong oxidation agents), testing was initiated to develop a higher pH oxidation process that could be completed in-tank

  3. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank 241-B-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, L.C.; De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Rutherford, J.H.; Stephens, R.H.; Heasler, P.G.; Brown, T.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    Single-shell Tank 241-B-110 is an underground storage tank containing radioactive waste. The tank was sampled at various times between August and November of 1989 and later in April of 1990. The analytical data gathered from these sampling efforts were used to generate this Tank Characterization Report. Tank 241-B-110, located in the 200 East Area B Tank Farm, was constructed in 1943 and 1944, and went into service in 1945 by receiving second cycle decontamination waste from the B and T Plants. During the service life of the tank, other wastes were added including B Plant flush waste, B Plant fission product waste, B Plant ion exchange waste, PUREX Plant coating waste, and waste from Tank 241-B-105. The tank currently contains 246,000 gallons of non-complexed waste, existing primarily as sludge. Approximately 22,000 gallons of drainable interstitial liquid and 1,000 gallons of supernate remain. The solid phase of the waste is heterogeneous, for the top layer and subsequent layers have significantly different chemical compositions and are visually distinct. A complete analysis of the top layer has not been done, and auger sampling of the top layer is recommended to fully characterize the waste in Tank 241-B-110. The tank is not classified as a Watch List tank; however, it is a Confirmed Leaker, having lost nearly 10,000 gallons of waste. The waste in Tank 241-B-110 is primarily precipitated salts, some of which are composed of radioactive isotopes. The most prevalent analytes include water, bismuth, iron, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicon, sodium, and sulfate. The major radionuclide constituents are 137 Cs and 90 Sr

  4. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  5. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  6. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  7. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-BX-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents

  8. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  9. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  10. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  11. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented

  12. Los Alamos National Laboratory environmental restoration program group audit report for underground storage tank removal: Audit ER-92- 04, July 22--August 11, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Audit ER-92-04 was conducted on activities being performed by Waste Management (EM-7), Environmental Protection (EM-8), and Environmental Restoration (EM-13) groups for the LANL's underground storage tank removal program. Scope of the audit was limited to an evaluation of the implementation of the State of New Mexico requirements for underground storage-tank removal. Activities were evaluated using requirements specified in the State of New Mexico Environmental Improvement Board Underground Storage Tank Regulations, EIB/USTR. Two recommendations are made: (1) that a single organization be given the responsibility and authority for the implementation of the program, and (2) that the requirements of the NM State environmental improvement board underground storage tank regulations be reviewed and a Los Alamos procedure written to address requirements and interfaces not contained in SOP-EM7-D ampersand D-001

  13. Tank characterization report for double-shell Tank 241-AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Lambie, R.W.; Stephens, R.H.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    In May 1990, double-shell Tank 241-AW-105 was sampled to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also addresses expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background tank information. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-AW-105, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are given based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  14. Criticality safety calculations of 'poison tube tank' compared with annular tanks for storing fissile solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, C.R.; Joseph, G.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of the shielded area space required for storing fissile solution by the conventional annular tank and by poison tube tank is made. Poison tube tank is similar to commercial heat exchanger. The neutron poisons studied are gadolinium oxide and borax. Variation of multiplication factor for an array of annular tanks containing uranium nitrate or plutonium nitrate solutions are presented for annular widths of 10, 7.5 and 5 cm. It is concluded that for the given concentration, 5 cm annular width tanks are safe at a pitch distance of 120 and 90 cm for uranium and plutonium solutions respectively. Using these, as reference values, it is found that the shielded area saving for the poison tube tank is a factor of 12 and 8 for the given concentration of uranium and plutonium solutions respectively. (author)

  15. Tank 241-U-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-111

  16. Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111

  17. Tank 241-U-103 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-U-103

  18. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118

  19. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104

  20. Tank 241-TY-101 Tank Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TY-101

  1. Tank 241-T-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-107

  2. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105

  3. Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation tank 241-SX-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ''Wallet Report'' is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980

  4. Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program -- 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNatt, F.G. Sr.

    1994-05-01

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1993 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections made since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report. The 1993 inspection program revealed that the condition of the Savannah River Site waste tanks had not changed significantly from that reported in the previous annual report. No new leaksites were observed. No evidence of corrosion or materials degradation was observed in the waste tanks. However, degradation was observed on covers of the concrete encasements for the out-of-service transfer lines to Tanks 1 through 8

  5. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Buus Jensen

    Full Text Available Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1, late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D or recycling endosomes (Rab11. Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  6. Regulated programmed lysis of recombinant Salmonella in host tissues to release protective antigens and confer biological containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2008-07-08

    We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain chi8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis and additional mutations to enhance complete lysis and antigen delivery. The second component is plasmid pYA3681, which encodes arabinose-regulated murA and asdA expression and C2-regulated synthesis of antisense asdA and murA mRNA transcribed from the P22 P(R) promoter. An arabinose-regulated c2 gene is present in the chromosome. chi8937(pYA3681) exhibits arabinose-dependent growth. Upon invasion of host tissues, an arabinose-free environment, transcription of asdA, murA, and c2 ceases, and concentrations of their gene products decrease because of cell division. The drop in C2 concentration results in activation of P(R), driving synthesis of antisense mRNA to block translation of any residual asdA and murA mRNA. A highly antigenic alpha-helical domain of Streptococcus pneumoniae Rx1 PspA was cloned into pYA3681, resulting in pYA3685 to test antigen delivery. Mice orally immunized with chi8937(pYA3685) developed antibody responses to PspA and Salmonella outer membrane proteins. No viable vaccine strain cells were detected in host tissues after 21 days. This system has potential applications with other Gram-negative bacteria in which biological containment would be desirable.

  7. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters

  8. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ''A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information''. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters

  9. SRY-box-containing Gene 2 Regulation of Nuclear Receptor Tailless (Tlx) Transcription in Adult Neural Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M.; Evans, Ronald M.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively r...

  10. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford's nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list

  11. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLorenzo, D.S.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-105 is a radioactive waste tank most recently sampled in March of 1993. Sampling and characterization of the waste in Tank 241-AP-105 contributes toward the fulfillment of Milestone M-44-05 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology, EPA, and DOE, 1993). Characterization is also needed tot evaluate the waste's fitness for safe processing through an evaporator as part of an overall waste volume reduction program. Tank 241-AP-105, located in the 200 East Area AP Tank Farm, was constructed and went into service in 1986 as a dilute waste receiver tank; Tank 241AP-1 05 was considered as a candidate tank for the Grout Treatment Facility. With the cancellation of the Grout Program, the final disposal of the waste in will be as high- and low-level glass fractions. The tank has an operational capacity of 1,140,000 gallons, and currently contains 821,000 gallons of double-shell slurry feed. The waste is heterogeneous, although distinct layers do not exist. Waste has been removed periodically for processing and concentration through the 242-A Evaporator. The tank is not classified as a Watch List tank and is considered to be sound. There are no Unreviewed Safety Questions associated with Tank 241-AP-105 at this time. The waste in Tank 241-AP-105 exists as an aqueous solution of metallic salts and radionuclides, with limited amounts of organic complexants. The most prevalent soluble analytes include aluminum, potassium, sodium, hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate, and nitrite. The calculated pH is greater than the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act established limit of 12.5 for corrosivity. In addition, cadmium, chromium, and lead concentrations were found at levels greater than their regulatory thresholds. The major radionuclide constituent is 137 Cs, while the few organic complexants present include glycolate and oxalate. Approximately 60% of the waste by weight is water

  12. A novel CARD containing splice-isoform of CIITA regulates nitric oxide synthesis in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dachuan; Lim, Sylvia; Chua, Rong Yuan Ray; Shi, Hong; Ng, Mah Lee; Wong, Siew Heng

    2010-03-01

    MHC class II expression is controlled mainly at transcriptional level by class II transactivator (CIITA), which is a non-DNA binding coactivator and serves as a master control factor for MHC class II genes expression. Here, we describe the function of a novel splice-isoform of CIITA, DC-expressed caspase inhibitory isoform of CIITA (or DC-CASPIC), and we show that the expression of DCCASPIC in DC is upregulated upon lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induction. DC-CASPIC localizes to mitochondria, and protein-protein interaction study demonstrates that DC-CASPIC interacts with caspases and inhibits its activity in DC. Consistently, DC-CASPIC suppresses caspases-induced degradation of nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) and subsequently promotes the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). NO is an essential regulatory molecule that modulates the capability of DC in stimulating T cell proliferation/activation in vitro; hence, overexpression of DC-CASPIC in DC enhances this stimulation. Collectively, our findings reveal that DC-CASPIC is a key molecule that regulates caspases activity and NO synthesis in DC.

  13. Regulation of EGF receptor signaling by the MARVEL domain-containing protein CKLFSF8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Caining; Ding, Peiguo; Wang, Ying; Ma, Dalong

    2005-11-21

    It is known that chemokine-like factor superfamily 8 (CKLFSF8), a member of the CKLF superfamily, has four putative transmembrane regions and a MARVEL domain. Its structure is similar to TM4SF11 (plasmolipin) and widely distributed in normal tissue. However, its function is not yet known. We show here that CKLFSF8 is associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that ectopic expression of CKLFSF8 in several cell lines suppresses EGF-induced cell proliferation, whereas knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siRNA promotes cell proliferation. In cells overexpressing CKLFSF8, the initial activation of EGFR was not affected, but subsequent desensitization of EGF-induced signaling occurred rapidly. This attenuation was correlated with an increased rate of receptor endocytosis. In contrast, knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siCKLFSF8 delayed EGFR endocytosis. These results identify CKLFSF8 as a novel regulator of EGF-induced signaling and indicate that the association of EGFR with four transmembrane proteins is critical for EGFR desensitization.

  14. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...

  15. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  16. Memory Deficits Induced by Inflammation Are Regulated by α5-Subunit-Containing GABAA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian-Shi Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation causes learning and memory deficits through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the pathogenesis of memory loss associated with inflammation and found that we could reverse memory deficits by pharmacologically inhibiting α5-subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A (α5GABAA receptors and deleting the gene associated with the α5 subunit. Acute inflammation reduces long-term potentiation, a synaptic correlate of memory, in hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, and this reduction was reversed by inhibition of α5GABAA receptor function. A tonic inhibitory current generated by α5GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons was increased by the key proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Interleukin-1β also increased the surface expression of α5GABAA receptors in the hippocampus. Collectively, these results show that α5GABAA receptor activity increases during inflammation and that this increase is critical for inflammation-induced memory deficits.

  17. SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 regulates pyruvate kinase M2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Wei-Tien; Hung, Man-Hsin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Yao-Li; Chen, Li-Ju; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Min-Husan; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Boo, Yin-Pin; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2016-04-19

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is known to promote tumourigenesis through dimer formation of p-PKM2Y105. Here, we investigated whether SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) decreases p-PKM2Y105 expression and, thus, determines the sensitivity of sorafenib through inhibiting the nuclear-related function of PKM2. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot confirmed the effect of SHP-1 on PKM2Y105 dephosphorylation. Lactate production was assayed in cells and tumor samples to determine whether sorafenib reversed the Warburg effect. Clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor samples were assessed for PKM2 expression. SHP-1 directly dephosphorylated PKM2 at Y105 and further decreased the proliferative activity of PKM2; similar effects were found in sorafenib-treated HCC cells. PKM2 was also found to determine the sensitivity of targeted drugs, such as sorafenib, brivanib, and sunitinib, by SHP-1 activation. Significant sphere-forming activity was found in HCC cells stably expressing PKM2. Clinical findings suggest that PKM2 acts as a predicting factor of early recurrence in patients with HCC, particularly those without known risk factors (63.6%). SHP-1 dephosphorylates PKM2 at Y105 to inhibit nuclear function of PKM2 and determines the efficacy of targeted drugs. Targeting PKM2 by SHP-1 might provide new therapeutic insights for patients with HCC.

  18. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  19. Burial container subsidence load stress calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    This document captures the supporting analyses conducted to determine if the LLCE (Long-Length Contaminated Equipment) burial containers are structurally adequate under different trench closure scenarios. The LLCE is equipment that was inside tank farm tanks

  20. Double shell tank waste analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkey, C.H.; Jones, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Waste analysis plan for the double shell tanks. SD-WM-EV-053 is Superseding SD-WM-EV-057.This document provides the plan for obtaining information needed for the safe waste handling and storage of waste in the Double Shell Tank Systems. In Particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage waste according to Washington Administrative Code 173-303 and Title 40, parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations

  1. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  2. SRY-box-containing gene 2 regulation of nuclear receptor tailless (Tlx) transcription in adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M; Evans, Ronald M; Gage, Fred H

    2012-02-17

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively regulates Tlx expression, whereas the binding of TLX to its own promoter suppresses its transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays. Such TLX-mediated suppression can be antagonized by overexpressing wild-type Sox2 but not a mutant lacking the transcriptional activation domain. Furthermore, through regions involved in DNA-binding activity, Sox2 and TLX physically interact to form a complex on DNAs that contain a consensus binding site for TLX. Finally, depletion of Sox2 revealed the potential negative feedback loop of TLX expression that is antagonized by Sox2 in adult NSCs. These data suggest that Sox2 plays an important role in Tlx transcription in cultured adult NSCs.

  3. SRY-box-containing Gene 2 Regulation of Nuclear Receptor Tailless (Tlx) Transcription in Adult Neural Stem Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimozaki, Koji; Zhang, Chun-Li; Suh, Hoonkyo; Denli, Ahmet M.; Evans, Ronald M.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is maintained by self-renewable neural stem cells (NSCs). Their activity is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors. However, it has been unclear whether these factors interplay with each other at the molecular level. Here we show that SRY-box-containing gene 2 (Sox2) and nuclear receptor tailless (TLX) form a molecular network in adult NSCs. We observed that both Sox2 and TLX proteins bind to the upstream region of Tlx gene. Sox2 positively regulates Tlx expression, whereas the binding of TLX to its own promoter suppresses its transcriptional activity in luciferase reporter assays. Such TLX-mediated suppression can be antagonized by overexpressing wild-type Sox2 but not a mutant lacking the transcriptional activation domain. Furthermore, through regions involved in DNA-binding activity, Sox2 and TLX physically interact to form a complex on DNAs that contain a consensus binding site for TLX. Finally, depletion of Sox2 revealed the potential negative feedback loop of TLX expression that is antagonized by Sox2 in adult NSCs. These data suggest that Sox2 plays an important role in Tlx transcription in cultured adult NSCs. PMID:22194602

  4. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mech, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  5. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned

  6. Tank farm surveillance and waste status report for June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1991-09-01

    This report is Westinghouse Hanford Company's official inventory for radioactive stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. The intent of the report is to provide data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and to provide supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. 2 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Tank farm surveillance and waste status report for July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1991-09-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. The intent of the report is to provide data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and to provide supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. 1 fig., 8 tabs

  8. Tank 241-A-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-A-104. This Tank Characterization Plan will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, hot cell sample isolation, and laboratory analytical evaluation and reporting requirements in addition to reporting the current contents and status of the tank as projected from historical information

  9. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    The present thesis considers numerical modeling of activated sludge tanks on municipal wastewater treatment plants. Focus is aimed at integrated modeling where the detailed microbiological model the Activated Sludge Model 3 (ASM3) is combined with a detailed hydrodynamic model based on a numerical...... solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in a multiphase scheme. After a general introduction to the activated sludge tank as a system, the activated sludge tank model is gradually setup in separate stages. The individual sub-processes that are often occurring in activated sludge tanks are initially...... hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  10. Farming in a fish tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth, H

    1992-01-01

    Water, fish, and vegetables are all things that most developing countries do not have enough of. There is a method of food production called aquaculture that integrates fish and vegetable growing and conserves and purifies water at the same time. A working system that grows vegetables and fish for regional supermarkets in Massachusetts is a gravity fed system. At the top of the system is a 3,000 gallon fish rearing tank that measures 12 feet in diameter. Water trickles out of the tank and fish wastes are captured which can be composted and used in farm fields. The water goes into a bio filter that contains bacteria which convert harmful ammonia generated from fish waste into beneficial nitrate. Then the water flows into 100 foot long hydroponic tanks where lettuce grows. A 1/6 horsepower pump return the purified water to the fish tank and completes the cycle. The key to success is maintaining a balance between the fish nutrients and waste and the plants nutrients and waste. The system is estimated to produce 35,000 heads of lettuce and 2 tons of fish annually which translates into $23,500. The system could be adapted to developing countries with several modifications to reduce the start up cost.

  11. Tank Closure Progress at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Tank Farm Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, St.W.; Shaw, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress continued at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the completion of the closure process to empty, clean and close radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility (TFF). The TFF includes eleven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) underground stainless steel storage tanks and four smaller, 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) stainless steel tanks, along with tank vaults, interconnecting piping, and ancillary equipment. The TFF tanks had historically been used to store a variety of radioactive liquid waste, including wastes associated with past spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Four of the large storage tanks remain in use for waste storage while the other seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks and the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks have been emptied of waste, cleaned and filled with grout. Recent issuance of an Amended Record of Decision (ROD) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and a Waste Determination complying with Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005, allowed commencement of grouting activities on the cleaned tanks. The first three 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks were grouted in the Fall of 2006 and the fourth tank and the seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks were filled with grout in 2007 to provide long-term stability. During 2008 over seven miles of underground process piping along with associated tank valve boxes and secondary containment systems was stabilized with grout. Lessons learned were compiled and implemented during the closure process and will be utilized on the remaining four 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) underground stainless steel storage tanks. Significant progress has been made to clean and close emptied tanks at the INTEC TFF. Between 2002 and 2005, seven of the eleven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks and all four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks were cleaned and prepared

  12. Tank 241-AP-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homi, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    This document is a plan that identifies the information needed to address relevant issues concerning short-term and long-term safe storage and long-term management of Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-104

  13. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-B-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document summarizes information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-B-104. Sampling and analyses meet safety screening and historical data quality objectives. This report supports the requirements of Tri-party Agreement Milestone M-44-09. his characterization report summoned the available information on the historical uses and the current status of single-shell tank 241-B-104, and presents the analytical results of the June 1995 sampling and analysis effort. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-44-09 (Ecology et al. 1994). Tank 241-B-104 is a single-shell underground waste storage tank located in the 200 East Area B Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. It is the first tank in a three-tank cascade series. The tank went into service in August 1946 with a transfer of second-cycle decontamination waste generated from the bismuth phosphate process. The tank continued to receive this waste type until the third quarter of 1950, when it began receiving first-cycle decontamination waste also produced during the bismuth phosphate process. Following this, the tank received evaporator bottoms sludge from the 242-B Evaporator and waste generated from the flushing of transfer lines. A description and the status of tank 241-B-104 are sum in Table ES-1 and Figure ES-1. The tank has an operating capacity of 2,010 kL (530 kgal), and presently contains 1,400 kL (371 kgal) of waste. The total amount is composed of 4 kL (1 kgal) of supernatant, 260 kL (69 kgal) of saltcake, and 1,140 kL (301 kgal) of sludge (Hanlon 1995). Current surveillance data and observations appear to support these results

  14. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE MAY 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval of waste from single-shell tank C-110 resumed in January making it the first waste retrieval operation for WRPS since taking over Hanford's Tank Operations Contract last October. Now, with approximately 90 percent of the waste removed, WRPS believes that modified sluicing has reached the limits of the technology to remove any further waste and is preparing documentation for use in decision making about any future retrieval actions. Tank C-110 is located in C Fann near the center of the Hanford Site. It is a 530,000 gallon tank, built in 1946, and held approximately 126,000 gallons of sludge and other radioactive and chemical waste materials when retrieval resumed. Modified sluicing technology uses liquid waste from a nearby double-shell tank to break up, dissolve and mobilize the solid material so it can be pumped. Because of the variety of waste fon11S, sluicing is often not able to remove all of the waste. The remaining waste will next be sampled for analysis, and results will be used to guide decisions regarding future actions. Work is moving rapidly in preparation to retrieve waste from a second single-shell tank this summer and transfer it to safer double-shell tank storage. Construction activities necessary to retrieve waste from Tank C-104, a 530,000 gallon tank built in 1943, are approximately 60 percent complete as WRPS maintains its focus on reducing the risk posed by Hanford's aging single-shell waste tanks. C-104 is one of Hanford's oldest radioactive and chemical waste storage tanks, containing approximately 263,000 gallons of wet sludge with a top layer that is dry and powdery. This will be the largest sludge volume retrieval ever attempted using modified sluicing technology. Modified sluicing uses high pressure water or liquid radioactive waste sprayed from nozzles above the waste. The liquid dissolves and/or mobilizes the waste so it can be pumped. In addition to other challenges, tank C-104 contains a significant amount of plutonium and

  15. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for May 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-08-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations

  16. Tank Farm surveillance and waste status summary report for April 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-07-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations

  17. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  18. Synthesis and study on biological activity of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds – regulators of enzymes of nucleic acid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeeva I. V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations on the development of new regulators of functional activity of nucleic acid biosynthesis enzymes based on polycyclic nitrogen-containing heterosystems are summarized. Computer design and molecular docking in the catalytic site of target enzyme (T7pol allowed to perform the directed optimization of basic structures. Several series of compounds were obtained and efficient inhibitors of herpes family (simple herpes virus type 2, Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A and hepatitis C viruses were identified, as well as compounds with potent antitumor, antibacterial and antifungal activity. It was established that the use of model test systems based on enzymes participating in nucleic acids synthesis is a promising approach to the primary screening of potential inhibitors in vitro.

  19. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-101. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    One major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes m support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AP-101. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AP-101 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 provides the best-basis inventory estimate, and Section 4.0 makes recommendations about safety status and additional sampling needs. The appendixes contain supporting data and information. This report supported the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-05. The characterization information in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. Appendix A provides historical information for tank 241-AP-101 including surveillance, information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a model based upon process knowledge. Appendix B summarizes recent sampling events and historical sampling information. Tank 241-AP-101 was grab sampled in November 1995, when the tank contained 2,790 kL (737 kgal) of waste. An addition1034al 1,438 kL (380 kgal) of waste was received from tank 241-AW-106 in transfers on March 1996 and January 1997. This waste was the product of the 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1. Characterization information for the additional 1,438 kL (380 kgal) was obtained using grab sampling data from tank 241-AW-106 and a slurry sample from the evaporator. Appendix C reports on the statistical analysis and numerical manipulation of data used in

  20. Review of liquid-tank interaction analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Based on a literature survey, various models of increasing sophistication and complexity are presented which might be used to assess the liquid tank interaction effects due to sloshing of contained high level radioactive liquid waste in storage tanks at the NFS site. In addition, the effects of liquid damping, tank bending modes, and nonlinearity of the sloshing liquid are discussed. The results of the survey indicate that due to the compexities encountered in adequately modeling the system, due to the approximations which must be made as regards the tank boundary conditions, and due to the assumptions which must be made regarding the liquid waste dynamic character, the liquid tank interaction at NFS can not be adequately theoretically modeled. It is therefore recommended that experimental scale model tests be performed to assess the effects of liquid tank interaction during seismic excitation of the NFS waste tanks

  1. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending February 28 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANLON, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 63 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 435.I (DOE-RL, July 1999, Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm tanks

  2. WASTE TANK SUMMARY REPORT FOR MONTH ENDING 01/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANLON, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28,2001, Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks

  3. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  4. Bisphenol-A induces expression of HOXC6, an estrogen-regulated homeobox-containing gene associated with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imran; Bhan, Arunoday; Ansari, Khairul I; Deb, Paromita; Bobzean, Samara A M; Perrotti, Linda I; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2015-06-01

    HOXC6 is a homeobox-containing gene associated with mammary gland development and is overexpressed in variety of cancers including breast and prostate cancers. Here, we have examined the expression of HOXC6 in breast cancer tissue, investigated its transcriptional regulation via estradiol (E2) and bisphenol-A (BPA, an estrogenic endocrine disruptor) in vitro and in vivo. We observed that HOXC6 is differentially over-expressed in breast cancer tissue. E2 induces HOXC6 expression in cultured breast cancer cells and in mammary glands of Sprague Dawley rats. HOXC6 expression is also induced upon exposure to BPA both in vitro and in vivo. Estrogen-receptor-alpha (ERα) and ER-coregulators such as MLL-histone methylases are bound to the HOXC6 promoter upon exposure to E2 or BPA and that resulted in increased histone H3K4-trimethylation, histone acetylation, and recruitment of RNA polymerase II at the HOXC6 promoter. HOXC6 overexpression induces expression of tumor growth factors and facilitates growth 3D-colony formation, indicating its potential roles in tumor growth. Our studies demonstrate that HOXC6, which is a critical player in mammary gland development, is upregulated in multiple cases of breast cancer, and is transcriptionally regulated by E2 and BPA, in vitro and in vivo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Tank 24-C-103 headspace flammability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Information regarding flammable vapors, gases, and aerosols is presented and interpreted to help resolve the tank 241-C-103 headspace flammability issue. Analyses of recent vapor and liquid samples, as well as visual inspections of the tank headspace, are discussed in the context of tank dynamics. Concern that the headspace of tank 241-C-103 may contain a flammable mixture of organic vapors and an aerosol of combustible organic liquid droplets arises from the presence of a layer of organic liquid in the tank. This organic liquid is believed to have originated in the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process, having been stored initially in tank 241-C-102 and apparently transferred to tank 241-C-103 in 1975 (Carothers 1988). Analyses of samples of the organic liquid collected in 1991 and 1993 indicate that the primary constituents are tributyl phosphate (TBP) and several semivolatile hydrocarbons (Prentice 1991, Pool and Bean 1994). This is consistent with the premise that the organic waste came from the PUREX process, because the PUREX process used a solution of TBP in a diluent composed of the n-C 11 H 24 to n-C 15 H 32 normal paraffinic hydrocarbons (NPH)

  6. Steel corrosion in radioactive waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, Ricardo M.; Giordano, Celia M.; Saenz, E.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study is being conducted by CNEA and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America) to investigate the effects of tank waste chemistry on radioactive waste storage tank corrosion. Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks that contain a combination of salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide. The USDOE, Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site, has identified a need to conduct a laboratory study to better understand the effects of radioactive waste chemistry on the corrosion of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The USDOE science need (RL-WT079-S Double-Shell Tanks Corrosion Chemistry) called for a multi year effort to identify waste chemistries and temperatures within the double-shell tank (DST) operating limits for corrosion control and operating temperature range that may not provide the expected corrosion protection and to evaluate future operations for the conditions outside the existing corrosion database. Assessment of corrosion damage using simulated (non-radioactive) waste is being made of the double-shell tank wall carbon steel alloy. Evaluation of the influence of exposure time, and electrolyte composition and/or concentration is being also conducted. (author) [es

  7. Optogenetic inhibition of D1R containing nucleus accumbens neurons alters cocaine- mediated regulation of Tiam1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh eChandra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to psychostimulants results in structural and synaptic plasticity in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. These cellular adaptations arise from alterations in genes that are highly implicated in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, such as Tiam1. Previous studies have demonstrated a crucial role for dopamine receptor 1 (D1-containing striatal MSNs in mediating psychostimulant induced plasticity changes. These D1-MSNs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc positively regulate drug seeking, reward, and locomotor behavioral effects as well as the morphological adaptations of psychostimulant drugs. Here, we demonstrate that rats that actively self-administer cocaine display reduced levels of Tiam1 in the NAc. To further examine the cell type specific contribution to these changes in Tiam1 we used optogenetics to selectively manipulate NAc D1-MSNs or dopamine receptor 2 (D2 expressing MSNs. We find that repeated ChR2 activation of D1-MSNs but not D2-MSNs caused a down-regulation of Tiam1 levels similar to the effects of cocaine. Further, activation of D2-MSNs, which caused a late blunted cocaine-mediated locomotor behavioral response, did not alter Tiam1 levels. We then examined the contribution of D1-MSNs to the cocaine-mediated decrease of Tiam1. Using the light activated chloride pump, eNpHR3.0, we selectively inhibited D1-MSNs during cocaine exposure, which resulted in a behavioral blockade of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Moreover, inhibiting these NAc D1-MSNs during cocaine exposure reversed the down-regulation of Tiam1 gene expression and protein levels. These data demonstrate that altering activity in specific neural circuits with optogenetics can impact the underlying molecular substrates of psychostimulant mediated behavior and function.

  8. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. These tanks are defined as Category D tanks because they are existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues (i.e., contents after tank has been emptied) and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  9. Analysis of SRP waste streams for waste tank certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) will apply for certification from the State of South Carolina to operate the SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The permit application will be submitted as a RCRA Part B, Volume 16, entitled ''RCRA Part B Application For the F and H-Area Radioactive Waste Farm.'' RCRA regulations require that influent and effluent streams of hazardous waste sites be characterized to obtain an operating permit. The Waste Management Technology Department requested ADD to determine 21 components (including pH and weight percent solids) in the current influent streams to SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The analyses will be used to supplement existing data on the composition of High-Level Waste. Effluent streams, which will feed Saltstone and the DWPF, will be analyzed when they are produced. This report contains the data obtained from analyzing key influent streams to SRP High-Level Waste Tanks. The precision of the data and the analytical methods that were used are also discussed

  10. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-C-109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1997-05-23

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-C-109. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241 C-109 waste; and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices.

  11. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-C-109

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-C-109. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241 C-109 waste; and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices

  12. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System's tank waste retrieval Program

  13. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for SY-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-08-12

    The purpose of this historical characterization document is to present the synthesized summaries of the historical records concerning the physical characteristics, radiological, and chemical composition of mixed wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks and the physical condition of these tanks. The double-shell tanks are located on the United States Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, approximately 25 miles northwest or Richland, Washington. The document will be used to assist in characterizing the waste in the tanks in conjunction with the current program of sampling and analyzing the tank wastes. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed computer models that used the historical data to attempt to characterize the wastes and to generate estimates of each tank`s inventory. A historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that could be critical to characterization and post characterization activities. This document was developed by reviewing the operating plant process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical data from numerous resources. These resources were generated by numerous contractors from 1945 to the present. Waste characterization, the process of describing the character or quality of a waste, is required by Federal law (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA]) and state law (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations). Characterizing the waste is necessary to determine methods to safely retrieve, transport, and/or treat the wastes.

  14. Tank waste remediation system: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Dunford, G.L.; Honeyman, J.O.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, contains the largest amount and the most diverse collection of highly radioactive waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at the Hanford Site in large, underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 217,000 M 3 (57 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers, and stored in water basins. The Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the US Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, significant progress has been made in resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal

  15. Analysis of ICPP tank farm infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, B.T.

    1993-10-01

    This report addresses water seeping into underground vaults which contain high-level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tanks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Each of the vaults contains from one to three sumps. The original purpose of the sumps was to serve as a backup leak detection system for release of HLLW from the storage tanks. However, water seeps into most of the vaults, filling the sumps, and defeating their purpose as a leak detection system. Leak detection for the HLLW storage tanks is based on measuring the level of liquid inside the tank. The source of water leaking into the vaults was raised as a concern by the State of Idaho INEL Oversight Group because this source could also be leaching contaminants released to soil in the vicinity of the tank farm and transporting contaminants to the aquifer. This report evaluates information concerning patterns of seepage into vault sumps, the chemistry of water in sumps, and water balances for the tank farm to determine the sources of water seeping into the vaults

  16. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  17. Fuel storage tanks at FAA facilities : Order 1050.15A : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-30

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has over 4,000 fuel storage tanks (FST) in its inventory. Most of these FSTs are underground storage tanks (UST) that contain fuel for emergency backup generators providing secondary power to air navigational...

  18. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  19. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  20. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  1. Ferrocyanide Safety Program rationale for removing six tanks from the safety watch list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsheim, G.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents an in-depth study of single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes. Topics include: safety assessments, tank histories, supportive documentation about interim stabilization and planned remedial activities

  2. Tank 10H Saltcake Core Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-01-01

    In support of Low-Curie Salt (LCS) process validation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) has undertaken a program of tank characterization, including salt sampling. As part of this initiative, they sampled the surface and subsurface of Tank 10H saltcake using a series of three 12-inch long sample tubes. These tubes each contain 1-foot long segments of the saltcake from one location, representing the top three feet of saltcake. The primary objective of the characterization that will be useful to the selection and processing of the next waste tanks. Most important is the determination of the Cs-137 concentration and liquid retention properties of Tank 10H saltcake to confirm acceptability of processing. Additional chemical analyses are performed to provide information on salt elemental, ionic, and radiological composition to aid in assessment of the suitability of processing drained and dissolved material and in refining the information in the waste characterization system (WCS)

  3. Sloshing analysis of viscous liquid storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uras, R.Z.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of viscosity on the sloshing response of tanks containing viscous liquids is studied using the in-house finite element computer code, FLUSTR-ANL. Two different tank sizes each filled at two levels, are modeled, and their dynamic responses under harmonic and seismic ground motions are simulated. The results are presented in terms of the wave height, and pressures at selected nodes and elements in the finite element mesh. The viscosity manifests itself as a damping effect, reducing the amplitudes. Under harmonic excitation, the dynamic response reaches the steady-state faster as the viscosity value becomes larger. The fundamental sloshing frequency for each study case stays virtually unaffected by an increase in viscosity. For the small tank case, a 5% difference is observed in the fundamental frequency of the smallest (1 cP) and the highest (1000 cP) viscosity cases considered in this study. The fundamental frequencies of the large tank are even less sensitive

  4. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  5. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    In August 1992, Single-Shell Tank 241-T-104 was sampled to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (Ecology, 1991). This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also addresses expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background tank information. The purpose of this report is to describe and characterize the waste in Single-Shall Tank 241-T-104 (hereafter, Tank 241-T-104) based on information given from various sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the waste in Tank 241-T-104, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a useful format for making management and technical decisions concerning this waste tank. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are given based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  6. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-S-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    In July and August 1992, Single-Shell Tank 241-S-104 was sampled as part of the overall characterization effort directed by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Sampling was also performed to determine proper handling of the waste, to address corrosivity and compatibility issues, and to comply with requirements of the Washington Administrative Code. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics. It also presents expected concentration and bulk inventory data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and background historical and surveillance tank information. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding operational safety. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics the waste in Single-Shell Tank 241-S-104 (hereafter, Tank 241-S-104) based on information obtained from a variety of sources. This report summarizes the available information regarding the chemical and physical properties of the waste in Tank 241-S-104, and using the historical information to place the analytical data in context, arranges this information in a format useful for making management and technical decisions concerning waste tank safety and disposal issues. In addition, conclusions and recommendations are presented based on safety issues and further characterization needs

  7. Inhibitor efficiency in long-time protection of steel tanks for the chemical surface preparation against local corrosion by process solutions containing hydrochloric acid; Inhibitorwirksamkeit beim Langzeitschutz von Stahlbehaeltern fuer die chemische Oberflaechenvorbereitung gegen oertliche Korrosion durch salzsaeurehaltige Prozessloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieglitz, U.; Schulz, W.D. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz Dresden GmbH, Gostritzer Str. 61-63, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The efficiency of prevailing acid inhibitors is examined by age hardening heavy tank-steel plates in technically usual hot-galvanizing solutions for 1000 hours. With acid inhibitors local corrosion emerged as shallow pit formation first and foremost in hydrochlorid acid pickles (20 g/l HCl) at ambient temperature as well as in cleaners containing hydrochloric acid (10-30 g/l HCl) at 40 C when other conditions also applied. Above all, local corrosion was produced if the inhibitor concentration became too low (0.2 g/l) in connection with a minimum hydrochloric acid concentration (10-30 g/l). However, oxidizing agents like iron(III)-ions (5-10 g/l), atmospheric oxygen and free chlorine (100-1000 mg/l) lead to local corrosion, too. Local corrosion did not emerge in rinse baths (2-10 g/l HCl) and fluxing material solutions of zinc chloride and ammonium chloride (pH value: 2.0-5.5). Here uniform corrosion developed. Acid inhibitors turned out to be very effective against uniform corrosion in the examined long-time period (inhibiting values up to 99%). (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Wirksamkeit handelsueblicher Saeureinhibitoren wird durch eine Auslagerung von Grobblechen aus Behaelterstahl ueber 1000 Stunden in technisch gebraeuchlichen Loesungen der Feuerverzinkung untersucht. Oertliche Korrosion ist als Muldenkorrosion in Gegenwart von Saeureinhibitoren vor allem in Salzsaeurebeizen (20 g/l HCl) bei Raumtemperatur und in salzsaeurehaltigen Reinigern (10-30 g/l HCl) bei 40 C aufgetreten, wenn Zusatzbedingungen erfuellt sind. Oertliche Korrosion wird vorwiegend durch eine Unterschreitung der Inhibitorkonzentration (0,2 g/l) in Verbindung mit einer minimalen Salzsaeurekonzentration (10-30 g/l) ausgeloest. Aber auch Oxidationsmittel wie Eisen(III)-Ionen (5-10 g/l), Luftsauerstoff und freies Chlor (100-1000 mg/l) fuehren zu oertlicher Korrosion. In Spuelbaedern (2-10 g/l HCl) und Flussmittelloesungen aus Zinkchlorid und Ammoniumchlorid (p

  8. Analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document is the first part of a three-part report describing the analysis and characterization of double shell tank 241-AP-108 which is located at the Hanford Reservation.This document is the analytical laboratory data package entitled 'Analysis and Characterization of Double Shell Tank 241-AP-108' which contains a case sampling history, the sampling protocols, the analytical procedures, sampling and analysis quality assurance and quality control measures, and chemical analysis results for samples obtained from the tank

  9. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  10. Interim criteria for Organic Watch List tanks at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, S.; Turner, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This document establishes interim criteria for identifying single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that contain organic chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salts in potentially hazardous concentrations. These tanks are designated as ''organic Watch List tanks.'' Watch List tanks are radioactive waste storage tanks that have the potential for release of high-level waste as a result of uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure. Organic Watch List tanks are those Watch List tanks that contain relatively high concentrations of organic chemicals. Because of the potential for release of high-level waste resulting from uncontrolled increases in temperature or pressure, the organic Watch List tanks (collectively) constitute a Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank ''safety issue.''

  11. Epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 expression and regulation in uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Erica E; Chibber, Shani; Wu, Ju; Siegersma, Kendra; Kim, Julie; Bulun, Serdar

    2016-04-01

    To determine the presence, differential expression, and regulation of epidermal growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) in uterine leiomyomas. Laboratory in vivo and in vitro study with the use of human leiomyoma and myometrial tissue and primary cells. Academic medical center. Leiomyoma and myometrial tissue samples and cultured cells. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. Fold-change difference between EFEMP1 and fibulin-3 expression in leiomyoma tissue and cells compared with matched myometrial samples, and fold-change difference in EFEMP1 expression with 5-Aza-dC treatment. In vivo, EFEMP1 expression was 3.19-fold higher in myometrial tissue than in leiomyoma tissue. EFEMP1 expression in vitro was 5.03-fold higher in myometrial cells than in leiomyoma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining of tissue and cells confirmed similar findings in protein expression. Treatment of leiomyoma cells with 5-Aza-dC resulted in increased expression of EFEMP1 in vitro. The EFEMP1 gene and its protein product, fibulin-3, are both significantly down-regulated in leiomyoma compared with myometrium when studied both in vivo and in vitro. The increase in EFEMP1 expression in leiomyoma cells with 5-Aza-dC treatment suggest that differential methylation is responsible, in part, for the differences seen in gene expression. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decontamination Study for Mixed Waste Storage Tanks RCRA Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaphart, D.M.; Reed, S.R.; Rankin, W.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to close six underground tanks storing mixed waste under RCRA regulations. In support of this closure effort, a study was performed to determine the optimal method of decontaminating these tanks to meet the closure requirements. Items consaidered in the evaluation of the decontamination methods included effectiveness, compatibility with existing waste residues, possible cleaning solution disposal methods, and cost

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING BISPHOSPHONATES IN THE REGULATION OF MINERAL METABOLISM DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH ALIMENTARY OSTEOPOROSIS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komisarenko S. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates synthesized as promising substances for correction of mineral metabolism in osteoporosis. The study was carried out on a model of alimentary osteoporosis that was characterized by hypocalcaemia, hypophosphatemia, decreased 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 content in blood serum and severe bone tissue demineralization (reduced ash content and mineral components. It was found that synthesized novel nitrogen bisphosphonates (pyrazole-containing analogues, like reference drugs — metylene bisphosphonate (disodium salt of metylene bisphosphonic acid and alendronate (4-amino-1-hidroxybutyliden bisphosphonate, inhibit with the different efficiency demineralization of the bone tissue and increase the mineral metabolism in rats with alimentary (nutritional osteoporosis that was assessed by the marker parameters of bone formation. In particular, drug administration (bisphosphonates І-12, І-40, І-42 resulted in elevation of calcium and phosphate levels and decreased the total activity of alkaline phosphatase and its isoenzymes in blood serum. The ash content and the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the ash of tibia and femur bones were shown to be markedly elevated. Bisphosphonate І-12 has shown more profound antiresorbtive activity and ability to correct mineral metabolism in alimentary osteoporosis, including such of reference drugs. It was found a significant decrease of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 content in the serum that is considered as a profound vitamin D3 deficiency associated with nutritional osteoporosis. As it was not compensated by bisphosphonates, we suggest that further investigations should be directed to the combined use of both: bisphosphonates as inhibitors of osteoclast activity that diminish bone resorption and vitamin D3 as a key regulator of bone remodeling process and osteosynthesis activator.

  14. The N-terminal tail of hERG contains an amphipathic α-helix that regulates channel deactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Ann Ng

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of the human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG K+ channel is critical for the slow deactivation kinetics of the channel. However, the mechanism(s by which the N-terminal domain regulates deactivation remains to be determined. Here we show that the solution NMR structure of the N-terminal 135 residues of hERG contains a previously described Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS domain (residues 26-135 as well as an amphipathic α-helix (residues 13-23 and an initial unstructured segment (residues 2-9. Deletion of residues 2-25, only the unstructured segment (residues 2-9 or replacement of the α-helix with a flexible linker all result in enhanced rates of deactivation. Thus, both the initial flexible segment and the α-helix are required but neither is sufficient to confer slow deactivation kinetics. Alanine scanning mutagenesis identified R5 and G6 in the initial flexible segment as critical for slow deactivation. Alanine mutants in the helical region had less dramatic phenotypes. We propose that the PAS domain is bound close to the central core of the channel and that the N-terminal α-helix ensures that the flexible tail is correctly orientated for interaction with the activation gating machinery to stabilize the open state of the channel.

  15. Tank 241-C-105 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-105

  16. Tank 241-BY-106 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-106

  17. Tank 241-AX-104 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyanarayana, P.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-104

  18. Tank 241-AX-102 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of auger samples from tank 241-AX-102

  19. Tank 241-C-101 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-C-101

  20. Tank 241-AP-107 tank characterization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, and PNL 325 Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples from tank 241-AP-107

  1. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack

  2. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  3. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AW-105. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AW-105 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone Characterization. information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. While only the results of a recent sampling event will be used to fulfill the requirements of the data quality objectives (DQOs), other information can be used to support or question conclusions derived from these results. Historical information for tank 241-AW-105 is provided in Appendix A, including surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. The recent sampling event listed, as well as pertinent sample data obtained before 1996, are summarized in Appendix B along with the sampling results. The results of the 1996 grab sampling event satisfied the data requirements specified in the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for this tank. In addition, the tank headspace flammability was measured, which addresses

  4. 27 CFR 24.168 - Identification of tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.168 Identification of tanks. (a) General. Each tank, barrel, puncheon, or similar bulk container, used to ferment wine or used to process or store wine, spirits, or wine making materials will have the contents marked and will be marked as...

  5. Maintaining of the demineralized water quality in storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochmueller, K.; Wandelt, E.

    1981-03-01

    Two processes for maintaining the quality of the mineralized water in storage tanks are considered. A slight overpressure of nitrogen can be created above the water, or the air flowing in the tank can be cleaned by passing it through a soda-containing lime filter [fr

  6. Radiological containment selection, design, and specification guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides guidance to Tank Waste Remediation Systems personnel in determining what containment is appropriate for work activities, what containments are available, general applications of each, design criteria, and other information needed to make informed decisions concerning containment application

  7. Resolution of Hanford tanks organic complexant safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirch, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Site tanks have been assessed for organic complexant reaction hazards. The results have shown that most tanks contain insufficient concentrations of TOC to support a propagating reaction. It has also been shown that those tanks where the TOC concentration approaches levels of concern, degradation of the organic complexants to less energetic compounds has occurred. The results of the investigations have been documented. The residual organic complexants in the Hanford Site waste tanks do not present a safety concern for long-term storage

  8. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the priorities, logic, work breakdown structure (WBS), task descriptions, and program milestones required for the resolution of tank vapor issues associated with the single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST). The primary objective of this plan is to determine whether a health (personnel exposure) and/or safety (flammability) hazard exists. This plan is focused upon one waste tank, 241-C-103, but contains all elements required to bring the vapor issues to resolution

  9. Building 310 retention tanks characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholeen, C.M.; Geraghty, D.C.

    1996-12-01

    The Health Physics Section of ANL performed a characterization of the Building 310 Service Floor Retention Tank Facility during the months of July and August, 1996. The characterization included measurements for radioactivity, air sampling for airborne particles and sampling to determine the presence and quantity of hazardous materials requiring remediation. Copies of previous lead and asbestos sampling information was obtained from ESH-IH. The facility consists of ten retention tanks located in rooms, A-062A, A-050A, A-038A, A-026A, and an entry room A-068A which contained miscellaneous pumps and other scrap material. Significant contamination was found in each room except room A-068A which had two contaminated spots on the floor and a discarded contaminated pump. Room A-062A: This room had the highest radiation background. Therefore, beta readings reflected the background readings. The floor, west wall, and the exterior of tank No. 1 had areas of alpha contamination. The piping leading from the tank had elevated gamma readings. There were low levels of smearable contamination on the west wall-Room A-050A: Alpha and Beta contamination is wide spread on the floor, west wall and the lower portion of the north wall. An area near the electrical box on the west wall had alpha and beta loose contamination. The exterior of tank No. 4 also had contaminated areas. The grate in front of tank No. 4 was contaminated. The piping leading from tanks No. 2, 3, and 4 had elevated gamma readings. There were low levels of smearable contamination on tank No. 4 and on the tar paper that is glued to the floor

  10. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  11. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for SY-tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this historical characterization document is to present the synthesized summaries of the historical records concerning the physical characteristics, radiological, and chemical composition of mixed wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks and the physical condition of these tanks. The double-shell tanks are located on the United States Department of Energy's Hanford Site, approximately 25 miles northwest or Richland, Washington. The document will be used to assist in characterizing the waste in the tanks in conjunction with the current program of sampling and analyzing the tank wastes. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed computer models that used the historical data to attempt to characterize the wastes and to generate estimates of each tank's inventory. A historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that could be critical to characterization and post characterization activities. This document was developed by reviewing the operating plant process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical data from numerous resources. These resources were generated by numerous contractors from 1945 to the present. Waste characterization, the process of describing the character or quality of a waste, is required by Federal law (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act CRA and state law (Washington Administrative Code AC 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations). Characterizing the waste is necessary to determine methods to safely retrieve, transport, and/or treat the wastes

  12. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall

  13. Enhanced sludge reduction in septic tanks by increasing temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pussayanavin, Tatchai; Koottatep, Thammarat; Eamrat, Rawintra; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2015-01-01

    Septic tanks in most developing countries are constructed without drainage trenches or leaching fields to treat toilet wastewater and /or grey water. Due to the short hydraulic retention time, effluents of these septic tanks are still highly polluted, and there is usually high accumulation of septic tank sludge or septage containing high levels of organics and pathogens that requires frequent desludging and subsequent treatment. This study aimed to reduce sludge accumulation in septic tanks by increasing temperatures of the septic tank content. An experimental study employing two laboratory-scale septic tanks fed with diluted septage and operating at temperatures of 40 and 30°C was conducted. At steady-state conditions, there were more methanogenic activities occurring in the sludge layer of the septic tank operating at the temperature of 40°C, resulting in less total volatile solids (TVS) or sludge accumulation and more methane (CH4) production than in the unit operating at 30°C. Molecular analysis found more abundance and diversity of methanogenic microorganisms in the septic tank sludge operating at 40°C than at 30°C. The reduced TVS accumulation in the 40°C septic tank would lengthen the period of septage removal, resulting in a cost-saving in desluging and septage treatment. Cost-benefit analysis of increasing temperatures in septic tanks was discussed.

  14. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation..., SFAR No. 88 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation... certificates that may affect the airplane fuel tank system, for turbine-powered transport category airplanes...

  16. Differential splicing of the apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC regulates inflammasomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojanasakul Yon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The apoptotic speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC is the essential adaptor protein for caspase 1 mediated interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18 processing in inflammasomes. It bridges activated Nod like receptors (NLRs, which are a family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, with caspase 1, resulting in caspase 1 activation and subsequent processing of caspase 1 substrates. Hence, macrophages from ASC deficient mice are impaired in their ability to produce bioactive IL-1β. Furthermore, we recently showed that ASC translocates from the nucleus to the cytosol in response to inflammatory stimulation in order to promote an inflammasome response, which triggers IL-1β processing and secretion. However, the precise regulation of inflammasomes at the level of ASC is still not completely understood. In this study we identified and characterized three novel ASC isoforms for their ability to function as an inflammasome adaptor. Methods To establish the ability of ASC and ASC isoforms as functional inflammasome adaptors, IL-1β processing and secretion was investigated by ELISA in inflammasome reconstitution assays, stable expression in THP-1 and J774A1 cells, and by restoring the lack of endogenous ASC in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. In addition, the localization of ASC and ASC isoforms was determined by immunofluorescence staining. Results The three novel ASC isoforms, ASC-b, ASC-c and ASC-d display unique and distinct capabilities to each other and to full length ASC in respect to their function as an inflammasome adaptor, with one of the isoforms even showing an inhibitory effect. Consistently, only the activating isoforms of ASC, ASC and ASC-b, co-localized with NLRP3 and caspase 1, while the inhibitory isoform ASC-c, co-localized only with caspase 1, but not with NLRP3. ASC-d did not co-localize with NLRP3 or with caspase 1 and consistently lacked the ability to function as an

  17. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  18. Testing underground tanks for leak tightness at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.K.; Sites, R.L.; Sledge, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of tank systems are present at the Livermore Site: tanks and associated piping for the storage of fuel (forty-three systems), and tanks or sumps and associated piping for the retention of potentially contaminated wastewater (forty systems). The fuel systems were tested using commercially available test methods: Petro-Tite, Hunter Leak Lokator, Ezy-Chek, and Associated Environmental Systems (A.E.S.). In contrast to fuel tank systems, wastewater systems have containers that are predominantly open at the top and not readily testable. Therefore, a project to test and evaluate all available testing methods was initiated and completed. The commercial method Tank Auditor was determined to be appropriate for testing open-top tanks and sumps and this was the method used to test the majority of the open-top containers. Of the 81 tanks tested, 61 were found to be leak tight, 9 were shown to have leaks, and 11 yielded inconclusive results. Two tanks have not yet been tested because of operational constraints; they are sheduled to be tested within the next two months. Schedules are being developed for the retesting of tanks and for remedial actions

  19. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel

  20. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids

  1. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  2. Tank Characterization report for single-shell tank 241-SX-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILMARTH, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report. This report and its appendices serve as the tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-SX-103. The objectives of this report are (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-SX-103 waste, and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, and Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendices contain supporting data and information. This report supports the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1997), Milestone M-44-15c, change request M-44-97-03 to ''issue characterization deliverables consistent with the Waste Information Requirements Document developed for fiscal year 1999'' (Adams et al. 1998)

  3. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-02-24

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report. This report and its appendices serve as the tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-103. The objectives of this report are (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-U-103 waste and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendices contain supporting data and information. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1997), Milestone M-44-15b, change request M-44-97-03 to ''issue characterization deliverables consistent with Waste Information Requirements Documents developed for 1998.''

  4. SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 and focal adhesion kinase protein interactions regulate pulmonary endothelium barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichger, Havovi; Braza, Julie; Duong, Huetran; Harrington, Elizabeth O

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced protein tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with changes in vascular permeability through formation and dissolution of adherens junctions and regulation of stress fiber formation. Inhibition of the protein tyrosine phosphorylase SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) increases tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin and β-catenin, resulting in disruption of the endothelial monolayer and edema formation in the pulmonary endothelium. Vascular permeability is a hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI); thus, enhanced SHP2 activity offers potential therapeutic value for the pulmonary vasculature in diseases such as ALI, but this has not been characterized. To assess whether SHP2 activity mediates protection against edema in the endothelium, we assessed the effect of molecular activation of SHP2 on lung endothelial barrier function in response to the edemagenic agents LPS and thrombin. Both LPS and thrombin reduced SHP2 activity, correlated with decreased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation (Y(397) and Y(925)) and diminished SHP2 protein-protein associations with FAK. Overexpression of constitutively active SHP2 (SHP2(D61A)) enhanced baseline endothelial monolayer resistance and completely blocked LPS- and thrombin-induced permeability in vitro and significantly blunted pulmonary edema formation induced by either endotoxin (LPS) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposure in vivo. Chemical inhibition of FAK decreased SHP2 protein-protein interactions with FAK concomitant with increased permeability; however, overexpression of SHP2(D61A) rescued the endothelium and maintained FAK activity and FAK-SHP2 protein interactions. Our data suggest that SHP2 activation offers the pulmonary endothelium protection against barrier permeability mediators downstream of the FAK signaling pathway. We postulate that further studies into the promotion of SHP2 activation in the pulmonary endothelium may offer a therapeutic approach for patients

  5. Tank farm potential ignition sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C. III.

    1996-01-01

    This document identifies equipment, instrumentation, and sensors that are located in-tank as well as ex-tank in areas that may have communication paths with the tank vapor space. For each item, and attempt is made to identify the potential for ignition of flammable vapors using a graded approach. The scope includes all 177 underground storage tanks

  6. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS IN TANK FARMS OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS DOCUMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGLIN, E J

    2003-06-23

    This report provides the technical basis for high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) for Hanford tank farm ventilation systems (sometimes known as heating, ventilation and air conditioning [HVAC]) to support limits defined in Process Engineering Operating Specification Documents (OSDs). This technical basis included a review of older technical basis and provides clarifications, as necessary, to technical basis limit revisions or justification. This document provides an updated technical basis for tank farm ventilation systems related to Operation Specification Documents (OSDs) for double-shell tanks (DSTs), single-shell tanks (SSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, and various other miscellaneous facilities.

  7. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    .... While the tank battalions recognize the importance and value of the scout platoon, they are restricted from employing scouts to their full potential due to the platoon's inflexible structure and limited capabilities...

  8. Tank waste treatment science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFemina, J.P.; Blanchard, D.L.; Bunker, B.C.; Colton, N.G.; Felmy, A.R.; Franz, J.A.; Liu, J.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site require that many technical and scientific principles be combined for effectively managing and disposing the variety of wastes currently stored in underground tanks. Based on these principles, pretreatment technologies are being studied and developed to separate waste components and enable the most suitable treatment methods to be selected for final disposal of these wastes. The Tank Waste Treatment Science Task at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is addressing pretreatment technology development by investigating several aspects related to understanding and processing the tank contents. The experimental work includes evaluating the chemical and physical properties of the alkaline wastes, modeling sludge dissolution, and evaluating and designing ion exchange materials. This paper gives some examples of results of this work and shows how these results fit into the overall Hanford waste remediation activities. This work is part of series of projects being conducted for the Tank Waste Remediation System

  9. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  10. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  11. Improving the Tank Scout

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burton, R. L

    2006-01-01

    Within the Marine Corps' tank battalions is a unique asset that is often improperly employed and not well known within the other components of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF): the scout platoon...

  12. Modeling Propellant Tank Dynamics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of my work will be to develop accurate models of self-pressurizing propellant tanks for use in designing hybrid rockets. The first key goal is to...

  13. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Mike; Herbert, James E.; Scheele, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m 3 to 4921 m 3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and product lubricated canned

  14. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  15. Progress in evaluating the hazard of ferrocyanide waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, Harry; Cash, Robert J.; Postma, Arlin

    1992-01-01

    There are 177 high-level waste tanks on the Hanford site. Twenty-four single-shell tanks are identified as potential safety issues. These tanks contain quantities of ferrocyanide, nitrate, and nitrite salts that potentially could explode under certain conditions. Efforts were initiated in September 1990 to determine the reactive properties of the ferrocyanide waste and to define the criteria necessary to ensure tank safety until mitigation or remediation actions, if required, could be implemented. This paper describes the results of recent chemical and physical studies on synthetic ferrocyanide waste mixtures. Data obtained from monitoring, tank behavior modeling, and research studies on waste have provided sufficient understanding of the tank behavior. The Waste Tank Safety Program is exploring whether the waste in many of the ferrocyanide tanks actually represents an unreviewed safety question. The General Accounting Office (GAO) in October 1990 suggested that ferrocyanide tank accident scenarios exceed the bounds of the Hanford Environmental Impact Statement. Using the same assumptions Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff confirmed the consistency of the GAO report calculations. The hypothetical accident scenario in the GAO report, and in the EIS, are based on several assumptions that may, or may not reflect actual tank conditions. The Ferrocyanide Stabilization Program at Westinghouse Hanford (summarized in this paper) will provide updated and new data using scientific research with synthetic wastes and characterization of actual tank samples. This new information will replace the assumptions on tank waste chemical and physical properties allowing an improved recalculation of current safety and future risk associated with these tanks. (author)

  16. Progress in evaluating the hazards of ferrocyanide waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, H.; Cash, R.; Postma, A.

    1992-03-01

    There are 177 high-level waste tanks on the Hanford site. Twenty-four single-shell tanks are identified as potential safety issues. These tanks contain quantities of ferrocyanide, nitrate, and nitrite salts that potentially could explode under certain conditions. Efforts were initiated in September 1990 to determine the reactive properties of the ferrocyanide waste and to define the criteria necessary to ensure tank safety until mitigation or remediation actions, if required, could be implemented. This paper describes the results of recent chemical and physical studies on synthetic ferrocyanide waste mixtures. Data obtained from monitoring, tank behavior modeling, and research studies on waste have provided sufficient understanding of the tank behavior. The Waste Tank Safety Program is exploring to determine whether the waste in many of the ferrocyanide tanks actually represents an unreviewed safety question. The General Accounting Office (GAO) in October 1990 (1) suggested that ferrocyanide-tanks accident scenarios exceed the bounds of the Hanford Environmental Impact Statement (2). Using the same assumptions Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff confirmed the consistency of the GAO report calculations. The hypothetical accident scenario in the GAO report, and in the EIS, are based on several assumptions that may, or may not reflect actual tank conditions. The Ferrocyanide Stabilization Program at Westinghouse Hanford (summarized in this paper) will provide updated and new data using scientific research with synthetic and actual waste tank characterization. This new information will replace the assumptions on tank waste chemical and physical properties allowing an improved recalculation of current safety and future risk associated with these tanks

  17. CD3 gamma contains a phosphoserine-dependent di-leucine motif involved in down-regulation of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Hou, X; Wegener, A M

    1994-01-01

    -regulation of the TCR. Furthermore, analysis of a series of CD3 gamma truncation mutants indicated that in addition to S126 phosphorylation a motif C-terminal of S126 was required for TCR down-regulation. Point mutation analyses confirmed this observation and demonstrated that a membrane-proximal di-leucine motif (L131......, indicating that the TCR was down-regulated by endocytosis via clathrin coated pits. Based on the present results and previously published observations on intracellular receptor sorting, a general model for intracellular sorting of receptors containing di-leucine- or tyrosine-based motifs is proposed....

  18. Exposure of a liquefied gas container to an external fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Phani K.

    2005-01-01

    In liquefied gas, bulk-storage facilities and plants, the separation distances between storage tanks and between a tank and a line of adjoining property that can be built are governed by local regulations and/or codes (e.g. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 58, 2004). Separation distance requirements have been in the NFPA 58 Code for over 60 years; however, no scientific foundations (either theoretical or experimental) are available for the specified distances. Even though the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry has operated safely over the years, there is a question as to whether the code-specified distances provide sufficient safety to LPG-storage tanks, when they are exposed to large external fires. A radiation heat-transfer-based model is presented in this paper. The temporal variation of the vapor-wetted tank-wall temperature is calculated when exposed to thermal radiation from an external, non-impinging, large, 30.5 m (100 ft) diameter, highly radiative, hydrocarbon fuel (pool) fire located at a specified distance. Structural steel wall of a pressurized, liquefied gas container (such as the ASME LP-Gas tank) begins to lose its strength, when the wall temperature approaches a critical temperature, 810 K (1000 deg F). LP-Gas tank walls reaching close to this temperature will be a cause for major concern because of increased potential for tank failure, which could result in catastrophic consequences. Results from the model for exposure of different size ASME (LP-Gas) containers to a hydrocarbon pool fire of 30.5 m (100 ft) in diameter, located with its base edge at the separation distances specified by NFPA 58 [NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, Table 6.3.1, 2004 ed., National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 2004] indicate that the vapor-wetted wall temperature of the containers never reach the critical temperature under common wind conditions (0, 5 and 10 m/s), with the flame tilting towards the tank. This indicates that the separation

  19. 111-B Metal Examination Facility Concrete Tanks Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encke, D.B.

    1997-08-01

    The 111-B Metal Examination Facility was a single-story, wood frame 'L'-shaped building built on a concrete floor slab. The facility served as a fuel failure inspection facility. Irradiated fuel pieces were stored and examined in two below grade concrete storage tanks filled with water. The tanks have been filled with grout to stabilize the contamination they contained, and overall dimensions are 5 ft 9 in. (1.5 m 22.8 cm ) wide, 9 ft 1 in. (2.7 m 2.54 cm ) deep, and 10 ft 8 in. (3.0 m 20.32 cm) long, and are estimated to weigh 39 tons. The tanks were used to store and examine failed fuel rods, using water as a radiation shield. The tanks were lined with stainless steel; however, drawings show the liner has been removed from at least one tank (south tank) and was partially filled with grout. The south tank was used to contain the Sample Storage Facility, a multi-level metal storage rack for failed nuclear fuel rods (shown in drawings H-1-2889 and -2890). Both tanks were completely grouted sometime before decontamination and demolition (D ampersand D) of the above ground facility in 1984. The 111-B Metal Examination Facility contained two concrete tanks located below floor level for storage and examination of failed fuel. The tanks were filled with concrete as part of decommissioning the facility prior to 1983 (see Appendix A for description of previous work). Funding for removal and disposal of the tanks ran out before they could be properly disposed

  20. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter. ...

  1. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel tanks...

  2. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tanks containing a mixture of anhydrous hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine (M86 fuel) and designed...

  3. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  4. Analysis of Tank PMD Rewetting Following Thrust Resettling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, M. M.; Sala, M. A.; Collicott, S. H.; Rame, Enrique (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations have successfully demonstrated closed-form analytical solutions of spontaneous capillary flows in idealized cylindrical containers with interior corners. In this report, the theory is extended and applied to complex containers modeling spacecraft fuel tanks employing propellant management devices (PMDs). The specific problem investigated is one of spontaneous rewetting of a typical partially filled liquid fuel/cryogen tank with PMD after thrust resettling. The transients of this flow impact the logistics of orbital maneuvers and potentially tank thermal control. The general procedure to compute the initial condition (mean radius of curvature for the interface) for the closed-form transient flows is first outlined then solved for several 'complex' cylindrical tanks exhibiting symmetry. The utility and limitations of the technique as a design tool are discussed in a summary, which also highlights comparisons with NASA flight data of a model propellant tank with PMD.

  5. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 x 10 5 m 3 of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 x 10 18 Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 137 Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 x 10 4 m 3 of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 x 10 18 Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes

  6. Effects of aqueous-soluble organic compounds on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste part I: Distribution of Sr, Cs, and Tc onto 18 absorbers from an irradiated, organic-containing leachate simulant for Hanford Tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at U.S. Department of Energy facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions. In this investigation, we measured the effect of some aqueous-soluble organic compounds on the sorption of strontium, cesium, and technetium onto 18 absorbers that offer high sorption of strontium from organic-free solutions. For our test solution we used a leachate from a simulated slurry for Hanford Tank 101-SY that initially contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and then was gamma-irradiated to 34 Mrads. We measured distribution coefficients (Kds) for each element/absorber combination for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. To facilitate comparisons, we include Kd values for these same element/absorber combinations from three organic-free simulant solutions. The Kd values for strontium sorption from the simulant that contained the degraded organics usually decreased by large factors, whereas the Kd values for cesium and technetium sorption were relatively unaffected

  7. Leak detection for underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.; Young, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 29, 1992. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on leak detection for underground storage tanks that leaked fuel. A widespread concern was protection of groundwater supplies from these leaking tanks. In some cases, the papers report on research that was conducted two or three years ago but has never been adequately directed to the underground storage tank leak-detection audience. In other cases, the papers report on the latest leak-detection research. The symposium was divided into four sessions that were entitled: Internal Monitoring; External Monitoring; Regulations and Standards; and Site and Risk Evaluation. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  8. MHI - Westinghouse joint FBR tank plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H.; Vijuk, R.M.; Aoki, I.; Messhil, T.

    1988-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division have combined their experience and capabilities to design a tank type fast breeder reactor plant. This tank type reactor has been refined and improved during the last three years to better compete in cost, safety, and operation with alternative power plants. This Mitsubishi/Westinghouse joint design offers economic advantages due to the use of steel structures, modular construction, nitrogen cells for the intermediate loops, reactor cavity air cooling and the use of the guard vessel as the containment vessel. Inherent characteristics in the reactor design provide protection to the public and the plant investment

  9. Double-shell tank system dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix contains the engineering design drawings for the double-shell tank system. Included are drawings of the electrical systems, structural members, piping systems, instrumentation and the many auxiliary systems. (JL)

  10. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program

  11. Integrity assessment plan for PNL 300 area radioactive hazardous waste tank system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, operates tank systems for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), that contain dangerous waste constituents as defined by Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040(18). Chapter 173-303-640(2) of the WAC requires the performance of integrity assessments for each existing tank system that treats or stores dangerous waste, except those operating under interim status with compliant secondary containment. This Integrity Assessment Plan (IAP) identifies all tasks that will be performed during the integrity assessment of the PNL-operated Radioactive Liquid Waste Systems (RLWS) associated with the 324 and 325 Buildings located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. It describes the inspections, tests, and analyses required to assess the integrity of the PNL RLWS (tanks, ancillary equipment, and secondary containment) and provides sufficient information for adequate budgeting and control of the assessment program. It also provides necessary information to permit the Independent, Qualified, Registered Professional Engineer (IQRPE) to approve the integrity assessment program.

  12. On the capacity-formula for pressure relief devices of tanks for dangerous goods; Die Kapazitaetsformel fuer Druckentlastungsvorrichtungen von Gefahrguttanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    Each tank-container respectively portable tank for multimodal purposes has to be closed and fitted with safety devices (pressure relief devices). Pressure relief devices have to meet essential requirements concerning their total delivery capacity in condition of complete engulfment of the tank in fire. The total capacity of these devices should be sufficient to limit the pressure in the tank in each case to its test pressure, maximally. The total delivery capacity has to be determined by applying a formula which had been developed in the USA and taken over later on into international and national regulations on the transport of dangerous goods. The derivation of this formula will be described and evaluated with regard to given facts related to general thermodynamics and fire test results. (orig.) [German] Wesentliche Anforderung an Sicherheitseinrichtungen (Druckentlastungsvorrichtungen) fuer Tanks und Tankcontainer im multimodalen Verkehr ist, dass diese Einrichtungen im Feuerfall eine Gesamtdurchflussmenge aufweisen muessen, die zumindest einen Druckanstieg ueber den Pruefdruck hinaus verhindert. Die Ermittlung der Gesamtdurchflussmenge erfolgt nach einer in den USA entwickelten, in internationale und nationale Verkehrsvorschriften uebernommenen Zahlenwertgleichung (Kapazitaetsformel). Die Herleitung dieser Zahlenwertgleichung sowohl aus allgemein thermodynamischen als auch empirischen Gegebenheiten wird beschrieben und bewertet. (orig.)

  13. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank

  14. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.S.; Kindinger, J.P.; Deremer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives results from the first comprehensive level-3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the Hanford tank farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM). At the HTF, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/saltcake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is ∼60 million gal, containing ∼200 million Ci of radioactivity

  15. Tank waste chemistry: A new understanding of waste aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babad, H.; Camaioni, D.M.; Lilga, M.A.; Samuels, W.D.; Strachan, D.M.

    1993-02-01

    There is concern about the risk of uncontrolled exothermic reactions(s) in Hanford Site waste tanks containing NO 3 minus /NO 2 minus based salts and/or metal hydroxide sludges in combination with organics or ferrocyanides. However, gradual oxidation of the waste in the tanks to less reactive species appears to have reduced the risk. In addition, wastes sampled to date contain sufficiently large quantities of water so that propagation reactions are highly unlikely. This report details an investigation into the risk of an uncontrolled exothermic reaction in Hanford Site high-activity water tanks

  16. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank`s contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates.

  17. Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely

  18. Integrity assessment of a storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Osorio Correa; Santos, Jose Henrique Gomes dos; Carvalho, Alexis Fernandes [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In the last internal inspection of a 5000 bbl freshwater storage tank located in a shipping terminal, widespread pitting corrosion was detected on the shell courses. In some of these pits, its depth was such that the remaining thickness was bellow the minimum thickness required according to the design code. Nevertheless, this approach is overly conservative since it does not consider the pits size, depth and spacing. Thanks to advances in stress analysis, new tools are available for the evaluation of damaged equipment widely employed in the oil industry such as pressure vessels, piping and storage tanks. In the present work, the authors present the integrity assessment performed on this tank using the Fitness for Service approach using the methods and procedures contained in the document API RP 579 (Fitness-for-service). (author)

  19. A summary description of the flammable gas tank safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.D.; Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    Radioactive liquid waste may produce hydrogen as result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. If the waste contains organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia may be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site in Washington State, are on a Flammable Gas Watch List. Some contain waste that produces and retains gases until large quantities of gas are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks nearly-filled to capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture could result. The most notable example of a Hanford waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Upon occasion waste stored in this tank has released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several, other Hanford waste tanks exhibit similar behavior although to a lesser magnitude. Because this behavior was hot adequately-addressed in safety analysis reports for the Hanford Tank Farms, an unreviewed safety question was declared, and in 1990 the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program was established to address this problem. The purposes of the program are a follows: (1) Provide safety documents to fill gaps in the safety analysis reports, and (2) Resolve the safety issue by acquiring knowledge about gas retention and release from radioactive liquid waste and developing mitigation technology. This document provides the general logic and work activities required to resolve the unreviewed safety question and the safety issue of flammable gas mixtures in radioactive liquid waste storage tanks

  20. Fuel tank tourism; Tanktourismus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, M.; Banfi, S.; Haan, P. de

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made of the extent of so-called 'tank tourism' in Switzerland. The report attempts to how much motor fuel is purchased in border-near filling stations by persons from the other side of the border as a result of price differences in the different countries. The two methods used to estimate the extent of tank tourism, an ex-post analysis and the analysis of filling station turnover, are explained. Only road-traffic is considered; tank tourism in the aviation area is not looked at in this study. The extent of tank tourism is estimated for petrol and diesel fuels. The individual figures produced by the two methods are compared and the difference between them discussed. The report also investigates the effect of changing prices on tank tourism and discusses the problem of estimating the figures for 'off-road' consumers such as tractors and construction machines.

  1. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  2. Modulation of brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression by jumonji domain-containing proteins ELF6 and REF6 in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaofei; Li, Li; Li, Lei; Guo, Michelle; Chory, Joanne; Yin, Yanhai

    2008-01-01

    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are of great importance for plant growth and development. BRs signal through a cell surface receptor kinase, BRI1, and a GSK3-like kinase, BIN2, to regulate the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which directly bind to target gene promoters to activate or repress gene expression and mediate BR responses. To understand how BES1 regulates target gene expression, we identified two BES1-interacting proteins, ELF6 (early flowering 6) and its ...

  3. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1998-06-18

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-105. The objectives of this report are (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-105 waste and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendices contain supporting data and information. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1997), Milestone M-44-15b, change request M-44-97-03, to ``issue characterization deliverables consistent with the waste information requirements documents developed for 1998``.

  4. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-U-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-U-112. The objectives of this report are (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-U-112 waste, and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendixes contain supporting data and information. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1997), Milestone M-44-15b, change request M-44-97-03 to issue characterization deliverables consistent with the Waste Information Requirements Document developed for 1998

  5. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-112. The objectives of this report are (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-112 waste and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendices contain supporting data and information. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1997), Milestone M-44-15b, change request M-44-97-03, to ''issue characterization deliverables consistent with the Waste Information Requirements Documents developed for 1998.''

  6. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-105. The objectives of this report are (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-105 waste and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendices contain supporting data and information. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1997), Milestone M-44-15b, change request M-44-97-03, to ''issue characterization deliverables consistent with the waste information requirements documents developed for 1998''

  7. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-TX-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FIELD, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize waste in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis and other available information about a tank are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-TX-104. The objectives of this report are (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-TX-104 waste, and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Section 2.0 summarizes the response to technical issues, Section 3.0 shows the best-basis inventory estimate, Section 4.0 makes recommendations about the safety status of the tank and additional sampling needs. The appendices contain supporting data and information. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1997), Milestone M-44-15c, change request M-44-97-03 to ''issue characterization deliverables consistent with the Waste Information Requirements Document developed for FY 1999'' (Adams et al. 1998)

  8. Failure analysis of buried tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Failure of a buried tank can be hazardous. Failure may be a leak through which product is lost from the tank; but also through which contamination can occur. Failures are epidemic -- because buried tanks are out of sight, but also because designers of buried tanks have adopted analyses developed for pressure tanks. So why do pressure tanks fail when they are buried? Most failures of buried tanks are really soil failures. Soil compresses, or slips, or liquefies. Soil is not only a load, it is a support without which the tank deforms. A high water table adds to the load on the tank. It also reduces the strength of the soil. Based on tests, structural analyses are proposed for empty tanks buried in soils of various quality, with the water table at various levels, and with internal vacuum. Failure may be collapse tank. Such collapse is a sudden, audible inversion of the cylinder when the sidefill soil slips. Failure may be flotation. Failure may be a leak. Most leaks are fractures in the welds in overlap seams at flat spots. Flat spots are caused by a hard bedding or a heavy surface wheel load. Because the tank wall is double thick at the overlap, shearing stress in the weld is increased. Other weld failures occur when an end plate shears down past a cylinder; or when the tank is supported only at its ends like a beam. These, and other, failures can be analyzed with justifiable accuracy using basic principles of mechanics of materials. 10 figs

  9. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  10. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  11. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  12. Components for containment enclosures. Part 4: Ventilation and gas-cleaning systems such as filters, traps, safety and regulation valves, control and protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    ISO 11933 consists of the following parts, under the general title Components for containment enclosures: Part 1: Glove/bag ports, bungs for glove/bag ports, enclosure rings and interchangeable units; Part 2: Gloves, welded bags, gaiters for remote-handling tongs and for manipulators; Part 3: Transfer systems such as plain doors, airlock chambers, double door transfer systems, leaktight connections for waste drums; Part 4: Ventilation and gas-cleaning systems such as filters, traps, safety and regulation valves, control and protection devices; Part 5: Penetrations for electrical and fluid circuits. This part of ISO 11933 specifies the design criteria and the characteristics of various components used for ventilation and gas-cleaning in containment enclosures. These components are either directly fixed to the containment enclosure wall, or used in the environment of a shielded or unshielded containment enclosure or line of such enclosures. They can be used alone or in conjunction with other mechanical components, including those specified in ISO 11933-1 and ISO 11933-3. This part of ISO 11933 is applicable to: filtering devices, including high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and iodine traps; safety valves and pressure regulators; systems ensuring the mechanical protection of containment enclosures; control and pressure-measurement devices

  13. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  14. Ozone destruction of Hanford Site tank waste organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-04-01

    Ozone processing is one of several technologies being developed to meet the intent of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy, Decision on the Programmatic Approach and Near-Term Actions for Management and Disposal of Hanford Tank Waste Decision Statement, dated December 20, 1991, which emphasizes the need to resolve tank safety issues by destroying or modifying the constituents (e.g., organics) that cause safety concerns. As a result, the major tank treatment objectives on the Hanford Site are to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanying flammable gas generation), which all potentially can react to evolve heat and gases. This report contains scoping test results of an alkaline ozone oxidation process to destroy organic compounds found in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks

  15. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 x 10 -4 events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 x 10 -1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 x 10 -1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual's lifetime radiation dose

  16. Bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagh, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark it has been put forward that the introduction of solar heating prepared tanks into the building regulation can cause increased nuisance with respect to bacterial growth in hot water for domestic use. The reason is that solar heating prepared tanks have a larger volume and another form of operation than traditional tanks. In this investigation the difference between bacterial growth in solar heating prepared and traditional tanks was measured by heterotrophic plate counts as a general parameter for microbiological growth. There was no significant difference between the bacterial number in the solar heating prepared tanks and in the traditional tanks, either for bacteria determined at 37 deg. C, 44 deg. C, 55 deg. C or at 65 deg. C. The hot water for domestic use from the solar heating prepared tanks and the traditional tanks had in most cases a bacterial number below 1.000 CFU/ml, and all tests had a bacterial number below 10.000 CFU/ml. The number of bacteria must be considered low seen in relation to the other measurements of bacteria in hot water for domestic use, particularly in larger block of flats. (au)

  17. Preliminary analysis of tank 241-C-106 dryout due to large postulated leak and vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    At the Hanford site in SE Washington, there are 149 single-shell tanks containing radionuclide wastes in the form of liquids, sludges and salt cakes. One of the tanks, tank 241-C-106, is heated to the boiling point due to radionuclide decay (primarily Sr-90). Water is added to the tank, which is ventilated, in order to cool the tank. This analysis assumes that there is a hypothetical large leak at the bottom of Tank 241-C-106 which initiates the dryout of the tank. The time required for a tank to dryout after a leak is of interest for safety reasons. As a tank dries outs, its temperature is expected to greatly increase, which could affect the structural integrity of the concrete tank dome. Hence, it is of interest to know how fast the temperature in a leaky tank increases, so that mitigation procedures can be planned and implemented in a timely manner. The objective of the study was to determine how long it would take for tank 241-C-106 to reach 350 degrees Fahrenheit (about 177 degrees Centigrade) after a postulated large leak develops at the bottom center of the tank.

  18. 324 Radiochemical engineering cells and high level vault tanks mixed waste compliance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The 324 Building in the Hanford 300 Area contains Radiochemical Engineering Cells and High Level Vault tanks (the open-quotes REC/HLVclose quotes) for research and development activities involving radioactive materials. Radioactive mixed waste within this research installation, found primarily in B-Cell and three of the high level vault tanks, is subject to RCRA/DWR (open-quotes RCRAclose quotes) regulations for storage. This white paper provides a baseline RCRA compliance summary of MW management in the REC/HLV, based on best available knowledge. The REC/HLV compliance project, of which this paper is a part, is intended to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable given the special technical difficulties of managing high activity radioactive materials, and to assure protection of human health and safety and the environment. The REC/HLV was constructed in 1965 to strict standards for the safe management of highly radioactive materials. Mixed waste in the REC/HLV consists of discarded tools and equipment, dried feed stock from nuclear waste melting experiments, contaminated particulate matter, and liquid feed stock from various experimental programs in the vault tanks. B-Cell contains most of these materials. Total radiological inventory in B-Cell is estimated at 3 MCi, about half of which is potentially open-quotes dispersibleclose quotes, that is, it is in small pieces or mobile particles. Most of the mixed waste currently in the REC/HLV was generated or introduced before mixed wastes were subjected to RCRA in 1987

  19. In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    a period of decades. 2. The radionuclides were apparently either in the form of soluble compounds, like cesium, or micrometer sized particles of actinide oxides or hydroxides. 3. After the initial tank retrieval the tank contained cobble which is not conducive to elutriation. Only after the tank contents were treated with thousands of gallons of 50 wt% caustic, were the solids converted to sand which is compatible with elutriation. Discussions between SRNL and PNNL resulted in plans to test elutriation in two phases; in Phase 1 particles would be separated by differences in settling velocity in an existing scaled tank with its associated hardware and in Phase 2 additional hardware, such as a hydrocyclone, would be added downstream to separate slow settling partciels from liquid. Phase 1 of in-tank elutriation was tested for Proof of Principle in theEngineering Development Laboratory of SRNL in a 41' diameter, 87 gallon tank. The tank had been previously used as a 1/22 scale model of Hanford Waste Tank AY-102. The objective of the testing was to determine which tank operating parameters achieved the best separation between fast- and slow-settling particles. For Phase 1 testing a simulated waste tank supernatant, slow-settling particles and fast-settling particles were loaded to the scaled tank. Because this was a Proof of Principle test, readily available solids particles were used that represented fast-settling and slow-settling particles. The tank contents were agitated using rotating mixer jet pumps (MJP) which suspended solids while liquids and solids were drawn out of the tank with a suction tube. The goal was to determine the optimum hydraulic operating conditions to achieve clean separation in which the residual solids in the tank were nearly all fast-settling particles and the solids transferred out of the tank were nearly all slow-settling particles. Tests were conducted at different pump jet velocities, suction tube diameters and suction tube elevations

  20. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  1. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  2. SRS Tank Structural Integrity Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryak, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The mission of the Structural Integrity Program is to ensure continued safe management and operation of the waste tanks for whatever period of time these tanks are required. Matthew Maryak provides an overview of the Structural Integrity Program to open Session 5 (Waste Storage and Tank Inspection) of the 2010 EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange.

  3. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-C-110. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benar, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (IWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-C-110. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with 241-C-110 waste and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendixes. This report also supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-44-05. Characterization information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. While only the results from recent sample events will be used to fulfill the requirements of the data quality objectives (DQOs), other information can be used to support or question conclusions derived from these results. Historical information for tank 241-C-110 are provided included surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and 1124 expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. The sampling events are listed, as well as sample data obtained before 1989. The results of the 1992 sampling events are also reported in the data package. The statistical analysis and numerical manipulation of data used in issue resolution are reported in Appendix C. Appendix D contains the evaluation to establish the best basis for the inventory estimate and the statistical analysis performed for this evaluation. A bibliography that resulted from an in-depth literature search of all known information sources applicable to tank 241-C-110 and its respective waste types is contained in Appendix E

  4. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

    2006-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the

  5. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatla, M.N; El Hady, M.

    2004-01-01

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  6. Tank farm waste characterization Technology Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, T.M.; Schull, K.E.; Bensky, M.S.; Sasaki, L.M.

    1989-03-01

    This document presents technological and analytical methods development activities required to characterize, process, and dispose of Hanford Site wastes stored in underground waste tanks in accordance with state and federal environmental regulations. The document also lists the need date, current (fiscal year 1989) funding, and estimate of future funding for each task. Also identified are the impact(s) if an activity is not completed. The document integrates these needs to minimize duplication of effort between the various programs involved

  7. Laterally excited flexible tanks with nonuniform density liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yu

    1996-01-01

    A study of the dynamic responses of flexible tanks containing nonuniform liquid under horizontal base excitations is presented. The system considered is an upright, circular cylindrical tank filled with an incompressible and inviscid liquid in which the density increases with the liquid depth. Only the impulsive components of response are considered in this study since the convective components can be computed by considering the tank to be rigid. It is shown in this study that for tanks with height-to-radius ratios between 0.3 and 1.2, the response quantities may be estimated utilizing the rigid tank solutions. Also, it is found that the pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the liquid density, and that the base shear and moments for the tank with nonuniform liquid can be estimated conservatively by assuming that the tank is filled with an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. Finally, a simple equation for evaluating the fundamental natural frequency of the system is proposed

  8. Tank SY-102 remediation project: Flowsheet and conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.; Punjak, W.A.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Pope, N.G.; Agnew, S.; Birnbaum, E.R.; Thomas, K.W.; Ortic, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. A major program in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal. Pretreatment is needed to resolve tank safety issues and to separate wastes into high-level and low-level fractions for subsequent immobilization and disposal. There is a fixed inventory of actinides and fission products in the tank which must be prepared for disposal. By segregating the actinides and fission products from the bulk of the waste, the tank's contents can be effectively managed. Due to the high public visibility and environmental sensitivity of this problem, real progress and demonstrated efforts toward addressing it must begin as soon as possible. As a part of this program, personnel at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flowsheet to remediate tank SY-102 which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of the flowsheet demonstrations performed with simulated, but radioactive, wastes using an existing glovebox line at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The tank waste was characterized using both a tank history approach and an exhaustive evaluation of the available core sample analyses. This report also presents a conceptual design complete with a working material flow model, a major equipment list, and cost estimates

  9. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy's high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provide an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements; assessed each requirement; and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of normalized ASME SA 516, Grade 70, carbon steel

  10. Corrosion Evaluation of INTEC Waste Storage Tank WM-182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk, W. J.; Anderson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been stored and reprocessed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1953 using facilities located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This reprocessing produced radioactive liquid waste which was stored in the Tank Farm. The INTEC Tank Farm consists of eleven vaulted 300,000-gallon underground tanks including Tank WM-182. Tank WM-182 was put into service in 1955, has been filled four times, and has contained aluminum and zirconium fuel reprocessing wastes as well as sodium bearing waste. A program to monitor corrosion in the waste tanks was initiated in 1953 when the first of the eleven Tank Farm tanks was placed in service. Austenitic stainless steel coupons representative of the materials of construction of the tanks are used to monitor internal tank corrosion. This report documents the final inspection of the WM-182 corrosion coupons. Physical examination of the welded corrosion test coupons exposed to the tank bottom conditions of Tank WM-182 revealed very light uniform corrosion. Examination of the external surfaces of the extruded pipe samples showed very light uniform corrosion with slight indications of preferential attack parallel to extrusion marks and start of end grain attack of the cut edges. These indications were only evident when examined under stereo microscope at magnifications of 20X and above. There were no definite indications of localized corrosion, such as cracking, pitting, preferential weld attack, or weld heat affected zone attack on either the welded or extruded coupons. Visual examination of the coupon support cables, where they were not encased in plastic, failed to reveal any indication of liquid-liquid interface attack of any crevice corrosion. Based on the WM-182 coupon evaluations, which have occurred throughout the life of the tank, the metal loss from the tank wall due to uniform corrosion is not expected to exceed 5.5 x 10-1 mil (0.00 055 inch

  11. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  12. Post-translational regulation and trafficking of the granulin-containing protease RD21 of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gu

    Full Text Available RD21-like proteases are ubiquitous, plant-specific papain-like proteases typified by carrying a C-terminal granulin domain. RD21-like proteases are involved in immunity and associated with senescence and various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we interrogated Arabidopsis RD21 regulation and trafficking by site-directed mutagenesis, agroinfiltration, western blotting, protease activity profiling and protein degradation. Using an introduced N-glycan sensor, deglycosylation experiments and glyco-engineered N. benthamiana plants, we show that RD21 passes through the Golgi where it becomes fucosylated. Our studies demonstrate that RD21 is regulated at three post-translational levels. Prodomain removal is not blocked in the catalytic Cys mutant, indicating that RD21 is activated by a proteolytic cascade. However, RD21 activation in Arabidopsis does not require vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs or aleurain-like protease AALP. In contrast, granulin domain removal requires the catalytic Cys and His residues and is therefore autocatalytic. Furthermore, SDS can (re-activate latent RD21 in Arabidopsis leaf extracts, indicating the existence of a third layer of post-translational regulation, possibly mediated by endogenous inhibitors. RD21 causes a dominant protease activity in Arabidopsis leaf extracts, responsible for SDS-induced proteome degradation.

  13. Design demonstrations for the remaining 19 Category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tank systems: Category A--New or Replacement Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category B--Existing Tank Systems with Secondary Containment; Category C--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment; and Category D--Existing Tank Systems Without Secondary Containment That are Removed from Service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 19 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. Three tank systems originally designated as Category B have been redesignated as Category C and one tank system originally designated as Category B has been redesignated as Category D. The design demonstration for each tank is presented in Section 2. The design demonstrations were developed using information obtained from the design drawings (as-built when available), construction specifications, and interviews with facility operators. The assessments assume that each tank system was constructed in accordance with the design drawings and construction specifications for that system unless specified otherwise. Each design demonstration addresses system conformance to the requirements of the FFA

  14. HYDRAULICS AND MIXING EVALUATIONS FOR NT-21/41 TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Barnes, O.

    2014-11-17

    The hydraulic results demonstrate that pump head pressure of 20 psi recirculates about 5.6 liters/min flowrate through the existing 0.131-inch orifice when a valve connected to NT-41 is closed. In case of the valve open to NT-41, the solution flowrates to HB-Line tanks, NT-21 and NT-41, are found to be about 0.5 lpm and 5.2 lpm, respectively. The modeling calculations for the mixing operations of miscible fluids contained in the HB-Line tank NT-21 were performed by taking a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD modeling results were benchmarked against the literature results and the previous SRNL test results to validate the model. Final performance calculations were performed for the nominal case by using the validated model to quantify the mixing time for the HB-Line tank. The results demonstrate that when a pump recirculates a solution volume of 5.7 liters every minute out of the 72-liter tank contents containing two acid solutions of 2.7 M and 0 M concentrations (i.e., water), a minimum mixing time of 1.5 hours is adequate for the tank contents to get the tank contents adequately mixed. In addition, the sensitivity results for the tank contents of 8 M existing solution and 1.5 M incoming species show that the mixing time takes about 2 hours to get the solutions mixed.

  15. The CPT1C 5'UTR contains a repressing upstream open reading frame that is regulated by cellular energy availability and AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lohse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Translational control is utilized as a means of regulating gene expression in many species. In most cases, posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms play an important role in stress response pathways and can lead to dysfunctional physiology if blocked by mutations. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 C (CPT1C, the brain-specific member of the CPT 1 family, has previously been shown to be involved in regulating metabolism in situations of energy surplus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence analysis of the CPT1C mRNA revealed that it contains an upstream open reading frame (uORF in the 5' UTR of its mRNA. Using CPT1C 5' UTR/luciferase constructs, we investigated the role of the uORF in translational regulation. The results presented here show that translation from the CPT1C main open reading frame (mORF is repressed by the presence of the uORF, that this repression is relieved in response to specific stress stimuli, namely glucose deprivation and palmitate-BSA treatment, and that AMPK inhibition can relieve this uORF-dependent repression. SIGNIFICANCE: The fact that the mORF regulation is relieved in response to a specific set of stress stimuli rather than general stress response, hints at an involvement of CPT1C in cellular energy-sensing pathways and provides further evidence for a role of CPT1C in hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis.

  16. Soil contamination adjacent to waste tank 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odum, J.V.

    1976-11-01

    In March and April 1961, miscalibrated liquid level instrumentation resulted in an overfilling of tank 8 to about 5 in. above the fill-line entrance. The resultant liquid head caused waste to seep through an asbestos-packed sleeve to the fill-line encasement and from there into the main encasement. Most of this waste returned to primary containment (i.e., the catch tank) through a separately encased drain line. However, approximately 1500 gal of high heat waste leaked from the fill-line encasement into the ground, probably through the joint at the juncture of the fill-line encasement and the concrete encasement of the waste tank. The contamination is contained in a 1000- to 1500-ft 3 zone of soil 12 to 26 ft below grade, 18 ft above the maximum elevation of the water table, and distributed roughly symmetrically around the fill-line encasement. Estimates from a continuing monitoring program indicate that less than 5000 Ci of 137 Cs, less than 0.005 Ci of 238 239 Pu, and less than 0.5 Ci of 89 90 Sr are in the soil. Analysis indicates that the contamination presents no current or future hazard to the environment; consequently, there is no technical reason for excavation of this soil. The high cost of excavation and exposure of personnel make excavation undesirable. The contaminated soil will remain under surveillance and undisturbed at tank 8 until the tank is removed from service, at which time its disposition will be re-evaluated

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING BISPHOSPHONATES IN THE REGULATION OF MINERAL METABOLISM DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH ALIMENTARY OSTEOPOROSIS IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Komisarenko S. V.; Volochnyuk D. M.; Shymanskyy I. O.; Ivonin S. P.; Veliky M. M.1

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates synthesized as promising substances for correction of mineral metabolism in osteoporosis. The study was carried out on a model of alimentary osteoporosis that was characterized by hypocalcaemia, hypophosphatemia, decreased 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 content in blood serum and severe bone tissue demineralization (reduced ash content and mineral components). It was found that synthesized novel nitrogen bi...

  18. Forkhead-associated (FHA) Domain Containing ABC Transporter Rv1747 Is Positively Regulated by Ser/Thr Phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Vicky L.; Molle, Virginie; Whalan, Rachael H.; Rodgers, Angela; Leiba, Jade; Stach, Lasse; Walker, K. Barry; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Buxton, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    One major signaling method employed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, is through reversible phosphorylation of proteins mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases. This study concerns one of these enzymes, the serine/threonine protein kinase PknF, that is encoded in an operon with Rv1747, an ABC transporter that is necessary for growth of M. tuberculosis in vivo and contains two forkhead-associated (FHA) domains. FHA domains are phosphopeptide recognition motifs that specifically recognize phosphothreonine-containing epitopes. Experiments to determine how PknF regulates the function of Rv1747 demonstrated that phosphorylation occurs on two specific threonine residues, Thr-150 and Thr-208. To determine the in vivo consequences of phosphorylation, infection experiments were performed in bone marrow-derived macrophages and in mice using threonine-to-alanine mutants of Rv1747 that prevent specific phosphorylation and revealed that phosphorylation positively modulates Rv1747 function in vivo. The role of the FHA domains in this regulation was further demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry, using peptides containing both phosphothreonine residues. FHA-1 domain mutation resulted in attenuation in macrophages highlighting the critical role of this domain in Rv1747 function. A mutant deleted for pknF did not, however, have a growth phenotype in an infection, suggesting that other kinases can fulfill its role when it is absent. This study provides the first information on the molecular mechanism(s) regulating Rv1747 through PknF-dependent phosphorylation but also indicates that phosphorylation activates Rv1747, which may have important consequences in regulating growth of M. tuberculosis. PMID:21622570

  19. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  20. Dynamics of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript containing cell changes in the adrenal glands of two kidney, one clip rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta; Janiuk, Izabela; Zbucki, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Taking into consideration the homeostatic disorders resulting from renal hypertension and the essential role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in maintaining homeostasis by regulating many functions of the body, the question arises as to what extent the renovascular hypertension affects the morphology and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution, morphology, and dynamics of changes of CART-containing cells in the adrenal glands of "two kidney, one clip" (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the adrenal glands of rats after 3, 14, 28, 42, and 91 days from the renal artery clipping procedure. To identify neuroendocrine cells, immunohistochemical reaction was performed with the use of a specific antibody against CART. It was revealed that renovascular hypertension causes changes in the endocrine cells containing CART in the adrenal glands of rats. The changes observed in the endocrine cells depend on the time when the rats with experimentally induced hypertension were examined. In the first period of hypertension, the number and immunoreactivity of CART-containing cells were decreased, while from the 28-day test, it significantly increased, as compared to the control rats. CART is relevant to the regulation of homeostasis in the cardiovascular system and seems to be involved in renovascular hypertension. The results of the present work open the possibility of new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of arterial hypertension, since CART function is involved in their pathophysiology. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. Radiological and toxicological analyses of tank 241-AY-102 and tank 241-C-106 ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himes, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The high heat content solids contained in Tank 241-C-106 are to be removed and transferred to Tank 241-AY-102 by sluicing operations, to be authorized under project W320. While sluicing operations are underway, the state of these tanks will be transformed from unagitated to agitated. This means that the partition fraction which describes the aerosol content of the head space will increase from IE-10 to IE-8 (see WHC-SD-WM-CN062, Rev. 2 for discussion of partition fractions). The head spare will become much more loaded with suspended material. Furthermore, the nature of this suspended material can change significantly: sluicing could bring up radioactive solids which normally would lay under many meters of liquid supernate. It is assumed that the headspace and filter aerosols in Tank 241-AY-102 are a 90/10 liquid/solid split. It is further assumed that the sluicing line, the headspace in Tank 241-C-106, and the filters on Tank 241-C-106 contain aerosols which are a 67/33 liquid/solid split. The bases of these assumptions are discussed in Section 3.0. These waste compositions (referred to as mitigated compositions) were used in Attachments 1 through 4 to calculate survey meter exposure rates per liter of inventory in the various system components. Three accident scenarios are evaluated: a high temperature event which melts or burns the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; an overpressure event which crushes and blows out the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; and an unfiltered release of tank headspace air. The initiating event for the high temperature release is a fire caused by a heater malfunction inside the exhaust dust or a fire outside the duct. The initiating event for the overpressure event could be a steam bump which over pressurizes the tank and leads to a blowout of the HEPA filters in the ventilation system. The catastrophic destruction of the HEPA filters would release a fraction of the accumulated

  2. Radiological and toxicological analyses of tank 241-AY-102 and tank 241-C-106 ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himes, D.A.

    1998-08-11

    The high heat content solids contained in Tank 241-C-106 are to be removed and transferred to Tank 241-AY-102 by sluicing operations, to be authorized under project W320. While sluicing operations are underway, the state of these tanks will be transformed from unagitated to agitated. This means that the partition fraction which describes the aerosol content of the head space will increase from IE-10 to IE-8 (see WHC-SD-WM-CN062, Rev. 2 for discussion of partition fractions). The head spare will become much more loaded with suspended material. Furthermore, the nature of this suspended material can change significantly: sluicing could bring up radioactive solids which normally would lay under many meters of liquid supernate. It is assumed that the headspace and filter aerosols in Tank 241-AY-102 are a 90/10 liquid/solid split. It is further assumed that the sluicing line, the headspace in Tank 241-C-106, and the filters on Tank 241-C-106 contain aerosols which are a 67/33 liquid/solid split. The bases of these assumptions are discussed in Section 3.0. These waste compositions (referred to as mitigated compositions) were used in Attachments 1 through 4 to calculate survey meter exposure rates per liter of inventory in the various system components. Three accident scenarios are evaluated: a high temperature event which melts or burns the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; an overpressure event which crushes and blows out the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; and an unfiltered release of tank headspace air. The initiating event for the high temperature release is a fire caused by a heater malfunction inside the exhaust dust or a fire outside the duct. The initiating event for the overpressure event could be a steam bump which over pressurizes the tank and leads to a blowout of the HEPA filters in the ventilation system. The catastrophic destruction of the HEPA filters would release a fraction of the accumulated

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary

  4. Human NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activity is regulated by and potentially targetable through Bruton tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Pichulik, Tica; Wolz, Olaf-Oliver; Dang, Truong-Minh; Stutz, Andrea; Dillen, Carly; Delmiro Garcia, Magno; Kraus, Helene; Dickhöfer, Sabine; Daiber, Ellen; Münzenmayer, Lisa; Wahl, Silke; Rieber, Nikolaus; Kümmerle-Deschner, Jasmin; Yazdi, Amir; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Macek, Boris; Radsak, Markus; Vogel, Sebastian; Schulte, Berit; Walz, Juliane Sarah; Hartl, Dominik; Latz, Eicke; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Grimbacher, Bodo; Miller, Lloyd; Brunner, Cornelia; Wolz, Christiane; Weber, Alexander N R

    2017-10-01

    The Nod-like receptor NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) are protagonists in innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. NLRP3 senses exogenous and endogenous insults, leading to inflammasome activation, which occurs spontaneously in patients with Muckle-Wells syndrome; BTK mutations cause the genetic immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). However, to date, few proteins that regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activity in human primary immune cells have been identified, and clinically promising pharmacologic targeting strategies remain elusive. We sought to identify novel regulators of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human cells with a view to exploring interference with inflammasome activity at the level of such regulators. After proteome-wide phosphoproteomics, the identified novel regulator BTK was studied in human and murine cells by using pharmacologic and genetic BTK ablation. Here we show that BTK is a critical regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation: pharmacologic (using the US Food and Drug Administration-approved inhibitor ibrutinib) and genetic (in patients with XLA and Btk knockout mice) BTK ablation in primary immune cells led to reduced IL-1β processing and secretion in response to nigericin and the Staphylococcus aureus toxin leukocidin AB (LukAB). BTK affected apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation and caspase-1 cleavage and interacted with NLRP3 and ASC. S aureus infection control in vivo and IL-1β release from cells of patients with Muckle-Wells syndrome were impaired by ibrutinib. Notably, IL-1β processing and release from immune cells isolated from patients with cancer receiving ibrutinib therapy were reduced. Our data suggest that XLA might result in part from genetic inflammasome deficiency and that NLRP3 inflammasome-linked inflammation could potentially be targeted pharmacologically through BTK. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy

  5. Characterization of Samples from the Effluent Treatment Facility Evaporator Waste Concentrate Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    During October 1997, the ETF Evaporator Waste Concentrate Tank No. 2 was discovered to contain a significant accumulation of solid deposits. SRTC performed destructive and nondestructive examination of solid samples from the tank. The results of these tests indicate that the solids contain mixtures of sodium oxalate (65 percent), the sulfide enclathrated sodium aluminosilicate (30 percent), and iron oxide (5 percent)

  6. Characterization of Samples from the Effluent Treatment Facility Evaporator Waste Concentrate Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, W.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-01-31

    During October 1997, the ETF Evaporator Waste Concentrate Tank No. 2 was discovered to contain a significant accumulation of solid deposits. SRTC performed destructive and nondestructive examination of solid samples from the tank. The results of these tests indicate that the solids contain mixtures of sodium oxalate (65 percent), the sulfide enclathrated sodium aluminosilicate (30 percent), and iron oxide (5 percent).

  7. F/H area high level waste tank status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, C.R. Jr.; Wells, M.N.

    1997-03-01

    Section IX.E.3 of the SRS Federal Facility Agreement requires the DOE to submit to EPA and SCDHEC, an annual report on the status of tanks being removed from service. Tanks that are slated for removal from service either do not meet secondary containment standards or have leak sites. The attached document is intended to meet this annual report requirement. An updated status of relevant portions of the Waste Removal Plan and Schedule is also included

  8. Silicone-oil-based subvisible particles: their detection, interactions, and regulation in prefilled container closure systems for biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsovalyi, Flora; Janvier, Sébastien; Jouffray, Sébastien; Soukiassian, Hervé; Mangiagalli, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    Recent increased regulatory scrutiny concerning subvisible particulates (SbVPs) in parenteral formulations of biologics has led to the publication of numerous articles about the sources, characteristics, implications, and approaches to monitoring and detecting SbVPs. Despite varying opinions on the level of associated risks and method of regulation, nearly all industry scientists and regulators agree on the need for monitoring and reporting visible and subvisible particles. As prefillable drug delivery systems have become a prominent packaging option, silicone oil, a common primary packaging lubricant, may play a role in the appearance of particles. The goal of this article is to complement the current SbVP knowledge base with new insights into the evolution of silicone-oil-related particulates and their interactions with components in prefillable systems. We propose a "toolbox" for improved silicone-oil-related particulate detection and enumeration, and discuss the benefits and limitations of approaches for lowering and controlling silicone oil release in parenterals. Finally, we present surface cross-linking of silicone as the recommended solution for achieving significant SbVP reduction without negatively affecting functional performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  10. SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) regulates de-novo lipogenesis and secretion of apoB100 containing lipoproteins in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Khatami, Shohreh; Adeli, Khosrow; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-09-04

    Hepatic de-novo lipogenesis and production of triglyceride rich VLDL are regulated via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascade, however, the role of a negative regulator of this pathway, the SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in this process, remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the molecular link between SHIP2 expression and metabolic dyslipidemia using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells. The results showed that overexpression of the wild type SHIP2 gene (SHIP2-WT) led to a higher total lipid content (28%) compared to control, whereas overexpression of the dominant negative SHIP2 gene (SHIP2-DN) reduced total lipid content in oleate treated cells by 40%. Overexpression of SHIP2-WT also led to a significant increase in both secretion of apoB100 containing lipoproteins and de-novo lipogenesis, as demonstrated by an enhancement in secreted apoB100 and MTP expression, increased intra and extracellular triglyceride levels and enhanced expression of lipogenic genes such as SREBP1c, FAS and ACC. On the other hand, overexpression of the SHIP2-DN gene prevented oleate-induced de-novo lipogenesis and secretion of apoB100 containing lipoproteins in HepG2 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is a key determinant of hepatic lipogenesis and lipoprotein secretion, and its inhibition could be considered as a potential target for treatment of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A science think tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, F [The Australian, (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning.

  12. A science think tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, F.

    1999-01-01

    A journalist views on public perceptions on nuclear issues in Australia and Japan is presented. It is also emphasised that by not offering an undergraduate course in nuclear engineering, Australia have closed the door to the nuclear energy development in Australia and costed the country some depth of specialized knowledges. A scientific think tank with active participation of the nuclear scientists is thought to benefit Australia and be in the position to influence private industrial and governmental planning

  13. Test and evaluation plan for Project W-314 tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations'' (TFRSO), Project W-314 will restore and/or upgrade existing Hanford Tank Farm facilities and systems to ensure that the Tank Farm infrastructure will be able to support near term TWRS Privatization's waste feed delivery and disposal system and continue safe management of tank waste. The capital improvements provided by this project will increase the margin of safety for Tank Farms operations, and will aid in aligning affected Tank Farm systems with compliance requirements from applicable state, Federal, and local regulations. Secondary benefits will be realized subsequent to project completion in the form of reduced equipment down-time, reduced health and safety risks to workers, reduced operating and maintenance costs, and minimization of radioactive and/or hazardous material releases to the environment. The original regulatory (e.g., Executive Orders, WACS, CFRS, permit requirements, required engineering standards, etc.) and institutional (e.g., DOE Orders, Hanford procedures, etc.) requirements for Project W-314 were extracted from the TWRS S/RIDs during the development of the Functions and Requirements (F and Rs). The entire family of requirements were then validated for TWRS and Project W-314. This information was contained in the RDD-100 database and used to establish the original CDR. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team recognizes that safety, quality, and cost effectiveness in the Test and Evaluation (T and E) program is achieved through a planned systematic approach to T and E activities. It is to this end that the Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) is created. The TEP for the TFRSO Project, was developed based on the guidance in HNF-IP-0842, and the Good Practice Guide GPG-FM-005, ''Test and Evaluation,'' which is derived from DOE Order 430.1, ''Life Cycle Asset Management.'' It describes the Test and Evaluation program for the TFRSO project starting with the definitive design phase and ending

  14. Tank type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a tank type reactor capable of securing reactor core integrity by preventing incorporation of gases to an intermediate heat exchanger, thgereby improving the reliability. In a conventional tank type reactor, since vortex flows are easily caused near the inlet of an intermediate heat exchanger, there is a fear that cover gases are involved into the coolant main streams to induce fetal accidents. In the present invention, a reactor core is suspended by way of a suspending body to the inside of a reactor vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger and a pump are disposed between the suspending body and the reactor vessel, in which a vortex current preventive plate is attached at the outside near the coolant inlet on the primary circuit of the intermediate heat exchanger. In this way vortex or turbulence near the inlet of the intermediate heata exchanger or near the surface of coolants can be prevented. Accordingly, the cover gases are no more involved, to insure the reactor core integrity and obtain a tank type nuclear reactor of high reliability. (I.S.)

  15. Development of simulated tank wastes for the US Department of Energy's Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Colton, N.G.; Jones, E.O.

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (USTID) is to identify and evaluate technologies that may be used to characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of hazardous and radioactive wastes contained in tanks on US Department of Energy sites. Simulated wastes are an essential component of the evaluation process because they provide controlled samples for technology assessment, and minimize costs and risks involved when working with radioactive wastes. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a recipe to simulate Hanford single-shell tank, (SST) waste. The recipe is derived from existing process recipes, and elemental concentrations are based on characterization data from 18 SSTs. In this procedure, salt cake and metal oxide/hydroxide sludge are prepared individually, and mixed together at varying ratios depending on the specific tank, waste to be simulated or the test being conducted. Elemental and physical properties of the stimulant are comparable with analyzed tank samples, and chemical speciation in the simulant is being improved as speciation data for actual wastes become available. The nonradioactive chemical waste simulant described here is useful for testing technologies on a small scale

  16. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AN-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1997-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for double-shell tank 241-AN-105. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-AN-105 waste; and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report also supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1996) milestone M-44-10

  17. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-C-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1997-05-21

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-C-104. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-C-104 waste; and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1996) milestone M-44-10.

  18. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-S-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-S-111. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data to address technical issues associated with tank 241-S-111 waste; and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report also supports the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1996) milestone M-44-10

  19. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-S-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.M.

    1997-04-28

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendices serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-S-111. The objectives of this report are: (1) to use characterization data to address technical issues associated with tank 241-S-111 waste; and (2) to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendices. This report also supports the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1996) milestone M-44-10.

  20. Secondary containment systems for bulk oil storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has conducted site inspections at several onshore bulk oil above ground storage facilities, to ensure that owners follow the spill prevention, control and countermeasure regulations. The four violations which were most frequently cited at these facilities were: (1) lack of a spill prevention plan, (2) lack of appropriate containment equipment to prevent discharged oil from reaching a navigable water course, (3) inadequate secondary containment structures, and (4) lack of an adequate quick drainage system in the facility tank loading/unloading area. Suggestions for feasible designs which would improve the impermeability of secondary containment for above ground storage tanks (AST) included the addition of a liner, retrofitting the bottom of an AST with a second steel plate, using a geosynthetic liner on top of the original bottom, installing a leak detection system in the interstitial space between the steel plates, or installing an under-tank liner with a leak detection system during construction of a new AST. 2 refs

  1. The effect of dilution on the gas retention behavior of Tank 241-SY- 103 waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Tingey, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five of the 177 underground waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site have been placed on the Flammable Gas watch list. These 25 tanks, containing high-level waste generated during plutonium and uranium processing, have been identified as potentially capable of accumulating flammable gases above the lower flammability limit (Babad et al. 1991). In the case of Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103, it has been proposed that diluting the tank waste may mitigate this hazard (Hudson et al. 1995; Stewart et al. 1994). The effect of dilution on the ability of waste from Tank 241-SY-103 to accumulate gas was studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A similar study has been completed for waste from Tank 241-SY-101 (Bredt et al. 1995). Because of the additional waste-storage volume available in Tank 241-SY-103 and because the waste is assumed to be similar to that currently in Tank 241-SY-101, Tank 241-SY-103 became the target for a demonstration of passive mitigation through in-tank dilution. In 1994, plans for the in-tank dilution demonstration were deferred pending a decision on whether to pursue dilution as a mitigation strategy. However, because Tank 241-SY-103 is an early retrieval target, determination of how waste properties vary with dilution will still be required

  2. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    . Originality/value - Many different Solar Combisystem designs have been commercialized over the years. In the IEA-SHC Task 26, twenty one solar combisystems have been described and analyzed. Maybe the mantle tank approach also for solar combisystems can be used with advantage? This might be possible...... if the solar heating system is based on a so called bikini tank. Therefore the new developed solar combisystems based on bikini tanks is compared to the tank-in-tank solar combisystems to elucidate which one is suitable for three different houses with low energy heating demand, medium and high heating demand.......Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...

  3. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-19

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank`s highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format.

  4. Tank characterization report for Single-Shell Tank 241-BX-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, G.F.

    1994-09-01

    This study examined and assessed the status, safety issues, composition, and distribution of the wastes contained in the tank 241-BX-107. Historical and most recent information, ranging from engineering structural assessment experiments, process history, monitoring and remediation activities, to analytical core sample data, were compiled and interpreted in an effort to develop a realistic, contemporary profile for the tank BX-107 contents. The results of this is study revealed that tank BX-107, a 2,006,050 L (530,000 gal) cylindrical single-shell, dished-bottom carbon-steel tank in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, was classified as sound. It has been interim stabilized and thus contains less than 189,250 L (50,000 gal) of interstitial liquid, and less than 18,925 L (5,000 gal) of supernatant. It has also been partially interim isolated, whereby all inlets to the tank are sealed to prevent inadvertent addition of liquid. At a residual waste level of ∼3.07 m (120.7 ± 2 in. from sidewall bottom or ∼132.9 in. from center bottom), it is estimated that the tank BX-107 contents are equivalent to 1,305,825 L (345,000 gal). The vapor space pressure is at atmospheric. The latest temperature readings, which were taken in July 1994, show a moderate temperature value of 19 degrees C (66 degrees F). Two supernatant samples were collected in 1974 and 1990, prior to interim stabilization. Sludge core samples were obtained in 1979 and 1992

  5. Structural analysis of ORNL underground gunite waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) and the South Tank Farm (STF) located at ORNL contains 8 underground waste storage tanks which were built around 1943. The tanks were used to collect and store the liquid portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at ORNL, but are no longer part of the active Low Level Liquid Waste system of the Laboratory. The tanks were constructed of gunite. The six STF tanks are 50 ft in diameter, and have a 12 ft sidewall, and an arched dome rising another 6.25 ft. The sidewall are 6 in. thick and have an additional 1.5 in. gunite liner on the inside. There is a thickened ring at the wall-dome juncture. The dome consists of two 5 in. layers of gunite. The two tanks in the NTF are similar, but smaller, having a 25 ft diameter, no inner liner, and a dome thickness of 3.5 in. Both sets of tanks have welded wire mesh and vertical rebars in the walls, welded wire mesh in the domes, and horizontal reinforcing hoop bars pre-tensioned to 35 to 40 ksi stress in the walls and thickened ring. The eight tanks are entirely buried under a 6 ft layer of soil cover. The present condition of the tanks is not accurately known, since access to them is extremely limited. In order to evaluate the structural capability of the tanks, a finite element analysis of each size tank was performed. Both static and seismic loads were considered. Three sludge levels, empty, half-full, and full were evaluated. In the STF analysis, the effects of wall deterioration and group spacing were evaluated. These analyses found that the weakest element in the tanks is the steel resisting the circumferential (or hoop) forces in the dome ring, a fact verified separately by an independent reviewer. However, the hoop steel has an adequate demand/capacity ratio. Buckling of the dome and the tank walls is not a concern

  6. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianka, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs

  7. Specialized video systems for use in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Heckendorn, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Robotics Development Group at the Savannah River Site is developing a remote video system for use in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Site, as a portion of its site support role. Viewing of the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in assessing their condition and controlling their operation. Several specialized video systems have been built that provide remote viewing and lighting, including remotely controlled tank entry and exit. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. The SRS waste tanks are nominal 4.5 million liter (1.3 million gallon) underground tanks used to store liquid high level radioactive waste generated by the site, awaiting final disposal. The typical waste tank (Figure 1) is of flattened shape (i.e. wider than high). The tanks sit in a dry secondary containment pan. The annular space between the tank wall and the secondary containment wall is continuously monitored for liquid intrusion and periodically inspected and documented. The latter was historically accomplished with remote still photography. The video systems includes camera, zoom lens, camera positioner, and vertical deployment. The assembly enters through a 125 mm (5 in) diameter opening. A special attribute of the systems is they never get larger than the entry hole during camera aiming etc. and can always be retrieved. The latest systems are easily deployable to a remote setup point and can extend down vertically 15 meters (50ft). The systems are expected to be a valuable asset to tank operations

  8. Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper (APPL1) regulates the protein level of EGFR by modulating its trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Rin; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Nguyen, Hong-Hoa; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kang, Jong-Sun; Hahn, Myong-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► APPL1 regulates the protein level of EGFR in response to EGF stimulation. ► Depletion of APPL1 accelerates the movement of EGF/EGFR from the cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF. ► Knockdown of APPL1 enhances the activity of Rab5. -- Abstract: The EGFR-mediated signaling pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Previously APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper 1) has been reported to function as a downstream effector of EGF-initiated signaling. Here we demonstrate that APPL1 regulates EGFR protein levels in response to EGF stimulation. Overexpression of APPL1 enhances EGFR stabilization while APPL1 depletion by siRNA reduces EGFR protein levels. APPL1 depletion accelerates EGFR internalization and movement of EGF/EGFR from cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF treatment. Conversely, overexpression of APPL1 decelerates EGFR internalization and translocation of EGF/EGFR to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, APPL1 depletion enhances the activity of Rab5 which is involved in internalization and trafficking of EGFR and inhibition of Rab5 in APPL1-depleted cells restored EGFR levels. Consistently, APPL1 depletion reduced activation of Akt, the downstream signaling effector of EGFR and this is restored by inhibition of Rab5. These findings suggest that APPL1 is required for EGFR signaling by regulation of EGFR stabilities through inhibition of Rab5.

  9. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di, E-mail: DiWu@mail.nankai.edu.cn; Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  10. G1/S-regulated E2F-containing protein complexes bind to the mouse thymidine kinase gene promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Q P; Zhao, S; Levin, A H

    1994-01-01

    report that MT2 includes an E2F-like binding site (GTTCGCGGGCAAA), as shown by the following evidence. (i) MT2 bound specifically to an affinity-purified fusion human E2F protein. (ii) Both MT2 and an authentic E2F site (TTTCGCGCGCTTT) bound specifically to similar or identical nuclear protein complexes...... complexes were also investigated. Studies using specific antibodies revealed that p107, a retinoblastoma-like protein, was present in both E2F-G0/G1 and E2F.S, whereas cyclin E.cyclin A.cdk2 were only present in E2F.S complex(es). These data suggest that removal of the p107-containing E2F.G0/G1 complex...

  11. The TMAO-Producing Enzyme Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Regulates Obesity and the Beiging of White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Schugar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that microbes resident in the human intestine represent a key environmental factor contributing to obesity-associated disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota-initiated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO-generating pathway is linked to obesity and energy metabolism. In multiple clinical cohorts, systemic levels of TMAO were observed to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes. In addition, circulating TMAO levels were associated with obesity traits in the different inbred strains represented in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel. Further, antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown or genetic deletion of the TMAO-producing enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3 conferred protection against obesity in mice. Complimentary mouse and human studies indicate a negative regulatory role for FMO3 in the beiging of white adipose tissue. Collectively, our studies reveal a link between the TMAO-producing enzyme FMO3 and obesity and the beiging of white adipose tissue.

  12. A broader role for AmyR in Aspergillus niger: regulation of the utilisation of D-glucose or D-galactose containing oligo- and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanKuyk, Patricia A; Benen, Jaques A E; Wösten, Han A B; Visser, Jaap; de Vries, Ronald P

    2012-01-01

    AmyR is commonly considered a regulator of starch degradation whose activity is induced by the presence of maltose, the disaccharide building block of starch. In this study, we demonstrate that the role of AmyR extends beyond starch degradation. Enzyme activity assays, genes expression analysis and growth profiling on D-glucose- and D-galactose-containing oligo- and polysaccharides showed that AmyR regulates the expression of some of the Aspergillus niger genes encoding α- and β-glucosidases, α- and β- galactosidases, as well as genes encoding α-amlyases and glucoamylases. In addition, we provide evidence that D-glucose or a metabolic product thereof may be the inducer of the AmyR system in A. niger and not maltose, as is commonly assumed.

  13. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain

  14. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  15. The Retrieval Knowledge Center Evaluation Of Low Tank Level Mixing Technologies For DOE High Level Waste Tank Retrieval 10516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation and Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation and Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same

  16. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Points, Region 9 Indian Country, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  17. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Points, Region 9, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  18. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable

  19. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  20. Utilization of the MPI Process for in-tank solidification of heel material in large-diameter cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the US Department of Energy is remediation of sludge and supernatant waste in underground storage tanks. Exhumation of the waste is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation cannot completely remove all of the contaminated materials from the tanks. For large-diameter tanks, amounts of highly contaminated ``heel'' material approaching 20,000 gal can remain. Often sludge containing zeolite particles leaves ``sand bars'' of locally contaminated material across the floor of the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment (stabilization and immobilization) of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and mixed uniformly with sludge. Ground Environmental Services has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity jet delivery system termed, Multi-Point-Injection (MPI). This robust jet delivery system has been field-deployed to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in cylindrical (FY 1998) and long, horizontal tanks (FY 1999). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process successfully formed a 32-ton uniform monolith of grout and waste surrogates in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within a 40-in.-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies similar to Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily intermixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  1. Drosophila Pumilio protein contains multiple autonomous repression domains that regulate mRNAs independently of Nanos and brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Chase A; Goldstrohm, Aaron C

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Pumilio is an RNA-binding protein that potently represses specific mRNAs. In developing embryos, Pumilio regulates a key morphogen, Hunchback, in collaboration with the cofactor Nanos. To investigate repression by Pumilio and Nanos, we created cell-based assays and found that Pumilio inhibits translation and enhances mRNA decay independent of Nanos. Nanos robustly stimulates repression through interactions with the Pumilio RNA-binding domain. We programmed Pumilio to recognize a new binding site, which garners repression of new target mRNAs. We show that cofactors Brain Tumor and eIF4E Homologous Protein are not obligatory for Pumilio and Nanos activity. The conserved RNA-binding domain of Pumilio was thought to be sufficient for its function. Instead, we demonstrate that three unique domains in the N terminus of Pumilio possess the major repressive activity and can function autonomously. The N termini of insect and vertebrate Pumilio and Fem-3 binding factors (PUFs) are related, and we show that corresponding regions of human PUM1 and PUM2 have repressive activity. Other PUF proteins lack these repression domains. Our findings suggest that PUF proteins have evolved new regulatory functions through protein sequences appended to their conserved PUF repeat RNA-binding domains.

  2. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment

  3. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for October 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks

  4. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for January 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks

  5. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-02-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks

  6. Tank Farm surveillance and waste status summary report for September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks

  7. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-08-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks

  8. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-08-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  9. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter 1, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  10. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-10-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks

  11. Insulation systems for liquid methane fuel tanks for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, H. F.; Delduca, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two insulation systems for tanks containing liquid methane in supersonic cruise-type aircraft were designed and tested after an extensive materials investigation. One system is an external insulation and the other is an internal wet-type insulation system. Tank volume was maximized by making the tank shape approach a rectangular parallelopiped. One tank was designed to use the external insulation and the other tank to use the internal insulation. Performance of the external insulation system was evaluated on a full-scale tank under the temperature environment of -320 F to 700 F and ambient pressures of ground-level atmospheric to 1 psia. Problems with installing the internal insulation on the test tank prevented full-scale evaluation of performance; however, small-scale testing verified thermal conductivity, temperature capability, and installed density.

  12. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  13. Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending 04/30/2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANLON, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 60 smaller miscellaneous underground storage tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE-HQ, August 28, 2001, Radioactive Waste Management, US. Department of Energy-Washington, D.C.) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for the Hanford Site Tank Farm tanks

  14. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-02-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks

  15. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1994-05-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special 9 surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  16. Tank farm surveillance and waste status summary report for December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, B.M.

    1993-02-01

    This report is the official inventory for radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. Data that depict the status of stored radioactive waste and tank vessel integrity are contained within the report. This report provides data on each of the existing 177 large underground waste storage tanks and 49 smaller catch tanks and special surveillance facilities, and supplemental information regarding tank surveillance anomalies and ongoing investigations. This report is intended to meet the requirement of US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Order 5820.2A, Chapter I, Section 3.e. (3) (DOE-RL, 1990, Radioactive Waste Management, US Department of Energy-Richland Operation Office, Richland, Washington) requiring the reporting of waste inventories and space utilization for Hanford Tank Farm Tanks.

  17. Underground storage tanks cause environmental chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruver, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during the 1950s and the subsequent three decades, petroleum products were stored in single-walled steel underground tanks; an out-of-sight, out-of-mind philosophy prevailed. Unfathomable amounts of toxic petroleum products leaking into the nation's ground water supplies has prompted enactment of recent and much needed legislation and regulation to remedy this major problem. Is the public aware of this serious ecological imbroglio? No, not as yet; except for the closing of many rural service stations and the plethora of dug-up, exposed tanks at urban stations, one could never imagine the severity of this debacle confronting the petroleum industry and the nation's environment

  18. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI) ; High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone

  19. Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2002-03-01

    During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

  20. Reusable LH2 tank technology demonstration through ground test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, C.; Greenberg, H. S.; Johnson, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the project plan to demonstrate, by March 1997, the reusability of an integrated composite LH2 tank structure, cryogenic insulation, and thermal protection system (TPS). The plan includes establishment of design requirements and a comprehensive trade study to select the most suitable Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank system (RHCTS) within the most suitable of 4 candidate structural configurations. The 4 vehicles are winged body with the capability to deliver 25,000 lbs of payload to a circular 220 nm, 51.6 degree inclined orbit (also 40,000 lbs to a 28.5 inclined 150 nm orbit). A prototype design of the selected RHCTS is established to identify the construction, fabrication, and stress simulation and test requirements necessary in an 8 foot diameter tank structure/insulation/TPS test article. A comprehensive development test program supports the 8 foot test article development and involves the composite tank itself, cryogenic insulation, and integrated tank/insulation/TPS designs. The 8 foot diameter tank will contain the integrated cryogenic insulation and TPS designs resulting from this development and that of the concurrent lightweight durable TPS program. Tank ground testing will include 330 cycles of LH2 filling, pressurization, body loading, depressurization, draining, and entry heating.

  1. Light Duty Utility Arm System applications for tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carteret, B.A.

    1994-10-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development (OTD, EM-50) to obtain information about the conditions and contents of the DOE's underground storage tanks. Many of these tanks are deteriorating and contain hazardous, radioactive waste generated over the past 50 years as a result of defense materials production at a member of DOE sites. Stabilization and remediation of these waste tanks is a high priority for the DOE's environmental restoration program. The LDUA System will provide the capability to obtain vital data needed to develop safe and cost-effective tank remediation plans, to respond to ongoing questions about tank integrity and leakage, and to quickly investigate tank events that raise safety concerns. In-tank demonstrations of the LDUA System are planned for three DOE sites in 1996 and 1997: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper provides a general description of the system design and discusses a number of planned applications of this technology to support the DOE's environmental restoration program, as well as potential applications in other areas. Supporting papers by other authors provide additional in-depth technical information on specific areas of the system design

  2. Mass spectrometry analysis of tank wastes at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Mong, G.M.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five of the 177 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington are being watched closely because of the possibility that flammable gas mixtures may be produced from the mixed wastes contained in the storage tanks. One tank in particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas mixtures since its final filling in the early 1980s. It has been postulated that the organic compounds present in the waste may be precursors to the production of hydrogen. Mass spectrometry has proven to be an invaluable tool for the identification of organic components in wastes from Tank 101-SY and C-103. A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unresolved Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for organic components

  3. SmShb, the SH2-Containing Adaptor Protein B of Schistosoma mansoni Regulates Venus Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Morel

    Full Text Available Venus kinase receptors (VKRs are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs formed by an extracellular Venus Fly Trap (VFT ligand binding domain associated via a transmembrane domain with an intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK domain. Schistosoma mansoni VKRs, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2, are both implicated in reproductive activities of the parasite. In this work, we show that the SH2 domain-containing protein SmShb is a partner of the phosphorylated form of SmVKR1. Expression of these proteins in Xenopus oocytes allowed us to demonstrate that the SH2 domain of SmShb interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue (pY979 located in the juxtamembrane region of SmVKR1. This interaction leads to phosphorylation of SmShb on tyrosines and promotes SmVKR1 signaling towards the JNK pathway. SmShb transcripts are expressed in all parasite stages and they were found in ovary and testes of adult worms, suggesting a possible colocalization of SmShb and SmVKR1 proteins. Silencing of SmShb in adult S. mansoni resulted in an accumulation of mature sperm in testes, indicating a possible role of SmShb in gametogenesis.

  4. SmShb, the SH2-Containing Adaptor Protein B of Schistosoma mansoni Regulates Venus Kinase Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Cailliau, Katia; Hahnel, Steffen; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dissous, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) formed by an extracellular Venus Fly Trap (VFT) ligand binding domain associated via a transmembrane domain with an intracellular tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. Schistosoma mansoni VKRs, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2, are both implicated in reproductive activities of the parasite. In this work, we show that the SH2 domain-containing protein SmShb is a partner of the phosphorylated form of SmVKR1. Expression of these proteins in Xenopus oocytes allowed us to demonstrate that the SH2 domain of SmShb interacts with the phosphotyrosine residue (pY979) located in the juxtamembrane region of SmVKR1. This interaction leads to phosphorylation of SmShb on tyrosines and promotes SmVKR1 signaling towards the JNK pathway. SmShb transcripts are expressed in all parasite stages and they were found in ovary and testes of adult worms, suggesting a possible colocalization of SmShb and SmVKR1 proteins. Silencing of SmShb in adult S. mansoni resulted in an accumulation of mature sperm in testes, indicating a possible role of SmShb in gametogenesis.

  5. The C. elegans TPR Containing Protein, TRD-1, Regulates Cell Fate Choice in the Developing Germ Line and Epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Hughes

    Full Text Available Correct cell fate choice is crucial in development. In post-embryonic development of the hermaphroditic Caenorhabitis elegans, distinct cell fates must be adopted in two diverse tissues. In the germline, stem cells adopt one of three possible fates: mitotic cell cycle, or gamete formation via meiosis, producing either sperm or oocytes. In the epidermis, the stem cell-like seam cells divide asymmetrically, with the daughters taking on either a proliferative (seam or differentiated (hypodermal or neuronal fate. We have isolated a novel conserved C. elegans tetratricopeptide repeat containing protein, TRD-1, which is essential for cell fate determination in both the germline and the developing epidermis and has homologs in other species, including humans (TTC27. We show that trd-1(RNAi and mutant animals have fewer seam cells as a result of inappropriate differentiation towards the hypodermal fate. In the germline, trd-1 RNAi results in a strong masculinization phenotype, as well as defects in the mitosis to meiosis switch. Our data suggests that trd-1 acts downstream of tra-2 but upstream of fem-3 in the germline sex determination pathway, and exhibits a constellation of phenotypes in common with other Mog (masculinization of germline mutants. Thus, trd-1 is a new player in both the somatic and germline cell fate determination machinery, suggestive of a novel molecular connection between the development of these two diverse tissues.

  6. Postconstruction report for the mercury tanks interim action at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskuil, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    Three underground concrete settling tanks (tanks 2101-U, 2104-U, and 2100-U) at the Y-12 Plant on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained contaminated sludges contributing mercury to the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC). These tanks were cleaned out as an interim action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent subproject. Cleaning out these tanks prevented the sludge that had settled in the bottom from resuspending and carrying mercury into UEFPC. Tanks 2104-U and 2100-U were returned to service and will continue to receive effluent from buildings 9201-4 and 9201-5. Tank 2101-U had been abandoned and its effluent redirected to Tank 2100-U during previous activities. This interim action permanently sealed Tank 2101-U from the storm sewer system. Upon removal of materials and completion of cleanup, inspections determined that the project's cleanup criteria had been met. The structural integrity of the tanks was also inspected, and minor cracks identified in tanks 2101-U and 2104-U were repaired. This project is considered to have been completed successfully because it met its performance objectives as addressed in the Interim Record of Decision and the work plan: to remove the waste from the three storage tanks; to ensure that the tanks were cleaned to the levels specified; to return tanks 2100-U and 2104-U to service; to isolate Tank 2101-U permanently; and to manage the wastes in an appropriate fashion

  7. TaUBA, a UBA domain-containing protein in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), is a negative regulator of salt and drought stress response in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Shuang-shuang; Ma, Jun-xia; Guo, Guang-yan; Zhang, Xue-yong; Liu, Xu; Bi, Cai-li

    2015-05-01

    TaUBA functions as a negative regulator of salt and drought stress response in transgenic Arabidopsis, either the UBA domain or the zinc finger domain is crucial for TaUBA's function. TaUBA (DQ211935), which is a UBA domain-containing protein in wheat, was cloned and functionally characterized. Southern blot suggested that TaUBA is a low copy gene in common wheat. qRT-PCR assay showed that the expression of TaUBA was strongly induced by salt and drought stress. When suffering from drought and salt stresses, lower proline content and much higher MDA content in the TaUBA overexpressors were observed than those of the wild-type control, suggesting TaUBA may function as a negative regulator of salt and drought stress response in plants. To study whether the UBA domain or the zinc finger domain affects the function of TaUBA, TaUBAΔUBA (deletion of UBA domain) and TaUBA-M (Cys464Gly and Cys467Gly) overexpression vectors were constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis. Upon drought and salt stresses, the TaUBAΔUBA-and TaUBA-M-overexpressed plants accumulated much more proline and lower MDA than the wild-type control, the TaUBA-overexpressors lost water more quickly than TaUBAΔUBA-and TaUBA-M-overexpressed plants as well as the wild-type control, suggesting that overexpression of TaUBAΔUBA or TaUBA-M improved the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and the possibility of ubiquitination role in the regulation of osmolyte synthesis and oxidative stress responses in mediating stress tolerance. qRT-PCR assay of stress-related genes in transgenic plants upon drought and salt stresses suggested that TaUBA may function through down-regulating some stress related-transcription factors and by regulating P5CSs to cope with osmotic stress.

  8. A conserved degron containing an amphipathic helix regulates the cholesterol-mediated turnover of human squalene monooxygenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Ngee Kiat; Howe, Vicky; Jatana, Nidhi; Thukral, Lipi; Brown, Andrew J

    2017-12-08

    Cholesterol biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is tightly controlled by multiple mechanisms to regulate cellular cholesterol levels. Squalene monooxygenase (SM) is the second rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis and is regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. SM undergoes cholesterol-dependent proteasomal degradation when cholesterol is in excess. The first 100 amino acids of SM (designated SM N100) are necessary for this degradative process and represent the shortest cholesterol-regulated degron identified to date. However, the fundamental intrinsic characteristics of this degron remain unknown. In this study, we performed a series of deletions, point mutations, and domain swaps to identify a 12-residue region (residues Gln-62-Leu-73), required for SM cholesterol-mediated turnover. Molecular dynamics and circular dichroism revealed an amphipathic helix within this 12-residue region. Moreover, 70% of the variation in cholesterol regulation was dependent on the hydrophobicity of this region. Of note, the earliest known Doa10 yeast degron, Deg1, also contains an amphipathic helix and exhibits 42% amino acid similarity with SM N100. Mutating SM residues Phe-35/Ser-37/Leu-65/Ile-69 into alanine, based on the key residues in Deg1, blunted SM cholesterol-mediated turnover. Taken together, our results support a model whereby the amphipathic helix in SM N100 attaches reversibly to the ER membrane depending on cholesterol levels; with excess, the helix is ejected and unravels, exposing a hydrophobic patch, which then serves as a degradation signal. Our findings shed new light on the regulation of a key cholesterol synthesis enzyme, highlighting the conservation of critical degron features from yeast to humans. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. 27 CFR 24.229 - Tank car and tank truck requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.229 Tank car and tank truck requirements. Railroad tank cars and tank trucks used to transport spirits for use in wine production will be constructed...

  10. Tank Characterization Report for Double-Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  11. Tank Characterization Report for Single-Shell Tank 241-C-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank

  12. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  13. Adverse reactions from essential oil-containing natural flea products exempted from Environmental Protection Agency regulations in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Allison G; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar A

    2012-08-01

    To describe adverse effects in dogs and cats exposed to Environmental Protection Agency exempted plant-derived flea preventatives containing mixtures of essential oils. Retrospective study from 2006 to 2008. Records of dog and cat cases were reviewed from the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Animal Poison Control Center database. Thirty-nine cats and 9 dogs with history of exposure to natural flea preventatives. The following information was retrieved from each incident: number of animals, species involved, frequency, types, onset time, duration of clinical signs, exposure appropriateness, final outcome, and treatment information. Ninety-two percent of animals (n = 44) showed presence of one or more adverse effects. The frequency of adverse effects in dogs (n = 8; 89%) and cats (n = 36; 92%) was similar. Onset time of adverse effects in 39 of 44 animals occurred within 24 hours. The duration of signs in 24 animals ranged from 30 minutes to 149 hours. The products were used as per label in 77% animals (n = 37). Of 28 animals with known outcome, 50% (n = 14) recovered with bathing alone while others received intravenous fluids, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsive medications. Death (1 cat; n = 1/28; 4%) or euthanasia (1 cat and 1 dog; n = 2/28; 7%) was reported in 3 animals. Dogs and cats can experience significant adverse effects when exposed to plant-derived flea preventatives even when used according to label directions. The number of reports of exposure in cats was higher than dogs, but the frequency of reported adverse effects was similar between the 2 species. Agitation and hypersalivation were common in cats, whereas lethargy and vomiting were common in dogs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  14. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling standards...

  15. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of the...

  16. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least...

  17. 49 CFR 229.217 - Fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tank. 229.217 Section 229.217 Transportation... tank. (a) External fuel tanks. Locomotives equipped with external fuel tanks shall, at a minimum... to the fuel tank safety requirements of § 238.223 or § 238.423 of this chapter. The Director of the...

  18. Surveillance and maintenance plan for the inactive liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    ORNL has a total of 54 inactive liquid low-level waste (ILLLW) tanks. In the past, these tanks were used to contain radioactive liquid wastes from various research programs, decontamination operations, and reactor operations. The tanks have since been removed from service for various reasons; the majority were retired because of their age, some due to integrity compromises, and others because they did not meet the current standards set by the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA). Many of the tanks contain residual radioactive liquids and/or sludges. Plans are to remediate all tanks; however, until remediation of each tank, this Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) Plan will be used to monitor the safety and inventory containment of these tanks

  19. Regulatory issues associated with closure of the Hanford AX Tank Farm ancillary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Liquid mixed, high-level radioactive waste has been stored in underground single-shell tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. After retrieval of the waste from the single-shell tanks, the DOE will proceed with closure of the tank farm. The 241-AX Tank Farm includes four one-million gallon single-shell tanks in addition to sluice lines, transfer lines, ventilation headers, risers, pits, cribs, catch tanks, buildings, well and associated buried piping. This equipment is classified as ancillary equipment. This document addresses the requirements for regulatory close of the ancillary equipment in the Hanford Site 241-AX Tank Farm. The options identified for physical closure of the ancillary equipment include disposal in place, disposal in place after treatment, excavation and disposal on site in an empty single-shell tank, and excavation and disposal outside the AX Tank Farm. The document addresses the background of the Hanford Site and ancillary equipment in the AX Tank Farm, regulations for decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively contaminated equipment, requirements for the cleanup and disposal of radioactive wastes, cleanup and disposal requirements governing hazardous and mixed waste, and regulatory requirements and issues associated with each of the four physical closure options. This investigation was conducted by the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during Fiscal Year 1998 for the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project

  20. Tal en tanke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Hendricks, Vincent

    Den svenske biskop og poet Esais Tegnèr har engang sagt: "Menneskers ord og tanker fødes sammen, at tale uklart er at tænke uklart." Denne lærebog er et lynkursus i at tænke og tale klart - og i at være på vagt over for uklar tænkning og tale, hvor den end optræder.Tal en tanke er hurtigt læst og...

  1. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  2. Perlecan-containing pericellular matrix regulates solute transport and mechanosensing within the osteocyte lacunar-canalicular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Lai, Xiaohan; Price, Christopher; Thompson, William R.; Li, Wen; Quabili, Tonima R.; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Liu, Xiaowei Sherry; Zhang, Hong; Pan, Jun; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Wang, Liyun

    2013-01-01

    The pericellular matrix (PCM), a thin “coating” surrounding nearly all mammalian cells, plays a critical role in many cell-surface phenomena. In osteocytes, the PCM is believed to control both “outside-in” (mechanosensing) and “inside-out” (signaling molecule transport) processes. However, the osteocytic PCM is challenging to study in situ because it is thin (~100nm) and enclosed in mineralized matrix. To this end, we recently developed a novel tracer velocimetry approach that combined fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) imaging with hydrodynamic modeling to quantify the osteocytic PCM in young murine bone (Wang et al., J Bone Miner Res. 2013; 28:1075–86). In this study, we applied the technique to older mice expressing or deficient for perlecan/HSPG2, a large heparan-sulfate proteoglycan normally secreted in osteocytic PCM. The objectives were to i) characterize transport within an altered PCM; ii) to test the sensitivity of our approach in detecting the PCM alterations; and iii) to dissect the roles of the PCM in osteocyte mechanosensing. We found that i) solute transport increases in the perlecan-deficient (hypomorphic: Hypo) mice compared with control mice; ii) PCM fiber density decreases with aging and perlecan deficiency; iii) the osteocytes in the Hypo bones are predicted to experience higher shear stress (+34%), but decreased fluid drag force (−35%) under 3N peak tibial loading, and iv) when subjected to tibial loading in a preliminary in vivo experiment, the Hypo mice did not respond to the anabolic stimuli as CTL mice. These findings support the hypothesis that the PCM fibers act as osteocyte’s sensing antennae, regulating load-induced cellular stimulations and thus bone’s sensitivity and in vivo bone adaptation. If this hypothesis is further confirmed, osteocytic PCM could be new targets to develop osteoporosis treatments by modulating bone’s intrinsic sensitivity to mechanical loading and be used to design patient

  3. Second Order Sliding Mode Control of the Coupled Tanks System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayiz Abu Khadra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four classes of second order sliding mode controllers (2-SMC have been successfully applied to regulate the liquid level in the second tank of a coupled tanks system. The robustness of these classes of 2-SMC is investigated and their performances are compared with a first order controller to show the merits of these controllers. The effectiveness of these controllers is verified through computer simulations. Comparison between the controllers is based on the time domain performance measures such as rise time, settling time, and the integral absolute error. Results showed that controllers are able to regulate the liquid level with small differences in their performance.

  4. Flammable gas tank safety program: Technical basis for gas analysis and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Flammable gases generated in radioactive liquids. Twenty-five high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks located underground at the Hanford Site are on a Flammable Gas Watch List because they contain waste which tends to retain the gases generated in it until rather large quantities are available for sudden release to the tank head space; if a tank is full it has little dome space, and a flammable concentration of gases could be produced--even if the tank is ventilated. If the waste has no tendency to retain gas generated in it then a continual flammable gas concentration in the tank dome space is established by the gas production rate and the tank ventilation rate (or breathing rate for unventilated tanks); this is also a potential problem for Flammable Gas Watch List tanks, and perhaps other Hanford tanks too. All Flammable Gas Watch List tanks will be fitted with Standard Hydorgen Monitoring Systems so that their behavior can be observed. In some cases, such as tank 241-SY-101, the data gathered from such observations will indicate that tank conditions need to be mitigated so that gas release events are either eliminated or rendered harmless. For example, a mixer pump was installed in tank 241-SY-101; operating the pump stirs the waste, replacing the large gas release events with small releases of gas that are kept below twenty-five percent of the lower flammability limit by the ventilation system. The concentration of hydrogen measured in Hanford waste tanks is greater than that of any other flammable gas. Hydrogen levels measured with a Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System in excess of 0.6 volume percent will cause Westinghouse Hanford Company to consider actions which will decrease the amount of flammable gas in the tank

  5. Evidence for dawsonite in Hanford high-level nuclear waste tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jacob G; Cooke, Gary A; Herting, Daniel L; Warrant, R Wade

    2012-03-30

    Gibbsite [Al(OH)(3)] and boehmite (AlOOH) have long been assumed to be the most prevalent aluminum-bearing minerals in Hanford high-level nuclear waste sludge. The present study shows that dawsonite [NaAl(OH)(2)CO(3)] is also a common aluminum-bearing phase in tanks containing high total inorganic carbon (TIC) concentrations and (relatively) low dissolved free hydroxide concentrations. Tank samples were probed for dawsonite by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and Polarized Light Optical Microscopy. Dawsonite was conclusively identified in four of six tanks studied. In a fifth tank (AN-102), the dawsonite identification was less conclusive because it was only observed as a Na-Al bearing phase with SEM-EDS. Four of the five tank samples with dawsonite also had solid phase Na(2)CO(3) · H(2)O. The one tank without observable dawsonite (Tank C-103) had the lowest TIC content of any of the six tanks. The amount of TIC in Tank C-103 was insufficient to convert most of the aluminum to dawsonite (Al:TIC mol ratio of 20:1). The rest of the tank samples had much lower Al:TIC ratios (between 2:1 and 0.5:1) than Tank C-103. One tank (AZ-102) initially had dawsonite, but dawsonite was not observed in samples taken 15 months after NaOH was added to the tank surface. When NaOH was added to a laboratory sample of waste from Tank AZ-102, the ratio of aluminum to TIC in solution was consistent with the dissolution of dawsonite. The presence of dawsonite in these tanks is of significance because of the large amount of OH(-) consumed by dawsonite dissolution, an effect confirmed with AZ-102 samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety considerations on LPG storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paff, R.

    1993-01-01

    The safety of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks, in refineries, petrochemicals plants, or distribution storage, is an important concern. Some serious accidents in recent years, have highlighted the need for a good safety policy for such equipment. Accidents in LPG storage are mainly due to losses of containment of the LPG. Formation of a cloud can lead to a ''Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion'' (UVCE). Liquid leakage can lead to pool fires in the retention area. In some circumstances the heat input of the tank, combined with the loss of mechanical resistance of the steel under high temperature, can lead to a BLEVE ''Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion''. It is obvious that such equipment needs a proper design, maintenance and operating policy. The details to be considered are set out. (4 figures). (Author)

  7. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections

  8. Electrochemical organic destruction in support of Hanford tank waste pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, W.E.; Surma, J.E.; Gervais, K.L.; Buehler, M.F.; Pillay, G.; Schmidt, A.J.

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 61 million gallons of radioactive waste. The current cleanup strategy is to retrieve the waste and separate components into high-level and low-level waste. However, many of the tanks contain organic compounds that create concerns associated with tank safety and efficiency of anticipated separation processes. Therefore, a need exists for technologies that can safely and efficiently destroy organic compounds. Laboratory-scale studies conducted during FY 93 have shown proof-of-principle for electrochemical destruction of organics. Electrochemical oxidation is an inherently safe technology and shows promise for treating Hanford complexant concentrate aqueous/ slurry waste. Therefore, in support of Hanford tank waste pretreatment needs, the development of electrochemical organic destruction (ECOD) technology has been undertaken. The primary objective of this work is to develop an electrochemical treatment process for destroying organic compounds, including tank waste complexants. Electroanalytical analyses and bench-scale flow cell testing will be conducted to evaluate the effect of anode material and process operating conditions on the rate of organic destruction. Cyclic voltammetry will be used to identify oxygen overpotentials for the anode materials and provide insight into reaction steps for the electrochemical oxidation of complexants. In addition, a bench-scale flow cell evaluation will be conducted to evaluate the influence of process operating conditions and anode materials on the rate and efficiency of organic destruction using the nonradioactive a Hanford tank waste simulant

  9. A STUDY OF CORROSION AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF CARBON STEEL NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOOMER, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford reservation Tank Farms in Washington State has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war plutonium production. These tanks will continue to store waste until it is treated and disposed. These nuclear wastes were converted to highly alkaline pH wastes to protect the carbon steel storage tanks from corrosion. However, the carbon steel is still susceptible to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. The waste chemistry varies from tank to tank, and contains various combinations of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, chloride, carbonate, aluminate and other species. The effect of each of these species and any synergistic effects on localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel have been investigated with electrochemical polarization, slow strain rate, and crack growth rate testing. The effect of solution chemistry, pH, temperature and applied potential are all considered and their role in the corrosion behavior will be discussed

  10. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  11. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  12. Model based, sensor-directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.; Thunborg, S.

    1990-01-01

    Sensor-rich, intelligent robots that function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is performing technology development and experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of cleaning up waste stored in underground tanks. The tasks addressed in the SNL experiments are in situ physical characterizations of underground storage tanks (USTs) as well as the contained waste and the removal of the waste from the tank both for laboratory analysis and as part of the tank cleanup process. Both fully automatic and manual robot control technologies are being developed and demonstrated. The SNL-developed concept of human-assisted computer control will be employed whenever manual control of the robot is required. The UST Robot Technology Development Laboratory (URTDL) consists of a commercial gantry robot modified to allow hybrid force/position control

  13. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-102. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-102 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendixes. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-44-05. Characterization information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. The most recent core sampling of tank 241-T-102 (March 1993) predated the existence of data quality objectives (DQOs). An assessment of the technical issues from the currently applicable DQOs was made using data from the 1993 push mode core sampling event, a July 1994 grab sampling event, and a May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Historical information for tank 241-T-102, provided in Appendix A, includes surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. Appendix B contains further sampling and analysis data from the March 1993 push mode core sampling event and data from the grab sampling event in August 1994 and May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Of the two push mode cores taken in March of 1993, cores 55

  14. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-T-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1997-06-24

    A major function of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-T-102. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with tank 241-T-102 waste; and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. The response to technical issues is summarized in Section 2.0, and the best-basis inventory estimate is presented in Section 3.0. Recommendations regarding safety status and additional sampling needs are provided in Section 4.0. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendixes. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-44-05. Characterization information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. The most recent core sampling of tank 241-T-102 (March 1993) predated the existence of data quality objectives (DQOs). An assessment of the technical issues from the currently applicable DQOs was made using data from the 1993 push mode core sampling event, a July 1994 grab sampling event, and a May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Historical information for tank 241-T-102, provided in Appendix A, includes surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. Appendix B contains further sampling and analysis data from the March 1993 push mode core sampling event and data from the grab sampling event in August 1994 and May 1996 vapor flammability measurement. Of the two push mode cores taken in March of 1993, cores 55

  15. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement

  16. Cleanout of waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Lasher, L.C.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    In 1943, six storage tanks were built at the Clinton Laboratories [later to become Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] to contain wastes generated by wartime research and development operations. During the following years, these tanks became an integral part of the ORNL waste system and accumulated approx. 1.5 x 10 6 L (400,000 gal) of sludge containing radioactive wastes. Recently, over a period of approx. 18 months, these tanks were sluiced, the radioactive sludge resuspended, and the resuspended slurry pumped to the ORNL Hydrofracture Facility for underground disposal. In this paper, a summary of the development work is given, and the process design and constraints are described. The operating difficulties encountered and overcome included grinder blade erosion, malfunctioning instruments, pump suction plugging, and slurry settling. About 90% of the settled sludge (containing approx. 715,000 Ci) was removed from the system

  17. Identification of a BET family bromodomain/casein kinase II/TAF-containing complex as a regulator of mitotic condensin function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Rothbart, Scott B; Silva, Andrea C; Vanoosthuyse, Vincent; Radovani, Ernest; Kislinger, Thomas; Roguev, Assen; Ryan, Colm J; Xu, Jiewei; Jahari, Harlizawati; Hardwick, Kevin G; Greenblatt, Jack F; Krogan, Nevan J; Fillingham, Jeffrey S; Strahl, Brian D; Bouhassira, Eric E; Edelmann, Winfried; Keogh, Michael-Christopher

    2014-03-13

    Condensin is a central regulator of mitotic genome structure with mutants showing poorly condensed chromosomes and profound segregation defects. Here, we identify NCT, a complex comprising the Nrc1 BET-family tandem bromodomain protein (SPAC631.02), casein kinase II (CKII), and several TAFs, as a regulator of condensin function. We show that NCT and condensin bind similar genomic regions but only briefly colocalize during the periods of chromosome condensation and decondensation. This pattern of NCT binding at the core centromere, the region of maximal condensin enrichment, tracks the abundance of acetylated histone H4, as regulated by the Hat1-Mis16 acetyltransferase complex and recognized by the first Nrc1 bromodomain. Strikingly, mutants in NCT or Hat1-Mis16 restore the formation of segregation-competent chromosomes in cells containing defective condensin. These results are consistent with a model where NCT targets CKII to chromatin in a cell-cycle-directed manner in order to modulate the activity of condensin during chromosome condensation and decondensation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. V-set and Ig domain-containing 4 (VSIG4)-expressing hepatic F4/80+ cells regulate oral antigen-specific responses in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Wonhwa; Jeon, Youkyoung; Choi, Inhak; Kim, Yeon-Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Oral tolerance can prevent unnecessary immune responses against dietary antigens. Members of the B7 protein family play critical roles in the positive and/or negative regulation of T cell responses to interactions between APCs and T cells. V-set and Ig domain-containing 4 (VSIG4), a B7-related co-signaling molecule, has been known to act as a co-inhibitory ligand and may be critical in establishing immune tolerance. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of VSIG4 signaling in a food allergy and experimental oral tolerance murine models. We analyzed the contributions of the two main sites involved in oral tolerance, the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and the liver, in VSIG4-mediated oral tolerance induction. Through the comparative analysis of major APCs, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, we found that Kupffer cells play a critical role in inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and establishing immune tolerance against oral antigens via VSIG4 signaling. Taken together, these results suggest the possibility of VSIG4 signaling-based regulation of orally administered antigens. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Identification of a BET Family Bromodomain/Casein Kinase II/TAF-Containing Complex as a Regulator of Mitotic Condensin Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensin is a central regulator of mitotic genome structure with mutants showing poorly condensed chromosomes and profound segregation defects. Here, we identify NCT, a complex comprising the Nrc1 BET-family tandem bromodomain protein (SPAC631.02, casein kinase II (CKII, and several TAFs, as a regulator of condensin function. We show that NCT and condensin bind similar genomic regions but only briefly colocalize during the periods of chromosome condensation and decondensation. This pattern of NCT binding at the core centromere, the region of maximal condensin enrichment, tracks the abundance of acetylated histone H4, as regulated by the Hat1-Mis16 acetyltransferase complex and recognized by the first Nrc1 bromodomain. Strikingly, mutants in NCT or Hat1-Mis16 restore the formation of segregation-competent chromosomes in cells containing defective condensin. These results are consistent with a model where NCT targets CKII to chromatin in a cell-cycle-directed manner in order to modulate the activity of condensin during chromosome condensation and decondensation.

  20. Regulation of abiotic stress signalling by Arabidopsis C-terminal domain phosphatase-like 1 requires interaction with a k-homology domain-containing protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sil Jeong

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana CARBOXYL-TERMINAL DOMAIN (CTD PHOSPHATASE-LIKE 1 (CPL1 regulates plant transcriptional responses to diverse stress signals. Unlike typical CTD phosphatases, CPL1 contains two double-stranded (ds RNA binding motifs (dsRBMs at its C-terminus. Some dsRBMs can bind to dsRNA and/or other proteins, but the function of the CPL1 dsRBMs has remained obscure. Here, we report identification of REGULATOR OF CBF GENE EXPRESSION 3 (RCF3 as a CPL1-interacting protein. RCF3 co-purified with tandem-affinity-tagged CPL1 from cultured Arabidopsis cells and contains multiple K-homology (KH domains, which were predicted to be important for binding to single-stranded DNA/RNA. Yeast two-hybrid, luciferase complementation imaging, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses established that CPL1 and RCF3 strongly associate in vivo, an interaction mediated by the dsRBM1 of CPL1 and the KH3/KH4 domains of RCF3. Mapping of functional regions of CPL1 indicated that CPL1 in vivo function requires the dsRBM1, catalytic activity, and nuclear targeting of CPL1. Gene expression profiles of rcf3 and cpl1 mutants were similar during iron deficiency, but were distinct during the cold response. These results suggest that tethering CPL1 to RCF3 via dsRBM1 is part of the mechanism that confers specificity to CPL1-mediated transcriptional regulation.