WorldWideScience

Sample records for tandil natural landscape

  1. The anthropological actions on Tandil natural landscape produced by irreversible alterations and changes in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabe, M.; Morrone, M.

    2007-01-01

    The anthropological actions on Tandil natural landscape are producing irreversible alterations and changes in the landscape. The changes take place mainly in: a) Depredation mining activity on the hills, b) Advance of the constructions on the hills. c) Superficial drainage changes by tubes and dike deficiencies) Stuffed of diggings with industrials solids remainders. The presence of System of Tandilia hills grants a high landscaping and economic value to the area. The mining activity and the related tourism constructions are in constant development. The mentioned activities are harnessed by the economic height of last five years, since Tandil is chosen as place of permanent residence by job and educational supply, and tourism by near accessibility from Buenos Aires city. Like consequence, it takes place great urban expansion where particular houses stand out, also districts, countries; and the related ones to the tourist activity like inns, that are located on the hills, generating changes in the landscape. The study area is located in the S-SW-SE sector of the city of Tandil, head of the party homonym of the Southeastern center of the province of Buenos Aires. The purpose of this paper aim to emphasize the anthropological action like main agent the natural landscape alteration, generating environmental problems. Aerial photography, and topographic maps to scale: 1:50000 were used. (author)

  2. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  3. NATURE MANAGEMENT, LANDSCAPE AND THE CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Floor M.; Godeschalk, Frans E.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of nature management, landscape and environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has gained momentum with the CAP reforms adopted in June 2003. The report explores instruments and approaches that contribute to the inte-gration of nature conservation and landscape concerns into the CAP. A broader use of the CAP instruments might help to achieve nature types in the Netherlands.

  4. Designing agricultural landscapes for natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingrover, E.G.; Geertsema, W.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The green–blue network of semi-natural non-crop landscape elements in agricultural landscapes has the potential to enhance natural pest control by providing various resources for the survival of beneficial insects that suppress crop pests. A study was done in the Hoeksche Waard to explore how

  5. Simulating natural selection in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. L. Landguth; S. A. Cushman; N. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Linking landscape effects to key evolutionary processes through individual organism movement and natural selection is essential to provide a foundation for evolutionary landscape genetics. Of particular importance is determining how spatially- explicit, individual-based models differ from classic population genetics and evolutionary ecology models based on ideal...

  6. Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the introduction to the Ecology and Society special feature on "Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management". Primarily drawing upon examples from Australia, the nine papers in the feature illustrate how landscape science seeks to integrate information from diverse sources to generate management solutions for implementation by individual land managers, communities, and governments at different levels. This introduction refers to the genesis of the feature, briefly outlines the nature and content of landscape science, and then summarizes key features of the nine papers. These are organized into two sections: one deals with inputs from human agents in the landscape, and one with the development of models enabling different management scenarios and environmental changes to be envisaged, understood, and applied to policy development.

  7. Evidence and opportunities for integrating landscape ecology into natural resource planning across multiple-use landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammel, E. Jamie; Carter, Sarah; Haby, Travis S.; Taylor, Jason J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhancing natural resource management has been a focus of landscape ecology since its inception, but numerous authors argue that landscape ecology has not yet been effective in achieving the underlying goal of planning and designing sustainable landscapes. We developed nine questions reflecting the application of fundamental research topics in landscape ecology to the landscape planning process and reviewed two recent landscape-scale plans in western North America for evidence of these concepts in plan decisions. Both plans considered multiple resources, uses, and values, including energy development, recreation, conservation, and protection of cultural and historic resources. We found that land use change and multiscale perspectives of resource uses and values were very often apparent in planning decisions. Pattern-process relationships, connectivity and fragmentation, ecosystem services, landscape history, and climate change were reflected less frequently. Landscape sustainability was considered only once in the 295 decisions reviewed, and outputs of landscape models were not referenced. We suggest six actionable opportunities for further integrating landscape ecology concepts into landscape planning efforts: 1) use landscape sustainability as an overarching goal, 2) adopt a broad ecosystem services framework, 3) explore the role of landscape history more comprehensively, 4) regularly consider and accommodate potential effects of climate change, 5) use landscape models to support plan decisions, and 6) promote a greater presence of landscape ecologists within agencies that manage large land bases and encourage active involvement in agency planning efforts. Together these actions may improve the defensibility, durability, and sustainability of landscape plan decisions.

  8. Alexander von Humboldt's invention of the natural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape took on a new meaning through the new science of plant geography of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1857). In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, "landscape" was foremost a painterly genre. Slowly, painted landscapes came to bear on natural surroundings, but by 1800 it was still not

  9. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-04-02

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions.

  10. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F J J A; Booij, C J H; Tscharntke, T

    2006-07-22

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

  11. Integrated analysis of hydrological system, use and management. Langueyu stream basin, Tandil, Argentina; Analisis integral del sistema hidrico, uso y gestion. Cuenca del arroyo Langueyu, Tandil, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, V.A.; Banda Noriega, R.B.; Barranquero, R.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Rodriguez, C.I.; Miguel, R.E.

    2010-07-01

    This work is aim to hydrological and environmental characterization of Langueyu stream basin, where Tandil city is located. This basin is developed on northern hillside of Tandilia system, in Buenos Aires province, and it drains to NE. There are two different hydrogeological units: crystalline rocks and Cenozoic sediments, which correspond with two hydrolithological characters, fissured and clastic porous, respectively. The population is supplied by groundwater sources. Water exploitation and use were analyzed, according to the growing demands from industrial, agricultural and urban uses. The impacts of intense exploitation were evaluated. High levels of nitrate were corroborated in older wells of the city, which nowadays are in use. The hydrodynamic change in a section of the stream, where it converts to influent, was detected. This disturbance of the natural relation could be a potential source of contamination to the aquifer, due to high charges of industrial and urban effluents which the stream receives. Several population sectors, which have neither a drinking water net nor a sewer system, showed microbiological and chemical water contamination. Other water impact is constituted by several abandoned quarries which have historically received wastes, mainly from foundry industries. In conclusion, water management basin does not aim to sustainable development, due to its lack of integration. It demands the knowledge of hydrological system, according with the goal to avoid water quality degradation and to guarantee its protection. (Author).

  12. Managed and natural landscapes: what do people like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill

    1992-01-01

    Visitors to wildland areas of the United States see an untold variety of natural and manmade features that comprise our national landscape. Efforts to assess public perceptions and concerns about the land and its management led to development of sensitivity levels that were presumed to be a measure of viewer concern for what they saw in the landscape. Sensitivity...

  13. Bridging the gap between landscape ecologyand natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner; Thomas R. Crow; Jianguo Liu; Dale Rabe; Charles F. Rabeni; Patricia A. Soranno; William W. Taylor; Kristiina A. Vogt; John A. Wiens

    2002-01-01

    The challenges facing natural resource managers occur over entire landscapes and involve landscape components at many scales. Many resource managers are shifting their approach from managing resources such as fish, wildlife, and water separately to managing for the integrity of entire ecosystems (Christensen et al., 1996). Indeed, nearly all resource...

  14. An Attempt at Assessing Preferences for Natural Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, James S.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of ways in which man makes a psychological assessment of his environment. Concerned with variables in the environment itself, fifteen photographs of natural landscape scenes were rated on each of twenty-one semantic differential scales by college students. Two major dimensions emerged: natural scenic beauty and a natural force…

  15. Integrated analysis of hydrological system, use and management. Langueyu stream basin, Tandil, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, V.A.; Banda Noriega, R.B.; Barranquero, R.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Rodriguez, C.I.; Miguel, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This work is aim to hydrological and environmental characterization of Langueyu stream basin, where Tandil city is located. This basin is developed on northern hillside of Tandilia system, in Buenos Aires province, and it drains to NE. There are two different hydrogeological units: crystalline rocks and Cenozoic sediments, which correspond with two hydrolithological characters, fissured and clastic porous, respectively. The population is supplied by groundwater sources. Water exploitation and use were analyzed, according to the growing demands from industrial, agricultural and urban uses. The impacts of intense exploitation were evaluated. High levels of nitrate were corroborated in older wells of the city, which nowadays are in use. The hydrodynamic change in a section of the stream, where it converts to influent, was detected. This disturbance of the natural relation could be a potential source of contamination to the aquifer, due to high charges of industrial and urban effluents which the stream receives. Several population sectors, which have neither a drinking water net nor a sewer system, showed microbiological and chemical water contamination. Other water impact is constituted by several abandoned quarries which have historically received wastes, mainly from foundry industries. In conclusion, water management basin does not aim to sustainable development, due to its lack of integration. It demands the knowledge of hydrological system, according with the goal to avoid water quality degradation and to guarantee its protection. (Author).

  16. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  17. Natural Landscape Blocks - CEHC [ds621

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) commissioned the California Essential Habitat Connectivity...

  18. [Comparition of ecological security stress effects of artificial landscapes on natural landscapes in different rapid urban sprawl areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei Xia; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quan Yi; Sun, Cai Ge; Deng, Fu Liang; Zhang, Guo Qin

    2017-04-18

    The expansion of built-up area will cause stress effect on the regional natural ecological security pattern during urbanization process. Taking rapid expanding regions of four inland and coastal cities as study areas, including Tongzhou in Beijing, Zhengding in Hebei, Tanggu in Tianjin and Xiamen in Fujian, we constructed regional landscape stress indexes according to the principle of landscape ecology and comparatively analyzed the landscape pattern characteristics of rapid expanding regions and the differences of stress effect of artificial landscapes on four natural landscapes ecological security pattern in the process of rapid urbanization. Results showed that landscape erosion indexes of Tongzhou, Zhengding, Tanggu and Xiamen in 2015 were 1.039, 0.996, 1.239 and 0.945, respectively, which indicated that the natural landscapes were eroded significantly. Natural landscape types of those four regions presented different threatened levels. Among all natural landscape types, unused land and waters were worst threatened in Tongzhou, Zhengding and Tanggu, while in Xiamen cultivated land and waters showed the highest threat levels. The waters threat indexes of those four areas were all more than 0.743. Landscape isolation indexes of waters and unused land of the inland cities were greater than those of coastal cities, which meant water distribution of inland cities in the space was less gathered than that of coastal cities. Besides, compared with the other natural landscape, unused land and waters suffered the largest stress from artificial landscapes.

  19. Integrating nature, culture, and society: the concept of landscape field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva; Rikoon, S.; Maxa, Josef

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2001), s. 125-138 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : landscape field * nature culture integration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2001

  20. Landscape fires dominate terrestrial natural aerosol - climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.; Arnold, S.; Monks, S. A.; Asmi, A.; Paasonen, P.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is an important source of natural aerosol including landscape fire emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Atmospheric aerosol alters the Earth's climate by absorbing and scattering radiation (direct radiative effect; DRE) and by perturbing the properties of clouds (aerosol indirect effect; AIE). Natural aerosol sources are strongly controlled by, and can influence, climate; giving rise to potential natural aerosol-climate feedbacks. Earth System Models (ESMs) include a description of some of these natural aerosol-climate feedbacks, predicting substantial changes in natural aerosol over the coming century with associated radiative perturbations. Despite this, the sensitivity of natural aerosols simulated by ESMs to changes in climate or emissions has not been robustly tested against observations. Here we combine long-term observations of aerosol number and a global aerosol microphysics model to assess terrestrial natural aerosol-climate feedbacks. We find a strong positive relationship between the summertime anomaly in observed concentration of particles greater than 100 nm diameter and the anomaly in local air temperature. This relationship is reproduced by the model and driven by variability in dynamics and meteorology, as well as natural sources of aerosol. We use an offline radiative transfer model to determine radiative effects due to changes in two natural aerosol sources: landscape fire and biogenic SOA. We find that interannual variability in the simulated global natural aerosol radiative effect (RE) is negatively related to the global temperature anomaly. The magnitude of global aerosol-climate feedback (sum of DRE and AIE) is estimated to be -0.15 Wm-2 K-1 for landscape fire aerosol and -0.06 Wm-2 K-1 for biogenic SOA. These feedbacks are comparable in magnitude, but opposite in sign to the snow albedo feedback, highlighting the need for natural aerosol feedbacks to

  1. Superparticle phenomenology from the natural mini-landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Savoy, Michael; Serce, Hasan; Tata, Xerxes

    2017-06-01

    The methodology of the heterotic mini-landscape attempts to zero in on phenomenologically viable corners of the string landscape where the effective low energy theory is the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with localized grand unification. The gaugino mass pattern is that of mirage-mediation. The magnitudes of various SM Yukawa couplings point to a picture where scalar soft SUSY breaking terms are related to the geography of fields in the compactified dimensions. Higgs fields and third generation scalars extend to the bulk and occur in split multiplets with TeV scale soft masses. First and second generation scalars, localized at orbifold fixed points or tori with enhanced symmetry, occur in complete GUT multiplets and have much larger masses. This picture can be matched onto the parameter space of generalized mirage mediation. Naturalness considerations, the requirement of the observed electroweak symmetry breaking pattern, and LHC bounds on m g together limit the gravitino mass to the m 3/2 ˜ 5-60 TeV range. The mirage unification scale is bounded from below with the limit depending on the ratio of squark to gravitino masses. We show that while natural SUSY in this realization may escape detection even at the high luminosity LHC, the high energy LHC with √{s}=33 TeV could unequivocally confirm or exclude this scenario. It should be possible to detect the expected light higgsinos at the ILC if these are kinematically accessible, and possibly also discriminate the expected compression of gaugino masses in the natural mini-landscape picture from the mass pattern expected in models with gaugino mass unification. The thermal WIMP signal should be accessible via direct detection searches at the multi-ton noble liquid detectors such as XENONnT or LZ.

  2. Environmental planning and management of urban natural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Sadeghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of urbanization such as access to clean water, health, and overall easier life in cities, as well as the disadvantages or its negative effects on environment cannot be ignored. Today, there are numerous environmental problems due to the reduction in ecologically valuable places within urban areas. Bringing nature to the cities appears to be essential to enhance urban environment and to reduce environmental problems in urban communities. In fact, issues resulting from the idea of "sustainability" as a policy-making goal require an integrated environmental policy-making approach. The innovations of new environmental policy-making require policy-making mechanisms that can deal with interdependent characteristics of environmental problems. To this end, new structures have emerged known as Environmental Planning and Management and Strategic Environmental planning and management. This analytical – descriptive article aims to re-examine the origins and concepts related to environmental planning using a field and desk study. With the introduction of urban natural landscape, Environmental planning considers such spaces within the city. In this regard, Khoshk River, Shiraz, Iran, as an urban natural landscape, was analyzed. Environmental planning-based polices were proposed to improve quality of the place under discussion.

  3. Creating dune landscapes for nature and housing - how to assess the designs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, J.; Jungerius, P. D.; Hartman, J.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decades landscape and nature organisations in The Netherlands initiated discussions about safeguarding characteristic historical landscapes, as well as improving nature and landscape quality. In these discussions they were supported by Dutch government agencies and newspapers. As a consequence, architects, landscape architects and building firms in the Netherlands try to upgrade the quality of houses and build-up areas by creating special landscape settings. Dunes are one of the landscapes that appeal to the designers, and several projects make use of dunes to create a quality living environment. Also nature manager construct dunes in what is called 'new nature'. This contribution evaluates several projects creating dune landscapes. Criteria for the evaluation are: - the subsequent geomorphology, - the materials used for construction, - the resulting internal structure, - the soil profile, - the relationship with the vegetation, - the historical integrity of the location. These examples indicate that engaging earth-scientific knowhow would substantially improve the authenticity of the designs.

  4. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1) the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2) the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the effectiveness of

  5. Indicador espacial del metabolismo urbano. Huella Ecológica de la ciudad de Tandil, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Elsa Marcela; Guiñirgo, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Además de problemas urbanos evidentes -contaminación, residuos, etc.-, existe un problema asociado a la propia dinámica del sistema urbano que es de interés: la apropiación creciente de ecosistemas productivos externos destinados a satisfacer los requerimientos del metabolismo urbano de la ciudad de Tandil, Argentina. Se emplea para su cálculo, la Huella Ecológica (HE) (Rees 1996a; Wackernagel 1996) que permite evaluar en términos espaciales –hectáreas- los requerimientos de alimentos, combus...

  6. [Immigrants from across the border in Tandil: Chileans and Bolivians in the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almandoz, M G

    1997-12-01

    "This article deals with [the] settlement of immigrants from Chile and Bolivia in a town in the province of Buenos Aires [Argentina], far away from the borders and from the metropolitan area. Although underrepresented when compared with the overall percentage of immigrants from those two countries in Argentina, the interest of this case lies in the possibility of understanding settlement of new immigrants in dynamic areas of the country. Chilean immigrants live in Tandil in greater number than Bolivian immigrants, but are also older. Though a certain mobility is not unknown, they usually hold low skilled jobs and are only by exception granted social security and medical insurance." (EXCERPT)

  7. A meta-analysis of crop pest and natural enemy response to landscape complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; O'Rourke, Megan E; Blitzer, Eleanor J; Kremen, Claire

    2011-09-01

    Many studies in recent years have investigated the relationship between landscape complexity and pests, natural enemies and/or pest control. However, no quantitative synthesis of this literature beyond simple vote-count methods yet exists. We conducted a meta-analysis of 46 landscape-level studies, and found that natural enemies have a strong positive response to landscape complexity. Generalist enemies show consistent positive responses to landscape complexity across all scales measured, while specialist enemies respond more strongly to landscape complexity at smaller scales. Generalist enemy response to natural habitat also tends to occur at larger spatial scales than for specialist enemies, suggesting that land management strategies to enhance natural pest control should differ depending on whether the dominant enemies are generalists or specialists. The positive response of natural enemies does not necessarily translate into pest control, since pest abundances show no significant response to landscape complexity. Very few landscape-scale studies have estimated enemy impact on pest populations, however, limiting our understanding of the effects of landscape on pest control. We suggest focusing future research efforts on measuring population dynamics rather than static counts to better characterise the relationship between landscape complexity and pest control services from natural enemies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  8. HONDA'S IDEA ABOUT THE UTILIZATION OF NATURAL SCENERY ON "THE USE OF SCENIC LANDSCAPES"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toru; Sanada, Junko

    Essentially, natural scenery area plan must include scenery conservation and utilization as well as natural conservation, actually however, it is said that natural scenery area plan leans much toward natural conservation. So this study aims to focus on Seiroku Honda who has a major thinking about "utilization of scenery" in the Japanese national park's formation stage and clarify Honda's idea about the utilization of natural scenery by analyzing his "the Use of Scenic Landscapes". As a result, following three points are clarified. 1) Honda has four ideas in the base of each plans. 2) scenic landscape as resources in Honda's own ideas. 3) there was some conflict between modification ways and landscape resources.

  9. Analyzing landscape changes in the Bafa Lake Nature Park of Turkey using remote sensing and landscape structure metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbah, Hayriye; Deniz, Bulent; Kara, Baris; Kesgin, Birsen

    2010-06-01

    Bafa Lake Nature Park is one of Turkey's most important legally protected areas. This study aimed at analyzing spatial change in the park environment by using object-based classification technique and landscape structure metrics. SPOT 2X (1994) and ASTER (2005) images are the primary research materials. Results show that artificial surfaces, low maqui, garrigue, and moderately high maqui covers have increased and coniferous forests, arable lands, permanent crop, and high maqui covers have decreased; coniferous forest, high maqui, grassland, and saline areas are in a disappearance stage of the land transformation; and the landscape pattern is more fragmented outside the park boundaries. The management actions should support ongoing vegetation regeneration, mitigate transformation of vegetation structure to less dense and discontinuous cover, control the dynamics at the agricultural-natural landscape interface, and concentrate on relatively low but steady increase of artificial surfaces.

  10. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  11. Simple landscape modifications for pollinator and arthropod natural enemy enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneficial arthropods which play an important role in providing ecosystem services (pollination and pest control) have come under threat as a result of intensive agricultural practices and simplification of habitats. Ecological intensification in agricultural landscapes by diversifying the habitat r...

  12. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Booij, C.J.H.; Tscharntke, T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the

  13. Nature Connectedness and Landscape Preferences of Turkish Preservice Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Simge; Olgan, Refika; Yilmaztekin, Elif Öztürk

    2016-01-01

    The current paper had two aims, first to investigate Turkish pre-service preschool teachers' perceptions of different kinds of landscapes that can be used to achieve their educational goals, their ideas about the characteristics of these settings, and the contribution to children's education, the resource needs, motivations, and barriers they…

  14. Complementary habitat use by wild bees in agro-natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelik, Yael; Winfree, Rachael; Neeson, Thomas; Kremen, Claire

    2012-07-01

    Human activity causes abrupt changes in resource availability across the landscape. In order to persist in human-altered landscapes organisms need to shift their habitat use accordingly. Little is known about the mechanisms by which whole communities persist in human-altered landscapes, including the role of complementary habitat use. We define complementary habitat use as the use of different habitats at different times by the same group of species during the course of their activity period. We hypothesize that complementary habitat use is a mechanism through which native bee species persist in human-altered landscapes. To test this idea, we studied wild bee communities in agro-natural landscapes and explored their community-level patterns of habitat and resource use over space and time. The study was conducted in six agro-natural landscapes in the eastern United States, each containing three main bee habitat types (natural habitat, agricultural fields, and old fields). Each of the three habitats exhibited a unique seasonal pattern in amount, diversity, and composition of floral resources, and together they created phenological complementarity in foraging resources for bees. Individual bee species as well as the bee community responded to these spatiotemporal patterns in floral availability and exhibited a parallel pattern of complementary habitat use. The majority of wild bee species, including all the main crop visitors, used fallow areas within crops early in the season, shifted to crops in mid-season, and used old-field habitats later in the season. The natural-forest habitat supported very limited number of bees, mostly visitors of non-crop plants. Old fields are thus an important feature in these arable landscapes for maintaining crop pollination services. Our study provides a detailed examination of how shifts in habitat and resource use may enable bees to persist in highly dynamic agro-natural landscapes, and points to the need for a broad cross

  15. Landscape structure affects specialists but not generalists in naturally fragmented grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse E.D.; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Harrison, Susan P.; Grace, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how biotic communities respond to landscape spatial structure is critically important for conservation management as natural landscapes become increasingly fragmented. However, empirical studies of the effects of spatial structure on plant species richness have found inconsistent results, suggesting that more comprehensive approaches are needed. In this study, we asked how landscape structure affects total plant species richness and the richness of a guild of specialized plants in a multivariate context. We sampled herbaceous plant communities at 56 dolomite glades (insular, fire-adapted grasslands) across the Missouri Ozarks, and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relative importance of landscape structure, soil resource availability, and fire history for plant communities. We found that landscape spatial structure-defined as the area-weighted proximity of glade habitat surrounding study sites (proximity index)-had a significant effect on total plant species richness, but only after we controlled for environmental covariates. Richness of specialist species, but not generalists, was positively related to landscape spatial structure. Our results highlight that local environmental filters must be considered to understand the influence of landscape structure on communities, and that unique species guilds may respond differently to landscape structure than the community as a whole. These findings suggest that both local environment and landscape context should be considered when developing management strategies for species of conservation concern in fragmented habitats.

  16. A pan-European model of landscape potential to support natural pest control services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rega, Carlo; Bartual, Agustín M.; Bocci, Gionata; Sutter, Louis; Albrecht, Matthias; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Jeanneret, Philippe; Werf, van der Wopke; Pfister, Sonja C.; Holland, John M.; Paracchini, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Pest control by natural enemies (natural pest control) is an important regulating ecosystem service with significant implications for the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. The presence of semi-natural habitats and landscape heterogeneity are key determinants of the delivery of this service.

  17. Affordances and Landscapes: Overcoming the Nature-Culture Dichotomy through Niche Construction Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Escribano, Manuel; De Pinedo-García, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we reject the nature-culture dichotomy by means of the idea of affordance or possibility for action, which has important implications for landscape theory. Our hypothesis is that, just as the idea of affordance can serve to overcome the subjective-objective dichotomy, the ideas of landscape and ecological niche, properly defined, would allow us to also transcend the nature-culture dichotomy. First, we introduce an overview of landscape theory, emphasizing processual landscape theory as the most suitable approach for satisfying both cultural and naturalist approaches. After that, we introduce the idea of affordance and we analyze a tension between sociocultural and transcultural affordances (affordances that depend on cultural conventions and affordances that depend on lawful information and bodily aspects of agents). This tension has various implications for landscape theory and ecological niches. Our proposal is that sociocultural and transcultural aspects of affordances could be systematically accommodated if we apply niche construction theory (the theory that explains the process by which organisms modify their selective environments) as a methodological framework for explaining the emergence of ecological niches. This approach will lead us to an integrative account of landscapes as the products of the interaction between human and environmental elements, making it a clear example of a concept that transcends the nature-culture dichotomy.

  18. Examining fire-prone forest landscapes as coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Spies; Eric M. White; Jeffrey D. Kline; A. Paige Fisher; Alan Ager; John Bailey; John Bolte; Jennifer Koch; Emily Platt; Christine S. Olsen; Derric Jacobs; Bruce Shindler; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Roger. Hammer

    2014-01-01

    Fire-prone landscapes are not well studied as coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and present many challenges for understanding and promoting adaptive behaviors and institutions. Here, we explore how heterogeneity, feedbacks, and external drivers in this type of natural hazard system can lead to complexity and can limit the development of more adaptive approaches...

  19. The Art in Visualizing Natural Landscapes from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Shipman, J. S.; Adams, T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing data can capture the changing Earth at cm resolution, across hundreds of spectral channels, and multiple times per hour. There is an art in combining these datasets together to fully capture the beauty of our planet. The resulting artistic piece can be further transformed by building in an accompanying musical score, allowing for a deeper emotional connection with the public. We make use of visible, near, middle and long wave infrared and radar data as well as different remote sensing techniques to uniquely capture our changing landscape in the spaceborne data. We will generate visually compelling imagery and videos that represent hazardous events from dust storms to landslides and from volcanic eruptions to forest fires. We will demonstrate how specific features of the Earth's landscape can be emphasized through the use of different datasets and color combinations and how, by adding a musical score, we can directly connect with the viewer and heighten their experience. We will also discuss our process to integrate the different aspects of our project together and how it could be developed to capture the beauty of other planets across the solar system using spaceborne imagery and data. Bringing together experts in art installations, composing musical scores, and remote sensing image visualization can lead to new and exciting artistic representations of geoscience data. The resulting product demonstrates there is an art to visualizing remote sensing data to capture the beauty of our planet and that incorporating a musical score can take us all to new places and emotions to enhance our experience.

  20. Understanding European education landscape on natural disasters - a textbook research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both

  1. Do Humans Really Prefer Semi-open Natural Landscapes? A Cross-Cultural Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägerhäll, Caroline M.; Ode Sang, Åsa; Englund, Jan-Eric; Ahlner, Felix; Rybka, Konrad; Huber, Juliette; Burenhult, Niclas

    2018-01-01

    There is an assumption in current landscape preference theory of universal consensus in human preferences for moderate to high openness in a natural landscape. This premise is largely based on empirical studies of urban Western populations. Here we examine for the first time landscape preference across a number of geographically, ecologically and culturally diverse indigenous populations. Included in the study were two urban Western samples of university students (from southern Sweden) and five non-Western, indigenous and primarily rural communities: Jahai (Malay Peninsula), Lokono (Suriname), Makalero (Timor), Makasae (Timor), and Wayuu (Colombia). Preference judgements were obtained using pairwise forced choice assessments of digital visualizations of a natural landscape varied systematically on three different levels of topography and vegetation density. The results show differences between the Western and non-Western samples, with interaction effects between topography and vegetation being present for the two Swedish student samples but not for the other five samples. The theoretical claim of human preferences for half-open landscapes was only significantly confirmed for the student sample comprising landscape architects. The five non Western indigenous groups all preferred the highest level of vegetation density. Results show there are internal similarities between the two Western samples on the one hand, and between the five non-Western samples on the other. To some extent this supports the idea of consensus in preference, not universally but within those categories respectively.

  2. Cultural Landscapes as a Methodology for Understanding Natural Resource Management Impacts in the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Toupal

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural demands on public lands in the United States continue to challenge federal land managers to address social and cultural concerns in their planning efforts. Specifically, they lack adequate knowledge of cultural concerns, as well as a consistent strategy for acquiring that knowledge for use in decision-making. Current federal approaches to understanding such issues as access, use, and control of resources include public participation, conservation partnerships, government-to-government consultations with American Indian tribes, cultural resource inventories, and landscape analysis. Given that cultural knowledge arises from human-nature relationships and shared perceptions of natural environments, and that landscapes are the ultimate expression of such knowledge, an exploratory methodology was developed to provide a different approach to understanding cultural concerns through landscape perceptions. Using cultural landscape theories and applications from the natural and social sciences, this study examines the landscape perceptions of four groups concerned with management planning of the Baboquivari Wilderness Area in southern Arizona: the Bureau of Land Management, the landowners of the Altar Valley, recreationists, and members of the Tohono O'odham Nation. The methodology is based on a human-nature relationship rather than cultural aspects or features. It takes a holistic approach that differs from other perception studies in that it includes: emic aspects of data collection and analysis; a spatial component (triangulation of data collection through narrative and graphic descriptions; ethnographic, on-site interviews; and cultural consensus analysis and small-sample theory. The results include: verification of four cultural groups; two levels of consensus (in the population of concern, and in each group that overlap in some aspects of landscape perception; descriptions of four cultural landscapes that illustrate similarities and

  3. Naturalization of landscaped parkland at Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of a program for the naturalization of Nanticoke Park, a 30 hectare area located on the property of Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke Generating Station was discussed. The station, which is located in southern Ontario very near to noted wildlife areas, is the largest coal-fired generating station in North America. Naturalization of Nanticoke Park began with passive naturalization of interior areas. An active naturalization program involving four to five hectare size areas annually was begun in 1997, to be completed over a five -year period. This presentation described the site preparation, planting methods, post-planting tending methods, survival assessment of planted areas, and scientific research initiatives including mulch trials with zebra mussel shells to increase soil moisture. The lessons learned from the two year experiment in determining the optimum planting strategy and methods were described. 7 refs., 1 tab

  4. The green spaces of public use in the city of Tandil, county of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, Susana; Erbiti, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey and diagnostically characterize the green public spaces in the city of Tandil (Pcia. Bs. As, Argentina). The multivariate analysis (PCA) employed shows the relationships among environmental components (vegetation type and condition, soil, sidewalks and water bodies), infrastructure (benches, playgrounds, lighting) and activities, which reveals relationships bound to green spaces (GS). It was also assessed the degree of association between GS and. population. The results pointed out that, even though the area belonging to squares and small open places, where 83% of the population is concentrated, does not comply with the required percentage stated by the regulations, larger GS (such as parks) influence positively on this estimated index, regarding its function large GS (30%) are bound to a tourist purpose the intermediate ones (52da) to a recreational environmental function, and the smaller ones (20%) are associated with recreational activities or with the urban design. We consider that this research contributes towards the GS characterization, what can be de useful in future green space planning. Besides, it revalues their double function: creative and ecological role in the urban environmental quality

  5. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Fayette and Lycoming Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.; Gillenwater, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Fayette County and Lycoming County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  6. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Beaver and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Slonecker, E. Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Beaver County and Butler County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  7. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Sullivan and Wyoming Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Sullivan County and Wyoming County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  8. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Lackawanna and Wayne Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, L.E.; Slonecker, E.T.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Lackawanna County and Wayne County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  9. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Armstrong and Indiana Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Armstrong County and Indiana County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  10. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Somerset and Westmoreland Counties, Pennsylvania,2004--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, L.E.; Slonecker, E.T.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Somerset County and Westmoreland County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  11. Ejes de expansión urbana, geomorfología y calidad ambiental en la ciudad de Tandil, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    García, María Celia

    2014-01-01

    En los últimos cuarenta años, la Geomorfología ha encontrado numerosos campos de aplicación, entre ellos al planeamiento urbano. En el ambiente urbano de una ciudad de tamaño intermedio como Tandil, es sin duda fundamental el estudio de la relación que vincula al relieve y procesos geomorfológicos que hacen al emplazamiento de la ciudad, y la calidad ambiental de los ejes de crecimiento. La ciudad de Tandil se emplaza al pié de las sierras del mismo nombre, y ocupa un lugar importante en el c...

  12. Natural plant revegetation on reclaimed coal mine landscapes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... ... activities result in a drastic disturbance mining areas become an important ... ecosystem, it is critical to restore as many aspects of natural vegetation ... plays the primary roles in the process of soil formation. Then, once the ...

  13. Outdoor recreation in shifting societal and natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; J. M.  Bowker; Katherine  Smith; Cindi  West

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor recreation contributes to public health, supports hundreds of thousands of jobs, and  provides billions of dollars annually to rural economies. Visitors to federal lands alone spent $51  billion in 2012 in nearby communities during their trips to recreate on public lands and waters  (Forest Service National Center for Natural Resources Economic Research 2014)....

  14. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Allegheny and Susquehanna Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters of wells across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Allegheny County and Susquehanna County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  15. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Greene and Tioga Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Fisher, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in the area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Greene County and Tioga County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics are also used to quantify these changes and are included in this publication.

  16. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Bradford and Washington Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.; Marr, D.A.; Fisher, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in the area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is often located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Bradford County and Washington County, Pennsylvania, between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is used to quantify these changes and are included in this publication.

  17. Nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Matějka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 109-123 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  18. NatureLinks: Protected areas, wilderness, and landscape connectivity in South Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Stokes; Greg Leaman

    2007-01-01

    The South Australian Government has recognized that, despite an extensive protected area system (26 percent of the State), Statewide ecological goals will not be achieved on protected areas alone. The NatureLinks model promotes protected areas acting as “ecological cores” in landscapes managed with conservation objectives. To implement this model, partnerships with...

  19. Relationship between the abundance of aphids and their natural enemies in cereal fields and landscape composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, D. A.; Parisey, N.; Burel, F.; Plantegenest, M.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Butet, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2012), s. 89-101 ISSN 1805-0174 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : agroecosystems * landscape structure * crop pests * aphids * biological control * semi-natural habitats Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Gestión del agua subterránea en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones de Tandil (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Corina Iris; Jacinto, Guillermina; Ruiz de Galarreta, Alejandro; Banda Noriega, Roxana

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen y analizan los actores y modos de explotación y uso involucrados en la gestión del recurso hídrico subterráneo en un barrio periférico de Tandil -Cerro Los Leones- (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina), que carece de servicios de agua potable y cloacas. Estudios previos demostraron contaminación química y bacteriológica del agua que pone en riesgo la salud de la población. Se caracterizan los modos de uso y explotación del agua, señalando importantes deficiencias...

  1. Design Transformation based on Nature and Identity Formation in the Design of Landscape Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Muslim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of initiative from the designers to integrate the environmental resources in the material and design production of local urban landscape elements that reflects human culture and lifestyle. Based on criteria and principles of symbol design and transformation process, this paper describes the symbiotic relationship between local plants (flower and designs of landscape elements. Using visual analysis, the researcher manipulated shapes and forms of local plant images in producing possible shapes and forms for a design of landscape element (lamp post. The results indicate that the design transformation is a systematic process that allows for variations in design without losing the core characteristics and identity of the basic elements of nature.

  2. Beyond theories of plant invasions: Lessons from natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    There are a growing number of contrasting theories about plant invasions, but most are only weakly supported by small-scale field experiments, observational studies, and mathematical models. Among the most contentious theories is that species-rich habitats should be less vulnerable to plant invasion than species-poor sites, stemming from earlier theories that competition is a major force in structuring plant communities. Early ecologists such as Charles Darwin (1859) and Charles Elton (1958) suggested that a lack of intense interspecific competition on islands made these low-diversity habitats vulnerable to invasion. Small-scale field experiments have supported and contradicted this theory, as have various mathematical models. In contrast, many large-scale observational studies and detailed vegetation surveys in continental areas often report that species-rich areas are more heavily invaded than species-poor areas, but there are exceptions here as well. In this article, I show how these seemingly contrasting patterns converge once appropriate spatial and temporal scales are considered in complex natural environments. I suggest ways in which small-scale experiments, mathematical models, and large- scale observational studies can be improved and better integrated to advance a theoretically based understanding of plant invasions.

  3. Social and natural sciences differ in their research strategies, adapted to work for different knowledge landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Do different fields of knowledge require different research strategies? A numerical model exploring different virtual knowledge landscapes, revealed two diverging optimal search strategies. Trend following is maximized when the popularity of new discoveries determine the number of individuals researching it. This strategy works best when many researchers explore few large areas of knowledge. In contrast, individuals or small groups of researchers are better in discovering small bits of information in dispersed knowledge landscapes. Bibliometric data of scientific publications showed a continuous bipolar distribution of these strategies, ranging from natural sciences, with highly cited publications in journals containing a large number of articles, to the social sciences, with rarely cited publications in many journals containing a small number of articles. The natural sciences seem to adapt their research strategies to landscapes with large concentrated knowledge clusters, whereas social sciences seem to have adapted to search in landscapes with many small isolated knowledge clusters. Similar bipolar distributions were obtained when comparing levels of insularity estimated by indicators of international collaboration and levels of country-self citations: researchers in academic areas with many journals such as social sciences, arts and humanities, were the most isolated, and that was true in different regions of the world. The work shows that quantitative measures estimating differences between academic disciplines improve our understanding of different research strategies, eventually helping interdisciplinary research and may be also help improve science policies worldwide.

  4. Natural and artificial reforestation in the mining landscapes of the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ivakina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The area of technogenic territories in the Russian Far East and Siberia continues to increase. The aim of this article is show the degree of reforestation processes scrutiny in mining landscapes of the Russian Far Eastern region. The results of technogenic landscapes research of the Russian Far East are represented by extensive set of knowledge, accumulated over half a century, and highly of disparate in resent time. They are not extensive as the results of studies of natural landscapes, but have important practical importance. Time of mining influence in the landscapes of the Far Eastern region is relatively small, and makes some decades in most cases. Therefore, the results of most studies belong to early, at least middle stages of ecological successions. Floral features of mining areas are thoroughly characterized. Many papers are devoted to the regularities of self-healing vegetation. Questions of recultivation are considered for each site individually. It is recommended to provide forestry, recreation, sanitation and meliorative restoration that assume different recultivation schemes. The selection of wood species is commonly recommended from the number of native species, because they are better adapted for local growing conditions. Compiled the lists of tree species, most successfully surviving on the dumps. In the presence of fairly extensive scientific literature, detailed studies of the structure and dynamics of disturbed areas are few in number. In particular, the facies structure of technogenic territories have not been studied, the recovery process of vegetation differentiated for different types of habitats were not considered and there are no detailed landscape and geobotanical maps of disturbed areas. Unfortunately, monitoring studies of natural and artificial reforestation are not developed.

  5. Focal species and landscape "naturalness" corridor models offer complementary approaches for connectivity conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade Krosby; Ian Breckheimer; D. John Pierce; Peter H. Singleton; Sonia A. Hall; Karl C. Halupka; William L. Gaines; Robert A. Long; Brad H. McRae; Brian L. Cosentino; Joanne P. Schuett-Hames

    2015-01-01

    Context   The dual threats of habitat fragmentation and climate change have led to a proliferation of approaches for connectivity conservation planning. Corridor analyses have traditionally taken a focal species approach, but the landscape ‘‘naturalness’’ approach of modeling connectivity among areas of low human modification has gained popularity...

  6. Nature and culture in Amazonian landscape: a photographic experience echoing Amerindian cosmology and historical ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As an artistic experience, the photographic research "Arborescence - plant physiognomy in Amazonian landscape" conduces the author to discover landscape as an interpenetration of Nature and Culture (man's indirect presence; being face to face with vegetable subjects; continuity, undifferentiation and equivalence between the 'natural' (heterogeneous, spontaneous, native, rural and the 'cultural' (homogeneous, cultivated, exotic, urban in the experience of landscape; arborescence as a "cosmic image" (Gaston Bachelard, where the high (sky, light, branches, sky water and the low (earth, shade, roots, land water are equivalent and reversible poles. Such experience echoes the eco-cosmology of forest societies in Amazonia. The Amerindian cosmology is a "symbolic ecology" (Philippe Descola, that is, "a complex dynamics of social intercourse and transformations between humans and non-humans, visible and invisible subjects" (Bruce Albert; the Amerindian ecology is "a cosmology put into practice" (Kaj Århem, wherein hunted animals and cultivated plants are 'relatives' to be seduced or coerced. Such model appears to be a form of "socialization of nature" (Descola, "humanization of the forest" (Evaristo Eduardo de Miranda and "indirect anthropization" of Amazonian ecosystems (Descola which produces "cultural forests" (William Balée.

  7. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Leong

    Full Text Available Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1 rates of bee visitation, 2 viable seed set, and 3 the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set. We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  8. Natural sources of metals in the south of West Siberia landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslyakov, N.A.; Kalinin, Yu.A.; Roslyakova, N.V.; Kropacheva, M.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper dwells on a negative effect of natural anomalous concentrations of heavy and radioactive metals on state-of-the-art landscapes, with their vertical zonality distinctly expressed and ore mineralization composition miscellaneous. In terms of ecology there are given data on element distributions depending on the vertical zonality and genetic belonging of West Siberian elementary landscapes. Natural geochemical anomalies are shown to have a long formation history. General distribution trend of Li, Be, B, P, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Sn, Te, Ba, W, Au, Pb, Bi, Hg, Th, U as well as Hf, Ta, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, Lu in major types of the region rocks and levels of their anomalous concentrations have been analyzed. Against the regional background a significant effect upon ecogeochemistry of state-of-the-art landscapes of natural anomalies of heavy and radioactive metals genesis and composition of which find their reflection in the vertical zonality of the surface relief have been shown.

  9. Integrating natural disturbances and management activities to examine risks and opportunities in the central Oregon landscape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles A. Hemstrom; James Merzenich; Theresa Burcsu; Janet Ohmann; Ryan Singleton

    2010-01-01

    We used state and transition models to integrate natural disturbances and management activities for a 275 000-ha landscape in the central Oregon Cascades. The landscape consists of a diverse mix of land ownerships, land use allocations, and environments. Three different management scenarios were developed from public input: (1) no management except wildfire suppression...

  10. Bigger is better: Improved nature conservation and economic returns from landscape-level mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina M; Miteva, Daniela A; Baumgarten, Leandro; Hawthorne, Peter L; Sochi, Kei; Polasky, Stephen; Oakleaf, James R; Uhlhorn, Elizabeth M; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development.

  11. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  12. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ripperger

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae, a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  13. Cogent Confabulation based Expert System for Segmentation and Classification of Natural Landscape Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAOVIC, M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since there has been an increase in the number of automatic wildfire monitoring and surveillance systems in the last few years, natural landscape images have been of great importance. In this paper we propose an expert system for fast segmentation and classification of regions on natural landscape images that is suitable for real-time applications. We focus primarily on Mediterranean landscape images since the Mediterranean area and areas with similar climate are the ones most associated with high wildfire risk. The proposed expert system is based on cogent confabulation theory and knowledge bases that contain information about local and global features, optimal color spaces suitable for classification of certain regions, and context of each class. The obtained results indicate that the proposed expert system significantly outperforms well-known classifiers that it was compared against in both accuracy and speed, and that it is effective and efficient for real-time applications. Additionally, we present a FESB MLID dataset on which we conducted our research and that we made publicly available.

  14. Cross-Border Landscape: Construction of Natural Heritage and Local Development at Bulgarian-Serbian Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Markov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normally nature is examined as a phenomenon which is subject to natural laws; it belongs to the field of natural sciences. In constructivist perspective the environment is subsumed under the symbolism of humans’ tradition and culture. From such point of view the very notion of nature is unthinkable without taking into account its existence and understanding in a specific social, economic and cultural context of definite time, space and society. In the proposed paper I proceed from this paradigm in examination of a definite natural landscape which, however, is divided by the political border. The research attention is focused on a region of Bulgarian-Serbian borderlands – the area where the Erma River flows. The river takes its sources in Serbia and though it is not very long, it is notable for passing the Bulgarian-Serbian border twice, and for its two remarkable gorges – the Gorge of Tran in Bulgaria and the Gorge of Poganovo in Serbia. During the socialist period this border region was under strong military and police control. The crossing of the border was formally impossible; the borderlands remained peripheral industrially undeveloped areas and were putted under strong depopulation. However, the lands on either side of the border preserved its pristine nature. During the last two decades the preserved natural landscape and certain nature objects have been turned into more important landmarks and included in the value scale of local communities as symbols and heritage. In result, the above mentioned gorges have become more important part of strategic priorities in the local policies of revival of these economically undeveloped borderlands in the Western Bulgaria and Eastern Serbia. Nowadays the local efforts are uniting through different joint cross-border projects and activities in the sphere of nature preservation and eco-tourism.

  15. The appreciation of nature and landscape by tourism service providers and visitors in the Ore Mountains (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Stein; Gerd Lupp; Jan Behrens; Christina Renner; Karsten Grunewald

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents empirical studies on the appreciation of nature and landscape in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany) by tourism service providers (TSP) and visitors. Attractive landscape and experience of nature are the most important reasons to visit this region and to spend leisure time there. Particularly mountain meadows, raised bogs and mixed forests are highly appreciated. Deforestation, industrial development and the decline of biodiversity would reduce attractiveness for vi...

  16. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  17. Temporal dynamics influenced by global change: bee community phenology in urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Ponisio, Lauren C; Kremen, Claire; Thorp, Robbin W; Roderick, George K

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization and agricultural intensification of landscapes are important drivers of global change, which in turn have direct impacts on local ecological communities leading to shifts in species distributions and interactions. Here, we illustrate how human-altered landscapes, with novel ornamental and crop plant communities, result not only in changes to local community diversity of floral-dependent species, but also in shifts in seasonal abundance of bee pollinators. Three years of data on the spatio-temporal distributions of 91 bee species show that seasonal patterns of abundance and species richness in human-altered landscapes varied significantly less compared to natural habitats in which floral resources are relatively scarce in the dry summer months. These findings demonstrate that anthropogenic environmental changes in urban and agricultural systems, here mediated through changes in plant resources and water inputs, can alter the temporal dynamics of pollinators that depend on them. Changes in phenology of interactions can be an important, though frequently overlooked, mechanism of global change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Relative importance of habitat area and isolation for bird occurrence patterns in a naturally patchy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Johnson, E.J.; Bissonette, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    There is debate among ecologists about whether total habitat area or patch arrangement contributes most to population and/or community responses to fragmented or patchy landscapes. We tested the relative effects of patch area and isolation for predicting bird occurrence in a naturally patchy landscape in the Bear River Mountains of Northern Utah, USA. We selected focal patches (mountain meadows) ranging in elevation from 1,920 to 2,860 m and in size from 0.6 to 182 ha. Breeding birds were sampled in each focal meadow during the summers of 2003 and 2004 using variable-distance point transects. Logistic regression and likelihood-based model selection were used to determine the relationship between likelihood of occurrence of three bird species (Brewer's sparrow, vesper sparrow, and white-crowned sparrow) and area, isolation, and proximity metrics. We used model weights and model-averaged confidence intervals to assess the importance of each predictor variable. Plots of area versus isolation were used to evaluate complex relationships between the variables. We found that meadow area was the most important variable for explaining occurrence for two species, and that isolation was the most important for the other. We also found that the absolute distance was more appropriate for evaluating isolation responses than was the species-specific proximity metric. Our findings add clarity to the debate between ecologists regarding the relative importance of area and isolation in species responses to patchy landscapes.

  19. Literary Routes: Contributions to Natural/Cultural Heritage Tourism. How landscape transforms literature and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalinda Ruiz Scarfuto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Literary routes inspired by landscapes is a topic where cultural and natural routes merge to form an added value of heritage that is greater than either one standing alone.  Landscape is traditionally defined as a consequence of transformations by humans, and its scope rarely takes into account how nature has inspired literature to advance the “intellectual development of humankind,” hence transforming heritage.  Literary routes paralleling transhumance routes embraced by the Sami, First Nations, or Spanish shepherds (full of landscapes, seascapes, and riverscapes, can actively transmit traditional technologies, biodiversity, and cosmic philosophy for the betterment of humankind; for example, the depth of literary heritage inspired by landscapes enhances our collective memory through a network of archives (libraries, collections.  The continuous dissemination of this literature traversing borders, language barriers, and time periods has stimulated literary routes to emerge as a function of moving the experience from an intangible heritage based on imaginary landscapes to a tangible sensory experience in situ following a plot, author’s life, or a myth. Literary routes respond to the demand of the growing target travellers, who are more literate and active today than in the past. They are excited followers of their favourite writers, and seek ways to be in contact with them. Now it is time to rekindle the collective memory, expand the literary dimension, and offer a sensorial in situ experience by adding a literary link. For instance, myths of the Ohlone Nation based near a California wetlands use the symbolic coyote as the intermediary to teach humans how to live in harmony with their ecosystem; or in Spain, Arcipreste de Hita’s novel El Libro de Buen Amor (1330 describes traditions and gastronomy as it criss-crosses the Guadarrama mountains, alongside the Poets’ Route that includes international Nobel prize winners in literature

  20. Use of ethnographic approaches to the study of health experiences in relation to natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Liz; Varley, Pete

    2012-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of ethnographic approaches to explore how engagement with natural landscapes might benefit people's health. Drawing on a selected review of empirical research we identified 30 relevant research papers that utilised qualitative methods to explore health issues and engagement with nature. Three examples of 'alternative' - i.e. non-mainstream qualitative approaches - are used to illustrate how different methods can be used to explore people's experiences of engaging with nature for health. While quantitative methods are dominant in health research, qualitative approaches are becoming more widely used. Approaches such as autoethnography can add value to nature and health studies by providing opportunities for researchers to be self-critical of their role as a researcher. Accompanied visits and visual ethnography can afford the researcher rich data about bodily movement, facial expressions and journeys, as well as dialogues associated with the meanings of nature for health. The paper concludes by suggesting that ethnographic methods can provide useful and important insights into why people engage with the natural environment and the range of health benefits they may gain from contact with nature.

  1. Resources or landmarks: which factors drive homing success in Tetragonula carbonaria foraging in natural and disturbed landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A

    2016-10-01

    To date, no study has investigated how landscape structural (visual) alterations affect navigation and thus homing success in stingless bees. We addressed this question in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria by performing marking, release and re-capture experiments in landscapes differing in habitat homogeneity (i.e., the proportion of elongated ground features typically considered prominent visual landmarks). We investigated how landscape affected the proportion of bees and nectar foragers returning to their hives as well as the earliest time bees and foragers returned. Undisturbed landscapes with few landmarks (that are conspicuous to the human eye) and large proportions of vegetation cover (natural forests) were classified visually/structurally homogeneous, and disturbed landscapes with many landmarks and fragmented or no extensive vegetation cover (gardens and plantations) visually/structurally heterogeneous. We found that proportions of successfully returning nectar foragers and earliest times first bees and foragers returned did not differ between landscapes. However, most bees returned in the visually/structurally most (forest) and least (garden) homogeneous landscape, suggesting that they use other than elongated ground features for navigation and that return speed is primarily driven by resource availability in a landscape.

  2. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  3. Managing Nature–Business as Usual: Resource Extraction Companies and Their Representations of Natural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to knowledge of how one category of business organization, very large, British-based, natural resource extraction corporations, has begun to manage its operations for sustainability. The object of study is a large volume of texts that make representations of the managing-for-sustainability practices of these multinational corporations (MNCs. The macro-level textual analysis identifies patterns in the wording of the representations of practice. Hajer’s understanding of discourse, in which ideas are contextualized within social processes of practice, provides the theoretical approach for discourse analysis that gives an insight into how they understand and practice sustainability. Through this large-scale discourse analysis, illustrated in the article with specific textual examples, one can see that these natural resource MNCs are developing a vocabulary and a “grammar” which enables them to manage natural spaces in the same way that they are able to manage their own far-flung business operations. They make simplified representations of the much more complex natural landscapes in which their operations are sited and these models of nature can then be incorporated into the corporations’ operational management processes. Their journey towards sustainability delivers, in practice, the management of nature as business continues as usual.

  4. The appreciation of nature and landscape by tourism service providers and visitors in the Ore Mountains (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical studies on the appreciation of nature and landscape in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany by tourism service providers (TSP and visitors. Attractive landscape and experience of nature are the most important reasons to visit this region and to spend leisure time there. Particularly mountain meadows, raised bogs and mixed forests are highly appreciated. Deforestation, industrial development and the decline of biodiversity would reduce attractiveness for visitors. We also assessed whether the tourism sector is prepared to contribute to the funding of nature conservation and landscape management. Use of general tax revenues is favoured, but other modes would also be accepted, e.g. a nature tax. Willingness to pay (WTP is ranging between €0.75 and €1.36 per guest per night by TSP, or between €1.06 and €2.73 per day by visitors. With respect to landscape preference and WTP we found in some cases significant differences among visitors, depending on region of residence, age and education level. A major part of the annual costs for nature conservation and landscape could be covered by public funds (taxes, if the results of the WTP approach were understood as a sign of societal demand and a call to action.

  5. APORTES A LA CRONOLOGÍA DE LA CASA DE JUAN FUGL (TANDIL, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA A PARTIR DE ESTUDIOS ARQUEOMAGNÉTICOS (Contribution to the Chronology of the Juan Fugl House (Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina based on Archaeomagnetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gogorza

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available La aparición de vestigios de construcciones subterráneas y antiguas canteras de arena, en forma de túneles, en el casco histórico de la ciudad de Tandil ha generado una serie de mitos urbanos. Estos relacionan la fundación del Fuerte Independencia (FI de 1823 con los posteriores asentamientos de eurocriollos en la frontera sur, momentos en que empieza a edificarse la ciudad de Tandil. Esas cavidades son atribuidas a galerías de escape por el riesgo de «malones realizados por los indios». Muchas de estas asociaciones fueron realizadas por historiadores locales basándose en la «bravura de los originarios» y el hallazgo fortuito de estructuras subterráneas descubiertas por operarios o residentes diversos. El resurgimiento de esta información en los medios de prensa reabre la hipótesis explicativa sobre los túneles del FI y la comunicación de estos con las primeras casas construidas alrededor de la fortificación. Uno de estos edificios fue la vivienda de Juan Fugl, principal precursor de la ciudad. El objetivo de este trabajo es datar ladrillos de la casa de Juan Fugl mediante estudios arqueomagnéticos con la finalidad de establecer la cronología de su ocupación con la del FI y proporcionar evidencias más ajustadas sobre la relación entre esta vivienda y las construcciones subterráneas arriba mencionadas. ENGLISH: The appearance of vestiges of tunnel-like underground constructions and ancient sand quarries in the historic center of the city of Tandil has generated a series of urban myths. These link the foundation of Fuerte Independencia (FI in 1823, when the city was founded, with the subsequent settlements of “euro-criollos” on the southern border. The cavities are thought to be escape tunnels created because of the risk of “raids” carried out by the Indians. Many of these associations were made by local historians based on the “bravery of the settlers” and the fortuitous finding of underground structures

  6. Natural Resource Management Schemes as Entry Points for Integrated Landscape Approaches: Evidence from Ghana and Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Samson; Ros-Tonen, Mirjam A F; Reed, James; Sunderland, Terry

    2017-04-20

    In recognition of the failures of sectoral approaches to overcome global challenges of biodiversity loss, climate change, food insecurity and poverty, scientific discourse on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development is shifting towards integrated landscape governance arrangements. Current landscape initiatives however very much depend on external actors and funding, raising the question of whether, and how, and under what conditions, locally embedded resource management schemes can serve as entry points for the implementation of integrated landscape approaches. This paper assesses the entry point potential for three established natural resource management schemes in West Africa that target landscape degradation with involvement of local communities: the Chantier d'Aménagement Forestier scheme encompassing forest management sites across Burkina Faso and the Modified Taungya System and community wildlife resource management initiatives in Ghana. Based on a review of the current literature, we analyze the extent to which design principles that define a landscape approach apply to these schemes. We found that the CREMA meets most of the desired criteria, but that its scale may be too limited to guarantee effective landscape governance, hence requiring upscaling. Conversely, the other two initiatives are strongly lacking in their design principles on fundamental components regarding integrated approaches, continual learning, and capacity building. Monitoring and evaluation bodies and participatory learning and negotiation platforms could enhance the schemes' alignment with integrated landscape approaches.

  7. Social-Natural Landscape Reorganised: Swedish Forest-edge Farmers and Wolf Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander-Lindqvist Annelie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The politics and the underlying reasons behind the recovery of the Scandinavian wolf population are increasingly contested. According to official policy, wolves should be guaranteed a place in the Swedish natural world. However, the conflict over whether Sweden should host a wolf population sets views on biodiversity and sustainable development against the perspective that local traditions and livelihoods are threatened by the return of wolves. These diverging environmental visions can be seen as competing interests and understandings of nature and wildlife. The desire of the state and nature conservation organisations to implement measures to provide conditions fostering wolf survival are counterbalanced by local action groups and community residents struggling to maintain conditions for conserving summer pastures, opportunities for hunting with sporting dogs, and other recreational activities such as mushroom- and berry-picking. Not only are these activities considered to have high natural and cultural value, the European Union (EU has stated that small-scale farming is important for maintaining the landscape and safeguarding the survival of values associated with ′agri-environmental′ habitats. The conflict between the interest groups is essentially about the access to and use of environmental resources. Squeezed between policies safeguarding wolf populations, preventing cruelty to animals and implementing activities required by the EU agricultural programme, farmers in areas with resident wolf populations have come to take part in processes that may reinforce rural identity.

  8. EnviSAT ASAR Monitoring Of The Natural And Archaeological Landscape Of Nasca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We exploit the 4year-long archive of ENVISAT ASAR IS2 C-band imagery available through ESA Cat-1 project id.11073 over Nasca (Southern Peru), to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its impacts on the natural and cultural heritage preserved within this region, well- known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations who flourished between the 4th century BC and the 6th century AD. Inferences about the recent changes of the cultural landscapes and the main landforms in 2003-2007 were retrieved based on SAR backscattering (σ0) time series. Ancient aqueduct systems (the so-called puquios) and the famous geoglyphs ('Nasca Lines') were detected, even at a medium-resolution scale provided by ENVISAT images.

  9. Classic metapopulations are rare among common beetle species from a naturally fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B; McQuillan, Peter B; Bonham, Kevin J

    2010-01-01

    1. The general importance of metacommunity and metapopulation theories is poorly understood because few studies have examined responses of the suite of species that occupy the same fragmented landscape. In this study, we examined the importance of spatial ecological theories using a large-scale, naturally fragmented landscape. 2. We measured the occurrence and abundance of 44 common beetle species in 31 natural rainforest fragments in Tasmania, Australia. We tested for an effect on beetle distribution of geographic variables (patch area, patch isolation and amount of surrounding habitat) and of environmental variables based on plant species, after first accounting for spatial autocorrelation using principal coordinates of neighbour matrices. The environmental variables described a productivity gradient and a post-fire succession from eucalypt-dominated forest to late-successional rainforest. 3. Few species had distributions consistent with a metapopulation. However, the amount of surrounding habitat and patch isolation influenced the occurrence or abundance of 30% of beetle species, implying that dispersal into or out of patches was an important process. 4. Three species showed a distribution that could arise by interactions with dominant competitors or predators with higher occurrence in small patches. 5. Environmental effects were more commonly observed than spatial effects. Twenty-three per cent of species showed evidence of habitat-driven, deterministic metapopulations. Furthermore, almost half of the species were influenced by the plant succession or productivity gradient, including effects at the within-patch, patch and regional scales. The beetle succession involved an increase in the frequency of many species, and the addition of new species, with little evidence of species turnover. Niche-related ecological theory such as the species-sorting metacommunity theory was therefore the most broadly applicable concept. 6. We conclude that classic and source

  10. LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN A LOWLAND IN BENIN: ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON PESTS AND NATURAL ENEMIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, A; Silvie, P; Menozzi, P; Adda, C; Auzoux, S; Jean, J; Huat, J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal landscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a database was compiled. Major landscape composition changes were noted between rainy and dry seasons, which affected the presence of both pests and natural enemies. Cereals (rice, maize and sorghum) and cotton were grown in the humid season, and then okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was the dominant vegetable crop in dry season. These modifications impacted fallow abundance throughout the lowland. Different cotton (e.g. Helicoverpa armigera, Dysdercus sp., Zonocerus variegatus) or rice (e.g. Diopsis longicornis, D. apicalis) pests were observed during dry season in okra crops. Dry season surveys of Poaceae in two types of fallows ('humid', 'dry') revealed the presence of very few stem borers: only 0.04% of stems sampled were infested by stem borers, with a mean of 1.13 larvae per stem. Known cereal stem borer species such as Busseola fusco, Coniesta ignefusalis, Sesamia calamistis were not clearly identified among these larvae because of their diapausing stage and white color. Unexpected pollinators (Hymenoptera Apidae, genus Braunsapis, Ceratina and Xylocopa) and predators (Crabronidae, genus Dasyproctus) were found in the stems. Sweep-net collection of insects in humid fallows allowed us to describe for the first time in Benin seven Diopsidae species (23% of adults bearing Laboulbeniomycetes ectoparasitic fungi). Some of these species were captured in rice fields during rainy season. Parasitoids (adult Chalcidoidae and Ichneumonoidae) were observed during both seasons but their

  11. Land valuation and marginalization processes in cultural landscapes - a comparative study of valuation systems related to natural and semi-natural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Brandt, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    awareness that the behavior of rural landscape managers reflect culture, and that cultural valuation systems need to be included in research addressing such themes as sustainability and multifunctionality which is often difficult to regulate effectively and depend directly on local decision behavior. Two......, their preferences for different areas and their valuation procedures related to landscape and land cover. The maps developed with the interviewees were compared with maps delineating the 205 Natura-2000 habitat areas in the nature park which were designated by the Danish Nature Agency in 2006. Results...

  12. Natural windbreaks sustain bird diversity in a tea-dominated landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachakonda Sreekar

    Full Text Available Windbreaks often form networks of forest habitats that improve connectivity and thus conserve biodiversity, but little is known of such effects in the tropics. We determined bird species richness and community composition in windbreaks composed of remnant native vegetation amongst tea plantations (natural windbreaks, and compared it with the surrounding primary forests. Fifty-one, ten-minute point counts were conducted in each habitat type over three days. Despite the limited sampling period, our bird inventories in both natural windbreaks and primary forests were nearly complete, as indicated by bootstrap true richness estimator. Bird species richness and abundance between primary forests and windbreaks were similar, however a difference in bird community composition was observed. Abundances of important functional groups such as frugivores and insectivores did not vary between habitat types but nectarivores were more abundant in windbreaks, potentially as a result of the use of windbreaks as traveling routes, foraging and nesting sites. This preliminary study suggests that natural windbreaks may be important habitats for the persistence of bird species in a production landscape. However, a better understanding of the required physical and compositional characteristics for windbreaks to sustain bird communities is needed for effective conservation management.

  13. Geomorphology applied to landscape analysis for planning and management of natural spaces. Case study: Las Batuecas-S. de Francia and Quilamas natural parks, (Salamanca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Graña, A M; Silva, P G; Goy, J L; Elez, J; Valdés, V; Zazo, C

    2017-04-15

    Geomorphology is fundamental to landscape analysis, as it represents the main parameter that determines the land spatial configuration and facilitates reliefs classification. The goal of this article is the elaboration of thematic maps that enable the determination of different landscape units and elaboration of quality and vulnerability synthetic maps for landscape fragility assessment prior to planning human activities. For two natural spaces, the final synthetic maps were created with direct (visual-perceptual features) and indirect (cartographic models and 3D simulations) methods from thematic maps with GIS technique. This enabled the creation of intrinsic and extrinsic landscape quality maps showing sectors needing most preservation, as well as intrinsic and extrinsic landscape fragility maps (environment response capacity or vulnerability towards human actions). The resulting map shows absorption capacity for areas of maximum and/or minimum human intervention. Sectors of high absorption capacity (minimum need for preservation) are found where the incidence of human intervention is minimum: escarpment bottoms, fitted rivers, sinuous high lands with thick vegetation coverage and valley interiors, or those areas with high landscape quality, low fragility and high absorption capacity, whose average values are found across lower hillsides of some valleys, and sectors with low absorption capacity (areas needing most preservation) found mainly in the inner parts of natural spaces: peaks and upper hillsides, synclines flanks and scattered areas. For the integral analysis of landscape, a mapping methodology has been set. It comprises a valid criterion for rational and sustainable planning, management and protection of natural spaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Military land use and the impact on nature and landscape a study of Danish military areas 1900 - 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Levin, Gregor; Linnet Perner, Mads

    . This suggests that military activities not only conserve nature and biodiversity but also create new valuable nature. However, some results also suggest that the benefits for nature are related to specifics types of military activity, such as maneuver grounds and ranges, while the positive impact of depots...... as the content of biological diversity. Results suggest, that military activities, in general, generate landscapes with a land cover and land use composition different from the Danish landscape in general, which is dominated by agriculture and urban land use. This difference is also reflected by a relatively...... marginal lands; (4) permanent and continues forest cover; (5) change from arable land or nature to build environment and (6) development into recreational land. Interestingly, results also indicated that high nature quality and biodiversity on military sites, which originated from arable land...

  15. Landscape perception based on personal attributes in determining the scenic beauty of in-stand natural secondary forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to validate factors affecting the in-stand landscape quality and how important each factor was in determining scenic beauty of natural secondary forests. The study was limited to 23 stand-level cases of natural secondary forests in Shen Zhen city in southern China. Typical samples of photographs and public estimations were applied to evaluate scenic beauty inside the natural secondary forests. The major factors were then selected by multiple linear-regression analysis and a model between scenic beauty estimation (SBE values and in-stand landscape features was established. Rise in crown density, fall in plant litter, glow in color of trunk, fall in arbor richness, and rise in visible distance increased scenic beauty values of in-stand landscape. These five factors significantly explained the differences in scenic beauty, and together accounted for 45% of total variance in SBEs. Personal factors (e.g. gender, age and education did not significantly affect the ratings of landscape photos, although variations of landscape quality were affected by some personal factors. Results of this study will assist policymakers, silviculturists and planners in landscape design and management of natural secondary forests in Shenzhen city. People can improve the scenic beauty values by pruning branches and clearing plant litter, which subsequently improve the forest health and contribute to forest recreation.

  16. Industrial activity, gas emissions and environmental urban management. Operative condition's diagnostic of smelting activities in Tandil, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soledad Sosa, Beatriz; Guerrero, Elsa Marcela; Banda Noriega, Roxana

    2013-01-01

    Amongst urban environmental problems, those associated to industry are of particular interest in environmental management. Tandil, a city in Argentina, owes its economic and urban growth to metalworking activity, especially to smelting. Despite the crisis in the sector, activity continues to be the axis of local economic and urban growth. The present research characterizes, in production, operative and environmental terms, local smelting industries and assesses operative conditions of gas emissions management during 2010. There were analyzed 25 industries over 30. The sample was representative of five productive processes: aluminum (Al), aluminum/iron (Al Fe), aluminum/bronze (Al Cu+Sn), aluminum/iron/bronze (Al Fe Cu+Sn), and iron (Fe). The variables analyzed were: primary fusion mater, oven used and industry size. To obtain production data we applied structured interviews, and for industry sizes we used surveys. It was possible to describe the productive prospect of the sector at a local level: for most industries the destination of their production is automotive sector. Taking into account the relation between the size and the type of industry, the aluminum smelting companies are small. Regarding iron industries, all three company sizes are present in the sample and exists a medium size industry that occupies between 51 and 230 employees. The operative conditions and their compliance with current legislation regarding control of gas emissions require to identify monitoring indicators for the melting stage that allow knowing precisely the resulting contaminants and their environmental effects.

  17. Gestión del agua subterránea en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones de Tandil (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Iris Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen y analizan los actores y modos de explotación y uso involucrados en la gestión del recurso hídrico subterráneo en un barrio periférico de Tandil -Cerro Los Leones- (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, que carece de servicios de agua potable y cloacas. Estudios previos demostraron contaminación química y bacteriológica del agua que pone en riesgo la salud de la población. Se caracterizan los modos de uso y explotación del agua, señalando importantes defi ciencias en el diseño, construcción y mantenimiento de perforaciones y sistemas de disposición de efl uentes. Ante la necesidad y el desafío de la gestión integrada del recurso, se plantean linea mientos tendientes a su sustentabilidad, referidos a la planifi cación del uso, el abastecimiento de agua potable, el diseño de perforaciones y la educación ambiental.

  18. Conflictos ambientales urbanos. Estrategias de movilización asociadas al acceso al agua potable en Tandil, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Marcela Guerrero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La protesta social se caracteriza por una trama de esfuerzos coordinados y de nuevas formas de organización en red que enfatizan códigos culturales y roles identitarios a nivel comunitario. Estas formas de movilización y organización llaman la atención de los medios, la opinión pública, pero al mismo tiempo estimulan el pensamiento académico con enfoques diferentes como el de los nuevos movimientos sociales (NMS. Distintas formas de organización social han tenido presencia en la última década en la ciudad de Tandil, Argentina. Algunas de estas movilizaciones son debidas a los efectos ambientales de la actividad minera, la instalación de actividades nocivas, etc. En particular, el trabajo caracteriza las luchas locales por acceso al agua potable a partir del análisis historiográfico y documental. Ello permitió detectar analogías conceptuales con otros procesos similares comprendidos globalmente en los denominados NMS.

  19. CONFLICTOS AMBIENTALES URBANOS. ESTRATEGIAS DE MOVILIZACIÓN ASOCIADAS AL ACCESO AL AGUA POTABLE EN TANDIL, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Marcela Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La protesta social se caracteriza por una trama de esfuerzos coordinados y de nuevas formas de organización en red que enfatizan códigos culturales y roles identitarios a nivel comunitario. Estas formas de movilización y organización llaman la atención de los medios, la opinión pública, pero al mismo tiempo estimulan el pensamiento académico con enfoques diferentes como el de los nuevos movimientos sociales (NMS. Distintas formas de organización social han tenido presencia en la última década en la ciudad de Tandil, Argentina. Algunas de estas movilizaciones son debidas a los efectos ambientales de la actividad minera, la instalación de actividades nocivas, etc. En particular, el trabajo caracteriza las luchas locales por acceso al agua potable a partir del análisis historiográfico y documental. Ello permitió detectar analogías conceptuales con otros procesos similares comprendidos globalmente en los denominados NMS. (1

  20. Natural self-reclamation of soils and landscapes affected by agriculture and mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Vladimir; Bech, Jaume; Alekseenko, Alexey; Shvydkaya, Natalya; Puzanov, Alexander; Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    Processes of possible self-restoration of technogenically disturbed soils are studied in Central and Southern European Russia. Reclamation procedures are mainly not implemented in this vast region, and the natural soil restoration is supposed. Heaps overlaying the former steppe and cropland landscapes are created in the course of rock waste stacking after preparative and cleaning mining works during the underground coal extraction. Approximately 1 500 heaps occupying over 8 000 ha were formed in the area of the Donets Coal Basin. Soils are destroyed under heaps, land subsidence occurs in coal mining areas and acid lakes are usually formed in these ground depressions. Spontaneous combustions happen often and can continue for decades. In order to prevent them, heap surfaces are in some cases levelled and filled with water, forming peculiar ponds. After 70 years of heaps existence and ca. 50 years after their ignition, soil formation is just in the early stages. Heap surface differs a lot in geochemical and mineralogical characteristics from those of surrounding steppe soils that suffered substantial changes at distances up to 1 km. Development of plant communities in areas near coal dumps and heaps is one of the indicators of landscape-geochemical changes. Formation of ruderal phytocenoses with 10-15 % of local flora, as well as invasive and introduced plants occurred under the complex impact of ecological conditions. Communities formed by them are distinguished by the structure simplicity, low species diversity, and plant growth anomalies. Quarries and dumps are formed during underground and open-cast mining of ore deposits. During the last 50 years after abandoning mines in forest areas, the 30 m deep quarries have filled with the creep material less for 0.5 m, and sediments from water streams have added 1-3 cm. Thickness of argillaceous layers does not exceed 1-2 cm at small rock chips of the dumps that measures up to 70 km in length. The dumps are partially

  1. Inmigración europea y modelos familiares: la legitimidad de los nacimientos y la sexualidad fuera del matrimonio en la población francesa de Tandil (Buenos Aires, 1850-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, Hernán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on a family reconstitution of French people in Tandil between 1850 and 1914,shows the advantages and disadvantages of this method and the sources; illegitimacy and its associated factors (parents’ age, endo and exogamy, rural/urban differentiation, etc.. and the incidence of pre-marital children and conceptions. The indicators obtained were analyzed and compared with other Argentinean and French socio-demographic contexts. In the conclusion I propose that illegitimacy among the French population in Tandil is a consequence of a different family conformation pattern from that of the native population.

  2. Drivers for differences in dairy farmers perceptions of farm development strategies in an area with nature and landscape as protected public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.; Roep, D.; Verhees, F.; Verstegen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Nature and landscape are increasingly appreciated as public goods and community assets in need of protection. Policy schemes aiming to protect vulnerable nature and landscape assets affect options for farm development and thus the opportunities for farm income strategies. Farmers as small business

  3. Landscape changes and natural hazards affecting the Pincio hill (Rome, Italy) in historical times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Paolo Maria; Lucarini, Mauro; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on preliminary results achieved by means of a research project carried out by ISPRA in collaboration with Soprintendenza Capitolina (the Cultural Heritage Capitoline Superintendence), aimed at defining an interpretative model of natural and anthropic evolution of the Pincio Hill (Rome, Italy) during the last 2,500 years. The study area is located in the NE sector of the city of Rome and includes the Pincio hill Cultural Heritage site and the surrounding area of the Tiber River flood plain. The Pincio Hill is a very interesting case of interplay among: i) natural landscape setting; ii) historical urban transformations; iii) human activity and recurrence of natural hazard events impacting heavily on the territory since ancient times. During the last decades, designs of new areas to be allocated for underground parking jointly with new archaeological excavations surveys have allowed the acquisition of a large amount of new data. The study has been carried out through a new reinterpretation of recently drilled boreholes stratigraphic logs and the conspicuous related archaeological literature. The main outcome of the research activities are summarized as below. Concerning the top of the hill, latest archaeological excavations brought to the light traces of ancient structures and settlements dating from the Archaic period until the fourth century AD, highlighting the facto the character of strong agricultural and landscape appeal that have involved the western sector of the Pincio hill since the ancient times, without evidence of relevant alterations of the original landscape. In the slope sector, the information coming from geotechnical survey allowed the reconstruction of isochronous surfaces inside of landfills, divided according to their age. The profile of the slope below the landfill from the Roman period seems very steep and irregular, in strong contrast to the medieval one and the current one, characterized by multiple succession of terraces. In

  4. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  5. The distribution of selected CORINE land cover classes in different natural landscapes in Slovakia: Methodological framework and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazúr Róbert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of selected CORINE land cover classes in different physical conditions was subject to modelling, analysis and evaluation in this article. In three regions with different geo-relief, the occurrence of land cover classes was analysed by using determinants commonly used in land-use models. Using three different modelling frameworks, the importance of methodological design in land-cover modelling was demonstrated. High levels of explanatory power for the factors defined here were found in landscapes of high heterogeneity. Findings derived from the statistical models highlight the importance of landscape disaggregation by natural conditions in complex land-cover or land-use models.

  6. Changes in forest landscape due to agricultural activities and their influence on natural ecosystems: the eastern Galician mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Maroto I.J.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest and agricultural landscapes are vital in relation to biodiversity. Protection policies in such areas should include incentives to enable the common landuse practices. Conservation cannot be addressed in the short term because these landscapes have evolved as socio-ecological systems and provide optimal conditions for biodiversity maintenance. They occur in areas where agriculture has not changed significantly as in the eastern Galician mountains. The landscape dynamics has been shaped by human involvement during centuries. We analyzed how the landscape has evolved according to environmental, socioeconomic and historical changes with the aim of proposing actions for its conservation. The study focused on the recovery of natural hardwood forests which have been intensively exploited since ancient times. Over the past few centuries, these forests have been transformed to agricultural land, felled for use in the naval, metallurgical and railway industries, expropriated from the Church, and affected by wildfire; more recently, have been replaced by fast growing species. Today, broadleaved forests cover small areas of rugged land where the topography often precludes other land uses. In conclusion, although the landscape in the study area has undergone a major transformation, now this land is a priority for biodiversity conservation.

  7. Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Sarah Haas; Tomáš Václavík

    2013-01-01

    A central challenge to studying emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a landscape dilemma: our best empirical understanding of disease dynamics occurs at local scales while pathogen invasions and management occur over broad spatial extents. The burgeoning field of landscape epidemiology integrates concepts and approaches from disease ecology with the macro-scale lens...

  8. Spatial modelling and monitoring of natural landscapes with cases in the Amsterdam Waterworks Dunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droesen, W.

    1999-01-01

    The utilisation of geographic information systems and digital image processing techniques for the construction of digital landscape models necessitate for a reconsideration of the classical concepts for landscape ecological mapping. In this thesis, some methods are presented for the spatial

  9. Nature-based solutions for urban landscapes under post-industrialization and globalization: Barcelona versus Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peilei; Ouyang, Zutao; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Park, Hogeun; Chen, Jiquan

    2017-07-01

    Using Barcelona and Shanghai as case studies, we examined the nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban settings-specifically within cities experiencing post-industrialization and globalization. Our specific research questions are: (1) What are the spatiotemporal changes in urban built-up land and green space in Barcelona and Shanghai? (2) What are the relationships between economic development, exemplified by post-industrialization, globalization, and urban green space? Urban land use and green space change were evaluated using data derived from a variety of sources, including satellite images, landscape matrix indicators, and a land conversion matrix. The relationships between economic development, globalization, and environmental quality were analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling based on secondary statistical data. Both Barcelona and Shanghai have undergone rapid urbanization, with urban expansion in Barcelona beginning in the 1960s-1970s and in Shanghai in the last decade. While Barcelona's urban green space and green space per capita began declining between the 1950s and 1990s, they increased slightly over the past two decades. Shanghai, however, has consistently and significantly improved urban green space and green space per capita over the past six decades, especially since the economic reform in 1978. Economic development has a direct and significant influence on urban green space for both cities and post-industrialization had served as the main driving force for urban landscape change in Barcelona and Shanghai. Based on secondary statistical and qualitative data from on-site observations and interviews with local experts, we highlighted the institution's role in NBS planning. Furthermore, aspiration to become a global or globalizing city motivated both cities to use NBS planning as a place-making tool to attract global investment, which is reflected in various governing policies and regulations. The cities' effort to achieve a

  10. Boundaries of Mind and Nature - Human responses to changing landscapes over 2000 year during the Neolithic in Uppland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hackwitz, Kim; Löwenborg, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    waterways and access to places influencing the choice of locations and the outline of regions. The results point to historical maintenances of ancient territories that both ignore and follow natural topographies in a rapidly changing landscape. The paper is a result from a two year postdoc financed by the Swedish Research Council.

  11. Del hogar agrícola a los maestros queseros. La escuela granja de Tandil (Argentina, 1915-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talía Violeta Gutiérrez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación de recursos humanos y la generación de conocimientos adaptados a las condiciones de explotación de las diversas produccio-nes regionales en la Argentina ocuparon la atención de los técnicos del Ministerio de Agricultura de la Nación, de las entidades agraristas y de sectores políticos y educativos diversos desde inicios del siglo XX. No escapó a ese interés la preocupación por la mujer y el “hogar agrícola”. En el presente artículo fueron analizadas, en ese contexto, las primeras décadas de la Escuela Granja “Ramón Santamarina” de Tandil, un esta-blecimiento con una rica historia institucional que albergó la primera es-cuela del hogar agrícola del país, transformada pronto en granja-escuela y especializada en industria láctea. El tránsito del “hogar agrícola” a la preparación de maestros queseros -en el marco de la orientación productivista de las escuelas en la pro-puesta educativa del Ministerio-, los sujetos sociales involucrados, la es-pecialización en quesería y sus resultados, son algunas de las cuestiones analizadas. Esto se inserta en el contexto de un proyecto educativo agra-rio pensado no solo como fuente de mano de obra, vinculado a determi-nadas industrias agrarias, sino también –y tal vez más que nada– como irradiador de ese tipo de enseñanzas hacia la comunidad.

  12. Functional responses of plant communities to management, landscape and historical factors in semi-natural grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vandewalle, M.; Pursche, O.; de Bello, Francesco; Reitalu, T.; Prentice, H. C.; Lavorel, S.; Johansson, L. J.; Sykes, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2014), s. 750-759 ISSN 1100-9233 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity loss * grazing management * landscape history Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2014

  13. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors and detector canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species from Asia causing major economic losses in agricultural production in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Unlike other crop pests, H. halys is also well-known for nuisance problems in urban, suburban, and rural areas, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments. Research efforts have focused on populations in human-made structures while overwintering ecology of H. halys in natural landscapes is virtually unknown. We explored forested landscapes in the mid-Atlantic region to locate and characterize natural overwintering structures used by H. halys. We also evaluated the use of detector canines to locate overwintering H. halys to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of surveys. From these studies, we indentified shared characteristics of overwintering sites used by H. halys in natural landscapes. Overwintering H. halys were recovered from dry crevices in dead, standing trees with thick bark, particularly oak (Quercus spp. and locust (Robinia spp.; these characteristics were shared by 11.8% of all dead trees in surveyed landscapes. For trees with favorable characteristics, we sampled ∼20% of the total above-ground tree area and recovered 5.9 adults per tree from the trees with H. halys present. Two detector canines were successfully trained to recognize and detect the odor of adult H. halys yielding >84% accuracy in laboratory and semi-field trials. Detector canines also found overwintering H. halys under field conditions. In particular, overwintering H. halys were recovered only from dead trees that yielded positive indications from the canines and shared key tree characteristics established by human surveyors. The identified characteristics of natural overwintering sites of H. halys will serve as baseline information to establish crop economic risk levels posed by overwintering populations, and accordingly develop sustainable

  14. The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has seen increases in the occurrence of flood events across Europe, putting a growing number of settlements of varying sizes at risk. The issue of flooding in smaller villages is usually not well publicised. In these small communities, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences often outweigh the potential benefits, which has led to a growing quest for more cost effective and sustainable approaches. Here we aim to provide such an approach that alongside flood risk reduction, also has multipurpose benefits of sediment control, water quality amelioration, and habitat creation. Natural flood management (NFM) aims to reduce flooding by working with natural features and characteristics to slow down or temporarily store flood waters. NFM measures include dynamic water storage ponds and wetlands, interception bunds, channel restoration and instream wood placement, and increasing soil infiltration through soil management and tree planting. Based on integrated monitoring and modelling studies, we demonstrate the potential to manage runoff locally using NFM in rural systems by effectively managing flow pathways (hill slopes and small channels) and by exploiting floodplains and buffers strips. Case studies from across the UK show that temporary storage ponds (ranging from 300 to 3000m3) and other NFM measures can reduce peak flows in small catchments (5 to 10 km2) by up to 15 to 30 percent. In addition, increasing the overall effective storage capacity by a network of NFM measures was found to be most effective for total reduction of local flood peaks. Hydraulic modelling has shown that the positioning of such features within the catchment, and how they are connected to the main channel, may also affect their effectiveness. Field evidence has shown that these ponds can collect significant accumulations of fine sediment during flood events. On the other hand, measures such as wetlands could also play an important role during low flow

  15. Understanding coupled natural and human systems on fire prone landscapes: integrating wildfire simulation into an agent based planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana; Ager, Alan; Preisler, Haiganoush; Day, Michelle; Spies, Tom; Bolte, John

    2015-04-01

    Agent-based models (ABM) allow users to examine the long-term effects of agent decisions in complex systems where multiple agents and processes interact. This framework has potential application to study the dynamics of coupled natural and human systems where multiple stimuli determine trajectories over both space and time. We used Envision, a landscape based ABM, to analyze long-term wildfire dynamics in a heterogeneous, multi-owner landscape in Oregon, USA. Landscape dynamics are affected by land management policies, actors decisions, and autonomous processes such as vegetation succession, wildfire, or at a broader scale, climate change. Key questions include: 1) How are landscape dynamics influenced by policies and institutions, and 2) How do land management policies and actor decisions interact to produce intended and unintended consequences with respect to wildfire on fire-prone landscapes. Applying Envision to address these questions required the development of a wildfire module that could accurately simulate wildfires on the heterogeneous landscapes within the study area in terms of replicating historical fire size distribution, spatial distribution and fire intensity. In this paper we describe the development and testing of a mechanistic fire simulation system within Envision and application of the model on a 3.2 million fire prone landscape in central Oregon USA. The core fire spread equations use the Minimum Travel Time algorithm developed by M Finney. The model operates on a daily time step and uses a fire prediction system based on the relationship between energy release component and historical fires. Specifically, daily wildfire probabilities and sizes are generated from statistical analyses of historical fires in relation to daily ERC values. The MTT was coupled with the vegetation dynamics module in Envision to allow communication between the respective subsystem and effectively model fire effects and vegetation dynamics after a wildfire. Canopy and

  16. Revealing Campus Nature: The Lessons of the Native Landscape for Campus Heritage Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    As American settlement spread to the Midwest, college and university campuses came to symbolize some of the greatest achievements of public policy and private philanthropy. However, the expansion westward often ignored the cultural precedents of Native Americans and the diversity of the varied native landscapes. Today, campus planners and historic…

  17. Comparing Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Three Residential Landscapes under Different Management Schemes Following Natural Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultural lawn management practices that produce aesthetically appealing landscapes may also create environmental conditions that stimulate soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of lawn management practices on N2O fluxes from ...

  18. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of

  19. Explaining spatial variability in stream habitats using both natural and management-influenced landscape predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Anlauf; D.W. Jensen; K.M. Burnett; E.A. Steel; K. Christiansen; J.C. Firman; B.E. Feist; D.P. Larsen

    2011-01-01

    1. The distribution and composition of in-stream habitats are reflections of landscape scale geomorphic and climatic controls. Correspondingly, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are largely adapted to and constrained by the quality and complexity of those in-stream habitat conditions. The degree to which lands have been fragmented and managed can...

  20. Untangling natural seascape variation from marine reserve effects using a landscape approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Huntington

    Full Text Available Distinguishing management effects from the inherent variability in a system is a key consideration in assessing reserve efficacy. Here, we demonstrate how seascape heterogeneity, defined as the spatial configuration and composition of coral reef habitats, can mask our ability to discern reserve effects. We then test the application of a landscape approach, utilizing advances in benthic habitat mapping and GIS techniques, to quantify this heterogeneity and alleviate the confounding influence during reserve assessment. Seascape metrics were quantified at multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatial image analysis and in situ surveys at 87 patch reef sites in Glover's Reef Lagoon, Belize, within and outside a marine reserve enforced since 1998. Patch reef sites were then clustered into classes sharing similar seascape attributes using metrics that correlated significantly to observed variations in both fish and coral communities. When the efficacy of the marine reserve was assessed without including landscape attributes, no reserve effects were detected in the diversity and abundance of fish and coral communities, despite 10 years of management protection. However, grouping sites based on landscape attributes revealed significant reserve effects between site classes. Fish had higher total biomass (1.5x and commercially important biomass (1.75x inside the reserve and coral cover was 1.8 times greater inside the reserve, though direction and degree of response varied by seascape class. Our findings show that the application of a landscape classification approach vastly improves our ability to evaluate the efficacy of marine reserves by controlling for confounding effects of seascape heterogeneity and suggests that landscape heterogeneity should be considered in future reserve design.

  1. Application of geoecological concept of the alluvial landscape in the creation of nature reserve (case study from Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Machar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The geoecological concept of the alluvial landscape describes the variability and consecutive character of alluvial ecotopes and biocenoses, which are interrelated in terms of their homeorhetic development, in their dynamic ecological stability. This article deals with application of this landscape concept in the frame of creation of nature reserve as core zone of the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic. Complex protection of the whole floodplain ecosystem, which comprised all components of the fluvial succession series of alluvial habitats, was proposed on the basis of determination of geomorphological type of the river system. Analyses of the floodplain forest stands status within the study area were performed using methods that are normally used in the elaboration of management plans of protected areas within forest land on the basis of data from Forest Management Plan. The area of the proposed NNR was created by the overlay of the special map layers using method gap-analysis in the frame of GIS.

  2. Reduced risk insecticides to control scale insects and protect natural enemies in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    Armored scale insects are among the most difficult to manage and economically important arthropod pests in the production and maintenance of urban landscape plants. This is because of morphological traits that protect them from contact insecticides. I compared initial and season-long control of euonymus scale, Unaspis euonymi Comstock (Hemiptera: Diaspidae), by reduced-risk insecticides (insect growth regulators [IGRs], neonicotinoids, spirotetramat) to determine if they controlled scale as well as more toxic insecticides such as the organophosphate, acephate, and pyrethroid, bifenthrin. I also evaluated how these insecticides affected natural enemy abundance on experimental plants and survival when exposed to insecticide residue. All insecticides tested reduced first generation euonymus scale abundance. In 2009, reinfestation by second generation euonymus scale was highest on plants treated with acetamiprid and granular dinotefuran. In 2010, systemic neonicotinoids and spirotetramat prevented cottony cushion scale infestation 133 d after treatment whereas scale readily infested plants treated with bifenthrin and horticultural oil. Encarsia spp. and Cybocephalus spp. abundance was related to scale abundance. These natural enemies were generally less abundant than predicted by scale abundance on granular dinotefuran treated plants and more abundant on granular thiamethoxam treated plants. Bifenthrin residue killed 90-100% of O. insidiosus and E. citrina within 24 h. My results indicate that reduced risk insecticides can provide season-long scale control with less impact on natural enemies than conventional insecticides. This could have economic and environmental benefits by reducing the number of applications necessary to protect nursery and landscape plants from scale.

  3. Testing Predictions of a Landscape Evolution Model Using the Dragon’s Back Pressure Ridge as a Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, M. C.; Tucker, G. E.; Hilley, G. E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2009-12-01

    Landscape evolution models use mass transport rules to simulate the temporal development of topography over timescales too long for humans to observe. As such, these models are difficult to test using the decadal time-scale observations of topographic change that can be directly measured. In contrast, natural systems in which driving forces, boundary conditions, and timing of landscape evolution over millennial time-scales can be well constrained may be used to test the ability of mathematical models to reproduce various attributes of the observed topography. The Dragon’s Back pressure ridge, a 4km x 0.5 km x 100 m high area of elevated topography elongate parallel to the south-central San Andreas fault (SAF) in California, serves as a natural laboratory for studying how the timing and spatial distribution of uplift affects patterns of erosion and topography. Geologic mapping and geophysical studies show that, at this location, the Pacific plate is forced over a relatively stationary shallow discontinuity in the SAF, resulting in local uplift. Continued right-lateral motion along the fault results in the movement of material though the uplift zone at the SAF slip rate of 35 mm/yr. This allows for the substitution of space for time when observing topographic change, and can be used to constrain the tectonic conditions to which the surface processes responded and developed the resulting landscape. We used the CHILD model of landscape evolution to recreate the Dragon’s Back pressure ridge system in order to test the reliability of the model predictions and determine the necessary and sufficient conditions to explain the observed topography. To do this, we first ran a Monte Carlo simulation in which we varied the model inputs within a range of plausible values. We then compared the model results with LiDAR topography from the Dragon’s Back pressure ridge to determine which combinations of input parameters best reproduced the observed topography and how well it

  4. El patrimonio modesto de las ciudades intermedias bonaerenses: prácticas usuarias y reflexiones hacia la preservación de las casas "chorizo" de Tandil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Marina Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Por ello, la indagación se enfoca en el conocimiento del estado de concientización de los usuarios de estas viviendas en la ciudad intermedia de Tandil, cuyo pasado ha forjado un destacado corpus patrimonial modesto que subsiste dentro de la actual dinámica urbana. Se trabaja desde una concepción de la investigación principalmente cualitativa, con ayuda de datos cuantitativos, centrada en la variable histórica urbana-arquitectónica, la social y sus relaciones. Los resultados generales alcanzados, que hacen hincapié en las modificaciones de las viviendas, han posibilitado reflexiones orientadas hacia su salvaguarda.

  5. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    Modern cavity ringdown spectroscopy systems (CRDS) enable the continuous measurement of methane concentration. This allows for improved quantification of greenhouse gas emissions associated with various natural and human landscapes. We present a subset of over 4000 km of continuous methane surveying along the east coast of Australia, made using a Picarro G2301 CRDS, deployed in a utility vehicle with an air inlet above the roof at 2.2 mAGL. Measurements were made every 5 seconds to a precision of cut coal mines, unconventional gas developments (coal seam gas; CSG), and leaks detected in cities and country towns. In areas of dryland crops the median methane concentration was 1.78 ppm, while in the irrigation districts located on vertisol soils the concentration was as low as 1.76 ppm, which may indicate that these soils are a sink for methane. In the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, open-cut coal mining district we mapped a continuous 50 km interval where the concentration of methane exceeded 1.80 ppm. The median concentration in this interval was 2.02 ppm. Peak readings were beyond the range of the reliable measurement (in excess of 3.00 ppm). This extended plume is an amalgamation of plumes from 17 major pits 1 to 10 km in length. Adjacent to CSG developments in the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland, only small anomalies were detected near the well-heads. Throughout the vast majority of the gas fields the concentration of methane was below 1.80 ppm. The largest source of fugitive methane associated with CSG was off-gassing methane from the co-produced water holding ponds. At one location the down wind plume had a cross section of approximately 1 km where the concentration of methane was above 1.80 ppm. The median concentration within this section was 1.82 ppm, with a peak reading of 2.11 ppm. The ambient air methane concentration was always higher in urban environments compared to the surrounding countryside. Along one major road in Sydney we mapped an interval

  6. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  7. Agents, Individuals, and Networks: Modeling Methods to Inform Natural Resource Management in Regional Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lael Parrott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are complex systems. Landscape dynamics are the result of multiple interacting biophysical and socioeconomic processes that are linked across a broad range of spatial, temporal, and organizational scales. Understanding and describing landscape dynamics poses enormous challenges and demands the use of new multiscale approaches to modeling. In this synthesis article, we present three regional systems - i.e., a forest system, a marine system, and an agricultural system - and describe how hybrid, bottom-up modeling of these systems can be used to represent linkages across scales and between subsystems. Through the use of these three examples, we describe how modeling can be used to simulate emergent system responses to different conservation policy and management scenarios from the bottom up, thereby increasing our understanding of important drivers and feedback loops within a landscape. The first case study involves the use of an individual-based modeling approach to simulate the effects of forest harvesting on the movement patterns of large mammals in Canada's boreal forest and the resulting emergent population dynamics. This model is being used to inform forest harvesting and management guidelines. The second case study combines individual and agent-based approaches to simulate the dynamics of individual boats and whales in a marine park. This model is being used to inform decision-makers on how to mitigate the impacts of maritime traffic on whales in the Saint Lawrence Estuary in eastern Canada. The third example is a case study of biodiversity conservation efforts on the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. In this example, the social-ecological system is represented as a complex network of interacting components. Methods of network analysis can be used to explore the emergent responses of the system to changes in the network structure or configuration, thus informing managers about the resilience of the system. These three examples

  8. Software applications to three-dimensional visualization of forest landscapes -- A case study demontrating the use of visual nature studio (VNS) in visualizing fire spread in forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Williams; Bo Song; Chou Chiao-Ying; Thomas M. Williams; John Hom

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is a useful tool that depicts virtual forest landscapes on computer. Previous studies in visualization have required high end computer hardware and specialized technical skills. A virtual forest landscape can be used to show different effects of disturbances and management scenarios on a computer, which allows observation of forest...

  9. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  10. Evaluating the potential of multi-purpose nature based solutions in peri-urban landscapes - a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Guenther, Daniel; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality protection and improvement with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). Current mitigation solutions are typically based on isolated design strategies used at specific small scale sites and for storm water only. More holistic catchment scale approaches are urgently required to effectively manage the amount of water flows and protect the raw water quality in peri-urban landscapes. This project aims to provide a better understanding of the connectivity between natural and managed flow pathways, storage, and biogeochemical processes in the peri-urban landscape to eventually aid a more integrated water quantity and quality control design. For an actively urbanising catchment in NE Scotland we seek to understand the spatio-temporal character of the natural flow pathways and associated water quality, and how these may be used to support the design of nature based solutions during urbanisation. We present preliminary findings from a dense and multiscale monitoring network that includes hydrometric, tracer (stable water isotopes) and water quality (turbidity (sediment), nitrate, phosphate) data during a range of contrasting hydroclimatological conditions and at different stages of the development of urban infrastructure. These demonstrate a highly variable nature, both temporally and spatially, with water quality dynamics out of sync with storm responses and depending on management practices. This highlights potential difficulties for managing water quantity and quality simultaneously at the catchment scale, and suggests that a treatment train approach may be required. Well-designed nature based solutions that tackle both water quantity and quality issues will require adaptability and a

  11. Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART 5 for Modeling Airborne and Satellite Spectroradiometer and LIDAR Acquisitions of Natural and Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and airborne optical sensors are increasingly used by scientists, and policy makers, and managers for studying and managing forests, agriculture crops, and urban areas. Their data acquired with given instrumental specifications (spectral resolution, viewing direction, sensor field-of-view, etc. and for a specific experimental configuration (surface and atmosphere conditions, sun direction, etc. are commonly translated into qualitative and quantitative Earth surface parameters. However, atmosphere properties and Earth surface 3D architecture often confound their interpretation. Radiative transfer models capable of simulating the Earth and atmosphere complexity are, therefore, ideal tools for linking remotely sensed data to the surface parameters. Still, many existing models are oversimplifying the Earth-atmosphere system interactions and their parameterization of sensor specifications is often neglected or poorly considered. The Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART model is one of the most comprehensive physically based 3D models simulating the Earth-atmosphere radiation interaction from visible to thermal infrared wavelengths. It has been developed since 1992. It models optical signals at the entrance of imaging radiometers and laser scanners on board of satellites and airplanes, as well as the 3D radiative budget, of urban and natural landscapes for any experimental configuration and instrumental specification. It is freely distributed for research and teaching activities. This paper presents DART physical bases and its latest functionality for simulating imaging spectroscopy of natural and urban landscapes with atmosphere, including the perspective projection of airborne acquisitions and LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR waveform and photon counting signals.

  12. [THE EPIZOOTIC AND EPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF NATURAL TULAREMIA FOCI OF DIFFERENT LANDSCAPE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TYPES IN 2009-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheryakova, I S; Mikhailova, T V; Demidova, T N; Kormilitsyna, M I

    2016-01-01

    to assess the present state of the natural tularemia foci of different landscape epidemiological types, by using individual focal areas as an example. Epizootological monitoring and epidemiological analysis were conducted in the areas of natural tularemia foci of tundra (Wrangel Island), meadow-field (Central Federal District of the Russian Federation), flood-swamp (Arkhangelsk Region, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District), and steppe (Mongolii) types. Small mammals (organs, blood), tularemia patients' sera, and environniental objects were examined. Molecular genetic and immune serological diagnostic assays were used. The incidence of tularemia in the past decade was analyzed using the maps for the epidemiological examinations of tularemia cases and medical reports. The natural foci of tularemia were established to continue to actively operate. There were 2913 cases of tularemia in the Russian Federation in 2001 to 2014. The flood-swamp natural foci, in which there were summer transmissive tularemia outbreaks, the largest of high occurred in Khanti-Mansiysk in 2013 when a total of 1005 people fell ill, are a special epidemic hazard. Analysis of the tularemia outbreaks suggests that there is a need for continuous epizootological monitoring of the areas of natural tularemia foci for the timely prediction and prevention of epidemic complications. It is noted that there is an unfounded reduction in the scope of preventive measures, and immunoprevention in particular, and a weaker control of the antitularemia immune status in the population residing in the area of active natural foci of tularemia.

  13. [Developmental instability of the organism as a result of pessimization of environment under anthropogenic transformation of natural landscapes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrina, E G; Vol'pert, Ia L

    2014-01-01

    The value of fluctuating asymmetry is considered to be an indicator of the developmental instability of the organism. The consequences of activities of the mining industry plants, which are characterized by alienation and transformation of large areas of natural landscapes, are analyzed as an anthropogenic factor. The objects of study were small mammals (northern red-backed (Clethrionomys rutilus) and gray red-backed (Clethrionomys rufocanus) voles, tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus), Laxmann's (Sorex caecutiens) and tundra (S. tundrensis) shrews) and trees (Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla), Betula divaricate, Betula exilis, Duschekiafruticosa, and common osier (Salix viminalis)). In total, 3500 skulls and approximately 30000 leaves collected in the taiga zone of Yakutia were studied. The index offluctuating asymmetry, as well as population parameters and composition of small mammal communities, were analyzed. The data on the value of the fluctuating asymmetry in the studied species in natural habitats are given. It is shown that, in natural conditions, this parameter can rise with deterioration in living conditions, particularly at the ecological periphery of the range. Anthropogenic transformation of natural landscapes creates an "anthropogenic periphery" and causes changes similar to the adaptive responses at the northern limit of the distribution of species. It was found that, through pollution and disruption of ecosystems, the mining industry affects all levels of organization of the living matter, but the population and cenotic parameters give an unambiguous response only at macroanthropogenic transformations. Increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry is the most sensitive indicator of anthropogenic impact and it should also be taken into account that disruptions in the developmental stability of an organism reflect the destructive processes occurring in the population and community.

  14. Time-lagged response of carabid species richness and composition to past management practices and landscape context of semi-natural field margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alignier, Audrey; Aviron, Stéphanie

    2017-12-15

    Field margins are key features for the maintenance of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. Little is known about the effects of management practices of old semi-natural field margins, and their historical dimension regarding past management practices and landscape context is rarely considered. In this paper, the relative influence of recent and past management practices and landscape context (during the last five years) were assessed on the local biodiversity (species richness and composition) of carabid assemblages of field margins in agricultural landscapes of northwestern France. The results showed that recent patterns of carabid species richness and composition were best explained by management practices and landscape context measured four or five years ago. It suggests the existence of a time lag in the response of carabid assemblages to past environmental conditions of field margins. The relative contribution of past management practices and past landscape context varied depending on the spatial scale at which landscape context was taken into account. Carabid species richness was higher in grazed or sprayed field margins probably due to increased heterogeneity in habitat conditions. Field margins surrounded by grasslands and crops harbored species associated with open habitats whilst forest species dominated field margins surrounded by woodland. Landscape effect was higher at fine spatial scale, within 50 m around field margins. The present study highlights the importance of considering time-lagged responses of biodiversity when managing environment. It also suggests that old semi-natural field margins should not be considered as undisturbed habitats but more as management units being part of farming activities in agricultural landscapes, as for arable fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ancient landscapes: Their nature and significance for the question of inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twidale, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    It is widely believed that much of the world's scenery is youthful. Thornbury's assertion that little of the world's scenery is older than Tertiary and that most of it is no older than Pleistocene dies hard. Yet there is ample evidence, long recognized, that very ancient forms and surfaces (here the term surface is used in the sense of a planation surface, surface d'aplanissement or Einebnungsflache) are an integral part of the contemporary landscape, and that such features are not restricted to the low latitude regions, though they are well preserved there. Many of them were formed in environments very different from that in which they now occur and are thus inherited. Paleosurfaces of many age ranges have been recognized. They can conveniently be considered as of three types: exhumed, epigene and etch.

  16. Conservation planning in agricultural landscapes: hotspots of conflict between agriculture and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Gorm E; Steward, Peter R; German, Richard N; Sait, Steven M; Benton, Tim G

    2015-03-01

    Conservation conflict takes place where food production imposes a cost on wildlife conservation and vice versa. Where does conservation impose the maximum cost on production, by opposing the intensification and expansion of farmland? Where does conservation confer the maximum benefit on wildlife, by buffering and connecting protected areas with a habitable and permeable matrix of crop and non-crop habitat? Our aim was to map the costs and benefits of conservation versus production and thus to propose a conceptual framework for systematic conservation planning in agricultural landscapes. World-wide. To quantify these costs and benefits, we used a geographic information system to sample the cropland of the world and map the proportion of non-crop habitat surrounding the cropland, the number of threatened vertebrates with potential to live in or move through the matrix and the yield gap of the cropland. We defined the potential for different types of conservation conflict in terms of interactions between habitat and yield (potential for expansion, intensification, both or neither). We used spatial scan statistics to find 'hotspots' of conservation conflict. All of the 'hottest' hotspots of conservation conflict were in sub-Saharan Africa, which could have impacts on sustainable intensification in this region. Systematic conservation planning could and should be used to identify hotspots of conservation conflict in agricultural landscapes, at multiple scales. The debate between 'land sharing' (extensive agriculture that is wildlife friendly) and 'land sparing' (intensive agriculture that is less wildlife friendly but also less extensive) could be resolved if sharing and sparing were used as different types of tool for resolving different types of conservation conflict (buffering and connecting protected areas by maintaining matrix quality, in different types of matrix). Therefore, both sharing and sparing should be prioritized in hotspots of conflict, in the context of

  17. [Urban habitants' attitudes toward nature-approximating landscape architecture: taking Hongshan District of Wuhan City, China as a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-ping; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Cai, Shao-ping; Gao, Kai; Jia, Ruo

    2011-07-01

    Nature-approximating landscape architecture (NALA) is a concept of sustainable development as applied to landscape architecture, while the urban habitants' awareness and acceptance of NALA idea is the key for the successful application of NALA. Through semi-structured interview, this paper explored the attitudes of the habitants in Hongshan District of Wuhan City toward the NALA design and management, and the influence of the social-economic characteristics of the responders on their attitudes toward the NALA. A fairly low percentage of the responders approved of the NALA design (10.3% - 46.9%) and management (7.4% - 34.9%). The attitudes towards NALA design were mainly affected by the responders' age, and the attitudes toward NALA management were significantly correlated with the responders' age, educational level, and profession. The efficient cause why a large number of responders did not support the NALA was that these responders attached importance to the aesthetic effect of green space, and preferred cleanliness and order. The lack of related ecological knowledge and environmental awareness was the root cause of the lesser support towards NALA. To establish NALA demonstration bases and to intensify the publicity and education of NALA idea and related ecological knowledge could promote an increasing number of urban habitants actively participating in NALA construction.

  18. Symbolic Representation and Protection of the Marine Landscape in the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Níjar (Almería- Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gaona Pisonero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This case study article centered on the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Níjar (Almería-España on the correspondence or mismatch between the virtual landscape representations and the socio-cultural reality of the protected natural space. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze the reconstruction of the natural market of Cabo de Gata Níjar in some sectors of the Spanish public sphere. The reflection focuses on the visibility of the virtual symbolic representative plains of space. The analysis of the results detects the virtual emic representations a reframing of the Park characterized by an on-line spectacular landscape. A dreamy exaltation in the emic representations virtual which practically invisibilizan real problems attacking against the coasts and reserve marine of this area. On the contrary, the media representation reflects with greater correspondence the dialectical reality of the landscape.

  19. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Bedford, Blair, Cambria, Centre, Clearfield, Clinton, Columbia, Huntingdon, and Luzerne counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Winters, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Bedford, Blair, Cambria, Centre, Clearfield, Clinton, Columbia, Huntingdon, and Luzerne Counties in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication. In this region, natural gas development disturbed

  20. An Expression of Multiple Values: The Relationship Between Community, Landscape and Natural Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To aid political and institutional decision making in the sustainable use of natural resources the value of ecological, socio-cultural and economic assets has increasingly been communicated in terms of monetary units. Despite reliance upon natural resources, the impact of human activities has now reached a stage where cumulative losses are forcing society to re-appraise the evaluation process and how to better incorporate these values in to the decision-making process. This paper examines the attributes of value held by natural resources within ecological, socio-cultural and economic value domains from the perspective of a rural UK community. Here we reflect upon the continued primacy of monetary valuation of natural resource using two approaches, a scaled preference-based value typology and a place-based map measure. We demonstrate that the societal relationships which inform the evaluation of natural resources are both multi-faceted and hierarchical. Moreover, whilst aware of the utilitarian character of society’s relationship with natural resource, the societal value-for-natural-resource relationship is primarily expressed using social-ecological qualities. These results add weight to the call for a new approach towards natural resource evaluation and how these values contribute to the sustainability agenda. New methods of evaluation must adopt multiple values that extend beyond a solely economic-based commodification concern to encompass the human relationship with the resource itself. Wherein, a multi-faceted approach to attributing value to natural resource, set within an experiential framework, can provide a focal point for discussion and the decision-making process.

  1. Assessment of Land-Cover/Land-Use Change and Landscape Patterns in the Two National Nature Reserves of Ebinur Lake Watershed, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-cover and land-use change (LCLUC alters landscape patterns and affects regional ecosystems. The objective of this study was to examine LCLUC and landscape patterns in Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR and Ganjia Lake Haloxylon Forest National Nature Reserve (GLHFNNR, two biodiversity-rich national nature reserves in the Ebinur Lake Watershed (ELW, Xinjiang, China. Landsat satellite images from 1972, 1998, 2007 and 2013 were used to calculate the dynamics of a land-cover and land-use (LCLU transition matrix and landscape pattern index using ENVI 5.1 and FRAGSTATS 3.3. The results showed drastic land use modifications have occurred in ELWNNR during the past four decades. Between 1972 and 1998, 1998 and 2007, and 2007 and 2013, approximately 251.50 km2 (7.93%, 122.70 km2 (3.87%, and 195.40 km2 (6.16% of wetland were turned into salinized land. In GLHFNNR both low and medium density Haloxylon forest area declined while high density Haloxylon forest area increased. This contribution presents a method for characterizing LCLUC using one or more cross-tabulation matrices based on Sankey diagrams, demonstrating the depiction of flows of energy or materials through ecosystem network. The ecological landscape index displayed that a unique landscape patches have shrunk in size, scattered, and fragmented. It becomes a more diverse landscape. Human activities like farming were negatively correlated with the landscape diversity of wetlands. Furthermore, evidence of degraded wetlands caused by air temperature and annual precipitation, was also observed. We conclude that national and regional policies related to agriculture and water use have significantly contributed to the extensive changes; the ELWNNR and GLHFNNR are highly susceptible to LCLUC in the surrounding Ebinur Lake Watershed.

  2. Urban expansion dynamics and natural habitat loss in China: a multiscale landscape perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Liu, Zhifeng; Tian, Jie; Ma, Qun

    2014-09-01

    China's extensive urbanization has resulted in a massive loss of natural habitat, which is threatening the nation's biodiversity and socioeconomic sustainability. A timely and accurate understanding of natural habitat loss caused by urban expansion will allow more informed and effective measures to be taken for the conservation of biodiversity. However, the impact of urban expansion on natural habitats is not well-understood, primarily due to the lack of accurate spatial information regarding urban expansion across China. In this study, we proposed an approach that can be used to accurately summarize the dynamics of urban expansion in China over two recent decades (1992-2012), by integrating data on nighttime light levels, a vegetation index, and land surface temperature. The natural habitat loss during the time period was evaluated at the national, ecoregional, and local scales. The results revealed that China had experienced extremely rapid urban growth from 1992 to 2012 with an average annual growth rate of 8.74%, in contrast with the global average of 3.20%. The massive urban expansion has resulted in significant natural habitat loss in some areas in China. Special attention needs to be paid to the Pearl River Delta, where 25.79% or 1518 km(2) of the natural habitat and 41.99% or 760 km(2) of the local wetlands were lost during 1992-2012. This raises serious concerns about species viability and biodiversity. Effective policies and regulations must be implemented and enforced to sustain regional and national development in the context of rapid urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. From landscapes to soundscapes: understanding and managing natural quiet in the national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Manning; William Valliere; Jeffery Hallo; Peter Newman; Ericka Pilcher; Michael Savidge; Dan Dugan

    2007-01-01

    Research at Muir Woods Natural Monument suggests that soundscapes are an important component of parks and outdoor recreation, that human-caused noise is a potentially important indicator of quality for park soundscapes, and that visitors have normative standards for the maximum acceptable level of human-caused noise in parks. Formulating indicators and standards of...

  4. A landscape project for the coexistence of agriculture and nature: a proposal for the coastal area of a Natura 2000 site in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many rural coastal Mediterranean areas suffer from great anthropomorphic pressure. This is due to intensive agriculture, and construction for residential, tourism and industrial uses. The present work investigates the idea of using a landscape project in the Gulf of Gela in South Sicily to recover the dunes and the area behind them. The method used is based on the literature and will evaluate and interpret the dynamics of the landscape, so as to draw up a landscape plan, which can be used to help sustain the assets of the area, in a way, which is compatible with conserving nature. This method was tested in the LIFE11-Leopoldia project, funded by the European Union. The results of the study form part of the landscape project. This project is aimed at connecting the different productive zones in the area, protecting the natural environments and the rural historical patrimony, through combining the modern road networks with the older slower, historic infrastructure. Three different levels of landscape management are proposed: total protection (the dunes, high-level protection (the area behind the dunes where traditional agriculture is practised, buffer areas and ecological connecting areas, medium levels of protection (sustainable agriculture, green connections and ecological corridors. The key aims of the project are as follows: transversality - repairing the agricultural fabric and the relationship between the land and the sea; sustainability - recovering the environmental system and traditional activities; flexibility - agriculture with only minor environmental impact.

  5. Landscape genomics: natural selection drives the evolution of mitogenome in penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Barbara; González-Acuña, Daniel; Loyola, David E.; Johnson, Warren E.; Parker, Patricia G.; Massaro, Melanie; Dantas, Gisele P. M.; Miranda, Marcelo D.; Vianna, Juliana A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Mitochondria play a key role in the balance of energy and heat production, and therefore the mitochondrial genome is under natural selection by environmental temperature and food availability, since starvation can generate more efficient coupling of energy production. However, selection over mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes has usually been evaluated at the population level. We sequenced by NGS 12 mitogenomes and with four published genomes, assessed genetic variation in ten penguin...

  6. Air-surface exchange measurements of gaseous elemental mercury over naturally enriched and background terrestrial landscapes in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Edwards

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first gaseous elemental mercury (GEM air-surface exchange measurements obtained over naturally enriched and background (−1 Hg terrestrial landscapes in Australia. Two pilot field studies were carried out during the Australian autumn and winter periods at a copper-gold-cobalt-arsenic-mercury mineral field near Pulganbar, NSW. GEM fluxes using a dynamic flux chamber approach were measured, along with controlling environmental parameters over three naturally enriched and three background substrates. The enriched sites results showed net emission to the atmosphere and a strong correlation between flux and substrate Hg concentration, with average fluxes ranging from 14 ± 1 ng m−2 h−1 to 113 ± 6 ng m−2 h−1. Measurements at background sites showed both emission and deposition. The average Hg flux from all background sites showed an overall net emission of 0.36 ± 0.06 ng m−2 h−1. Fluxes show strong relationships with temperature, radiation, and substrate parameters. A compensation point of 2.48, representative of bare soils was determined. For periods of deposition, dry deposition velocities ranged from 0.00025 cm s−1 to 0.0083 cm s−1 with an average of 0.0041 ± 0.00018 cm s−1, representing bare soil, nighttime conditions. Comparison of the Australian data to North American data suggests the need for Australian-specific mercury air-surface exchange data representative of Australia's unique climatic conditions, vegetation types, land use patterns and soils.

  7. ORIBATID MITES POPULATION’S STRUCTURE IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL LANDSCAPES AS AN INDICATOR OF ECOSYSTEMS’ CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtirts A. D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and specific ecological structure of oribatid mites community in industrial site and buffer zone of «Artyomovsk nonferrous metal plant» and botanical nature sanctuary «Steppe Otradovskaya» were established. The ecological structure of «Artyomovsk nonferrous metal plant» area is perturbed, and typical for the anthropogenically-transformed ecosystems, and has low rates of average population density, wealth rate, ecological diversity indexes; it also has changed in dominance structure and life forms distribution. The oribatid community structure in the botanical nature sanctuary «Steppe Otradovskaya» during the spring period is typical for Donbass steppe conservations. In summer it resembles structurally in disrupted landscapes due to adverse edaphic conditions, occurring in Donbass in August. The integral sensitivity threshold indicator for oribatid mite communities shows that an environmental state of the technogenic area («Artyomovsk nonferrous metal plant» in summer and autumn is subnormal. The ecological status of «Steppe Otradovskaya» in spring can be considered as normal, and in the thalweg of the steppe gully as relatively favorable. During summer, the environmental condition of the study area is subnormal.

  8. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  9. Landscape, historic memory and national identity in the beginnings of the policy nature conservation in Spain: from Covadonga to San Juan de la Peña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo García Álvarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the concept of “national landscape” and on the importance of identity symbolic values in the beginning of landscape and nature conservation policy in Spain. The emblematic case of the Montaña de Covadonga (the first National Park created in Spain is examined in more detail. The paper is divided into three main sections. The first one raises some theoretical and general considerations on the role of identity symbolic values within the first steps of nature conservation policies in Spain and other national contexts. Secondly, the cultural-historic processes and discourses which converted the Montaña de Covadonga landscape into a Spanish national symbol and into a site of memory, leading to its declaration as a National Park in 1918, are reviewed. The third section examines the ideological identity disputes and controversies concerning the creation of that National Park, some of which led to the declaration of the Sitio Nacional del Monte de San Juan de la Peña in 1920. The article approaches the creation of the first Spanish Natural Parks as a part of the nationalization policies inspired by the concerns of the “Regeneracionismo”. More precisely, the beginning of natural conservation policy in Spain may be considered as part of the efforts carried out by certain intellectual and political leaders in order to institutionalize new spaces of collective identity grounded in landscape and nature (and, more particularly, in some natural landscapes endowed with a strong historic symbolic meaning as regards to the “birth of the nation”. According to the research conclusions, the ideological controversies raised around the first Spanish Natural Parks can be understood as a reflection of the plurality of competing national conceptions existing in Spain, as well as of the difficulties in reaching a consensus on the country’s national symbols.

  10. Untangling human development and natural gradients: implications of underlying correlation structure for linking landscapes and riverine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Lucero; E. Ashley Steel; Kelly M. Burnett; Kelly. Christiansen

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, ecologists seek to identify and quantify relationships between landscape gradients and aquatic ecosystems. Considerable statistical challenges emerge in this effort, some of which are attributable to multicollinearity between human development and landscape gradients. In this paper, we measure the covariation between human development—such as agriculture...

  11. A new algorithm for least-cost path analysis by correcting digital elevation models of natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jieun; Choi, Yosoon

    2017-04-01

    Most algorithms for least-cost path analysis usually calculate the slope gradient between the source cell and the adjacent cells to reflect the weights for terrain slope into the calculation of travel costs. However, these algorithms have limitations that they cannot analyze the least-cost path between two cells when obstacle cells with very high or low terrain elevation exist between the source cell and the target cell. This study presents a new algorithm for least-cost path analysis by correcting digital elevation models of natural landscapes to find possible paths satisfying the constraint of maximum or minimum slope gradient. The new algorithm calculates the slope gradient between the center cell and non-adjacent cells using the concept of extended move-sets. If the algorithm finds possible paths between the center cell and non-adjacent cells with satisfying the constraint of slope condition, terrain elevation of obstacle cells existing between two cells is corrected from the digital elevation model. After calculating the cumulative travel costs to the destination by reflecting the weight of the difference between the original and corrected elevations, the algorithm analyzes the least-cost path. The results of applying the proposed algorithm to the synthetic data sets and the real-world data sets provide proof that the new algorithm can provide more accurate least-cost paths than other conventional algorithms implemented in commercial GIS software such as ArcGIS.

  12. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  13. Landscape genomics: natural selection drives the evolution of mitogenome in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Barbara; González-Acuña, Daniel; Loyola, David E; Johnson, Warren E; Parker, Patricia G; Massaro, Melanie; Dantas, Gisele P M; Miranda, Marcelo D; Vianna, Juliana A

    2018-01-16

    Mitochondria play a key role in the balance of energy and heat production, and therefore the mitochondrial genome is under natural selection by environmental temperature and food availability, since starvation can generate more efficient coupling of energy production. However, selection over mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes has usually been evaluated at the population level. We sequenced by NGS 12 mitogenomes and with four published genomes, assessed genetic variation in ten penguin species distributed from the equator to Antarctica. Signatures of selection of 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes were evaluated by comparing among species within and among genera (Spheniscus, Pygoscelis, Eudyptula, Eudyptes and Aptenodytes). The genetic data were correlated with environmental data obtained through remote sensing (sea surface temperature [SST], chlorophyll levels [Chl] and a combination of SST and Chl [COM]) through the distribution of these species. We identified the complete mtDNA genomes of several penguin species, including ND6 and 8 tRNAs on the light strand and 12 protein coding genes, 14 tRNAs and two rRNAs positioned on the heavy strand. The highest diversity was found in NADH dehydrogenase genes and the lowest in COX genes. The lowest evolutionary divergence among species was between Humboldt (Spheniscus humboldti) and Galapagos (S. mendiculus) penguins (0.004), while the highest was observed between little penguin (Eudyptula minor) and Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) (0.097). We identified a signature of purifying selection (Ka/Ks penguins. In contrast, COX1 had a signature of strong negative selection. ND4 Ka/Ks ratios were highly correlated with SST (Mantel, p-value: 0.0001; GLM, p-value: 0.00001) and thus may be related to climate adaptation throughout penguin speciation. These results identify mtDNA candidate genes under selection which could be involved in broad-scale adaptations of penguins to their environment. Such knowledge may be

  14. Natural vegetation cover in the landscape and edge effects: differential responses of insect orders in a fragmented forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2017-10-01

    Human activities have led to global simplification of ecosystems, among which Neotropical dry forests are some of the most threatened. Habitat loss as well as edge effects may affect insect communities. Here, we analyzed insects sampled with pan traps in 9 landscapes (at 5 scales, in 100-500 m diameter circles) comprising cultivated fields and Chaco Serrano forests, at overall community and taxonomic order level. In total 7043 specimens and 456 species of hexapods were captured, with abundance and richness being directly related to forest cover at 500 m and higher at edges in comparison with forest interior. Community composition also varied with forest cover and edge/interior location. Different responses were detected among the 8 dominant orders. Collembola, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera richness and/or abundance were positively related to forest cover at the larger scale, while Thysanoptera abundance increased with forest cover only at the edge. Hymenoptera abundance and richness were negatively related to forest cover at 100 m. Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera were more diverse and abundant at the forest edge. The generally negative influence of forest loss on insect communities could have functional consequences for both natural and cultivated systems, and highlights the relevance of forest conservation. Higher diversity at the edges could result from the simultaneous presence of forest and matrix species, although "resource mapping" might be involved for orders that were richer and more abundant at edges. Adjacent crops could benefit from forest proximity since natural enemies and pollinators are well represented in the orders showing positive edge effects. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Tick-borne encephalitis virus isolates from natural foci of the Irkutsk region: clarification of the genotype landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, Ol'ga V; Adel'shin, R V; Korzun, V M; Trushina, Yu N; Andaev, E I

    The Irkutsk region is the unique territory where all known subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) circulate. In the last years, the phenomenon of changes in TBEV subtypes (substitution of the Far-Eastern subtype by the Siberian one) was noted in some regions of the Russian Federation. The results of individual investigation of 11522 Ixodes persulcatus ticks and brain specimens from 81 small mammals collected in natural foci of the Irkutsk region during 2006-2014 are presented in the article. More than 60 TBEV strains have been isolated and studied by virological methods; E gene fragments (1193 b.p.) of 68 isolates have been typed. The majority of the strains (irrespective of subtype) were of high virulence for laboratory mice (LM) in case of both intracerebral and subcutaneous inoculation of virus. All isolates from warm-blooded small mammals and humans were of high virulence for LM, but placed in the same clusters of the phylogenetic tree with ticks collected in the same area. Tick-borne strains of different virulence also did not form separate clusters on the tree. Phylogenetic analysis showed that modern TBEV genotypic landscape of the studied territory is changing toward absolute predominance of the Siberian subtype (94.1%). This subtype is represented by two groups with prototype strains “Zausaev” and “Vasilchenko”. The “Vasilchenko” group of strains is spread on the whole territory under study; the strains of “Zausaev” group were isolated previously in the Irkutsk suburbs. The European subtype of TBEV circulates in natural foci of Pribaikalie permanently (at least 5% of the random sampling); the strains are of high virulence for LM. The Far-Eastern TBEV subtype was not found within the group of isolates collected in 20062014. The phylogenetic relationship of the strains under study had a higher correlation with the place of isolation than with the year or source.

  16. Continuing Climate Warming Will Result in Failure of Post-Harvest Natural Regeneration across the Landscape in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, M.; Juday, G. P.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Following forest disturbance, the stand initiation stage decisively influences future forest structure. Understanding post-harvest regeneration, especially under climate change, is essential to predicting future carbon stores in this extensive forest biome. We apply IPCC B1, A1B, and A2 climate scenarios to generate plausible future forest conditions under different management. We recorded presence of white spruce, birch, and aspen in 726 plots on 30 state forest white spruce harvest units. We built spatially explicit models and scenarios of species presence/absence using TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting). Post-harvest tree regeneration predictions in calibration data closely matched the validation set, indicating tree regeneration scenarios are reliable. Early stage post-harvest regeneration is similar to post-fire regeneration and matches the pattern of long-term natural vegetation distribution, confirming that site environmental factors are more important than management practices. Post-harvest natural regeneration of tree species increases under moderate warming scenarios, but fails under strong warming scenarios in landscape positions with high temperatures and low precipitation. Under all warming scenarios, the most successful regenerating species following white spruce harvest is white spruce. Birch experiences about 30% regeneration failure under A2 scenario by 2050. White spruce and aspen are projected to regenerate more successfully when site preparation is applied. Although white spruce has been the major managed species, birch may require more intensive management. Sites likely to experience regeneration failure of current tree species apparently will experience biome shift, although adaptive migration of existing or new species might be an option. Our scenario modeling tool allows resource managers to forecast tree regeneration on productive managed sites that have made a disproportionate contribution to carbon flux in a critical region.

  17. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Cameron, Clarion, Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean, Potter, and Warren Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, L. E.; Slonecker, E. T.; Roig-Silva, C. M.; Winters, S. G.; Ballew, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract unconventional natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique for extraction, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Cameron, Clarion, Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean, Potter, and Warren Counties in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication. In this region, natural gas and oil development disturbed

  18. The US Natural Gas Exports: New Rules on the European Gas Landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    This study addresses the consequences of US Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) exports towards Europe, in particular on the strategy of Russia, the EU's main gas supplier. The shale gas revolution has profoundly changed the US gas scene and the competitiveness of gas on the US market. The abundant resources and sharp rise in production have resulted in surplus production and have driven the US gas prices down. The price spread between regional markets (United States, Europe, and Asia) has led US producers to look for new export opportunities. After a lively debate between advocates of exports, mainly gas producers, and their critics, mainly the major industrial users who were worried about a price increase, US LNG exports started in late February 2016 with the first cargo from the Sabine Pass (Cheniere) liquefaction plant exported to Brazil. Four other liquefaction plants are currently under construction. In 2020, the United States could become the third largest exporter in the world after Australia and Qatar. The US LNG exports will revolutionise international trade in LNG. Their contract structure (linked to the US gas spot price, no destination clauses, and tolling agreements) and the projected volumes will enable greater flexibility in the international LNG market and facilitate price convergence between regional markets. However, the US exports are starting in a market very different from that envisioned at the start of the 2010's when the export projects were launched. The drop in oil prices, the entry into production of new liquefaction capacities since 2014, and the slowdown in demand growth in Asia have driven LNG prices down on import markets. After four years of tight supply, the market is now in a surplus situation which should continue until the turn of the decade. These new conditions are profoundly changing the economics of US LNG export projects, which is questioned in the short term: the current prices are insufficient to cover the full cost of the

  19. Are climate warming and enhanced atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen threatening tufa landscapes in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Du, Jie; Lugli, Stefano; Ren, Jinhai; Xiao, Weiyang; Chen, Pan; Tang, Ya

    2016-08-15

    Massive deposition of calcium carbonate in ambient temperature waters (tufa) can form magnificent tufa landscapes, many of which are designated as protected areas. However, tufa landscapes in many areas are threatened by both local anthropogenic activities and climate change. This study, for the first time, posed the question whether the tufa landscape degradation (characterized by tufa degradation and increased biomass of green algae) in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve of China is partially caused by regional air pollution and climate warming. The results indicate that wet deposition (including rain and snow) polluted by anthropogenic SO2, NOx, and NH3 emissions dissolves exposed tufa and may considerably reduce tufa deposition rate and even cause tufa dissolution within shallow waters. These effects of wet deposition on tufa enhanced as pH of wet deposition decreased from 8.01 to 5.06. Annual Volume Weighted Mean concentration of reactive nitrogen (including NH4(+) and NO3(-)) in wet deposition (26.1μmolL(-1)) was 1.8 times of the corresponding value of runoff (14.8μmolL(-1)) and exceeded China's national standard of total nitrogen in runoff for nature reserves (14.3μmolL(-1)), indicating a direct nitrogen fertilization effect of wet deposition on green algae. As water temperature is the major limiting factor of algal growth in Jiuzhaigou and temperature in the top layer (0-5cm) of runoff (depthclimate warming in this region would favor algal growth. In sum, this study suggests that climate warming and enhanced sulfur and nitrogen deposition have contributed to the current degradation of tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, but in order to quantify the contributions, further studies are needed, as many other anthropogenic and natural processes also influence tufa landscape evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Ancient Maya Landscape: Facing the Challenges and Embracing the Promise of Integrating Archaeology, Remote Sensing, Soil Science and Hydrologic Modeling for Coupled Natural and Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T., Jr.; Duffy, C.; Cook, B. D.; Schroder, W.; Webster, D.; French, K. D.; Alcover, O.; Golden, C.; Balzotti, C.; Shaffer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on a niche inheritance perspective, this paper discusses the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land-use management, agricultural decision making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. We introduce and describe ongoing research that addresses a series of long standing questions about coupled natural and human history dynamics in the Central Maya lowlands, emphasizing the role of landscape and region to address these questions. First, we summarize the results of a CNH pilot study focused on the evolution of the regional landscape of Tikal, Guatemala. Particular attention is centered on how we integrated landscape survey, traditional archaeology and soil studies to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural land use and intensification over a two thousand period. Additionally, we discuss how these results were integrated into remote sensing, hydrological and erosion models to better understand how past changes in available water and productive land compare to what we know about settlement patterns in the Tikal Region over that same time period. We not only describe how the Maya transformed this landscape, but also how the region influenced changing patterns of settlement and land use. We finish this section with a discussion of some of the unique challenges integrating archaeological information to study CNH dynamics during this pilot study. Second, we introduce a new project designed to `scale up' the pilot study for a macro-regional analysis of the lowland Maya landscape. The new project leverages a uniquely sampled LIDAR data set designed to refine measurements of above ground carbon storage. Our new project quantitatively examines these data for evidence for past human activity. Preliminary results offer a promising path for tightly integrating archaeology, natural science, remote sensing and modeling for studying CNH dynamics in the deep and recent past.

  1. The brown coal subsequent landscape in Saxonia and its integration into the natural waters system; Die Braunkohlefolgelandschaft in Sachsen und ihre Integration in das natuerliche Gewaessersystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socher, Martin; Sander, Frank; Herbst, Frank [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landschaft (Germany). Abt. 4 - Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe

    2009-07-01

    Until 1989, the regions Central Germany and Lausitz were one of the most important lignite mining regions of the world with a production of raw brown coal of up to 310 million tons annually. Today, only 80 million tons per year are mined. Strongly changed and artificially created waters remained which must be integrated into the natural waters landscape. An outstanding role comes to the redevelopment mining industry.

  2. Modern parameters of caesium-137 root uptake in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems of contaminated post-Chernobyl landscape, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paramonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of modern parameters of 137Cs root uptake was conducted in natural meadow and agricultural ecosystems of post-Chernobyl landscapes of Tula region. The agrosystems with main crops of field rotation (barley, potatoes, rape, maize occupying watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems are contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (4.7-6.0 Ci/km2; natural meadow ecosystems occupying lower parts of slopes and floodplains are contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (5.8-7.6 Ci/km2. In the arable soils 137Cs uniformly distributed to a depth of Ap horizon (20-30 cm of thickness, while in meadow soils 70-80% of the radionuclide is concentrated within the top Ad horizon (9-13 cm of thickness. These topsoil layer accords with rhizosphere zone, where >80-90% of plant roots are concentrated, and from which 137Cs is mostly consumed by vegetation. Total amount of 137Cs root uptake depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.61. So 137Cs activity in meadow vegetation (103-160 Bq/kg is generally more than one in agricultural vegetation (9-92 Bq/kg. The values of 137Cs transfer factor in the studied ecosystems vary from 0.01 (rape to 0.20 (wet meadow, that confirms the discrimination of the radionuclide’s root uptake. The larger are the volume of roots and their absorbing surface, the higher are the values of transfer factor from soil to plant (correlation coefficients 0.71 and 0.64 respectively. 137Cs translocation from roots to shoots is also determined by biological features of plants. At the same level of soil contamination above-ground parts of meadow herbs accumulate more 137Cs than Gramineae species, and in agrosystems above-ground parts of weeds concentrate more 137Cs than cultivated cereals. Thus, the level of soil radioactive pollution and biological features of plants are determinants in the process of 137Cs root uptake and translocation and should be considered in land use policy.

  3. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  4. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  5. Remote sensing change detection tools for natural resource managers: Understanding concepts and tradeoffs in the design of landscape monitoring projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Philip A. Townsend; John E. Gross; Warren B. Cohen; Paul Bolstad; Wang Y. Q.; Phyllis Adams

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing provides a broad view of landscapes and can be consistent through time, making it an important tool for monitoring and managing protected areas. An impediment to broader use of remote sensing science for monitoring has been the need for resource managers to understand the specialized capabilities of an ever-expanding array of image sources and analysis...

  6. Wind born(e) landscapes: the role of wind erosion in agricultural land management and nature development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind has played an important role in the geological development of the north-western Europe. Various aeolian deposits such as inland dunes, river dunes, cover sands, drift sands and coastal dunes, form the base of large areas in our present landscape. The role of wind erosion in today's north-west

  7. Analysis of the natural factors of biological productivity of water bodies in the different landscapes of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekanova Elena Valentinovna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic environmental factors of biological productivity were studied in seven lakes with low water exchange and a few inflows in different landscapes of Karelia (Russia. Lakes are not exposed to human impact. An indicator of the biological productivity is the phytoplankton photosynthesis rate calculated on the concentration of phosphorus in water. The water bodies vary from oligotrophic to mesotrophic according to their trophic level. Cluster and component analysis of chemicals was carried out, hydrological, morphometric and landscape characteristics of the lakes were also determined. It was shown that in the absence of anthropogenic influence the availability of phosphorus and trophic level of the studied lakes in the humid zone are determined by the water exchange, effluent per unit of water column, color of water and landscape features. The most productive water bodies are located on the fluvioglacial and moraine plains dominated by podsolic soils, which have a good flashing regime and soluble humus substances. These lakes are distinguished by a larger inflow of phosphorus forming a part of humus substances originated from the water-collecting area per unit of water column. Oligotrophic lakes are located in moraine and selga landscapes dominated by podbours and brown soils with a lot of humus slightly transformed. These lakes are characterized by less water exchange and drainage factor, and, accordingly, low values of phosphorus input and water color.

  8. Landscape Aesthetics and the Scenic Drivers of Amenity Migration in the New West: Naturalness, Visual Scale, and Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukomanovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Values associated with scenic beauty are common “pull factors” for amenity migrants, however the specific landscape features that attract amenity migration are poorly understood. In this study we focused on three visual quality metrics of the intermountain West (USA, with the objective of exploring the relationship between the location of exurban homes and aesthetic landscape preference, as exemplified through greenness, viewshed size, and terrain ruggedness. Using viewshed analysis, we compared the viewsheds of actual exurban houses to the viewsheds of randomly-distributed simulated (validation houses. We found that the actual exurban households can see significantly more vegetation and a more rugged (complex terrain than simulated houses. Actual exurban homes see a more rugged terrain, but do not necessarily see the highest peaks, suggesting that visual complexity throughout the viewshed may be more important. The viewsheds visible from the actual exurban houses were significantly larger than those visible from the simulated houses, indicating that visual scale is important to the general aesthetic experiences of exurbanites. The differences in visual quality metric values between actual exurban and simulated viewsheds call into question the use of county-level scales of analysis for the study of landscape preferences, which may miss key landscape aesthetic drivers of preference.

  9. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  10. Cambios de uso del suelo e impactos sobre el agua subterránea en un barrio al Sur de Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Iris Rodriguez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se basa en el análisis los cambios de uso del suelo en el período 2003-2011 en un barrio de 79,62 ha ubicado al S interserrano de la ciudad de Tandil, y su vinculación con la calidad y disponibilidad de agua subterránea. El mapeo de imágenes satelitales y su contrastación en campo evidenciaron los cambios ocurridos en los usos del suelo del área de estudio, pasando de lotes sin uso definido y de cultivos a un incremento de aprovechamientos residenciales y turístico-comerciales principalmente. Sin embargo, como el sector no es abastecido por servicios de agua de red y sistema cloacal, se utilizan perforaciones particulares para la extracción de agua del acuífero libre, para consumo humano y uso recreativo, y se depositan los efluentes domiciliarios en pozos absorbentes. Los habitantes informaron sobre distintas problemáticas relacionadas al uso del agua tales como secado de pozos, necesidad de perforar a mayor profundidad, problemas de calidad del agua, escasez en época estival y para el llenado de piletas y colmatación de pozos ciegos en eventos de precipitaciones extremas. En 2011 se midieron los niveles freáticos y se tomaron muestras de agua para conocer la conductividad eléctrica (CE y el contenido de nitratos. La CE osciló entre 480 y 1400 µS/cm denotando contaminaciones puntuales en la zona con mayor número de viviendas. El mismo comportamiento tienen los nitratos, variando desde 6 a 85 mg/L, con un punto que supera 200 mg/L. Estas alteraciones están ocasionadas principalmente por la disposición in situ de los efluentes domiciliarios, que genera un ciclo semicerrado de disposición - transporte - extracción del agua. La falta de planificación territorial con visión ambiental, sumada a la ausencia de servicios sanitarios y la ocupación en cabeceras de cuenca, pone en peligro la calidad y disponibilidad de agua subterránea y en riesgo a la salud de quienes lo consumen.

  11. INDUSTRIA, EMISIONES GASEOSAS Y GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL URBANA Diagnóstico de las condiciones operativas de las fundiciones en Tandil, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Soledad Sosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available De las problemáticas ambientales urbanas, las asociadas a la industria presentan especial interés para la gestión ambiental. La ciudad de Tandil en Argentina, debe su crecimiento económico y urbano a la actividad metalmecánica, -en particular a la fundición-, y a pesar de las crisis del sector, la actividad sigue siendo eje de crecimiento económico y urbano local. Esta investigación caracteriza -en términos productivos, operativos y ambientales- las industrias de fundición y evalúa las condiciones operativas de la gestión de emisiones gaseosas en el sector en el año 2010. Fue posible analizar unas 25 industrias sobre 30. La muestra fue representativa de los cinco procesos productivos identificados: aluminio (Al, aluminio/hierro (Al Fe, aluminio/bronce (Al Cu+Sn, aluminio/hierro/bronce (Al Fe Cu+Sn, hierro (Fe. Las variables analizadas fueron: materia prima de fusión, horno utilizado y, tamaño de la industria. Para la obtención de los datos de producción se aplicaron entrevistas estructuradas, y para determinar el tamaño de la industria  se usaron encuestas. Fue posible describir la situación productiva del sector a nivel local: La mayoría de las industrias destinan su producción al sector automotriz. Evaluando la relación tamaño y tipo de empresa, las fundiciones de Aluminio son pequeñas. En relación al hierro, están representados los tres tamaños empresariales posibles y existe una industria mediana que ocupa entre 51 y 230 empleados. Las condiciones operativas y de cumplimiento de la legislación en el control de los efluentes gaseosos analizados demandan identificar indicadores de seguimiento para la etapa de fusión del proceso para conocer con precisión los contaminantes resultantes y sus efectos ambientales.   

  12. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  13. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  14. Evaluación ambiental de las condiciones de explotación y uso del recurso hidríco subterráneo en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones, Tandil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Corina Iris

    2009-01-01

    Se basa esta investigación en la evaluación ambiental de las condiciones de explotación y uso del recurso hídrico subterráneo en el Barrio Cerro Los Leones, ubicado al Oeste de la ciudad de Tandil, en el centro-SE de la provincia de Buenos Aires. El interés por dicho sector surgió a partir de las falencias en la provisión de agua potable y servicios sanitarios. El objetivo principal consistió en la generación de pautas de gestión sustentable basadas en el análisis y evaluación del sistema sub...

  15. 5. The Basic Principles of The Working Process From Nature and the Role of Composition in Creating Landscape in Terms of Plein-Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savițkaia-Baraghin Iarîna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Principles of possession of the landscape painting, applied by masters of the past, as well as theoretical elaborations of scientists in the field of chromatics, psychology and pedagogy of arts, become important components in improving training methods of artists in plein-air in contemporary conditions. The skills and knowledge gained in the process of pleinair studies form professional skills and improve the properties of painting and composition within the workshop. This studying outlines the stringency of training and development methods of creative individuality, especially in plein-air, where the principal teacher is the nature. The plein-air enriches color perception of the real world, located in the air, and mutual relationship of landscape with architecture and space determines knowledge of the issues of proportionality and subordination in compositions, educates sense of proportion and artistic taste. Improving visual mastery into the natural environment contributes to the formation to painters of the necessity to create outside the workshop, which is a necessary condition for the development of individuality and professional skills of the painter.

  16. [Bird biodiversity in natural and modified habitats in a landscape of the Central Depression of Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E

    2010-03-01

    In many parts of the neotropics, the original habitats are rapidly changing because of excessive logging, agriculture and livestock activity, with an often negative impact on bird communities. I present an analysis of the diversity and richness of birds in a fragmented landscape of the Central Chiapas Depression. Fieldwork was conducted from February 2003 to January 2004. Using point counts, a total of 35 families and 225 bird species were registered (164 residents and 61 migratory); 3% are abundant and 30% rare. Diversity, species richness and number of individuals were significantly higher in tropical deciduous forest (H'=3.41, 178 species ANOVA pbirds species in the study area.

  17. State-and-transition simulation modeling to compare outcomes of alternative management scenarios under two natural disturbance regimes in a forested landscape in northeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Swearingen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of the potential outcomes of multiple land management strategies and an understanding of the influence of potential increases in climate-related disturbances on these outcomes are essential for long term land management and conservation planning. To provide these insights, we developed an approach that uses collaborative scenario development and state-and-transition simulation modeling to provide land managers and conservation practitioners with a comparison of potential landscapes resulting from alternative management scenarios and climate conditions, and we have applied this approach in the Wild Rivers Legacy Forest (WRLF area in northeastern Wisconsin. Three management scenarios were developed with input from local land managers, scientists, and conservation practitioners: 1 continuation of current management, 2 expanded working forest conservation easements, and 3 cooperative ecological forestry. Scenarios were modeled under current climate with contemporary probabilities of natural disturbance and under increased probability of windthrow and wildfire that may result from climate change in this region. All scenarios were modeled for 100 years using the VDDT/TELSA modeling suite. Results showed that landscape composition and configuration were relatively similar among scenarios, and that management had a stronger effect than increased probability of windthrow and wildfire. These findings suggest that the scale of the landscape analysis used here and the lack of differences in predominant management strategies between ownerships in this region play significant roles in scenario outcomes. The approach used here does not rely on complex mechanistic modeling of uncertain dynamics and can therefore be used as starting point for planning and further analysis.

  18. Contrast in edge vegetation structure modifies the predation risk of natural ground nests in an agricultural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Schneider

    Full Text Available Nest predation risk generally increases nearer forest-field edges in agricultural landscapes. However, few studies test whether differences in edge contrast (i.e. hard versus soft edges based on vegetation structure and height affect edge-related predation patterns and if such patterns are related to changes in nest conspicuousness between incubation and nestling feeding. Using data on 923 nesting attempts we analyse factors influencing nest predation risk at different edge types in an agricultural landscape of a ground-cavity breeding bird species, the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe. As for many other bird species, nest predation is a major determinant of reproductive success in this migratory passerine. Nest predation risk was higher closer to woodland and crop field edges, but only when these were hard edges in terms of ground vegetation structure (clear contrast between tall vs short ground vegetation. No such edge effect was observed at soft edges where adjacent habitats had tall ground vegetation (crop, ungrazed grassland. This edge effect on nest predation risk was evident during the incubation stage but not the nestling feeding stage. Since wheatear nests are depredated by ground-living animals our results demonstrate: (i that edge effects depend on edge contrast, (ii that edge-related nest predation patterns vary across the breeding period probably resulting from changes in parental activity at the nest between the incubation and nestling feeding stage. Edge effects should be put in the context of the nest predator community as illustrated by the elevated nest predation risk at hard but not soft habitat edges when an edge is defined in terms of ground vegetation. These results thus can potentially explain previously observed variations in edge-related nest predation risk.

  19. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  20. Results of revision of the data base of the State list of particularly protected parts of nature and landscape in sequence on the collection of letters of the state list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroz, L.; Sykora, J.

    2005-01-01

    The State list of particularly protected parts of nature and landscape (Stat list) is official account of protected territories and protected trees and their protected zones on the territory of the Slovak Republic. The State list was delimited from the State protection of nature of the Slovak Republic on the Museum of Nature Protection and Speleology. The content of the State list and structure of data base of protected territories and protected territories are presented

  1. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  2. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  3. A Perfect Match Genomic Landscape Provides a Unified Framework for the Precise Detection of Variation in Natural and Synthetic Haploid Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Flores, Kim; García-Sotelo, Jair; Castillo, Alejandra; Uribe, Carina; Aguilar, Luis; Morales, Lucía; Gómez-Romero, Laura; Reyes, José; Garciarubio, Alejandro; Boege, Margareta; Dávila, Guillermo

    2018-04-01

    We present a conceptually simple, sensitive, precise, and essentially nonstatistical solution for the analysis of genome variation in haploid organisms. The generation of a Perfect Match Genomic Landscape (PMGL), which computes intergenome identity with single nucleotide resolution, reveals signatures of variation wherever a query genome differs from a reference genome. Such signatures encode the precise location of different types of variants, including single nucleotide variants, deletions, insertions, and amplifications, effectively introducing the concept of a general signature of variation. The precise nature of variants is then resolved through the generation of targeted alignments between specific sets of sequence reads and known regions of the reference genome. Thus, the perfect match logic decouples the identification of the location of variants from the characterization of their nature, providing a unified framework for the detection of genome variation. We assessed the performance of the PMGL strategy via simulation experiments. We determined the variation profiles of natural genomes and of a synthetic chromosome, both in the context of haploid yeast strains. Our approach uncovered variants that have previously escaped detection. Moreover, our strategy is ideally suited for further refining high-quality reference genomes. The source codes for the automated PMGL pipeline have been deposited in a public repository. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. The media image of the relationship between nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, 2-3 (2005), s. 123-133 ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic development * content analysis Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  5. Reading the landscape: citywide social assessment of New York City parks and natural areas in 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Novem Auyeung; Lindsay K. Campbell; Michelle Johnson; Nancy Falxa Sonti; Erika Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) Natural Resources Group created the Forever Wild Program to protect nearly 9,000 acres of forests, wetlands, and meadows citywide. Although these areas were set aside over a decade ago, we have little systematic evidence about how park visitors view, use, and value parks with these...

  6. Natural islands and habitat islands as refuges of vegetation cover and wild bees. The case of the Lednica Landscape Park in western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study has contributed to the identification of the apifauna of central Wielkopolska. The study identified 161 bee species, accounting for 34.2% of the Polish bee fauna. The highest contribution (28.7% of the fauna comes from four species, namely Andrena haemorrhoa, A. helvola, Evylaeus calceatus and Osmia rufa, while Bombus terrestris and Evylaeus pauxillus are two subdominants. The assemblages of Apiformes in the study area are characterised by a significant contribution of spring-associated species, which is probably an effect of the presence of numerous willow thickets offering abundant host plants (mainly Salix sp. div.. Both the islands and the surroundings of the lake have a unique species composition, and there are differences in the proportions of the individual dominant species. The overall abundance of bees varies greatly, with mean seasonal density figures on Ostrów Lednicki Island being more than twice as high as that on the mainland grassland, with a distinct predominance of bumblebees. The exceptional richness of Apiformes, including bumblebees, on Ostrów Lednicki should be regarded as the basis for treating this island as a life refuge for bumblebees and including it and its environs in the list of sites of Community importance (SCI. A simultaneous study of the vegetation cover contributed significant data on the vascular plant flora and plant communities of the Lednica Landscape Park. For example, it was the first such investigation of Mewia Island. The study revealed the importance of marginal habitats (natural islands and habitat islands for the preservation of protected and endangered plant species and plant communities receding from an agricultural landscape.

  7. Assessment of natural and cultural landscape capacity to proposals the ecological model of tourism development (case study for the area of the Zamagurie region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drábová-Degro Monika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and industrial conditions are not favourable in the uphill and mountain areas of the Zamagurie region, and tourism is often the only opportunity to create new jobs, develop the habitation areas and avoid the emigration of local inhabitants. The Walachian and Sholtys colonization has transformed the landscape and created unique significant spatial landscape elements that are traditionally utilized for agricultural purposes, and create a unique esthetical landscape preserved till the present times. This case study has been aimed at developing and applying the new quantification methods using GIS tools for evaluation of localizing, selective realization and environmental preconditions of the landscape, representing recreational (cultural services of the landscape ecological systems, based on selected indicators. To evaluate the localizing preconditions of the landscape, we referred to the landscape-ecological complex geo-databases (LEC (Thematic maps - internal ground document of ZB GIS , 2013, completed with the field survey during the period 2013−2014 and identification of secondary landscape structure elements (SLS and selected morphometric indicators. While evaluating the selected town-planning, demographical and social-economic indicators, we quantified the selective landscape preconditions of tourism development. The realization preconditions were reviewed according to communication accessibility and material-technical equipment. As for environmental preconditions, we reviewed the presence of protected territory and landscape environmental load.

  8. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  9. Snakes of an urban-rural landscape in the central Andes of Colombia: species composition, distribution, and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Andrés Rojas-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From 2005 to 2011, I studied the composition, distribution and natural history of an Andean urban-rural snake assemblage at the Cordillera Central of Colombia, based on three data sources: (1 examination of specimens in the MHN-UC [Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad de Caldas], (2 incidental encounters by author, and (3 collection of data by other researchers. Additionally, I provide natural history notes for the species involved. A total of 14 species, including two subspecies of snakes, belonging to 12 genera and four families, have been found in the studied area (municipality of Manizales, Caldas. Taking into account this total, 10 had atleast one record in the urban area, 13 in the rural area and 14 in forested areas. Only Liophis epinephelus bimaculatus was found exclusively in forest environment. Three species (21.4% are apparently endemic to the region, six species (42.8% correspond to afauna representative of the Tropical–Andean range of South America, four species (28.5% are distributed from Central America to the tropical Andes, and only one species is widely distributed in the whole continent. The snake assemblage in Manizales is mostly terrestrial, and in general, the species tend to be more active in the rainy periods of the year (mainly from October–December, and most of them may occasionally be found in urban areas, mainly close to areas of vegetation such as crops and pastures.

  10. Naturally occurring radionuclides in brown coal and copper shale mining waste and its impact on landscape mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Neitzel, P.L.; Hurst, S.; Osenbrueck, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Extensive uranium mining and processing was widely spread in the former socialist European countries, especially former G.D.R., Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria. The exploration and the use of other radioactive contaminated mining products for energetic purposes, e.g. hard coal for uranium extraction in Eastern Germany and highly radium contaminated coal in Upper Silesia (Poland) was also a common practice. Besides uranium and coal mining activities naturally occurring radioactivity was also observed in copper shale mining. All these mining activities led to the accumulation of vast amounts of wastes and to the contamination of large areas. The wastes usually contain not only elevated concentrations of radionuclides like uranium, thorium and the relevant daughter nuclides but also other toxic chemical elements. Now these polluted areas are a permanent source of ground and surface water contamination in the mining districts. For reasons of environmental security and to avoid the uncontrolled spread of radioactive pollution, a permanent cost effective monitoring of the pollution levels is necessary as long as the wastes are deposited in interim disposal sites. With regard to the new German Radiation Protection Law established in August 2001, new waste management concepts based on in-situ mitigation are needed for these normally low radioactive contaminated wastes. Besides improved management concepts the in-situ treatment of contaminated waters is of major importance. Passive water treatment systems are possible methods for a long term cost effective treatment of waters from mine sites with naturally occurring radioactivity. For the treatment of surface waters internationally mainly constructed wetlands are in practice worldwide. On the other hand a few groundwater contaminations have been equipped with permeable walls consisting of zero valent iron. Hydrogeochemical and biogeochemical research on reactive materials is restricted on laboratory scale and there

  11. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  12. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  13. First surveys on genetic variability and structure of field maple (Acer campestre L. in natural and managed populations in the landscape of central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Four Tuscan populations (central Italy and three Italian populations from southern Italy (Campania were sampled to compare their genetic variability and genetic structure. In each geographical area one of the sampled populations is originated naturally in forest and used as a local reference. The remaining populations were originated artificially. Indeed, field maple was traditionally used in Italy to supply fresh fodder to animals in dry summer period as tree twigs or to train up grape trees in the fields edges. This tradition initiated  at the time of Etruscans and continued throughout the Roman partitioning of agriculture landscape. Biochemical markers were used to explore variability in the examined populations (5 enzyme systems by 11 loci. Results showed that the main amount of variation is due to the individual component as for most of the scattered hardwoods in Europe and that differentiation among populations for these neutral  traits is relatively low. On the other hand, the natural populations in both the geographical areas showed a very high level of panmittic equilibrium, whilst the artificial populations were really distant from this condition showing a high probability of “founder effect”. This could be determined by the former system of self-supplying reproductive material carried out by farmers, based on the wild offspring collection growing around few mother trees. Discussion is focused also on how handling the opportunity given by many hundreds kilometers of lines  in the agriculture landscape as a way of managing diversity for this species. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  14. Assessment of landscape diversity and determination of landscape hotspots - a case of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Drago; Ciglič, Rok; Hrvatin, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Areas with high landscape diversity can be regarded as landscape hotspots, and vice versa areas with low landscape diversity can be marked as landscape coldspots. The main purpose of this paper is to use quantitative geoinformatical approach and identify parts of our test area (the country of Slovenia) that can be described as very diverse according to natural landscapes and natural elements. We used different digital raster data of natural elements and landscape classifications and defined landscape diversity and landscape hotspots. We defined diversity for each raster pixel by counting the number of different unique types of landscape elements and types of landscapes in its neighborhood. Namely, the method was used separately to define diversity according to natural elements (types of relief forms, rocks, and vegetation) and diversity according to existing geographical landscape classifications of Slovenia (types of landscapes). In both cases one-tenth of Slovenia's surface with the highest landscape diversity was defined as landscape hotspots. The same applies to the coldspots. Additionally we tested the same method of counting different types of landscapes in certain radius also for the area of Europe in order to find areas that are more diverse at continental level. By doing so we were able to find areas that have similar level of diversity as Slovenia according to different European landscape classifications. Areas with landscape diversity may have an advantage in economic development, especially in tourism. Such areas are also important for biodiversity, habitat, and species diversity. On the other hand, localities where various natural influences mix can also be areas where it is hard to transfer best practices from one place to another because of the varying responses of the landscapes to human intervention. Thus it is important to know where areas with high landscape diversity are.

  15. Reconfiguración del territorio y política territorial: Dispersión y baja densidad en las áreas de crecimiento reciente de la ciudad de Tandil, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Ríos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del fenómeno de urbanización creciente, se verifican cambios en la configuración territorial que dan cuenta de la emergencia de procesos de expansión urbana dispersos en coexistencia con las tradicionales formas de gradiente por periferización del modelo de ciudad compacta. Tanto en la reestructuración territorial de las áreas metropolitanas como de las ciudades de menor rango, se manifiestan cambios específicos caracterizados por dinámicas demográficas y económicas intensas, en correspondencia con significativas transformaciones de los entornos periurbanos y rurales. El estudio del crecimiento urbano en la ciudad de Tandil busca explicar las relaciones entre las reconfiguraciones ocurridas en las áreas de crecimiento urbano reciente, y la planificación y gestión territorial. La tesis que subyace es que la política territorial favoreció las tendencias de expansión urbana dispersas y de baja densidad, en articulación con las dinámicas del mercado de suelos rururbanos y nuevas demandas socioculturales. La política territorial ha tenido una alta capacidad de incidencia en la configuración del territorio a partir del reconocimiento de nuevas tendencias, fundamentalmente las asociadas al crecimiento extensivo, disperso y de baja densidad, porque sus acciones y decisiones validan los nuevos modelos.

  16. Sr isotopes in natural waters: Applications to source characterisation and water-rock interaction in contrasting landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shand, P.; Darbyshire, D.P.F.; Love, A.J.; Edmunds, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Strontium isotopes ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) are routinely measured in hydrochemical studies to determine sources and mixing relationships. They have proved particularly useful in determining weathering processes and quantifying end-member mixing processes. A number of routine case studies are presented which highlight that Sr isotopes represent a powerful tool in the geochemists toolbox helping to constrain weathering reactions, weathering rates, flow pathways and mixing scenarios. Differences in methodologies for determining the weathering component in natural environments, inherent differences in weathering rates of different minerals, and mineral heterogeneity often cause difficulties in defining the weathering component of different catchments or aquifer systems. Nevertheless, Sr isotopes are useful when combined with other hydrochemical data, to constrain models of water-rock interaction and mixing as well as geochemical processes such as ion-exchange. This paper presents a summary of recent work by the authors in constraining the sources of waters and weathering processes in surface catchments and aquifers, and indicates cases where Sr isotopes alone are insufficient to solve hydrological problems.

  17. Sr isotopes in natural waters: Applications to source characterisation and water-rock interaction in contrasting landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shand, P., E-mail: paul.shand@csiro.au [CSIRO Land and Water/CRC LEME, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Darbyshire, D.P.F. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Love, A.J. [Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation, P.O. Box 2843, Adelaide 5001 (Australia); Edmunds, W.M. [School of Geography, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, South Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) are routinely measured in hydrochemical studies to determine sources and mixing relationships. They have proved particularly useful in determining weathering processes and quantifying end-member mixing processes. A number of routine case studies are presented which highlight that Sr isotopes represent a powerful tool in the geochemists toolbox helping to constrain weathering reactions, weathering rates, flow pathways and mixing scenarios. Differences in methodologies for determining the weathering component in natural environments, inherent differences in weathering rates of different minerals, and mineral heterogeneity often cause difficulties in defining the weathering component of different catchments or aquifer systems. Nevertheless, Sr isotopes are useful when combined with other hydrochemical data, to constrain models of water-rock interaction and mixing as well as geochemical processes such as ion-exchange. This paper presents a summary of recent work by the authors in constraining the sources of waters and weathering processes in surface catchments and aquifers, and indicates cases where Sr isotopes alone are insufficient to solve hydrological problems.

  18. Is Nigeria losing its natural vegetation and landscape? Assessing the landuse-landcover change trajectories and effects in Onitsha using remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaogu, Chukwudi; Okeke, Onyedikachi J.; Fadipe, Olusola O.; Bashiru, Kehinde A.; Pechanec, Vilém

    2017-12-01

    Onitsha is one of the largest commercial cities in Africa with its population growth rate increasing arithmetically for the past two decades. This situation has direct and indirect effects on the natural resources including vegetation and water. The study aimed at assessing land use-land cover (LULC) change and its effects on the vegetation and landscape from 1987 to 2015 using geoinformatics. Supervised and unsupervised classifications including maximum likelihood algorithm were performed using ENVI 4.7 and ArcGIS 10.1 versions. The LULC was classified into 7 classes: built-up areas (settlement), waterbody, thick vegetation, light vegetation, riparian vegetation, sand deposit (bare soil) and floodplain. The result revealed that all the three vegetation types decreased in areas throughout the study period while, settlement, sand deposit and floodplain areas have remarkable increase of about 100% in 2015 when compared with the total in 1987. Number of dominant plant species decreased continuously during the study. The overall classification accuracies in 1987, 2002 and 2015 was 90.7%, 92.9% and 95.5% respectively. The overall kappa coefficient of the image classification for 1987, 2002 and 2015 was 0.98, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. In general, the average classification was above 90%, a proof that the classification was reliable and acceptable.

  19. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchell, J E

    1983-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  20. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  1. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  2. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  3. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  4. Synthesis of the Danish Experience with Combating Nutrient Pollution of Surface Waters: The Old Regulatory Approach and a New Targeted Approach Utilising the Natural Attenuation Capacity in Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvang, Brian; Windolf, Jørgen; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Tornbjerg, Henrik; Højberg, Anker; Rieman, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to surface waters are a high priority environmental problem worldwide for protection of water resources in times of population growth and climate change. As clean water is a scarce resource the struggle for reducing nutrient emissions are an ongoing issue for many countries and regions. Since the mid1980s a wide range of national regulatory general measures have been implemented to reduce land based nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings of the Danish aquatic environment. These measures have addressed both point source emissions and emissions from diffuse sources especially from agricultural production. Following nearly 4 decades of combating nutrient pollution our surface waters such as lakes and estuaries are only slowly responding on the 50% reduction in N and 56% reduction in P. Therefore, the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Danish surface waters still call for further reductions of N and P loadings. Introduction of a new paradigm of targeted implemented measures was the proposed outcome of a Commission on Nature and Agriculture established by the Danish Government in 2013. Their White Book points to the need of increased growth and better environment through more targeted and efficient regulation using advanced technological mitigation methods that are implemented intelligently according to the local natural attenuation capacity for nutrients in the landscape. As a follow up a national consensus model for N was established chaining existing leaching, 3D groundwater and surface water models. The new model concept enables a calculation of the N dynamics and attenuation capacity within a scale of 15 km2. Moreover, several research projects have been conducted to investigate the effect of a suite of targeted mitigation measures such as restored natural wetlands, constructed wetlands, controlled drainage and intelligent buffer zones. The outcome of six Danish management plans for nutrient load

  5. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  6. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDO NEHREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica. In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  7. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  8. A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vallés-Planells

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.

  9. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  10. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  11. Disposable Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  12. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  13. The landscapes of tourism space

    OpenAIRE

    Włodarczyk, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    The author attempts to define the term ‘tourism landscape’. It is treated as an important attribute of tourism space therefore, apart from its definition, the author presents its characteristic features and various types of such spaces with differing tourism landscapes. The landscapes of tourism space are treated not only as tourism assets or attractions, but also as the consequences of tourism activity on the natural and cultural environment.

  14. Research of the Landscape Structure of the Water Balance of the Trialeti Range Northern Slope according to the Natural Recreation Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beritashvili, B.; Meskhia, R.; Savishvili, N.; Kartvelishvili, L.; Mikautadze, D.; Chikhladze, N.

    2006-01-01

    The work deals with the landscape-differentiated analysis of the water balance elements of the rivers on the Northern slope of the Trialeti Range using the 1961-2000 years observation data. Regularities of their variation are given according to the altitude. (author)

  15. Historical framework to explain long-term coupled human and natural system feedbacks: application to a multiple-ownership forest landscape in the northern Great Lakes region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Nancy Langston; Mark D. O. Adams; David J. Mladenoff

    2015-01-01

    Current and future human and forest landscape conditions are influenced by the cumulative, unfolding history of socialecological interactions. Examining past system responses, especially unintended consequences, can reveal valuable insights that promote learning and adaptation in forest policy and management. Temporal couplings are complex, however; they can be...

  16. A landscape model for predicting potential natural vegetation of the Olympic Peninsula USA using boundary equations and newly developed environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan A. Henderson; Robin D. Lesher; David H. Peter; Chris D. Ringo

    2011-01-01

    A gradient-analysis-based model and grid-based map are presented that use the potential vegetation zone as the object of the model. Several new variables are presented that describe the environmental gradients of the landscape at different scales. Boundary algorithms are conceptualized, and then defined, that describe the environmental boundaries between vegetation...

  17. Ecological networks in urban landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature

  18. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  19. Landscape Character of Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoarto, A.; Gunawan, A.; Machfud; Hikmat, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area has a diverse landscape character as a potential landscape resources for the development of ecotourism destination. This area is part of the Mount of Botol Resort, Halimun Salak National Park (HSNP). This area also has a fairly high biodiversity. This study aims to identify and analysis the category of landscape character in the Pongkor Mining Ecotourism Area for the development of ecotourism destination. This study used a descriptive approach through field surveys and interviews, was carried out through two steps : 1) identify the landscape character, and 2) analysis of the landscape character. The results showed that in areas set aside for ecotourism destination in Pongkor Mining, landscape character category scattered forests, tailing ponds, river, plain, and the built environment. The Category of landscape character most dominant scattered in the area is forest, here is the river, plain, tailing ponds, the built environment, and plain. The landscape character in a natural environment most preferred for ecotourism activities. The landscape character that spread in the natural environment and the built environment is a potential that must be protected and modified such as elimination of incongruous element, accentuation of natural form, alteration of the natural form, intensification and enhanced visual quality intensively to be developed as a ecotourism destination area.

  20. THE DIFFERENCE IN PEOPLE’S RESPONSE TOWARD NATURAL LANDSCAPE BETWEEN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF JAPAN AND INDONESIA (Perbedaan dalam Respon Manusia terhadap Lanskap Alami antara Pelajar Jepang dan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prita Indah Pratiwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT People in different culture distinguish in their response to the environment, especially in interpretation and understanding of the perceived landscape. In order to plan and manage the environment for the selection of landscape with the aim of special care, protection, and amenity, it is crucial that people effectively participate and measure the existing values which nature represents to local residents. The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences of landscape recognition of Japan and Indonesia and to find the landscape element which is highly valued. The study was conducted with the following six steps, namely, photos collection, photo grouping, preference evaluation, exoticism evaluation, analysis, and recommendation. Cluster analysis (Ward’s method, squared Euclidean distance was applied for the analysis of photo categories, and Mann-Whitney U Test was applied to examine the significant differences. In photo grouping, seven natural landscape photos of Japan and Indonesia were categorized in different groups. Forest photos were categorized as wetland by Japanese students. Two rivers, lake, and forest photos were categorized by Indonesian students, but Japanese students categorized it as forest and mountain in distant view. Japanese students also distinguished the wetland as wetland in distant view and wetland in close-up view. The results of preference evaluation show that significant differences were detected in 25 photos of 68 photos. The exoticism evaluation detected significant differences in 48 photos of 68 photos. Neither Japanese nor Indonesian students recognized forest and wetland. However, either the Japanese or Indonesian students preferred waterfall or coast than the others. Based on exoticism evaluation, river and wetland were not recognized, but coast and waterfall were recognized by both of countries. Both of countries shared commonality in landscape photographs evaluation of preference and exoticism

  1. Processes of aesthetic transformation in ordinary landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Jonna Majgaard

    2004-01-01

    it was distributed systematically as an almost industrially produced landscape element. Windbreaks are now regarded as a traditional element in the Danish agricultural landscape. As a landscape element it is an international phenomenon known and used in Germany, France, England etc. Originally local farming...... practices, natural conditions, techniques and national legislation in the respective countries, formed the aesthetic expression. In this respect one could speak of the impact of northern nature on the aesthetic expression of the Danish windbreaks, as well as the impact from national phenomena....... These features determined the specific aesthetic and architectural identity of ordinary Danish, i.e. Nordic, landscapes. Contemporary cultural changes such as the aesthetification of everyday life and of ordinary landscape, i.e. farming landscape, are now manifest in the way the windbreaks are motivated...

  2. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.; Avila, R.; Wallberg, L.; Feoli, E.; Scimone, M.; Milesi, C.; Mayes, B.; Iason, G.; Rantavaara, A.; Vetikko, V.; Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T.; White, N.; Guillitte, O.

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, 134 Cs, 137 Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work

  3. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, L; Hubbard, L; Avila, R; Wallberg, L [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Feoli, E; Scimone, M; Milesi, C [Trieste Univ. (Italy); Mayes, B; Iason, G [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Rantavaara, A; Vetikko, V [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R; Nylen, T [National Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Palo, T; White, N [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Faculty of Forestry; Raitio, H; Aro, L; Kaunisto, S [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland); Guillitte, O [Faculte Univ. des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work.

  4. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  5. Landscape & Imagination: riflettere insieme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Zoppi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, at La Villette University, was four-days of debate on 2-4 Mai 2013, in which faculty members of all the world discussed on methods and experiences in teaching landscape. The conference was organized in multiple sessions: history, theories, representation, process, science and governance. All the fields discussed were related to the main problem of the identity of territories in the landscape project -from the theories to the practices- and applied in a very large range of different situations: from the rural world between conservation and transformations to the coastal areas under the pressure of tourism, from the ecology in the city life renovation to the land use control and project by community and the emergency management in natural catastrophes.

  6. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  7. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  8. Natural and artificial landscape change in a Dutch estuary: partially monitored with low budget method (a study in the fourth dimension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Isaak

    2003-03-01

    This study includes some aspects of the shift in the Dutch attitude in relation to water during the past millennia from defense to attack to keeping the balance ("co-evolution"). It has a special focus on the freshwater tidal part, which embraces the largest seaport of the world: Rotterdam, as well as the largest national park of The Netherlands. It reports especially about a young mans endeavor in half a century real time monitoring of some land(scape) units with simple means.

  9. Determinants of a traditional agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Borysiak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to define the landscape determinants as certificates of natural and cultural heritage which identify the young glacial landscape under traditional agricultural management. These studies were conducted in the upper Parsęta basin (Pomerania, Poland covered by the many annual environmental monitoring programs since 1994. The aim of this monitoring is to observe changes in geoecosystems of the temperate climate zone. The parameters of the abiotic landscape subsystem have been monitored in a wide range of terms, whereas biotic elements and cultural resources only in a very limited way. This was the reason for undertaking complementary studies. The paper presents the so-called “zero-state” for 2014, which will be a reference point from which to track the direction of landscape changes in the future. The abiotic, geobotanical, and cultural determinants of this state chosen have been characterized on the basis of field mapping data and the available literature. They were chosen based on the methodology of landscape audit to define the specificity of the traditional agricultural landscape. They were selected on the basis of assessment criteria for landscape structure: complexity (diversification of land use and cover, naturalness (syngenesis of plant communities, hydrochemical properties of surface waters, coherence of composition with natural conditions, stewardship (intensity of use, crop weeds, ecological succession, fallows, anthropogenic denudation, aesthetic and visual perception, historicity (continuity of natural landscape elements, continuation of traditional agricultural use, architectural objects, and disharmonious elements.

  10. Landscape and Heritage: trajectories and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, David

    2015-01-01

    supporting and often parallel endeavour of academic, policy and popular inquiry that explores the significance of landscape and heritage as meaningful categories of an emergent and processual nature. Despite such a parallel trajectory, however, the actual practices of landscape and heritage studies still...

  11. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  12. Landscape Visualisation on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, M. P.; Cox, M. T.; Harvey, D. W.; Heemskerk, G. E.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Victorian Resources Online (VRO) website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro) is the principal means for accessing landscapebased information in Victoria. In this paper we introduce a range of online landscape visualisations that have been developed to enhance existing static web content around the nature and distribution of Victoria's landforms and soils as well as associated processes. Flash is used to develop online visualisations that include interactive landscape panoramas, animations of soil and landscape processes and videos of experts explaining features in the field as well as landscape "flyovers". The use of interactive visualisations adds rich information multimedia content to otherwise static pages and offers the potential to improve user's appreciation and understanding of soil and landscapes. Visualisation is becoming a key component of knowledge management activities associated with VRO - proving useful for both "knowledge capture" (from subject matter specialists) and "knowledge transfer" to a diverse user base. A range of useful visualisation products have been made available online, with varying degrees of interactivity and suited to a variety of users. The use of video files, animation and interactive visualisations is adding rich information content to otherwise static web pages. These information products offer new possibilities to enhance learning of landscapes and the effectiveness of these will be tested as the next phase of development.

  13. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    landscapes were formed, through prehistoric, Roman and medieval times up to the post-modern nature building projects aimed at restoring biodiversity. A brochure was developed to raise awareness and promote interest for a landscape historical concept, in which each region profits from being part of a quality history.

  14. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    since the 1840s, when indigenous forests were transformed into improved landscapes of sown grass. The chapter is shaped by a broad question. What can be learned from this place about the ways in which people have exercised and are coming to terms with what Gibson-Graham and Roelvink describe as our...... of the shifting balance of ecological agency in favour of humans during the Anthropocene. Banks Peninsula on the east coast of New Zealand’s South Island was first settled by Polynesian peoples within the last few hundred years. The nature of their footprint contrasts with the dramatic change wrought by Europeans...

  15. Visual perception of landscape: sex and personality differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Macia

    1979-01-01

    The present study established relationships between individual differences and subjective evaluation of different kinds of landscapes. These were the first three principle components of the five components obtained from a matrix of coincidences. The three components used were: 1) natural versus humanized landscapes; 2) pleasant versus rough landscapes; 3) straight and...

  16. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  17. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    destination—whereas the natural evolution of landscape has no such goal. Goals will become an essential feature of landscape prediction. The presence of a goal potentially increases our ability to predict, provided it is possible to use feedback (i.e., management) to nudge the system back in the "right" direction when it starts to stray. Under a regime of accelerating technology the closest we can get to predicting the longer term future of landscape is adaptive management, which at large scale is really geoengineer the system. The goal presumably would be to maintain a condition conducive to human well-being, for example to maintain a suitable fraction of global arable land. A successful "prediction" would be to stay within an envelope of states consistent with that goal. We cannot say, however, in what specific state the landscape will be at any time beyond the near future; this will depend on the future sequence of management decisions, which are, like the system they are managing, unpredictable, except shortly before they are implemented. The landscape of the future will thus likely be the result of a series of quick fixes to previous trends in landscape change. Similar comments apply to the prediction, or management, of climate. There is of course no guarantee that it will be possible to stay within the desired envelope of well-being.

  18. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  19. Forest landscape analysis and design: a process for developing and implementing land management objectives for landscape patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Diaz; Dean. Apostol

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents a Landscape Design and Analysis Process, along with some simple methods and tools for describing landscapes and their function. The information is qualitative in nature and highlights basic concepts, but does not address landscape ecology in great depth. Readers are encouraged to consult the list of selected references in Chapter 2 if they...

  20. Can uncertain landscape evolution models discriminate between landscape responses to stable and changing future climate? A millennial-scale test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the light of increasing societal interest in the effects of climate change, geomorphologists face the task of discriminating between natural landscape changes and landscape changes that result from human-induced climate change. Landscape Evolution Models (LEMs) are available for this purpose, but

  1. Combining Aesthetic with Ecological Values for Landscape Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Dewei; Luo, Tao; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quanyi; Luo, Yunjian

    2014-01-01

    Humans receive multiple benefits from various landscapes that foster ecological services and aesthetic attractiveness. In this study, a hybrid framework was proposed to evaluate ecological and aesthetic values of five landscape types in Houguanhu Region of central China. Data from the public aesthetic survey and professional ecological assessment were converted into a two-dimensional coordinate system and distribution maps of landscape values. Results showed that natural landscapes (i.e. wate...

  2. Cultural Landscape and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Haaland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords: Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110

  3. Time, Space and the History of Agricultural Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    history, especially as the rate of changes in cultural landscapes has increased during the last 40 years as the result of the development in the agro-industrial sector. However landscape changes rarely occur as abrupt and sudden breaks, but more as gradual process over long time periods corresponding...... with development in farming technology, modes of production and social organization. The majority of sources material to landscape history are of geographic nature, such as cartographic material, aerial imagery, photographs and paintings and opposite to the gradual nature of changes in the landscape, most sources...... to the physical structure of landscapes has a fixed temporal nature depicting the landscape at time of record, often at different spatial scales. This creates a challenge for Environmental history of European agricultural landscapes to produce a framework, which can incorporate these differences in temporal...

  4. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  5. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Batáry, Péter; Bengtsson, Janne; Clough, Yann; Crist, Thomas O; Dormann, Carsten F; Ewers, Robert M; Fründ, Jochen; Holt, Robert D; Holzschuh, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra M; Kleijn, David; Kremen, Claire; Landis, Doug A; Laurance, William; Lindenmayer, David; Scherber, Christoph; Sodhi, Navjot; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thies, Carsten; van der Putten, Wim H; Westphal, Catrin

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: 'landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis-the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis-landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: 'landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis-landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis-spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: 'landscape moderation of functional trait selection' includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis-landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis-landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: 'landscape constraints on

  6. Methods for integrated modeling of landscape change: Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. Hayes; Alan. A. Ager; R. James Barbour

    2004-01-01

    The Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS) links a number of resource, disturbance, and landscape simulations models to examine the interactions of vegetative succession, management, and disturbance with policy goals. The effects of natural disturbance like wildfire, herbivory, forest insects and diseases, as well as specific management actions are...

  7. Succession influences wild bees in a temperate forest landscape: the value of early successional stages in naturally regenerated and planted forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Hisatomo; Okochi, Isamu; Okabe, Kimiko; Inoue, Takenari; Goto, Hideaki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    In many temperate terrestrial forest ecosystems, both natural human disturbances drive the reestablishment of forests. Succession in plant communities, in addition to reforestation following the creation of open sites through harvesting or natural disturbances, can affect forest faunal assemblages. Wild bees perform an important ecosystem function in human-altered and natural or seminatural ecosystems, as they are essential pollinators for both crops and wild flowering plants. To maintain high abundance and species richness for pollination services, it is important to conserve and create seminatural and natural land cover with optimal successional stages for wild bees. We examined the effects of forest succession on wild bees. In particular, we evaluated the importance of early successional stages for bees, which has been suspected but not previously demonstrated. A range of successional stages, between 1 and 178 years old, were examined in naturally regenerated and planted forests. In total 4465 wild bee individuals, representing 113 species, were captured. Results for total bees, solitary bees, and cleptoparasitic bees in both naturally regenerated and planted conifer forests indicated a higher abundance and species richness in the early successional stages. However, higher abundance and species richness of social bees in naturally regenerated forest were observed as the successional stages progressed, whereas the abundance of social bees in conifer planted forest showed a concave-shaped relationship when plotted. The results suggest that early successional stages of both naturally regenerated and conifer planted forest maintain a high abundance and species richness of solitary bees and their cleptoparasitic bees, although social bees respond differently in the early successional stages. This may imply that, in some cases, active forest stand management policies, such as the clear-cutting of planted forests for timber production, would create early successional

  8. Succession influences wild bees in a temperate forest landscape: the value of early successional stages in naturally regenerated and planted forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisatomo Taki

    Full Text Available In many temperate terrestrial forest ecosystems, both natural human disturbances drive the reestablishment of forests. Succession in plant communities, in addition to reforestation following the creation of open sites through harvesting or natural disturbances, can affect forest faunal assemblages. Wild bees perform an important ecosystem function in human-altered and natural or seminatural ecosystems, as they are essential pollinators for both crops and wild flowering plants. To maintain high abundance and species richness for pollination services, it is important to conserve and create seminatural and natural land cover with optimal successional stages for wild bees. We examined the effects of forest succession on wild bees. In particular, we evaluated the importance of early successional stages for bees, which has been suspected but not previously demonstrated. A range of successional stages, between 1 and 178 years old, were examined in naturally regenerated and planted forests. In total 4465 wild bee individuals, representing 113 species, were captured. Results for total bees, solitary bees, and cleptoparasitic bees in both naturally regenerated and planted conifer forests indicated a higher abundance and species richness in the early successional stages. However, higher abundance and species richness of social bees in naturally regenerated forest were observed as the successional stages progressed, whereas the abundance of social bees in conifer planted forest showed a concave-shaped relationship when plotted. The results suggest that early successional stages of both naturally regenerated and conifer planted forest maintain a high abundance and species richness of solitary bees and their cleptoparasitic bees, although social bees respond differently in the early successional stages. This may imply that, in some cases, active forest stand management policies, such as the clear-cutting of planted forests for timber production, would create

  9. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  10. Defining the landscape of adaptive genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Dyer, Rodney J

    2012-06-01

    Whether they are used to describe fitness, genome architecture or the spatial distribution of environmental variables, the concept of a landscape has figured prominently in our collective reasoning. The tradition of landscapes in evolutionary biology is one of fitness mapped onto axes defined by phenotypes or molecular sequence states. The characteristics of these landscapes depend on natural selection, which is structured across both genomic and environmental landscapes, and thus, the bridge among differing uses of the landscape concept (i.e. metaphorically or literally) is that of an adaptive phenotype and its distribution across geographical landscapes in relation to selective pressures. One of the ultimate goals of evolutionary biology should thus be to construct fitness landscapes in geographical space. Natural plant populations are ideal systems with which to explore the feasibility of attaining this goal, because much is known about the quantitative genetic architecture of complex traits for many different plant species. What is less known are the molecular components of this architecture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Parchman et al. (2012) pioneer one of the first truly genome-wide association studies in a tree that moves us closer to this form of mechanistic understanding for an adaptive phenotype in natural populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The performance of landscape concepts in spatial planning : branding, bonding and bringing about

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagens, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial planners are expressive people. They often use landscape concepts, being metaphors that refer to landscape ideas and planning principles. Examples are Green Heart, Nature Pearls and the Camelisation of landscapes. Such landscape concepts seem ‘innocent’ but are ‘guilty’ of powerful effects.

  12. Calculation of Configurational Entropy in Complex Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are fundamental concepts that underlie all natural processes and patterns. Recent research has shown how the entropy of a landscape mosaic can be calculated using the Boltzmann equation, with the entropy of a lattice mosaic equal to the logarithm of the number of ways a lattice with a given dimensionality and number of classes can be arranged to produce the same total amount of edge between cells of different classes. However, that work seemed to also suggest that the feasibility of applying this method to real landscapes was limited due to intractably large numbers of possible arrangements of raster cells in large landscapes. Here I extend that work by showing that: (1 the proportion of arrangements rather than the number with a given amount of edge length provides a means to calculate unbiased relative configurational entropy, obviating the need to compute all possible configurations of a landscape lattice; (2 the edge lengths of randomized landscape mosaics are normally distributed, following the central limit theorem; and (3 given this normal distribution it is possible to fit parametric probability density functions to estimate the expected proportion of randomized configurations that have any given edge length, enabling the calculation of configurational entropy on any landscape regardless of size or number of classes. I evaluate the boundary limits (4 for this normal approximation for small landscapes with a small proportion of a minority class and show it holds under all realistic landscape conditions. I further (5 demonstrate that this relationship holds for a sample of real landscapes that vary in size, patch richness, and evenness of area in each cover type, and (6 I show that the mean and standard deviation of the normally distributed edge lengths can be predicted nearly perfectly as a function of the size, patch richness and diversity of a landscape. Finally, (7 I show that the

  13. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  14. Combining aesthetic with ecological values for landscape sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Luo, Tao; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quanyi; Luo, Yunjian

    2014-01-01

    Humans receive multiple benefits from various landscapes that foster ecological services and aesthetic attractiveness. In this study, a hybrid framework was proposed to evaluate ecological and aesthetic values of five landscape types in Houguanhu Region of central China. Data from the public aesthetic survey and professional ecological assessment were converted into a two-dimensional coordinate system and distribution maps of landscape values. Results showed that natural landscapes (i.e. water body and forest) contributed positively more to both aesthetic and ecological values than semi-natural and human-dominated landscapes (i.e. farmland and non-ecological land). The distribution maps of landscape values indicated that the aesthetic, ecological and integrated landscape values were significantly associated with landscape attributes and human activity intensity. To combine aesthetic preferences with ecological services, the methods (i.e. field survey, landscape value coefficients, normalized method, a two-dimensional coordinate system, and landscape value distribution maps) were employed in landscape assessment. Our results could facilitate to identify the underlying structure-function-value chain, and also improve the understanding of multiple functions in landscape planning. The situation context could also be emphasized to bring ecological and aesthetic goals into better alignment.

  15. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  16. Research using energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin

    2007-01-01

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  17. Landscape and landscape ecology as factors in the process of integrated spatial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Congress on Landscape Ecology in Veldhoven in 1981 (Tjallingii and De Veer 1981).Natural landscapes and landscape aspects of nature conservation was certainly a theme on the conference, but the main focus was on man-made landscapes, including urban ecology and the relations between urban and rural...... were very eager to be engaged in practical landscape planning, their scientific responsibility forced them often to be more and more humble concerning the applicability, often confronted with the economic consequences of their advises. As a consequence especially many biologists moved again into pure...... told, that the local farm cooperative had got a loan from the Ministry of Agriculture to cover the expenditures. Due to the experimental character of the project the loan was very attractive: It was free of rent and payment. But one important condition was added: It had to be proved that the corridor...

  18. Propuesta metodológica para la zonificación funcional de áreas naturales protegidas terrestres desde la perspectiva del paisaje. Methodological proposal for functional zoning of terrestrial natural areas protected from the landscape perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Maikel RAMÓN PUEBLA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La división de un área natural protegida en zonas de manejo es un proceso arduo y complejo, para lo cual es necesario un sistema de evaluación y clasificación de la superficie del territorio en cuestión que permita el reconocimiento en el terreno de los sitios donde se llevarán a cabo las acciones para la protección y el manejo de los valores y recursos del área. El presente trabajo propone una guía metodológica que describe, analiza y privilegia como soporte teórico-metodológico la Geoecología de los Paisajes como vía para llegar a la propuesta de zonificación funcional de un Área Natural Protegida terrestre, partiendo de la delimitación, clasificación y cartografía de las unidades de paisaje con el empleo de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica; el análisis de algunas de las propiedades sistémicas de los paisajes y el cálculo de indicadores como naturalidad, heterogeneidad, peligro, estabilidad y sensibilidad entre otros, así como la evaluación de los potenciales y los conflictos de uso como parte del diagnóstico, permitirá realizar la propuesta de zonificación funcional con una visión integral del territorio y determinar para cada zona y subzona las acciones a desarrollar para mitigar los impactos, atenuar o eliminar las amenazas, mejorar la salud de los objetos de conservación y proteger los valores en cada una de las áreas identificadas con problemas.The division of a protected natural area in managed territories is a difficult and complex process for which an assessment and classification system of the surface of the territory, allowing the recognition of the places, where actions to protect the manage values and the resources of the area will be carried out, is necessary. This paper proposes a methodological guide, describes, assesses and favors, as a theoretical and methodological medium, the Geoecology of Landscapes as a means to reach the functional zoning proposal of a terrestrial protected area from

  19. 天然花岗岩石材在园林景观中的运用研究%Application and Research of Natural Granite Stone in Landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马岱

    2014-01-01

    The paper briefly introduces the characteristics of the natural granite stone, selection method of stone materials and common processing way of granite stone, etc., and makes people further understand the characteristics of the granite stone material properties, such as physics, chemistry, more scientific and rational use of natural granite stone.%文章通过简要的介绍天然花岗岩石材的特点,石材的选用方法以及常用的花岗岩石材加工方式等,使人们进一步了解花岗岩石材的物理、化学等性能特点,更加科学合理地使用天然花岗岩石材。

  20. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated with the Central Arizona Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER. In Phoenix, present day emphases on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecoregion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratification, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect of degrading landscape sustainability. This has been measured as mixed patterns of plant diversity and human-altered patterns of carbon regulation, microclimate control, and trophic dynamics. In the future, sustainable residential landscaping in desert cities such as Phoenix may be fostered through use of water-conserving irrigation technologies, oasis-style landscape design motifs, recycling of landscape green waste, and conservative plant pruning strategies.

  1. Rapid assessment of ecosystem services provided by two mineral extraction sites restored for nature conservation in an agricultural landscape in eastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip J; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Field, Rob H; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A; Bradbury, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being.

  2. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  3. Roads Belong in the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Roads are often associated with a fragmentation or splintering of landscapes and their natural connectivity; particularly in relation to ‘green infrastructure’ they are often considered problematic elements that rupture and barricade. Conversely, as part of larger networks, roads can be considered...... important elements in the creation of new, ‘green infrastructures’ that can qualify urban landscapes in terms of improving their overall porosity and connectivity. This argument will be unfolded and substantiated in this article through theoretical reflections which conceptually re-locate road networks...... in the urban landscape, supported by relevant reference projects that illustrate the potential of road networks as a platform for ‘green infrastructure’....

  4. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  5. Iceland as a Landscape Investigation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campanini, Manuela Silvia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Icelanders continue an ancient dialogue. Nature is part of their soul and they take with them bits of their terrestrial landscape when they move to the elsewhere. When they move out in the sea they often name their ships or boats after natural spots (waterfalls, mountains, etc., Moving to the town, architects build monuments inspired by wild nature like Hallgrimskirkja (inspired by Hraundrangar and the columnar basalt or Perlan (inspired by the Geysir and the geothermal water. This is the way Icelanders compensate and take care of their perennial landscape nostalgia.

  6. Monarto’s Contested Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to develop a new city at Monarto in South Australia during the 1970s was an important project of the reforming government of Don Dunstan. Dunstan’s view was that Monarto would be a city environmentally suited to the tough conditions of its site, and to an ‘Australian way of life’. As planning and preliminary design proceeded from 1972 to 1975, the landscape potential of the city’s selected site became central to its conception. This paper draws on new research comprising interviews with key participants and archival material to examine four issues: the adoption of an environmental orientation in Australian urban planning and discourse in the 1970s; strategies in the design proposals that seemingly gave Monarto validity even as the demographic and political drivers for it dissolved away; the investigations that supported Monarto’s landscape strategies; and attitudes to social and cultural history that the Monarto project adopted. While ultimately the plan for Monarto was abandoned, the projected city’s landscape can be seen as a theatre for competing values in relation to natural and cultural heritage and design ambitions. The paper situates Monarto within national and international urban discourse that is more complex than has been previously acknowledged, indicative of competing values and ideologies in the planning, landscape and design discourses of the period.

  7. Diverse landscapes have a higher abundance and species richness of spring wild bees by providing complementary floral resources over bees’ foraging periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape simplification and natural habitat loss can negatively affect wild bees. Alternatively, anthropogenic land-use change can potentially diversify landscapes to create complementary habitats that increase overall resource continuity and diversity. We examined the effects of landscape composit...

  8. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...... to protecting natural qualities. However, the issue of nature, landscape, and land use is not straightforward. Nature is an ambiguous concept that involves multiple interests and actors reaching far beyond farmers. The Danish research project ......

  9. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...

  10. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site-specificity. As exempl...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  11. Evaluation of the changes of landscape types of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita IZAKOVIČOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    environment for nature development In the second stage typing  rare and unique landscape types of Slovakia have been marked.Following, all RLTS were evaluated from the point of view nature protection and recent degradation and threats. In the meantime main changes of RLES were identified, taken into account also key driving forces of landscape changes and consequent pressures on the landscape. The final step included preparation of management proposal with aim to maintain all representative landscape types and to secure their sustainable development and protection.

  12. GEOMORPHOLOGY. Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, K E; Roering, J J; Ellis, C

    2015-07-03

    Landscape evolution theory suggests that climate sets the scale of landscape dissection by modulating the competition between diffusive processes that sculpt convex hillslopes and advective processes that carve concave valleys. However, the link between the relative dominance of hillslope and valley transport processes and landscape scale is difficult to demonstrate in natural landscapes due to the episodic nature of erosion. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments combining diffusive and advective processes in an eroding landscape. We demonstrate that rainsplash-driven disturbances in our experiments are a robust proxy for hillslope transport, such that increasing hillslope transport efficiency decreases drainage density. Our experimental results demonstrate how the coupling of climate-driven hillslope- and valley-forming processes, such as bioturbation and runoff, dictates the scale of eroding landscapes. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Our Common Landscapes For The Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Foreword for Marc Antrop and Veerle van Eetvelde: Landscape Perspectives – The Holistic Nature of Landscapes Our common landscapes for the future by Jesper Brandt The solution of the ecological crisis through a transformation towards sustainable development is the most urgent challenge in our time....... It is not just a question of CO2 and conversion toward renewable energy. The reestablishment and conscious development of our common landscapes at all spatial scales for the combined benefits of biodiversity, our cultural heritage and the preservation and development of ecosystem services will probably...... be the most comprehensive and necessary social task in the future, if a conversion towards a sustainable development shall succeed in due time. This is so because it will be necessary to ensure that the potential material wealth of modern society will be transformed into a good, fruitful and healthy life...

  14. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  15. Landscape function analysis as a base of rural development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filepné Kovács Krisztina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on ecosystem services and landscape functions are highly important in landscape ecology, landscape planning and open space design. The terms of ecosystem service and landscape function have been evolved parallel to each other in the scientific literature but have different focus. The term of landscape functions evolved from the scientific field of landscape ecology; it reflects the goods and services provided by regions, landscapes where the cultural, economic factors are important as well. As a framework assessment method with additional economic assessment, a landscape function analysis could be an additional tool of rural development, as it gives a complex analysis of multiple aspects, thus it is highly appropriate to explore, analyze the potentials, resources and limits of landscapes and land use systems. In the current research a landscape function analysis was compared with the rural development strategies in Hungarian micro-regions. We focused on the level of landscape functions and the objectives of the rural development strategies of the study areas. The local development strategies do not focus on territorial differences nor potentials evolving from natural, cultural resources or local constrains. The only exception is tourism development, where in some cases there is a holistic spatial approach which intends to develop the region as a whole.

  16. Suburban landscape assessment applied to urban planning. Case study in Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serrano Giné

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.

  17. Using Landscape metrics to analyze the landscape evolution under land abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Raffaele; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Gobattoni, Federica; Leone, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The human actions and the human-linked land use changes are the main responsible of the present landscapes and vegetation patterns (Antrop, 2005; Pelorosso et al., 2009). Hence, revised concept of potential natural vegetation has been developed in landscape ecology. In fact, it cannot more be considered as the optimum for a certain landscape, but only as a general indication never widely reached. In particular Ingegnoli and Pignatti (2007) introduced the concept of fittest vegetation as "the most suitable or suited vegetation for the specific climate and geomorphic conditions, in a limited period of time and in a certain defined place with a particular range of incorporable disturbances (including man's) under natural or not natural conditions". Anthropic exploitation of land and its resources to obtain goods and services (Willemen et al, 2008) can be considered therefore the main cause of landscape change as an integrant part of nature, not external. The abandon of the land by farmers or other users it is one of the more felt problems for the marginal territories of Mediterranean basin. It is therefore caused by socio-economic changes of last decades and cause several impact on biodiversity (Geri et al. 2010) and hydro-geological assessment. A mountain landscape has however the capacity to provide goods like timber and services like aesthetic pleasure or regulation of water system. The necessity of a conservation strategy and the development of sustainable socio-economic management plan play a very important role in governing land and quality of life for people and ecosystems also for marginal territory. After a land abandonment, soil conditions and several climatic and orographic characteristic plus human disturbance affect the length of time required by secondary succession, throwing the establishment of vegetation with different association, structure and composition until a (stable or meta-stable) equilibrium is reached (Ingegnoli and Pignatti, 2007). In this

  18. Fractal Landscape Algorithms for Environmental Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Moran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural science and geographical research are now able to take advantage of environmental simulations that more accurately test experimental hypotheses, resulting in deeper understanding. Experiments affected by the natural environment can benefit from 3D landscape simulations capable of simulating a variety of terrains and environmental phenomena. Such simulations can employ random terrain generation algorithms that dynamically simulate environments to test specific models against a variety of factors. Through the use of noise functions such as Perlin noise, Simplex noise, and diamond square algorithms, computers can generate simulations that model a variety of landscapes and ecosystems. This study shows how these algorithms work together to create realistic landscapes. By seeding values into the diamond square algorithm, one can control the shape of landscape. Perlin noise and Simplex noise are also used to simulate moisture and temperature. The smooth gradient created by coherent noise allows more realistic landscapes to be simulated. Terrain generation algorithms can be used in environmental studies and physics simulations. Potential studies that would benefit from simulations include the geophysical impact of flash floods or drought on a particular region and regional impacts on low lying area due to global warming and rising sea levels. Furthermore, terrain generation algorithms also serve as aesthetic tools to display landscapes (Google Earth), and simulate planetary landscapes. Hence, it can be used as a tool to assist science education. Algorithms used to generate these natural phenomena provide scientists a different approach in analyzing our world. The random algorithms used in terrain generation not only contribute to the generating the terrains themselves, but are also capable of simulating weather patterns.

  19. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  20. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  1. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  2. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  3. Risk and cooperation: managing hazardous fuel in mixed ownership landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan. Charnley

    2012-01-01

    Managing natural processes at the landscape scale to promote forest health is important, especially in the case of wildfire, where the ability of a landowner to protect his or her individual parcel is constrained by conditions on neighboring ownerships. However, management at a landscape scale is also challenging because it requires cooperation on plans and actions...

  4. Lifestyle and Landscapes: The Element of Culture in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Addressing the study of man/land relationships, this article discusses the following: cultural geography, environmental determinism (a la Friedrich Ratzel), "possibilism" (a la Paul Vidal de la Balche), cultural landscapes (a distinction is made between cultural and natural landscapes), and environmental perception. (JC)

  5. Science for action at the local landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Opddam; Joan Iverson Nassauer; Zhifang Wang; Christian Albert; Gary Bentrup; Jean-Christophe Castella; Clive McAlpine; Jianguo Liu; Stephen Sheppard; Simon Swaffield

    2013-01-01

    For landscape ecology to produce knowledge relevant to society, it must include considerations of human culture and behavior, extending beyond the natural sciences to synthesize with many other disciplines. Furthermore, it needs to be able to support landscape change processes which increasingly take the shape of deliberative and collaborative decision making by local...

  6. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  7. Nature Thrives in an Urban Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Henricus

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a cemetery in East London provides a haven for wildlife and a gem for children to explore. Children from Woolmore School in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets are visiting the cemetery on a class outing as part of a wider whole-school experience. Throughout the whole visit children are encouraged to ask…

  8. Landscape architecture between politics and science : an integrative perspective on landscape planning and design in the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the typical nature of design thinking, which is compared and contrasted with scientific and political thinking. A theretical framework is formulated and applied to landscape planning and design. During the 20th century the established operational orientation in landscape

  9. Thrips densities in organic leek fields in relation to the surrounding landscapes. Landscape management for functional biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.; Schelling, G.C.; Brink, van den W.J.

    2003-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of hedgerow networks (line elements containing shrubs less than 2 m), woodlots (height > 2 m), other natural areas, and agricultural and horticultural land (polygons) in the landscapes on the abundance of a generalist thrips species in organic leek fields. Landscape

  10. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  11. A methodology for creating greenways through multidisciplinary sustainable landscape planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Selma Beatriz; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Teles, Rui; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila

    2010-01-01

    This research proposes a methodology for defining greenways via sustainable planning. This approach includes the analysis and discussion of culture and natural processes that occur in the landscape. The proposed methodology is structured in three phases: eco-cultural analysis; synthesis and diagnosis; and proposal. An interdisciplinary approach provides an assessment of the relationships between landscape structure and landscape dynamics, which are essential to any landscape management or land use. The landscape eco-cultural analysis provides a biophysical, dynamic (geomorphologic rate), vegetation (habitats from directive 92/43/EEC) and cultural characterisation. The knowledge obtained by this analysis then supports the definition of priority actions to stabilise the landscape and the management measures for the habitats. After the analysis and diagnosis phases, a proposal for the development of sustainable greenways can be achieved. This methodology was applied to a study area of the Azambuja Municipality in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal). The application of the proposed methodology to the study area shows that landscape stability is crucial for greenway users in order to appreciate the landscape and its natural and cultural elements in a sustainable and healthy way, both by cycling or by foot. A balanced landscape will increase the value of greenways and in return, they can develop socio-economic activities with benefits for rural communities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mosaic boreal landscapes with open and forested wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, K.; Ericson, L.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. The boreal landscape was earlier characterized by a mosaic of open and forested wetlands and forests. Drainage and felling operation have largely changed that pattern. Several organisms depend upon the landscape mosaic. Natural ecotones between mire and forest provide food resources predictable in space and time contrasting to unpredictable edges in the silvicultured landscape. The mosaic is also a prerequisite for organisms dependent on non-substitutable resources in the landscape. The importance of swamp forests has increased as they function as refugia for earlier more widespread old-growth species. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal landscape should include the following points. First, the natural mosaic with open and forested wetlands must be maintained. Second, swamp forests must receive a general protection as they often constitute the only old-growth patches in the landscape. Third, we need to restore earlier disturbance regimes. Present strategy plans for conservation are insufficient, as they imply that a too large proportion of boreal organisms will not be able to survive outside protected areas. Instead, we need to focus more on how to preserve organisms in the man-influenced landscape. As a first step we need to understand how organisms are distributed in landscapes at various spatial scales. We need studies in landscapes where the original mosaic has faced various degrees of fragmentation. (au) 124 refs

  13. Recent advances in the theory and application of fitness landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Andries

    2014-01-01

    This book is concerned with recent advances in fitness landscapes. The concept of fitness landscapes originates from theoretical biology and refers to a framework for analysing and visualizing the relationships between genotypes, phenotypes and fitness. These relationships lay at the centre of attempts to mathematically describe evolutionary processes and evolutionary dynamics.     The book addresses recent advances in the understanding of fitness landscapes in evolutionary biology and evolutionary computation. In the volume, experts in the field of fitness landscapes present these findings in an integrated way to make it accessible to a number of audiences: senior undergraduate and graduate students in computer science, theoretical biology, physics, applied mathematics and engineering, but also researcher looking for a reference or/and entry point into using fitness landscapes for analysing algorithms. Also practitioners wanting to employ fitness landscape techniques for evaluating bio- and nature-inspired...

  14. Anime Landscapes as a Tool for Analyzing the Human–Environment Relationship: Hayao Miyazaki Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Mumcu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Common dualistic thinking in environmental design education adopts humans and the environment as separate entities, with the environment as raw material stock. This approach affects the intellectual development of landscape architects and limits their ability to create meaningful landscapes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore and highlight new ideas about the more integrated human–environment relationship. Through the films of Hayao Miyazaki, many audiences around the world have encountered a different worldview. By contrast with Western thinking, which adopts human superiority to nature, the worldview that Miyazaki reflects in his films depicts human as an inseparable part of nature. Being inspired by different communities and their relationship to nature in Miyazaki’s films, we propose using anime as a means of analyzing the human–environment relationship. We classified landscapes based on power relations between humans and nature. We explored how communities shape their physical environment based on how they socially construct nature and the resulting landscapes. Thus, through apocalyptic landscapes, the bitter results of exploiting nature were depicted. Wilderness landscapes reflect the bias humanity has about nature as wild and hostile. Responsible landscapes were introduced asway of understanding the unbreakable bond between humans and the environment. Through these animated landscape types, the ways landscape architecture should approach nature in professional practices was discussed, and the importance of creating responsible landscapes was emphasized.

  15. Population growth, demographic change, and cultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, G; Sage, C

    1994-01-01

    The inclusion of both ecological and socioeconomic components within landscapes makes possible the perception of the hierarchical character of landscape organization. A research approach is needed to conceptualize cultural landscapes as the product of interaction between society and nature. Richard Norgaard's 1984 paper on coevolutionary agricultural development attempts to meet this challenge. Coevolution is the interactive synthesis of natural and social mechanisms of change that characterize the relationship between social systems and ecosystems. The relationship between population, consumption, and environmental changes is complex. Currently industrialized countries present the biggest threat to global environmental resources. The issue of carrying capacity is the corollary of population and the environment. It is primarily the technological factor rather than population that needs to be controlled. The relationship between rich and poor countries is determined by superior economic power. An analysis of landscape change is made, tracing the coevolution of society and environment from the end of the feudal era and making comparisons with continental Europe. Over the years since 1945 the need to realize potential economies of scale has resulted in a wholesale loss of woodlands, hedgerows, and small ponds in the UK. In a global context the likely impacts of population growth and demographic change on landscapes will be influenced by such socioeconomic factors as technology and affluence; policies that ignore cause and effect; and the traditional tendency to treat the environment as a waste repository and a supply depot.

  16. Assessment of the suitability of trees for brownfields reuse in the post-mining landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mec, J.; Lokajickova, B.; Sotkova, N.; Svehlakova, H.; Stalmachova, B.

    2017-10-01

    The post-mining landscape of Upper Silesian is deterioration of the original landscape caused by underground coal mining. There are huge ecosystems changes, which have been reclaimed by nature-friendly procedures. The aim of the work is to evaluate the suitability of selected trees for reuse of brownfields in this landscape and proposals for reclamation in the interest areas of Upper Silesian.

  17. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  18. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  19. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  20. Organised session - Rewilding landscapes for the future - learning from the past.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijles, Erik; Spek, Mattheus

    2016-01-01

    Natura2000 and Water Framework Directive policies aim for natural conditions in rural landscapes within the EU. As a result, many nature restoration, reconstruction or 'rewilding' projects are currently underway to (re)create natural landscapes. Such projects often strive for a multi-disciplinary

  1. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social......‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...

  2. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  3. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However,

  4. Exploring Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in the potential energy landscapes approach are highlighted, including both theoretical and computational contributions. Treating the high dimensionality of molecular and condensed matter systems of contemporary interest is important for understanding how emergent properties are encoded in the landscape and for calculating these properties while faithfully representing barriers between different morphologies. The pathways characterized in full dimensionality, which are used to construct kinetic transition networks, may prove useful in guiding such calculations. The energy landscape perspective has also produced new procedures for structure prediction and analysis of thermodynamic properties. Basin-hopping global optimization, with alternative acceptance criteria and generalizations to multiple metric spaces, has been used to treat systems ranging from biomolecules to nanoalloy clusters and condensed matter. This review also illustrates how all this methodology, developed in the context of chemical physics, can be transferred to landscapes defined by cost functions associated with machine learning.

  5. Digital landscapes of imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-01-01

    Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence be...

  6. What can a numerical landscape evolution model tell us about the evolution of a real landscape? Two examples of modeling a real landscape without recreating it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Whipple, K. X.; Willenbring, J.; Crosby, B. T.; Brocard, G. Y.

    2013-12-01

    downstream increasing erosion rate. Similarly, the proportion of the landscape that has adjusted to the tectonic perturbation increases from upstream to downstream. We use the CHILD LEM to explore whether the relationship between erosion rates and proportion of adjusted landscape is unique to the tectonic history of the SFER and if this relationship can be used as a fingerprint to identify the nature of tectonic perturbations in other locations. In both study sites, we do not try to recreate the exact morphology of the real landscape. Rather, we identify patterns in erosion rates and the morphology of the numerical landscape that can be used to interpret the tectonic history, climatic history, or both in these and other real landscapes.

  7. Landscape ecological security assessment based on projection pursuit in Pearl River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wu, Zhifeng; Lou, Quansheng; Huang, Huamei; Cheng, Jiong; Chen, Zhangli

    2012-04-01

    values in landscape ecological security, with the most decreased number 0.52 in Zhaoqing. Results of this study offer important information for regional eco-construction and natural resource exploitation.

  8. Assessment of hazards and risks for landscape protection planning in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Landscape protection planning is a complex task that requires an integrated assessment and involves heterogeneous issues. These issues include not only the management of a considerable amount of data to describe landscape features but also the choice of appropriate tools to evaluate the hazards and risks. The landscape assessment phase can provide fundamental information for the definition of a Landscape Protection Plan, in which the selection of norms for protection or rehabilitation is strictly related to hazards, values and risks that are found. This paper describes a landscape assessment methodology conducted by using GIS, concerning landscape hazards, values and risk. Four hazard categories are introduced and assessed concerning urban sprawl and erosion: landscape transformations by new planned developments, intensification of urban sprawl patterns, loss of agriculture land and erosion. Landscape value is evaluated by using different thematic layers overlaid with GIS geoprocessing. The risk of loss of landscape value is evaluated, with reference to the potential occurrence of the previously assessed hazards. The case study is the Province of Enna (Sicily), where landscape protection is a relevant issue because of the importance of cultural and natural heritage. Results show that high value landscape features have a low risk of loss of landscape value. For this reason, landscape protection policies assume a relevant role in landscapes with low-medium values and they should be addressed to control the urban sprawl processes that are beginning in the area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring the fitness landscape of poliovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Acevedo, Ashely; Andino, Raul; Tang, Chao

    2012-02-01

    RNA viruses are known to display extraordinary adaptation capabilities to different environments, due to high mutation rates. Their very dynamical evolution is captured by the quasispecies concept, according to which the viral population forms a swarm of genetic variants linked through mutation, which cooperatively interact at a functional level and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. The description of the viral fitness landscape becomes paramount towards a more thorough understanding of the virus evolution and spread. The high mutation rate, together with the cooperative nature of the quasispecies, makes it particularly challenging to explore its fitness landscape. I will present an investigation of the dynamical properties of poliovirus fitness landscape, through both the adoption of new experimental techniques and theoretical models.

  10. Farm multifunctional diversification and agricultural landscape trasformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Chiodo

    Full Text Available The work aims to analyze changes in agricultural landscape linked to transformations in agricultural productive system. The territory for analysis is situated along the “internal Marche ridge” of the Apennines, in the province of Ancona (Marche region, partly included in the Regional Natural Park “Gola della Rossa e Frassassi”. The work aims at elaborating an investigative methodology which can highlight the transformation of territorial structures and the dynamics that influence management of the territory and landscape in order to provide operative instructions for an integrated elaboration of instruments for urban planning and economic programming, specially for agricultural policies. Multi-functionality and diversification in agriculture are the instruments that can help agriculture to improve the economic value of products and at the same time to improve the quality of territory and landscape.

  11. Experimental quantum control landscapes: Inherent monotonicity and artificial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslund, Jonathan; Rabitz, Herschel

    2009-01-01

    Unconstrained searches over quantum control landscapes are theoretically predicted to generally exhibit trap-free monotonic behavior. This paper makes an explicit experimental demonstration of this intrinsic monotonicity for two controlled quantum systems: frequency unfiltered and filtered second-harmonic generation (SHG). For unfiltered SHG, the landscape is randomly sampled and interpolation of the data is found to be devoid of landscape traps up to the level of data noise. In the case of narrow-band-filtered SHG, trajectories are taken on the landscape to reveal a lack of traps. Although the filtered SHG landscape is trap free, it exhibits a rich local structure. A perturbation analysis around the top of these landscapes provides a basis to understand their topology. Despite the inherent trap-free nature of the landscapes, practical constraints placed on the controls can lead to the appearance of artificial structure arising from the resultant forced sampling of the landscape. This circumstance and the likely lack of knowledge about the detailed local landscape structure in most quantum control applications suggests that the a priori identification of globally successful (un)constrained curvilinear control variables may be a challenging task.

  12. A DEFINITION OF AUTHENTICITY CONCEPT IN CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Fadaei Nezhad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscape can be defined as the result of human interaction with nature over time, which has led to the formation of the many and diverse layers of value. Currently, the UNESCO World Heritage Centre has a unique role among other scientific associations. In recent years, the World Heritage Center has put efforts into developing a framework and measures for evaluation and management of cultural landscapes. Moreover, the concept of authenticity; as the transmitter of values and significance of cultural landscape, is considered as the key component in the process of cultural landscape conservation. A lot of scientific resources have pointed out the importance of authenticity in the process of conserving cultural landscapes. However, the role of authenticity within the domain of conservation of cultural landscapes has received little attention. One of the main reasons can be lack of adaptation between conventional definitions of UNESCO and international documents concerning the authenticity for including the flexible and dynamic structure of cultural landscapes around the world. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore and develop a flexible framework in order to redefine the concept of authenticity in relation to cultural landscapes, which has some overlaps with UNESCO definitions despite its differences. For developing this framework, Iranian-Islamic philosophy of Mollasadra is applied and described with some examples of cultural landscapes in Iran.

  13. Can We Model the Scenic Beauty of an Alpine Landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Tasser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, agriculture has lost its importance in many European mountain regions and tourism, which benefits from attractive landscapes, has become a major source of income. Changes in landscape patterns and elements might affect scenic beauty and therefore the socio-economic welfare of a region. Our study aimed at modeling scenic beauty by quantifying the influence of landscape elements and patterns in relationship to distance. Focusing on Alpine landscapes in South and North Tyrol, we used a photographic questionnaire showing different landscape compositions. As mountain landscapes offer long vistas, we related scenic beauty to different distance zones. Our results indicate that the near zone contributes by 64% to the valuation of scenic beauty, the middle zone by 22%, and the far zone by 14%. In contrast to artificial elements, naturalness and diversity increased scenic beauty. Significant differences between different social groups (origin, age, gender, cultural background occurred only between the local population and tourists regarding great landscape changes. Changes towards more homogenous landscapes were perceived negatively, thus political decision makers should support the conservation of the cultural landscape.

  14. Landscape value of the tea (Camellia sinensis areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Güneroğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural fields are very effective and widespread in Turkey’s rural landscape formation. Turkey is located on transitional climatic zone on mid-latitudes which leads to diversification of agricultural plants. Accordingly, many agricultural landscape types representing diferent regions and culture were naturally formed. Agricultural lands are not only fields for harvesting crops but also areas to form natural habitats, reduce greenhouse effect and create cultural landscapes with countable value. Moreover, it is well-known that landscape value has also economic compesation as result of offered ecosystem services. Therefore this study was carried out in Rize city located on Northeastern part of Turkey and characterized by Tea (Camellia sinensis cultivation. This study was carried out in three steps. The first step is a literature search, the second one is the preparing of identity card for each survey point and the last step is based on data obtained from questionnaries and related field work to produce quantitative landscpae value map of the region by considering visual perception and tourism value of the study area. Finally, character number 2 has the highest landscape value whereas character number 4 has the lowest landscape value among previosuly determined 5 landscape characters of the study area. It is concluded that non-fragmented areas are generally more preffered as they offer integrated and perceivable landscapes to the users.

  15. Energy landscapes shape animal movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Wilson, Rory P; Rees, W Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Vosper, Simon B

    2013-09-01

    The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of "energy landscapes," which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well documented in some fields (notably, the selection of tailwinds by aerial migrants) and scales (typically large), the principles of the energy landscape extend across habitat types and spatial scales. We provide a brief synthesis of the mechanisms by which environmentally driven changes in the cost of transport can modulate the behavioral ecology of animal movement in different media, develop example cost functions for movement in heterogeneous environments, present methods for visualizing these energy landscapes, and derive specific predictions of expected outcomes from individual- to population- and species-level processes. Animals modulate a suite of movement parameters (e.g., route, speed, timing of movement, and tortuosity) in relation to the energy landscape, with the nature of their response being related to the energy savings available. Overall, variation in movement costs influences the quality of habitat patches and causes nonrandom movement of individuals between them. This can provide spatial and/or temporal structure to a range of population- and species-level processes, ultimately including gene flow. Advances in animal-attached technology and geographic information systems are opening up new avenues for measuring and mapping energy landscapes that are likely to provide new insight into their influence in animal ecology.

  16. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  17. Urban thermal landscape characterization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Y; Fung, T; Tsou, J

    2014-01-01

    Urban warming is sensitive to the nature (thermal properties, including albedo, water content, heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and the placement (surface geometry or urban topography) of urban surface. In this research, the pattern and variation of urban surface temperature is regarded as one kind of landscape, urban thermal landscape, which is assumed as the presentation of local surface heating process upon urban landscape. The goal of this research is to develop a research framework incorporating geospatial statistics, thermal infrared remote sensing and landscape ecology to study the urban effect on local surface thermal landscape regarding both the pattern and process. This research chose Hong Kong as the case study. Within the study area, urban and rural area coexists upon a hilly topography. In order to probe the possibility of local surface warming mechanism discrepancy between urban and rural area, the sample points are grouped into urban and rural categories in according with the land use map taken into a linear regression model separately to examine the possible difference in local warming mechanism. Global regression analysis confirmed the relationship between environmental factors and surface temperature and the urban-rural distinctive mechanism of dominating diurnal surface warming is uncovered

  18. Landscape Pattern Detection in Archaeological Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Traviglia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Automated detection of landscape patterns on Remote Sensing imagery has seen virtually little or no development in the archaeological domain, notwithstanding the fact that large portion of cultural landscapes worldwide are characterized by land engineering applications. The current extraordinary availability of remotely sensed images makes it now urgent to envision and develop automatic methods that can simplify their inspection and the extraction of relevant information from them, as the quantity of information is no longer manageable by traditional “human” visual interpretation. This paper expands on the development of automatic methods for the detection of target landscape features—represented by field system patterns—in very high spatial resolution images, within the framework of an archaeological project focused on the landscape engineering embedded in Roman cadasters. The targets of interest consist of a variety of similarly oriented objects of diverse nature (such as roads, drainage channels, etc. concurring to demark the current landscape organization, which reflects the one imposed by Romans over two millennia ago. The proposed workflow exploits the textural and shape properties of real-world elements forming the field patterns using multiscale analysis of dominant oriented response filters. Trials showed that this approach provides accurate localization of target linear objects and alignments signaled by a wide range of physical entities with very different characteristics.

  19. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  20. Pluralising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2017-01-01

    suppress other valid perceptions, in conflict with the need for different groups of people to be able to identify with the same territory. However, planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does not necessarily mean planning for one common nature. Understanding and working......Denmark is recognised for its democratic approach to planning, and for the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and in common values also seems to be reflected in the way that the restoration of nature is planned and managed, suggesting that there is one common...... “nature” that everyone can agree on. But nature restoration is far from being an unproblematic undertaking. As with any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project, one perception of a landscape and its value as “nature” can...

  1. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  2. Richard Murphy: Autobiography and the Connemara landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Meihuizen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It could be argued that an important feature of Richard Murphy’s work, and of his identity as a poet is the relationship between the creative self and a particular place, where ‘place’ should be understood as referring not just to physical qualities of the natural environment, but in a broader sense to denote an environment in which everything is interrelated and connected, and in which there is no sharp division between the natural and the human. The landscape providing inspiration for Murphy’s poetic imagination is the landscapes and seascapes of Connemara in north-west Ireland. In 1959 he settled in this environment which was to be his base for the next 20 years and from this period and this location emanated the bulk of his poetic oeuvre. For Murphy committing to a life of writing poetry necessarily means being in the Connemara landscape. Returning to this environment in adulthood represents a quest for recovering childhood feelings, of belonging and love, as connected to particular places. Murphy’s Connemara poems could be read as an account of this process of re-placement, as a type of autobiographical text in which the artist creates a ‘double portrait’: in writing about the landscape he also writes about himself, creating a place-portrait which is, at the same time, a self-portrait.

  3. The driving forces of landscape change in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Draux, Hélène; Fagerholm, Nora

    2016-01-01

    , we find that distinct combinations of mainly political/institutional, cultural, and natural/spatial underlying drivers are determining landscape change, rather than single key drivers. Our systematic review indicates knowledge gaps that can be filled by: (a) expanding the scope of studies to include...... because landscape research is spread across many domains and disciplines. We here provide a systematic synthesis of 144 studies that identify the proximate and underlying drivers of landscape change across Europe. First, we categorize how driving forces have been addressed and find that most studies......; low Gross Domestic Product; boreal, steppic, and arctic landscapes; as well as forestland systems are underrepresented in the literature. Third, our review shows that land abandonment/extensification is the most prominent (62% of cases) among multiple proximate drivers of landscape change. Fourthly...

  4. Combinatorial vector fields and the valley structure of fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive (downhill) walks are a computationally convenient way of analyzing the geometric structure of fitness landscapes. Their inherently stochastic nature has limited their mathematical analysis, however. Here we develop a framework that interprets adaptive walks as deterministic trajectories in combinatorial vector fields and in return associate these combinatorial vector fields with weights that measure their steepness across the landscape. We show that the combinatorial vector fields and their weights have a product structure that is governed by the neutrality of the landscape. This product structure makes practical computations feasible. The framework presented here also provides an alternative, and mathematically more convenient, way of defining notions of valleys, saddle points, and barriers in landscape. As an application, we propose a refined approximation for transition rates between macrostates that are associated with the valleys of the landscape.

  5. The Landscape of the Gibbet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlow, Sarah; Dyndor, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT From the Murder Act of 1752 until the Anatomy Act of 1832 it was forbidden to bury the bodies of executed murderers unless they had first been anatomised or ‘hung in chains’ (gibbeted). This paper considers some of the observations of the Wellcome-funded project ‘Harnessing the Power of the Criminal Corpse’ as they relate to the practice of gibbeting. The nature of hanging in chains is briefly described before an extensive discussion of the criteria by which gibbets, which often remained standing for many decades, were selected. These are: proximity to the scene of crime, visibility, and practicality. Exceptions, in the forms of those sentenced by the Admiralty Courts, and those sentenced in and around London, are briefly considered. Hanging in chains was an infrequent punishment (anatomical dissection was far more frequently practised) but it was the subject of huge public interest and attracted thousands of people. There was no specified time for which a body should remain hanging, and the gibbet often became a known landmark and a significant place in the landscape. There is a remarkable contrast between anatomical dissection, which obliterates and anonymises the body of the individual malefactor, and hanging in chains, which leaves a highly personalised and enduring imprint on the actual and imaginative landscape. PMID:27335506

  6. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...

  7. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence between reality and virtuality, into the modeling of spatial movements, from which do not arise contraries, but only interdependencies. It is a particular type of representation that takes shape via the digital in motion and provides new tools for urban representation.

  8. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  9. Landscape anthropogenic disturbance in the Mediterranean ecosystem: is the current landscape sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo; Franciosi, Chiara; Lima, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean landscape during the last centuries has been subject to strong anthropogenic disturbances who shifted natural vegetation cover in a cultural landscape. Most of the natural forest were destroyed in order to allow cultivation and grazing activities. In the last century, fast growing conifer plantations were introduced in order to increase timber production replacing slow growing natural forests. In addition, after the Second World War most of the grazing areas were changed in unmanaged mediterranean conifer forest frequently spread by fires. In the last decades radical socio economic changes lead to a dramatic abandonment of the cultural landscape. One of the most relevant result of these human disturbances, and in particular the replacement of deciduous forests with coniferous forests, has been the increasing in the number of forest fires, mainly human caused. The presence of conifers and shrubs, more prone to fire, triggered a feedback mechanism that makes difficult to return to the stage of potential vegetation causing huge economic, social and environmental damages. The aim of this work is to investigate the sustainability of the current landscape. A future landscape scenario has been simulated considering the natural succession in absence of human intervention assuming the current fire regime will be unaltered. To this end, a new model has been defined, implementing an ecological succession model coupled with a simply Forest Fire Model. The ecological succession model simulates the vegetation dynamics using a rule-based approach discrete in space and time. In this model Plant Functional Types (PFTs) are used to describe the landscape. Wildfires are randomly ignited on the landscape, and their propagation is simulated using a stochastic cellular automata model. The results show that the success of the natural succession toward a potential vegetation cover is prevented by the frequency of fire spreading. The actual landscape is then unsustainable

  10. Ecosystems science: Genes to landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-05-09

    Bountiful fisheries, healthy and resilient wildlife, flourishing forests and vibrant grasslands are coveted resources that benefit all Americans. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science supports the conservation and management of the Nation’s fish and wildlife, and the landscapes they inhabit. Our biological resources—ecosystems and the wild things that live in them—are the foundation of our conservation heritage and an economic asset to current and future generations of Americans.The USGS Ecosystems Mission Area, the biological research arm of the Department of the Interior (DOI), provides science to help America achieve sustainable management and conservation of its biological resources. This work is done within the broader mission of the USGS—to serve the Nation with science that advances understanding of our natural resources, informs land and water stewardship, and helps safeguard communities from natural and environmental hazards. The Ecosystems Mission Area provides research, technical assistance, and education conducted by Cooperative Research Units and Science Centers located in nearly every State.The quality of life and economic strength in America hinges on healthy ecosystems that support living things and natural processes. Ecosystem science better enables society to understand how and why ecosystems change and to guide actions that can prevent damage to, and restore and sustain ecosystems. It is through this knowledge that informed decisions are made about natural resources that can enhance our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being.

  11. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  12. Thermokarst transformation of permafrost preserved glaciated landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokelj, S.; Tunnicliffe, J. F.; Fraser, R.; Kokoszka, J.; Lacelle, D.; Lantz, T. C.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Rudy, A.; Shakil, S.; Tank, S. E.; van der Sluijs, J.; Wolfe, S.; Zolkos, S.

    2017-12-01

    Thermokarst is the fundamental mechanism of landscape change and a primary driver of downstream effects in a warming circumpolar world. Permafrost degradation is inherently non-linear because latent heat effects can inhibit thawing. However, once this thermal transition is crossed thermokarst can accelerate due to the interaction of thermal, physical and ecological feedbacks. In this paper we highlight recent climate and precipitation-driven intensification of thaw slumping that is transforming permafrost preserved glaciated landscapes in northwestern Canada. The continental distribution of slump affected terrain reflects glacial extents and recessional positions of the Laurentide Ice sheet. On this basis and in conjunction with intense thermokarst in cold polar environments, we highlight the critical roles of geological legacy and climate history in dictating the sensitivity of permafrost terrain. These glaciated landscapes, maintained in a quasi-stable state throughout much of the late Holocene are now being transformed into remarkably dynamic environments by climate-driven thermokarst. Individual disturbances displace millions of cubic metres of previously frozen material downslope, converting upland sedimentary stores into major source areas. Precipitation-driven evacuation of sediment by fluidized mass flows perpetuates non-linear enlargement of disturbances. The infilling of valleys with debris deposits tens of metres thick increases stream base-levels and promotes rapid valley-side erosion. These processes destabilize adjacent slopes and proliferate disturbance effects. Physically-based modeling of thaw slump development provides insight into the trajectories of landscape change, and the mapping of fluvial linkages portrays the cascade of effects across watershed scales. Post-glacial or "paraglacial" models of landscape evolution provide a useful framework for understanding the nature and magnitude of climate-driven changes in permafrost preserved glaciated

  13. Dark matter in axion landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Daido

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available If there are a plethora of axions in nature, they may have a complicated potential and create an axion landscape. We study a possibility that one of the axions is so light that it is cosmologically stable, explaining the observed dark matter density. In particular we focus on a case in which two (or more shift-symmetry breaking terms conspire to make the axion sufficiently light at the potential minimum. In this case the axion has a flat-bottomed potential. In contrast to the case in which a single cosine term dominates the potential, the axion abundance as well as its isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed. This allows an axion with a rather large mass to serve as dark matter without fine-tuning of the initial misalignment, and further makes higher-scale inflation to be consistent with the scenario.

  14. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  15. A landscape analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  16. Landscape Planning of Schoolyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.

  17. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  18. Landscapes in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  19. Landscape approach to the formation of the ecological frame of Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2015-04-01

    The territory of Moscow, in particular in its former borders, is distinct for its strong transformation of the natural properties of virtually all types of landscape complexes. The modern landscape structure is characterized by fragmentation of natural land cover. Natural and quasinatural (natural and anthropogenic) landscape complexes with preserved natural structure are represented by isolated areas and occupy small areas. During recent years landscape diversity in general and biodiversity in particular have been rapidly declining, and many of the natural landscape complexes are under ever-increasing degradation. Ecological balance is broken, and preserved natural landscapes are not able to maintain it. Effective territorial organization of Moscow and the rational use of its territory are impossible without taking into account the natural component of the city as well as the properties and potential of the landscape complexes that integrate all natural features in specific areas. The formation of the ecological framework of the city is particularly important. It should be a single system of interrelated and complementary components that make up a single environmental space: habitat-forming cores (junctions), ecological corridors and elements of environmental infrastructure. Systemic unity of the environmental framework can support the territorial ecological compensation where a break of the ecological functions of one part of the system is compensated by maintaining or restoring them in another part and contribute to the polarization of incompatible types of land use. Habitat-forming cores should include as mandatory parts all the specifically protected natural areas (SPNAs), particularly valuable landscape complexes, as well as preserved adjacent forest areas. Their most important function should be to maintain resources and area reproducing abilities of landscapes, landscape diversity and biodiversity. Ecological corridors which perform environmental and

  20. Spatial assessment of landscape ecological connectivity in different urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization has resulted in remnant natural patches within cities that often have no connectivity among themselves and to natural reserves outside the urban area. Protecting ecological connectivity in fragmented urban areas is becoming crucial in maintaining urban biodiversity and securing critical habitat levels and configurations under continual development pressures. Nevertheless, few studies have been undertaken for urban landscapes. This study aims to assess ecological connectivity for a group of species that represent the urban desert landscape in the Phoenix metropolitan area and to compare the connectivity values along the different urban gradient. A GIS-based landscape connectivity model which relies upon ecological connectivity index (ECI) was developed and applied to this region. A GIS-based concentric buffering technique was employed to delineate conceptual boundaries for urban, suburban, and rural zones. The research findings demonstrated that urban habitats and potential habitat patches would be significantly influenced by future urban development. Particularly, the largest loss of higher connectivity would likely to be anticipated in the "in-between areas" where urban, suburban, and rural zones overlap one another. The connectivity maps would be useful to provide spatial identification regarding connectivity patterns and vulnerability for urban and suburban activities in this area. This study provides planners and landscape architects with a spatial guidance to minimize ecological fragmentation, which ultimately leads to urban landscape sustainability. This study suggests that conventional planning practices which disregard the ecological processes in urban landscapes need to integrate landscape ecology into planning and design strategies.

  1. Experimental Study on the Health Benefits of Garden Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyoung

    2017-07-24

    To mitigate the negative effects of modern cities on health, scientists are focusing on the diverse benefits of natural environments; a conceptual approach to use gardens for promoting human health is being attempted. In this study, the effects of the visual landscape of a traditional garden on psychological and physiological activities were investigated. Eighteen male and female adults participated in this indoor experiment (mean age, 26.7 years). Twelve different landscape images for city and garden were presented continuously for 90 s. In the time series changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (O₂Hb), different patterns of changes were observed between the city and garden. The mean O₂Hb values increased for the city landscapes, whereas they decreased for the garden landscapes both in the left and right prefrontal cortices. Significant differences in the negative psychological states of tension, fatigue, confusion, and anxiety were observed between the city and garden landscapes. Important differences in the physiological and psychological responses to the two different landscapes were also detected between male and female participants, providing valuable clues to individual differences in the health benefits of natural landscapes. To validate the use of gardens as a resource for promoting health in urban dwellers, further scientific evidence, active communication, and collaboration among experts in the relevant field are necessary.

  2. Therapeutic landscapes and longevity: Wellness tourism in Bama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liyuan; Xu, Honggang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the rising demand for healthcare products and concern over environmental pollution, wellness tourism has been booming in China in recent years. The therapeutic landscape theory provides a multi-scale interpretation of wellness tourism to explore how wellness tourists achieve health in healing places. By presenting the results of 83 interviews conducted in Bama, China, this study reveals that the "longevity village" Bama, endorsed by centenarians, provides a retreat that combines natural beauty and a harmonious neighbourhood for wellness tourists. This article argues that although three themes-natural environment, social interaction and symbolic landscape-work together in the healing process of tourists, the symbolic landscape, which is significantly shaped by the longevity culture, plays a dominant role. Longevity in Chinese culture symbolizes the alignment of a strong body, graceful mind, and pleasant habitat. Furthermore, tourism reinforces the importance of symbols and imagination (of a place), the perception of longevity demonstrates the symbolic landscape and thus increases tourists' attachment to the place, and the unusual environment leads to a different therapeutic landscape from that of daily life. Finally, since to date there has been very few works on therapeutic landscapes in China, it is expected that this study will fill the knowledge gap and broaden the scope of application as well as conceptualization of the therapeutic landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  4. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATTI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  5. The concept of landscape education at school level with respect to the directions of the science of landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęsna, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    School education is both a starting point for the development of various scientific disciplines (school educates future researchers) and the result of science. The landscape research is conducted within many scientific disciplines and has a long tradition. Lanscape education, which is the result of a scientific dimension, is implemented in primary school under the nature subject. Primary school education is the only level at which the geographical contents are carried out on landscape. The landscape is of interest to many disciplines: geography, architecture, social sciences and the arts. In recent years, there were many studies which contained an overview of the main strands of the science of landscape, presented the differences in the meaning of the concept and objectives of individual research disciplines. These studies have become the ground for the characterization of the concept of landscape education implemented in Polish school and its evaluation in terms of scientific achievements. A review of educational purposes, the basic content of education and achievements of students, demonstrate the influence of multiple scientific disciplines in school landscape education. The most significant share of the course content are achievements of geography disciplines, particularly: physical geography, environmental protection and landscape ecology. Other scientific fields: literature, art, psychology, sociology, and architecture do not have any impact on the school landscape education or their impact remains marginal.

  6. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    OpenAIRE

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA; S. PIGNATTI; S. VAROLI PIAZZA

    2000-01-01

    The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal...

  7. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  8. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  9. Implications of changes in land cover and landscape structure for the biocontrol potential of stemborers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebede, Yodit; Bianchi, Felix; Baudron, Frédéric; Abraham, Kristin; Valença, de Anne; Tittonell, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    The land cover and structure of agricultural landscapes may influence the abundance and diversity of natural enemies of crop pests. However, these landscapes are continuously evolving due to changing land uses and agricultural practices. Here we assess changes in land use and landscape structure in

  10. [Landscape planning approaches for biodiversity conservation in agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-hui; Li, Liang-tao; Yu, Zhen-rong

    2008-11-01

    Biodiversity conservation in agriculture not only relates to the sustainable development of agriculture, but also is an essential part of species conservation. In recent years, the landscape planning approach for biodiversity was highlighted instead of species-focused approach. In this paper, the landscape factors affecting the biodiversity in agriculture were reviewed, and the possible landscape approaches at three different scales for more efficient conservation of biodiversity in agro-landscape were suggested, including: (1) the increase of the proportion of natural or semi-natural habitats in agriculture, diversification of land use or crop pattern, and protection or construction of corridor at landscape level; (2) the establishment of non-cropping elements such as field margin at between-field level; and (3) the application of reasonable crop density, crop distribution pattern and rotation, and intercrop etc. at within-field level. It was suggested that the relevant policies for natural conservation, land use planning, and ecological compensation should be made to apply the landscape approaches for biodiversity conservation at larger scale.

  11. Scale Mismatches in Management of Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara T. Borgström

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes constitute the future environment for most of the world's human population. An increased understanding of the urbanization process and of the effects of urbanization at multiple scales is, therefore, key to ensuring human well-being. In many conventional natural resource management regimes, incomplete knowledge of ecosystem dynamics and institutional constraints often leads to institutional management frameworks that do not match the scale of ecological patterns and processes. In this paper, we argue that scale mismatches are particularly pronounced in urban landscapes. Urban green spaces provide numerous important ecosystem services to urban citizens, and the management of these urban green spaces, including recognition of scales, is crucial to the well-being of the citizens. From a qualitative study of the current management practices in five urban green spaces within the Greater Stockholm Metropolitan Area, Sweden, we found that 1 several spatial, temporal, and functional scales are recognized, but the cross-scale interactions are often neglected, and 2 spatial and temporal meso-scales are seldom given priority. One potential effect of the neglect of ecological cross-scale interactions in these highly fragmented landscapes is a gradual reduction in the capacity of the ecosystems to provide ecosystem services. Two important strategies for overcoming urban scale mismatches are suggested: 1 development of an integrative view of the whole urban social-ecological landscape, and 2 creation of adaptive governance systems to support practical management.

  12. Genetics: A New Landscape for Medical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens resistant to medical treatment will present a challenge to the international public health community in the coming decades. Geography is uniquely positioned to examine the progressive evolution of pathogens across space and through time, and to link molecular change to interactions between population and environmental drivers. Landscape as an organizing principle for the integration of natural and cultural forces has a long history in geography, and, more specifically, in medical geography. Here, we explore the role of landscape in medical geography, the emergent field of landscape genetics, and the great potential that exists in the combination of these two disciplines. We argue that landscape genetics can enhance medical geographic studies of local-level disease environments with quantitative tests of how human-environment interactions influence pathogenic characteristics. In turn, such analyses can expand theories of disease diffusion to the molecular scale and distinguish the important factors in ecologies of disease that drive genetic change of pathogens. PMID:24558292

  13. The behaviour of hoverfly larvae (Diptera, Syrphidae) lessens the effects of floral subsidy in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Laubertie, Elsa; Wratten, Steve; Magro, Alexandra; Hemptinne, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Modern agricultural landscapes favour crop pests: herbivores benefit from resource concentration and/or the absence of natural enemies in large areas of intensively farmed fields interspersed by small fragments of natural or non-crop habitats. Conservation biological control (CBC) aims at increasing the functional diversity of agricultural landscapes to make them more hospitable to natural enemies, and less to herbivores. Although natural enemies readily respond to this management, very few s...

  14. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  15. The sustainable management of the landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Gerber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this "resource landscape" in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.

  16. [Spatial evaluation on ecological and aesthetic quality of Beijing agricultural landscape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Xiao, He; Yu, Zhen-Rong

    2009-10-01

    A total of ten single indices mainly reflecting the ecological and aesthetic quality of agricultural landscape, including ecosystem function, naturalness, openness and diversity, contamination probability, and orderliness were selected, their different weights were given based on field survey and expert system, and an integrated evaluation index system of agricultural landscape quality was constructed. In the meantime, the land use data provided by GIS and the remote sensing data of vegetation index were used to evaluate the Beijing agricultural landscape quality and its spatial variation. There was a great spatial variation in the agricultural landscape quality of Beijing, being worse at the edges of urban area and towns, but better in suburbs. The agricultural landscape quality was mainly related to topography and human activity. To construct a large-scale integrated index system based on remote sensing data and landscape indices would have significance in evaluating the spatial variation of agricultural landscape quality.

  17. Landscape Optimization in a Highly Urbanized Tourism Destination: An Integrated Approach in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning and developing urban tourism destinations must encompass landscape optimization to achieve healthy urban ecosystems, as well as for evolution sustainability. This study explored sustainable landscape planning by examining the optimization of landscape spatial distribution in an urban tourism destination–Nanjing, China—using an integrated approach that included remote sensing (RS, geographic information system (GIS, and landscape metrics in the context of an urban tourism destination evolution model. Least-cost modeling in GIS was also used to optimize decision-making from an ecological perspective. The results indicated that landscapes were more homogenous, fragmented, and less connected. Except for the eastern area, the landscape evolution showed characteristics of both degeneration and growth. A complete greenway network including sources, greenways, and nodes were constructed, and an increase in natural landscapes was strongly recommended. The findings provide geographic insights for sustainable urban tourism planning and development via comprehensive methodological applications.

  18. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  19. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  20. The heritage and landscapes: new concepts for old ideas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gayego Bello Figueiredo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between landscape and heritage and brings a brief critical analysis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO practice since the institutionalization of cultural landscape category, created on the World Heritage list in 1992, until 2012. The text is structured in three parts. The first presents a brief historical approach about the concept of Western landscape. The second presents recent formulations on the cultural landscape based on international conventions, such as the Council of Europe (1995 and the Landscape European Convention (2000. The third part focuses on the analysis of the World Heritage Committee work, comprising the main characteristics and values of cultural landscapes listed. Finally, the study reveals how the employment of this new concept is still reflecting old conceptions of landscape and preservation, although points towards perspective in the heritage policies, especially as regards the own expansion of the heritage concept and the approximation between the natural and cultural, material and immaterial dimensions.

  1. The landscape context of cereal aphid–parasitoid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Carsten; Roschewitz, Indra; Tscharntke, Teja

    2005-01-01

    Analyses at multiple spatial scales may show how important ecosystem services such as biological control are determined by processes acting on the landscape scale. We examined cereal aphid–parasitoid interactions in wheat fields in agricultural landscapes differing in structural complexity (32–100% arable land). Complex landscapes were associated with increased aphid mortality resulting from parasitism, but also with higher aphid colonization, thereby counterbalancing possible biological control by parasitoids and lastly resulting in similar aphid densities across landscapes. Thus, undisturbed perennial habitats appeared to enhance both pests and natural enemies. Analyses at multiple spatial scales (landscape sectors of 0.5–6 km diameter) showed that correlations between parasitism and percentage of arable land were significant at scales of 0.5–2 km, whereas aphid densities responded to percentage of arable land at scales of 1–6 km diameter. Hence, the higher trophic level populations appeared to be determined by smaller landscape sectors owing to dispersal limitation, showing the ‘functional spatial scale’ for species-specific landscape management. PMID:15695212

  2. Topological and statistical properties of quantum control transition landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Michael; Wu Rebing; Rabitz, Herschel; Rosenthal, Carey

    2008-01-01

    A puzzle arising in the control of quantum dynamics is to explain the relative ease with which high-quality control solutions can be found in the laboratory and in simulations. The emerging explanation appears to lie in the nature of the quantum control landscape, which is an observable as a function of the control variables. This work considers the common case of the observable being the transition probability between an initial and a target state. For any controllable quantum system, this landscape contains only global maxima and minima, and no local extrema traps. The probability distribution function for the landscape value is used to calculate the relative volume of the region of the landscape corresponding to good control solutions. The topology of the global optima of the landscape is analysed and the optima are shown to have inherent robustness to variations in the controls. Although the relative landscape volume of good control solutions is found to shrink rapidly as the system Hilbert space dimension increases, the highly favourable landscape topology at and away from the global optima provides a rationale for understanding the relative ease of finding high-quality, stable quantum optimal control solutions

  3. Evolutionary Effect on the Embodied Beauty of Landscape Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiaoxiang; He, Xianyou; Chen, Guangyao

    2018-01-01

    According to the framework of evolutionary aesthetics, a sense of beauty is related to environmental adaptation and plasticity of human beings, which has adaptive value and biological foundations. Prior studies have demonstrated that organisms derive benefits from the landscape. In this study, we investigated whether the benefits of landscape might elicit a stronger sense of beauty and what the nature of this sense of beauty is. In two experiments, when viewing classical landscape and nonlandscape architectures photographs, participants rated the aesthetic scores (Experiment 1) and had a two-alternative forced choice aesthetic judgment by pressing the reaction button located near to (15 cm) or far from (45 cm) the presenting stimuli (Experiment 2). The results showed that reaction of aesthetic ratings for classical landscape architectures was faster than those of classical nonlandscape architectures. Furthermore, only the reaction of beautiful judgment of classical landscape architecture photograph was significantly faster when the reaction button was in the near position to the presenting photograph than those in the position of far away from the presenting photograph. This finding suggests a facilitated effect for the aesthetic perception of classical landscape architectures due to their corresponding components including water and green plants with strong evolutionary implications. Furthermore, this sense of beauty for classical landscape architectures might be the embodied approach to beauty based on the viewpoint of evolutionary aesthetics and embodied cognition.

  4. Integration Research for Shaping Sustainable Regional Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Brunckhorst

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social systems are complex and entwined. Complex social-ecological systems interact in a multitude of ways at many spatial scales across time. Their interactions can contribute both positive and negative consequences in terms of sustainability and the context in which they exist affecting future landscape change. Non-metropolitan landscapes are the major theatre of interactions where large-scale alteration occurs precipitated by local to global forces of economic, social, and environmental change. Such regional landscape effects are critical also to local natural resource and social sustainability. The institutions contributing pressures and responses consequently shape future landscapes and in turn influence how social systems, resource users, governments, and policy makers perceive those landscapes and their future. Science and policy for “sustainable” futures need to be integrated at the applied “on-ground” level where products and effects of system interactions are fully included, even if unobserved. Government agencies and funding bodies often consider such research as “high-risk.” This paper provides some examples of interdisciplinary research that has provided a level of holistic integration through close engagement with landholders and communities or through deliberately implementing integrative and innovative on-ground experimental models. In retrospect, such projects have to some degree integrated through spatial (if not temporal synthesis, policy analysis, and (new or changed institutional arrangements that are relevant locally and acceptable in business, as well as at broader levels of government and geography. This has provided transferable outcomes that can contribute real options and adaptive capacity for suitable positive futures.

  5. LAPSUS: soil erosion - landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorp, Wouter; Temme, Arnaud; Schoorl, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    LAPSUS is a soil erosion - landscape evolution model which is capable of simulating landscape evolution of a gridded DEM by using multiple water, mass movement and human driven processes on multiple temporal and spatial scales. It is able to deal with a variety of human landscape interventions such as landuse management and tillage and it can model their interactions with natural processes. The complex spatially explicit feedbacks the model simulates demonstrate the importance of spatial interaction of human activity and erosion deposition patterns. In addition LAPSUS can model shallow landsliding, slope collapse, creep, solifluction, biological and frost weathering, fluvial behaviour. Furthermore, an algorithm to deal with natural depressions has been added and event-based modelling with an improved infiltration description and dust deposition has been pursued. LAPSUS has been used for case studies in many parts of the world and is continuously developing and expanding. it is now available for third-party and educational use. It has a comprehensive user interface and it is accompanied by a manual and exercises. The LAPSUS model is highly suitable to quantify and understand catchment-scale erosion processes. More information and a download link is available on www.lapsusmodel.nl.

  6. Integrating landscape analysis and planning: a multi-scale approach for oriented management of tourist recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aranzabal, Itziar; Schmitz, María F; Pineda, Francisco D

    2009-11-01

    Tourism and landscape are interdependent concepts. Nature- and culture-based tourism are now quite well developed activities and can constitute an excellent way of exploiting the natural resources of certain areas, and should therefore be considered as key objectives in landscape planning and management in a growing number of countries. All of this calls for careful evaluation of the effects of tourism on the territory. This article focuses on an integrated spatial method for landscape analysis aimed at quantifying the relationship between preferences of visitors and landscape features. The spatial expression of the model relating types of leisure and recreational preferences to the potential capacity of the landscape to meet them involves a set of maps showing degrees of potential visitor satisfaction. The method constitutes a useful tool for the design of tourism planning and management strategies, with landscape conservation as a reference.

  7. Integrating Landscape Analysis and Planning: A Multi-Scale Approach for Oriented Management of Tourist Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aranzabal, Itziar; Schmitz, María F.; Pineda, Francisco D.

    2009-11-01

    Tourism and landscape are interdependent concepts. Nature- and culture-based tourism are now quite well developed activities and can constitute an excellent way of exploiting the natural resources of certain areas, and should therefore be considered as key objectives in landscape planning and management in a growing number of countries. All of this calls for careful evaluation of the effects of tourism on the territory. This article focuses on an integrated spatial method for landscape analysis aimed at quantifying the relationship between preferences of visitors and landscape features. The spatial expression of the model relating types of leisure and recreational preferences to the potential capacity of the landscape to meet them involves a set of maps showing degrees of potential visitor satisfaction. The method constitutes a useful tool for the design of tourism planning and management strategies, with landscape conservation as a reference.

  8. Landscape and Health: Connecting Psychology, Aesthetics, and Philosophy through the Concept of Affordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menatti, Laura; Casado da Rocha, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address a frontier topic in the humanities, namely how the cultural and natural construction that we call landscape affects well-being and health. Following an updated review of evidence-based literature in the fields of medicine, psychology, and architecture, we propose a new theoretical framework called "processual landscape," which is able to explain both the health-landscape and the medical agency-structure binomial pairs. We provide a twofold analysis of landscape, from both the cultural and naturalist points of view: in order to take into account its relationship with health, the definition of landscape as a cultural product needs to be broadened through naturalization, grounding it in the scientific domain. Landscape cannot be distinguished from the ecological environment. For this reason, we naturalize the idea of landscape through the notion of affordance and Gibson's ecological psychology. In doing so, we stress the role of agency in the theory of perception and the health-landscape relationship. Since it is the result of continuous and co-creational interaction between the cultural agent, the biological agent and the affordances offered to the landscape perceiver, the processual landscape is, in our opinion, the most comprehensive framework for explaining the health-landscape relationship. The consequences of our framework are not only theoretical, but ethical also: insofar as health is greatly affected by landscape, this construction represents something more than just part of our heritage or a place to be preserved for the aesthetic pleasure it provides. Rather, we can talk about the right to landscape as something intrinsically linked to the well-being of present and future generations.

  9. Landscape and Health: Connecting Psychology, Aesthetics, and Philosophy through the Concept of Affordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menatti, Laura; Casado da Rocha, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address a frontier topic in the humanities, namely how the cultural and natural construction that we call landscape affects well-being and health. Following an updated review of evidence-based literature in the fields of medicine, psychology, and architecture, we propose a new theoretical framework called “processual landscape,” which is able to explain both the health-landscape and the medical agency-structure binomial pairs. We provide a twofold analysis of landscape, from both the cultural and naturalist points of view: in order to take into account its relationship with health, the definition of landscape as a cultural product needs to be broadened through naturalization, grounding it in the scientific domain. Landscape cannot be distinguished from the ecological environment. For this reason, we naturalize the idea of landscape through the notion of affordance and Gibson’s ecological psychology. In doing so, we stress the role of agency in the theory of perception and the health-landscape relationship. Since it is the result of continuous and co-creational interaction between the cultural agent, the biological agent and the affordances offered to the landscape perceiver, the processual landscape is, in our opinion, the most comprehensive framework for explaining the health-landscape relationship. The consequences of our framework are not only theoretical, but ethical also: insofar as health is greatly affected by landscape, this construction represents something more than just part of our heritage or a place to be preserved for the aesthetic pleasure it provides. Rather, we can talk about the right to landscape as something intrinsically linked to the well-being of present and future generations. PMID:27199808

  10. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper is to pr......Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... searches and canvassing of European umbrella organisations; followed by an online survey of representatives from the identified initiatives (n??=??71). Our results show that the most relevant characteristics of integrated landscape initiatives in Europe are: a holistic approach to landscape management...

  11. RTE and landscape; RTE et le paysage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The lines are essential for the smooth operation of the electrical system. For the great majority, they are overhead. Insertion into the landscape is one of the approaches to the RTE (French manager of the electricity transportation network) environmental policy. The integration of an overhead line means finding the best possible path, taking into consideration the geography, the residential areas, the natural environment and the economic activity zones (farming, existing infrastructures and easements), landscapes and sites. The various routing possibilities are investigated in deliberation with the government services, the local councils and the different voluntary organisations concerned to find the best route. Once validated by the prefect, it is submitted to a public inquiry. The choice of the most suitable technical solution will then include mitigation measures as shown by the examples given in this brochure: line integration (traditional lines, vegetable screen, painted towers, specific towers, tower competition, particular cases, substation incoming feeders), line burial (technology, cost comparison), substation insertion.

  12. Landscape by Moonlight: Peter Paul Rubens and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendillo, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last years of his life, Rubens (1577-1640) lived happily with his wife and children on his Het Steen estate. During this period he worked and reworked a painting that had special meaning to him—Landscape by Moonlight (1635-40), now at the Courtauld Gallery in London. After a highly successful career painting religious and secular portraits, allegories, and occasional landscapes, Rubens put an extraordinary amount of effort into this final landscape. He was well known as a person who would commit to memory ideas and themes that he would use in future works. This paper reviews Rubens' attention to the visualization of nature, his personal connections to Elsheimer, Galileo, and Peiresc, and explores his possible depiction of constellations recalled from memory and placed within the cloudy skies in his Landscape by Moonlight.

  13. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  14. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agents that facilitate processes that shape the built environment and its contemporary landscapes. With movement and flows at the core, these landscape infrastructures facilitate aesthetic, functional,...

  15. Modelling Geomorphic Systems: Landscape Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Valters, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) present the geomorphologist with a means of investigating how landscapes evolve in response to external forcings, such as climate and tectonics, as well as internal process laws. LEMs typically incorporate a range of different geomorphic transport laws integrated in a way that simulates the evolution of a 3D terrain surface forward through time. The strengths of LEMs as research tools lie in their ability to rapidly test many different hypotheses of landscape...

  16. The Interaction Between Landscape Architecture and Urban Development. Do we Have a Common Goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiva Deveikienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of the relationship and interaction between urban design and landscape architecture. This refers to the period of the modern city from the late nineteenth century to the present day. There are presented and discussed urbanization processes and examples of solutions with emphasis on problems arising from the relationship between a city and nature as well as those related to urban landscape and sustainability of urban landscaping in the twentieth century.

  17. THE ROMANIAN RURAL SPACE AND ITS LANDSCAPES: ATTRACTION AND MOTIVATION FOR RELOCATING TOWNSPEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIAN DINCĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Rural Space And Its Landscapes: Attraction And Motivation For Relocating Townspeople. It is an easily noticed fact that a new generation of residents has been establishing new habitation structures all over Romania. This also applies to the south-eastern Oradea Suburban Area, in north-western Romania. The analysed suburban landscapes bring out open attitudes in former city dwellers, strongly biased pro-landscape (78.52% of all interviewees. The landscape criterion ranks second in reasons for relocation, indicating that local nature meets the expectations of the new residents. Indubitable spiritual benefits are also involved, the new residents’ perception of local landscapes being dominated by responses like beauty, repose, naturalness. However, the new residents do not have a narrowed-down, specialised definition in their minds when expressing opinions on local landscape physiognomy in detail, and on outstanding features that render local landscapes attractive. Even the landscape management interventions of new residents and of local authorities revolve around land estate categories and tailored urbanistic requisitions. Consequently, the configuration of neo-landscapes with a distinct suburban identity emerges. The major directions of this case study may serve as groundwork for further studies on the issue of landscape as subject matter in attracting city dwellers to suburban locations.

  18. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  19. The Value of Landscape Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004 have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the concept of fluid space;•recognising the existence of interstitial open spaces;•using those elements which are common to the distinct typologies of space;•defining the components that should be respected and those that can be respected;•observing landscape as a whole , while emphasising the relationship between the parts and the whole; and•rejecting simplification in the landscape transformation process.valuing the ambiguity incorporating the complexity Underlying this approach is the belief that the process of transformation must be based on the essence of each landscape. This implies the use of elements and structures of the landscape which are related to ecological, morphological and cultural systems. These elements and structures represent points of reference which should be considered in the process of landscape transformation.

  20. How Could Companies Engage in Sustainable Landscape Management? An Exploratory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Opdam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current concepts that aim to align economic development with sustainability, such as the circular and green economy, often consider natural systems as externalities. We extend the green economy concept by including the landscape as the provider of social, economic and environmental values. Our aim is to explore how companies could engage in creating landscape-inclusive solutions for sustainable landscapes. We propose a conceptual model of the relationship between companies and landscape services based on a demand for landscape benefits by companies, implications for wider society. We present a short overview of how scientists addressed the role of companies in landscape-inclusive solutions. We also give some examples taken from the World Wide Web to illustrate the variety of ways in which companies already invest in landscape services. Our findings suggest that the relationship between companies and landscapes is not yet strongly recognized in sustainability science. However, examples from practice show that some companies do recognize the added values of landscape services, to the extent that they invest in landscape management. We conclude that future research should provide information on the added value of landscape-inclusive solutions to companies, and increase their capacity to engage in regional social–ecological networks.

  1. Impressionist Landscape Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stella W.

    2018-05-01

    Cartography helps to show us the world in which we reside by providing us a framework to explore space. We can select myriad themes to represent what is relevant to our lives: physical characteristics, human behaviors, hazards, opportunities. Themes are represented on a continuum between real-world images and pure abstractions. How we define cartography and what we expect from it changes with society and technology. We are now inundated with data but we still struggle with expressing our personal geographic experiences through cartography. In this age of information we have become more cognizant of our individual experience of place and our need to determine our own paths and therefore create our own maps. In order to reflect our journey we can add individual details to cartographic products or generalize information to concentrate on what is meaningful to us. Since time and space are interrelated we experience geography by viewing the landscape as changing scenes over time. This experience is both spatial and temporal since we experience geography by moving through space. Experiencing each scene is a separate event. This paper expands the personalization of maps to include our impressions of the travel experience. Rather than add art to cartography it provides geographic reference to art. It explores the use of a series of quick sketches drawn while traveling along roads using a single drawing pad to produce a time series of interpreted landscapes. With the use of geographic time stamps from global positioning systems these sketches are converted from a drawing to a map documenting the path of movement. Although the map scale varies between sketch entries each scene impression can be linked to one or more maps of consistent scale. The result is an artistic piece that expresses a dynamic geographic experience that can be viewed in conjunction with more traditional maps. Unlike mental maps which are constructed from memory, these maps reflect our direct impressions

  2. Project D.I.R.T.: A landscape architect's excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargmann, J.

    1994-01-01

    To a landscape architect interested in the creative manipulation of the land, mineral extraction presents a massive load for design exploration. The primary goal of Project D.I.R.T., Design Investigations Reclaiming Terrain, was to unearth the possibilities for renewing the perception of mining as creatively integral with the cultural and natural evolution of the landscape. The potential collaboration and planning inherent in the multidisciplinary task of reclamation became evident on a journey to document selected mining sites around the country. Various coal, gold, copper, and taconite operations visited represent a diversity of regional landscapes with specific mining and reclamation practices. Both active and abandoned mined sites serve as case studies presented from a landscape architect's perspective. Examining the legal, social, and economic factors uncovered the frustrations with the legislation governing reclamation and the financial and ethical dilemmas of future land use for dependent communities. Reviewing the technical and ecological aspects revealed the innovations and progress of reclamation technology, but also limited application of ecological principles. These current practices of mining and reclamation illustrate a need to revise the legislation and coordinate an interdisciplinary effort to form truly productive and sustainable landscapes. Moreover, from this landscape architect's point of view, a synthetic approach guided by a broader vision of mining must lead to the creation of meaningful places that objectively reveal and celebrate the industrial heritage of the landscape. Mined lands can be an expression of a reciprocal connection between communities and individuals with the land one cultivates and all nurture. These monumental landscapes may come to represent a dynamic relationship between culture and nature for the next century

  3. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  4. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones...... that no longer sustain life. This history includes T. S. Eliot’s Wasteland and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road as well as air pollution, recycled railway lines, photography and landfills. It links theories of aesthetics, politics, tourism, history, geography, and literature into the new synthesis of the environmental...

  5. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  6. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  7. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  8. Effects of Hydrocarbon Extraction on Landscapes of the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Kalaly, Siddiq S.

    2015-09-30

    An important and sometimes overlooked aspect of contemporary natural gas exploration, development, and delivery activities is the geographic profile and spatial footprint that these activities have on the land surface. The function of many ecosystems and the goods and services they provide, in large part, are the result of their natural spatial arrangement on the landscape. Shale-gas development can create alterations to the pattern of land use and land cover, and represents a specific form of land use and land cover change that can substantially impact critical aspects of the spatial pattern, form, and function of landscape interactions, including many biological responses.

  9. Agroparks - The European Landscape Convention and a European way to regional sustainable landscape development through land use integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svennningsen, Stig R.; Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    areas of Europe, in which environmental management increasingly conforms to the principles of liberal economy. Based on a national study of privately owned largeholder manorial estates in Denmark including a detailed case study conducted in one of the survey areas, we conclude that transition...... to landscape sustainability is held back by two main inhibitors, which currently makes it a necessity for rural agency to act unsustainably: (1) The global liberalized legal system which supports individual private ownership to land and thus restrains large scale decision making at a spatial scale to match...... of production activities. These landscapes integrate nature protection, agriculture, settlement and recreation in complex structures of management. They could serve as an example for future sustainable landscape planning at a larger scale, supported by regional regulation. The European Landscape Convention (ELC...

  10. [Wetland landscape pattern change based on GIS and RS: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Ting; Xi, Min; Li, Yue; Kong, Fan-Long; Chen, Wan

    2013-04-01

    Wetland is an ecological landscape with most biodiversity in nature, which has unique ecological structure and function, and contains abundant natural resources to provide material guarantee for human's living and development. Wetland landscape pattern is the comprehensive result of various ecological processes, and has become a hot issue in wetland ecological study. At present, the combination of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies is an important way to study the wetland landscape pattern change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the wetland landscape change based on GIS and RS from the aspects of the research methods of wetland landscape pattern, index of wetland landscape pattern, and driving forces of wetland landscape pattern evolution, and discussed the applications of the combination of GIS and RS in monitoring the wetland landscape pattern change, the index selection of wetland landscape pattern, and the driving mechanisms of the combined action of human and nature. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future-studies were prospected.

  11. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  12. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2015), s. 60-68 ISSN 1803-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : landscape painting * landscape ecology * land-use changes * biodiversity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jlecol.2015.8.issue-2/jlecol-2015-0009/jlecol-2015-0009. xml

  13. LANDSCAPE PATTERN VERSUS FARMING DEVELOPMENT. THE CASE OF THE POST-MARL HOLLOWS (PMH LANDSCAPE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona MARKUSZEWSKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the presence of unique landscape elements (post-marl hollows in an intensively operated farming region. The selected case study (the environs of Krotoszyn in the Wielkopolska region, Poland represents an example of a human-designed landscape in which post-marl hollows (PMH were created as a consequence of the soil-marling process. PMH are vital ecological habitats which have an influence on the high quality of the rural landscape. Currently, as PMH are undergoing the vanishing process, it seems essential to find a solution to maintain these unique landscape elements. The main aim of this paper is to analyse human-nature relationships during the current changes taking place in the agricultural landscape in order to get the answer to the question: how is this affecting the PMH? The study evaluates farmers’ pro-environmental behaviour and defines their identity with the local landscape that has been beneficial in predicting the forthcoming shaping of the landscape. The data describing the PMH were collected in the years 1998-2016, while conducting cartographic analysis, a literature review and repetitive field research. Additionally, remote sensing and geoportal database were used to analyse the PMH changes. Also, interviews and discussions with farmers and representatives of the local administrative body were conducted. Results indicated that local rural communities are little concerned about the environment, particularly when it pertains to the issue of conservation of the local landscape heritage (i.e. PMH. In addition, the lack of support from the administrative body makes more difficult the opportunity to maintain a unique landscape pattern, as described in this paper.

  14. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Over 220 years ago Johann Wolfgang von Goethe undertook a nearly two-years long and fascinating journey to Italy, a destination dreamed for a long time by the great German writer. During his journey from Alps to Sicily Goethe reflects on landscape, geology, morphology of "Il Bel Paese", sometimes providing detailed descriptions and acute observations concerning the great and enduring laws by which the earth and all within it are governed. He was an observer, with the eye of the geologist and landscape painter, as he himself stated, and therefore he had a 360 degree focus on all parts of the territory. From the Brenner Pass to Sicily, Goethe reflects on landscape, contrasting morphologies, the genesis of territories, providing detailed descriptions useful for reconstructing the conditions of the territory and crops of the late 18th century. His diary is a description of the impressions he received from the country and its people, mingled with reflections upon art, science and literature. Goethe studied mineralogical and geological phenomena and drew up notes on the life of the people, the climate and the plants. On various scientific occasions and, in particular, within the framework of the Italian Association "Geologia & Turismo", of the Working Group "Geomorphosites" of the International Association of Geomorphologists and the International Year of Planet Earth, the opportunity to re-examine Goethe's travels in Italy from a geological viewpoint was recognised. In the present paper an attempt was made to reproduce the geotourism itinerary ante litteram of the writer to Italy, one of the most important tourist destination worldwide, thanks to its rich cultural and natural heritage and the outstanding aesthetic qualities of the complex natural landscape. This project was essentially conceived with a twofold purpose. First of all, an attempt was made to reproduce the journey of a great writer, as an example of description of landscape perceived and described as

  15. Landscape Features of Evciler Neighborhood as a Rural Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekta Köse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preserved rural settlements provide information about the historical rural life. In this line of thought, this study aims to keep an account of a rural settlement before it is altered by urbanization, which is located near Ankara and in which merchandise of agricultural products in the historic markets of the city is its primary pursuit. In accordance with this purpose, a matrix was used. With this matrix, landscape identity features are assessed and elements constituting landscape features are designed in terms of their efficiency. Evciler neighborhood is chosen for study area because of its close location to the city and therefore the high risk of conversion and loss of identity under the pressure of urbanization, with respect to the change of its administrative status from village to neighborhood in correspondance with the 5216 Law on Metropolitan Municipalities. Decisions on developing and protecting distinctive features of landscape of rural settlements should include an objective considering features and identity of settlements from local to regional scale. In order to reach this objective, all dimensions of settlements’ landscape features should be understood. In conclusion, this study argues that rural settlements have been formed due to by the natural landscape and the oppurtunities offered by the natural structure whereby,this natural structure has determined various aspects of rural life from construction materials to the means of earning a living.

  16. The Data Science Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modern scientific data continue to increase in volume, variety, and velocity, and though the hype of big data has subsided, its usefulness for scientific discovery has only just begun. Harnessing these data for new insights, more efficient decision making, and other mission critical uses requires a combination of skills and expertise, often labeled data science. Data science can be thought of as a combination of statistics, computation and the domain from which the data relate, and so is a true interdisciplinary pursuit. Though it has reaped large benefits in companies able to afford the high cost of the severely limited talent pool, it suffers from lack of support in mission driven organizations. Not purely in any one historical field, data science is proving difficult to find a home in traditional university academic departments and other research organizations. The landscape of data science efforts, from academia, industry and government, can be characterized as nascent, enthusiastic, uneven, and highly competitive. Part of the challenge in documenting these trends is the lack of agreement about what data science is, and who is a data scientist. Defining these terms too closely and too early runs the risk of cutting off a tremendous amount of productive creativity, but waiting too long leaves many people without a sustainable career, and many organizations without the necessary skills to gain value from their data. This talk will explore the landscape of data science efforts in the US, including how organizations are building and sustaining data science teams.

  17. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  18. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  19. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  20. Urban Landscape Architecture in the Reshaping of the Contemporary Cityscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananiadou-Tzimopoulou, Maria; Bourlidou, Anastasia

    2017-10-01

    The contemporary urban landscape is the evolving image of dynamic social, economic and ecological changes and heterogeneity. It constitutes the mirror of history, natural and cultural, urban processes, as well as locations of hybrid character, such as degraded and fragmented spaces within the urban fabric or in the city boundaries -areas in between, infrastructures, post-industrial and waterfront sites, but also potential grounds for urban development. Along with the awakening of the global ecological awareness and the ongoing discussion on sustainability issues, the cityscape with its new attributes, constitutes a challenging field of research and planning for various disciplines, further more than landscape architecture, such as architecture, planning, ecology, environment and engineering. This paper focuses on the role of urban landscape architecture, via its theory and practice, in the reshaping of the city territory. It aspires to broaden the discussion concerning the upgrading of the contemporary cities, aiming firstly at the determination of a wider vocabulary for the urban landscape and its design, and secondly at the highlighting of landscape architecture’s contribution to the sustainable perspective of urban design and planning. The methodology is based on a comparative research implemented both on a theoretical level and on a level of applied work. Urban landscape architecture is described through theory and practice, along with correlative approaches deriving mainly from landscape urbanism and secondarily from the field of architecture. Urban landscape is approached as a socio-ecological and perceptual legible, a territory of culture, process and production; operating as an entity of ecological, infrastructural systems and planning needs, it is also regarded as a precedent for urban development. Furthermore, the research is supported by selected European and International urban landscape projects, presented in a cohesive multiscalar approach, from the

  1. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  2. Plantas, suelos y paisajes: ordenamientos de la naturaleza por los indígenas Miraña de la Amazonía colombiana Plants, soils and landscapes: sorting of nature by the Miraña Indians of Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en información obtenida sobre los nombres de todas las plantas con DAP > 2.5 cm (Diámetro a la Altura del Pecho, medido a una altura de 1.3 m dentro de 30 parcelas de 0.1 ha cada una, y sobre los suelos, la vegetación y el paisaje a lo largo de 8 transectos (entre 2 y 5 km de longitud cada uno, se describen los aspectos más importantes sobre la taxonomía botánica y el ordenamiento o jerarquización del medio ambiente desde la perspectiva de los Indígenas Miraña de la Amazonía central colombiana. A pesar de la pérdida cultural, algunos pocos ancianos guardan como parte de su tradición oral, los elementos básicos de un sistema complejo de conocimiento de su ambiente natural. Se detectó un alto grado de conocimiento sobre las especies vegetales silvestres, la existencia de sistemas nomenclaturales para éstas y para los suelos, y un reconocimiento organizado de paisajes fisiográficos y tipos de vegetación.We describe the most important aspects of Miraña's plant taxonomy, and landscape categorization. Data about plants' names (in 30 plots of 0.1 ha, was gathered from all individual plants with DBH > 2.5 cm (Diameter at Breast High, or 1.3 m above ground, and data about soils, forest types and landscapes was (in 8 transects of 2-5 km long each was gathered from 8 transects of 2-5 km long each. In spite of cultural lost, complex knowledge about natural environment classification, it is present into the oral tradition keep in some elders' mind. We detected a high level of knowledge about wild plants, the presence of nomenclatural systems for plants and soil types, and organized landscapes and forest types systems.

  3. Changing wind-power landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...

  4. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...

  5. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  6. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  7. Modeling forest harvesting effects on landscape pattern in the Northwest Wisconsin Pine Barrens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker C. Radeloff; David J. Mladenoff; Eric J. Gustafson; Robert M. Scheller; Patrick A. Zollner; Hong S. Heilman; H. Resit Akcakaya

    2006-01-01

    Forest management shapes landscape patterns, and these patterns often differ significantly from those typical for natural disturbance regimes. This may affect wildlife habitat and other aspects of ecosystem function. Our objective was to examine the effects of different forest management decisions on landscape pattern in a fire adapted ecosystem. We used a factorial...

  8. Prescribing habitat layouts: Analysis of optimal placement for landscape planning [Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Michael Bevers; John Hof

    2002-01-01

    Physical restructuring of landscapes by humans is a prominent stress on ecological systems (Rapport et al. 1985). Landscape restructuring occurs primarily through land-use conversions or alteration of native habitats through natural resource management. A common faunal response to such land-use intensification is an increased dominance of opportunistic species leading...

  9. An inventory of continental U.S. terrestrial candidate ecological restoration areas based on landscape context

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Kurt Riitters; Peter Vogt; Jennifer Costanza; Anne Neale

    2017-01-01

    Landscape context is an important factor in restoration ecology, but the use of landscape context for site prioritization has not been as fully developed.We used morphological image processing to identify candidate ecological restoration areas based on their proximity to existing natural vegetation. We identified 1,102,720 candidate ecological restoration areas across...

  10. Driving forces behind landscape transformation in Europe, from a conceptual approach to policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Natural and man-induced changes modelled and remodelled European landscapes continuously. As historical and ongoing changes differ in character and intensity from time to time and from region to region whereas landscapes themselves differ in their responses, temporal and regional specification is

  11. Simulation of Landscape Pattern of Old Growth Forests of Korean Pine by Block Kringing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Zhengquan; Wang Qingcheng; Zhang Yandong

    1997-01-01

    The study area was located in Liangshui Natural Reserve. Xaozing'an Mountains, Northeastern China. Korean pine forests are the typical forest ecosystems and landscapes in this region. It is a high degress of spatial and temporal heterogeneity at different scales, which effected on landscape pattern and processes. In this paper we used the data of 144 plots and...

  12. Effect of woodlots on thrips density in leek fields: a landscape analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.; Brink, van den W.J.; Schelling, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of woodlots, natural areas and agricultural land in the landscape on a generalist herbivore insect species in cropland was investigated. The abundance of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) was compared in leek (Allium porrum) fields in 43 agricultural landscape plots of different sizes in The

  13. Simulation of a low-gradient Coastal Plain watershed using the SWAT landscape model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate representation of landscape processes in natural resource models requires distributed representation of basin hydrology and transport processes. To better represent these processes, a landscape version of the SWAT model has been developed. The model has been modified to represent the runo...

  14. Region, landscape, and host plant effects on reproduction by a mobile, multivoltine arthropod herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community structure, species abundance, and biotic interactions of invertebrate species in farmlands are influenced by larger-scale processes at region and landscape levels. While previous work makes clear the importance of landscape factors for natural enemy populations, relatively less is known ab...

  15. Fitness landscapes, heuristics and technological paradigms: a critique on random search models in evolutionary economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2001-01-01

    The biological evolution of complex organisms, in which the functioning of genes is interdependent, has been analyzed as "hill-climbing" on NK fitness landscapes through random mutation and natural selection. In evolutionary economics, NK fitness landscapes have been used to simulate the evolution

  16. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 15: Landscape change and aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Fuels management produces changes in the landscape that can impact scenic beauty. If people do not consider a forest to be scenic, they may think that the low scenic quality is a result of poor management or ecological health. This fact sheet looks at the relevency of the effects of natural and human-caused landscape changes, when planning fuels management.

  17. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  18. Planetary vistas the landscapes of other worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Murdin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The word “landscape” can mean picture as well as natural scenery. Recent advances in space exploration imaging have allowed us to now have landscapes never before possible, and this book collects some of the greatest views and vistas of Mars, Venus’s Titan, Io and more in their full glory, with background information to put into context the foreign landforms of our Solar System. Here, literally, are 'other-worldly' visions of strange new scenes, all captured by the latest technology by landing and roving vehicles or by very low-flying spacecraft.   There is more than scientific interest in these views. They are also aesthetically beautiful and intriguing, and Dr. Murdin in a final chapter compares them to terrestrial landscapes in fine art.   Planetary Vistas is a science book and a travel book across the planets and moons of the Solar System for armchair space explorers who want to be amazed and informed. This book shows what future space explorers will experience, because these are the landscapes th...

  19. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  20. Wildlife habitat management on the northern prairie landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Haseltine, Susan D.; Cowardin, Lewis M.

    1994-01-01

    The northern prairie landscape has changed dramatically within the past century as a result of settlement by Europeans. Natural ecosystems have been disrupted and wildlife populations greatly altered. Natural resource agencies control only limited areas within the landscape, which they cannot manage independently of privately owned lands. Wildlife managers need first to set quantifiable objectives, based on the survival, reproduction, and distribution of wildlife. Second, they need to build public support and partnerships for meeting those objectives. Finally, they need to evaluate progress not only with respect to attitudes of the public and partners but, more importantly, of the wildlife response. This paper describes some useful tools for managing information at all phases of this process. We follow by discussing management options at a landscape level. Examples are given that involve agency lands as well as private lands, managed for biological resources and diversity as well as economic sustainability.

  1. Governance Challenges in an Eastern Indonesian Forest Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Riggs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated approaches to natural resource management are often undermined by fundamental governance weaknesses. We studied governance of a forest landscape in East Lombok, Indonesia. Forest Management Units (Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan or KPH are an institutional mechanism used in Indonesia for coordinating the management of competing sectors in forest landscapes, balancing the interests of government, business, and civil society. Previous reviews of KPHs indicate they are not delivering their potential benefits due to an uncertain legal mandate and inadequate resources. We utilized participatory methods with a broad range of stakeholders in East Lombok to examine how KPHs might improve institutional arrangements to better meet forest landscape goals. We find that KPHs are primarily limited by insufficient integration with other actors in the landscape. Thus, strengthened engagement with other institutions, as well as civil society, is required. Although new governance arrangements that allow for institutional collaboration and community engagement are needed in the long term, there are steps that the East Lombok KPH can take now. Coordinating institutional commitments and engaging civil society to reconcile power asymmetries and build consensus can help promote sustainable outcomes. Our study concludes that improved multi-level, polycentric governance arrangements between government, NGOs, the private sector, and civil society are required to achieve sustainable landscapes in Lombok. The lessons from Lombok can inform forest landscape governance improvements throughout Indonesia and the tropics.

  2. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  3. The European nanometrology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  4. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  5. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  6. Landscape planning for a safe city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ishikawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  7. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  8. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  9. Mapping Meaningful Places on Washington's Olympic Peninsula: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Landscape Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Lee Karol; Biedenweg, Kelly; McLain, Rebecca

    2017-10-01

    Landscape values mapping has been widely employed as a form of public participation GIS (PPGIS) in natural resource planning and decision-making to capture the complex array of values, uses, and interactions between people and landscapes. A landscape values typology has been commonly employed in the mapping of social and environmental values in a variety of management settings and scales. We explore how people attribute meanings and assign values to special places on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA) using both a landscape values typology and qualitative responses about residents' place-relationships. Using geographically referenced social values data collected in community meetings (n = 169), we identify high-frequency landscape values and examine how well the landscape values are reflected in open-ended descriptions of place-relations. We also explore the various interpretations of 14 landscape values used in the study. In particular, we investigate any overlapping meanings or blurriness among landscape values and reveal potentially emergent landscape values from the qualitative data. The results provide insights on the use of landscape values mapping typologies for practitioners and researchers engaged in the mapping of social values for PPGIS.

  10. Attentional Bias to Beauty with Evolutionary Benefits: Evidence from Aesthetic Appraisal of Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiaoxiang; He, Xianyou; Lai, Shuxian

    2018-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that beauty is associated with the survival and reproduction of organisms. Landscape architecture is composed of a series of natural elements that have significant evolutionary implications. The present study used one pilot material ratings and three experiments to examine the mechanisms of aesthetic appraisals of landscape architecture. The results confirmed that landscape architecture elicited a sense of beauty and captured visual attention more easily than other types of architecture during explicit aesthetic rating task (Experiment 1) and implicit aesthetic perception task (dot-probe paradigm, Experiment 2). Furthermore, the spatial cueing paradigm revealed that response latencies were significantly faster for landscape architecture than non-landscape architecture on valid trials, but there was no significant difference in this contrast on invalid trials at 150-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, Experiment 3a). At 500-ms SOA (Experiment 3b), participants responded significantly faster for landscape architecture on valid trials, but reacted significantly slower for landscape architecture on invalid trials. The findings indicated that the beauty of landscape architecture can be perceived implicitly, and only faster orienting of attention, but not delayed disengagement of attention was generated at early stages of the processing of landscape architecture. However, the attentional bias at later stages of attentional processes may be resulted from both faster orienting of attention and delayed disengagement of attention from landscape architecture photographs. PMID:29467696

  11. Mapping Meaningful Places on Washington's Olympic Peninsula: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Landscape Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Lee Karol; Biedenweg, Kelly; McLain, Rebecca

    2017-10-01

    Landscape values mapping has been widely employed as a form of public participation GIS (PPGIS) in natural resource planning and decision-making to capture the complex array of values, uses, and interactions between people and landscapes. A landscape values typology has been commonly employed in the mapping of social and environmental values in a variety of management settings and scales. We explore how people attribute meanings and assign values to special places on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA) using both a landscape values typology and qualitative responses about residents' place-relationships. Using geographically referenced social values data collected in community meetings ( n = 169), we identify high-frequency landscape values and examine how well the landscape values are reflected in open-ended descriptions of place-relations. We also explore the various interpretations of 14 landscape values used in the study. In particular, we investigate any overlapping meanings or blurriness among landscape values and reveal potentially emergent landscape values from the qualitative data. The results provide insights on the use of landscape values mapping typologies for practitioners and researchers engaged in the mapping of social values for PPGIS.

  12. Attentional Bias to Beauty with Evolutionary Benefits: Evidence from Aesthetic Appraisal of Landscape Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiaoxiang; He, Xianyou; Lai, Shuxian

    2018-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that beauty is associated with the survival and reproduction of organisms. Landscape architecture is composed of a series of natural elements that have significant evolutionary implications. The present study used one pilot material ratings and three experiments to examine the mechanisms of aesthetic appraisals of landscape architecture. The results confirmed that landscape architecture elicited a sense of beauty and captured visual attention more easily than other types of architecture during explicit aesthetic rating task (Experiment 1) and implicit aesthetic perception task (dot-probe paradigm, Experiment 2). Furthermore, the spatial cueing paradigm revealed that response latencies were significantly faster for landscape architecture than non-landscape architecture on valid trials, but there was no significant difference in this contrast on invalid trials at 150-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA, Experiment 3a). At 500-ms SOA (Experiment 3b), participants responded significantly faster for landscape architecture on valid trials, but reacted significantly slower for landscape architecture on invalid trials. The findings indicated that the beauty of landscape architecture can be perceived implicitly, and only faster orienting of attention, but not delayed disengagement of attention was generated at early stages of the processing of landscape architecture. However, the attentional bias at later stages of attentional processes may be resulted from both faster orienting of attention and delayed disengagement of attention from landscape architecture photographs.

  13. Comparative assessment of public opinion on the landscape quality of two biosphere reserves in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  14. Participatory mapping of landscape values in a Pan-European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Fagerholm, Nora; Bieling, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Context: Human–nature interactions are reflected in the values people assign to landscapes. These values shape our understanding and actions as landscape co-creators, and need to be taken into account to achieve an integrated management of the landscape that involves civil society. Objectives......: The aim of this research was to increase the current knowledge on the most and least common landscape values perceived by local stakeholders, the patterns in the spatial distribution of values, and their connection to different socio-economic backgrounds and landscape characteristics across Europe....... Methods: The research consisted of a cross-site comparison study on how landscape values are perceived in six areas of Europe using Public Participation GIS surveys. Answers were analysed combining contingency tables, spatial autocorrelation and bivariate correlation methods, kernel densities, land cover...

  15. Patterns and drivers of land use change in selected European rural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Busck, Anne Gravsholt; van der Sluis, Theo

    2016-01-01

    concerns are less dominant and many landscape and land use changes are undertaken to improve public goods or fulfil personal and family ambitions and values. This paper investigates the patterns of farm-level land use changes that occurred between 2002 and 2012 in three different landscape regions...... with their engagement in land use changes. Common to all areas is that agricultural production is under pressure due to physical or socio-economic challenges. The results indicate that relatively more nature or landscape features have been added by landowners than removed by them in the six study areas. Furthermore......, the analysis revealed that full-time landowners were responsible for the largest proportion of landscape change and that the areas involved differed greatly. The analysis also underlined the variety of European landscapes, as many landscape activities exhibited strong geographical patterns. A multivariate...

  16. Group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of nature development plans : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.E.; Vlek, CAJ; Coeterier, JF

    The study presented here addresses theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the issue of group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of natural landscapes. Beauty ratings of an agrarian landscape and five computer simulations of nature development plans in this landscape were collected

  17. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  18. Local and landscape drivers of predation services in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2017-04-01

    In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness, are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e., herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i.e., landscape diversity and surrounding land use types) characteristics on predation services provided by naturally occurring predators in 19 urban gardens in the California central coast. We introduced sentinel pests (moth eggs and larvae and pea aphids) onto greenhouse-raised plants taken to gardens and assigned to open or bagged (predator exclosure) treatments. We found high predation rates with between 40% and 90% of prey items removed in open treatments. Predation services varied with local and landscape factors, but significant predictors differed by prey species. Predation of eggs and aphids increased with vegetation complexity in gardens, but larvae predation declined with vegetation complexity. Smaller gardens experienced higher predation services, likely due to increases in predator abundance in smaller gardens. Several ground cover features influenced predation services. In contrast to patterns in rural agricultural landscapes, predation on aphids declined with increases in landscape diversity. In sum, we report the relationships between several local management factors, as well as landscape surroundings, and implications for garden management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Effective Management of Trans boundary Landscapes - Geospatial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotru, R.; Rawal, R. S.; Mathur, P. K.; Chettri, N.; Chaudhari, S. A.; Uddin, K.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Singh, S.

    2014-11-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity advocates the use of landscape and ecosystem approaches for managing biodiversity, in recognition of the need for increased regional cooperation. In this context, ICIMOD and regional partners have evolved Transboundary Landscape concept to address the issues of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and systems (e.g., biodiversity, rangelands, farming systems, forests, wetlands, and watersheds, etc.). This concept defines the landscapes by ecosystems rather than political/administrative boundaries. The Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is extremely heterogeneous, with complex inter linkages of biomes and habitats as well as strong upstream-downstream linkages related to the provisioning of ecosystem services. Seven such transboundary landscapes, identified across west to east extent of HKH, have been considered for programmatic cooperation, include: Wakhan, Karakoram-Pamir, Kailash, Everest, Kangchenjunga, Brahmaputra-Salween, and Cherrapunjee- Chittagong. The approach is people centered and considers the cultural conservation as an essential first step towards resource conservation efforts in the region. Considering the multi-scale requirements of study, the geospatial technology has been effectively adopted towards: (i) understanding temporal changes in landscapes, (ii) long term ecological and social monitoring, (ii) identifying potential bio corridors, (iii) assessing landscape level vulnerability due to climatic and non-climatic drivers, and (iv) developing local plans on extractions of high value economic species supporting livelihoods, agroforestry system and ecotourism, etc. We present here our recent experiences across different landscapes on assessment of three decadal changes, vegetation type mapping, assessment of socio-ecological drivers, corridor assessment, ecosystem services assessment, models for optimal natural resource use systems and long term socio-ecological monitoring.

  20. Landscape evaluation of heterogeneous areas using fuzzy sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf-Uwe Syrbe

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Landscape evaluation is an interesting field for fuzzy approaches, because it happens on the transition line between natural and social systems. Both are very complex. Therefore, transformation of scientific results to politically significant statements on environmental problems demands intelligent support. Particularly landscape planners need methods to gather natural facts of an area and assess them in consideration of its meaning to society as a whole. Since each land unit is heterogeneous, a special methodology is necessary. Such an evaluation technique was developed within a Geographical Information System (ARC/INFO. The methodology combines several known methods with fuzzy approaches to catch the intrinsic fuzziness of ecological systems as well as the heterogeneity of landscape. Additionally, a way will be discussed to vary the fuzzy inference in order to consider spatial relations of various landscape elements. Fuzzy logic is used to process the data uncertainty, to simulate the vagueness of knowledge about ecological functionality, and to model the spatial structure of landscape. Fuzzy sets describe the attributes of thematically defined land units and their assessment results. In this way, the available information will be preserved in their full diversity. The fuzzy operations are executed by AML-programs (ARC/INFO Macro Language. With such a tight coupling, it is possible to use the geographical functions (neighbourhoods, distances, etc. of GIS within the fuzzy system directly.

  1. Mapping of Landscape Cover Using Remote Sensing and GIS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humankind to fulfill its needs has put natural resources of the earth to a severe pressure. The rate of degradation and depletion of earth resources has accelerated tremendously in view of the overincreasing demographic pressure. Therefore, mapping of landscape cover types to evaluate it has been a great concern for ...

  2. Conservation biological control and enemy diversity on a landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tscharntke, T.; Bommarco, R.; Clough, Y.; Crist, T.O.; Kleijn, D.; Rand, T.A.; Tylianakis, J.M.; Nouhuys, S.; Vidal, S.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation biological control in agroecosystems requires a landscape management perspective, because most arthropod species experience their habitat at spatial scales beyond the plot level, and there is spillover of natural enemies across the crop–noncrop interface. The species pool in the

  3. Landfire: Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Ryan; Kristine M. Lee; Matthew G. Rollins; Zhiliang Zhu; James Smith; Darren Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Managers are faced with reducing hazardous fuel, restoring fire regimes, and decreasing the threat of catastrophic wildfire. Often, the comprehensive, scientifically-credible data and applications needed to test alternative fuel treatments across multi-ownership landscapes are lacking. Teams from the USDA Forest Service, Department of the Interior, and The Nature...

  4. AND LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ITS DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Musaeva

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of helminthofauna of the striped lizard in Lankaran natural region. The landscape and ecological analysis of distribution of the helminthofauna is provided. As a result of studies on 99 individuals of striped lizard totally 14 species of helminthes, including 1 trematode species, 1 species of cestode, 3 species of akantocefals and 9 species of nematodes were found.

  5. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G B Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora 263 643, Uttarakhand, India. ... level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote ..... anthropogenic/natural forces on the landscape was ..... Environmental Research, Engineering and Management.

  6. Landscape ecology: what is the state of science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner

    2005-01-01

    Landscape ecology focuses on the reciprocal interactions between spatial pattern and ecological processes, and it is well integrated with ecology. The field has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. The persistent influence of land-use history and natural disturbance on contemporary ecosystems has become apparent Development of pattern metrics has largely stabilized,...

  7. Analysis of image differences of roadside corridor and landscape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... roadways and commercial strip developments at the fringe could also have health implications. The paper suggests that trees and nature plants, in particular, should be used to improve visual quality and reduce Co2 in the Atmosphere through carbon sequestration. Keywords: Rural–urban fringe; Landscape preferences; ...

  8. How could companies engage in sustainable landscape management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.

    2018-01-01

    Current concepts that aim to align economic development with sustainability, such as the circular and green economy, often consider natural systems as externalities. We extend the green economy concept by including the landscape as the provider of social, economic and environmental values. Our aim

  9. Sierras del Tandil. First Meeting of Morpfological Sciences.

    OpenAIRE

    Deserti, Maria Irene; Zamponi, Mauricio Oscar; Escalante, Alicia Haydee

    2015-01-01

    Las hidras son los cnidarios dulceacuícolas por excelencia y el ejemplo clásico de la forma pólipo dentro de dicho phylum. Sin embargo existe aún una gran confusión en lo que concierne a la taxonomía del género, ya que muchas especies presentan variaciones morfológicas que dificultan su identificación.Las hidras del hemisferio sur han sido poco investigadas, por lo que no se conoce con certeza cuales son las especies presentes y si éstas pertenecen a los grupos taxonómicos existentes hasta el...

  10. Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: Building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene

    2017-01-01

    The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We

  11. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Allthough working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the multifunctional landscape strategy supporting a certain public access. A study of this thesis is presented based on an analysis of multifunctionality, landscape development and accessibility in Danish Manorial landscapes and eventual linkages between their multifunctional landscape strategy, their history...

  12. Beyond Landscape MacArchitecture: new languages, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rackham

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The sine qua non of landscape architecture is respect for the genius loci, but even in the landscape, as in architecture and society more generally, a process of cultural homogenisation has been taking place. Against this process, a resurgence of interest in minority languages in Europe can be seen as an assertion of pride, and a desire to preserve difference. In Scotland, landscape architects are attempting to reinterpret Scottish and northern European urban design influences and materials: in effect to develop a new regional dialect for the new landscapes. Rooted in sound design principles and materials which respond to and reflect the climate, way of life and traditions of the place, design languages can communicate effectively about cultural values and differences.

  13. Sustainable landscape approach: Evaluation of xeriscape landscape design in KTU Kanuni Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bayramoğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant elements in landscape as well as all living beings have been affected from the global warming and drought in the last decade. With consideration the sustainable landscaping approach in order to reduce the negative effects of drought in planning and landscape, xeriscape approach has brought in issues of water use management. This study was conducted to determine the sustainability of grass and refuge plant for xeriscape around the road axis in the campus of Karadeniz Technical University and has led to some noticeably proposals solutions. According to the results achieved, 10 plant species from 53 species were determined with low water request, 13 of them dedicated a middle amount of water demand, and finally 4 of them requested high amount of water. Although water request of plants found in the area is low, natural species which are more effective for the xeriscape approach were not used in the site. In spite of some factors such as type of grass mixture used, capacity of water saving, and being strong to drought as well as dense surface which are important in xeriscape planning approaches , this study emphasizes that it is more appropriate to use natural ground cover in the xeriscape approaches.

  14. The Impacts of Spatiotemporal Landscape Changes on Water Quality in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhuan; Yang, Haiyan

    2018-05-22

    The urban landscape in China has changed rapidly over the past four decades, which has led to various environmental consequences, such as water quality degradation at the regional scale. To improve water restoration strategies and policies, this study assessed the relationship between water quality and landscape change in Shenzhen, China, using panel regression analysis. The results show that decreases in natural and semi-natural landscape compositions have had significant negative effects on water quality. Landscape composition and configuration changes accounted for 39⁻58% of the variation in regional water quality degradation. Additionally, landscape fragmentation indices, such as patch density (PD) and the number of patches (NP), are important indicators of the drivers of water quality degradation. PD accounted for 2.03⁻5.44% of the variability in water quality, while NP accounted for -1.63% to -4.98% of the variability. These results indicate that reducing landscape fragmentation and enhancing natural landscape composition at the watershed scale are vital to improving regional water quality. The study findings suggest that urban landscape optimization is a promising strategy for mitigating urban water quality degradation, and the results can be used in policy making for the sustainable development of the hydrological environment in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  15. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hopfenmüller

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes. Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats. Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  16. Trait-specific responses of wild bee communities to landscape composition, configuration and local factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenmüller, Sebastian; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Land-use intensification and loss of semi-natural habitats have induced a severe decline of bee diversity in agricultural landscapes. Semi-natural habitats like calcareous grasslands are among the most important bee habitats in central Europe, but they are threatened by decreasing habitat area and quality, and by homogenization of the surrounding landscape affecting both landscape composition and configuration. In this study we tested the importance of habitat area, quality and connectivity as well as landscape composition and configuration on wild bees in calcareous grasslands. We made detailed trait-specific analyses as bees with different traits might differ in their response to the tested factors. Species richness and abundance of wild bees were surveyed on 23 calcareous grassland patches in Southern Germany with independent gradients in local and landscape factors. Total wild bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration, large habitat area and high habitat quality (i.e. steep slopes). Cuckoo bee richness was positively affected by complex landscape configuration and large habitat area whereas habitat specialists were only affected by the local factors habitat area and habitat quality. Small social generalists were positively influenced by habitat area whereas large social generalists (bumblebees) were positively affected by landscape composition (high percentage of semi-natural habitats). Our results emphasize a strong dependence of habitat specialists on local habitat characteristics, whereas cuckoo bees and bumblebees are more likely affected by the surrounding landscape. We conclude that a combination of large high-quality patches and heterogeneous landscapes maintains high bee species richness and communities with diverse trait composition. Such diverse communities might stabilize pollination services provided to crops and wild plants on local and landscape scales.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Methodologies for Landscape Ecological Aesthetics in Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Jankevica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Areas with high level of urbanisation provoke frequent conflicts between nature and people. There is a lack of cooperation between planners and nature scientists in urban studies and planning process. Landscapes usually are studied using the ecological and aesthetical approaches separately. However, the future of urban planning depends on integration of these two approaches. This research study looks into different methods of landscape ecological aesthetics and presents a combined method for urban areas. The methods of landscape visual aesthetical assessment, biotope structure analysis, landscape ecology evaluation and multi-disciplinary expert level are compared in the article. A comparison of obtained values is summarized by making a comparative matrix. As a result, a multi-stage model for landscape ecological aesthetics evaluation in urban territories is presented. This ecological aesthetics model can be successfully used for development of urban territories.

  18. The influence of landscape characteristics and home-range size on the quantification of landscape-genetics relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabitha A. Graves; Tzeidle N. Wasserman; Milton Cezar Ribeiro; Erin L. Landguth; Stephen F. Spear; Niko Balkenhol; Colleen B. Higgins; Marie-Josee Fortin; Samuel A. Cushman; Lisette P. Waits

    2012-01-01

    A common approach used to estimate landscape resistance involves comparing correlations of ecological and genetic distances calculated among individuals of a species. However, the location of sampled individuals may contain some degree of spatial uncertainty due to the natural variation of animals moving through their home range ormeasurement error in plant or animal...

  19. A research into evolution attitudes affecting urban landscape design principles in 20. century and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faryadi, Sh.

    2001-01-01

    Man's interference with environment has generally followed two main and distinct attitudes, which has led to creation of different urban landscapes. The first attitude is called m an compatible with the nature w hich has generally shaped landscapes till industrial age. The second is m an dominant over the nature a ffecting landscapes since industrial age. After revealing of environmental crises - which are the impacts of the latter - a new way of thinking is being formed, which includes some aspects of both past attitudes. The main idea of this new way is to go along with the nature's powers instead of confronting them and to respect the soul and laws of the nature. This way of thinking insists on the creation of small sizes of settlements. In this new approach in addition to the acceptance of the role of science, emphasis has been put on the ecological characteristics, individual consciousness, art and creativity in landscape design

  20. Some criteria for landscape quality applied on an organic goat farm in Gelderland, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, K.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Mansvelt, van J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of the concerted action 'The landscape and nature production capacity of organic/sustainable types of agriculture', the authors visited the organic goat farm Caprica to test some criteria on farm level

  1. Territorial cohesion through cross-border landscape policy? The European case of the Three Countries Park (BE-NL-DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüll Anja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes can be understood as socialecological systems under constant change. In Europe various territorial dynamics pose persistent challenges to maintaining diverse landscapes both as European heritage and in their capacity to provide vital functions and services. Concurrently, under the competence of cohesion policy, the EU is attempting to improve policy making by better policy coordination and respecting regional specifics. This paper explores the question how a policy dedicated to landscape can help to handle territorial change and support territorial cohesion. It presents results and performances of the ESPON applied research study LP3LP: (1 a common landscape policy for the Three Countries Park, across the Dutch, German and Belgium borders, including a spatial landscape vision, a governance proposal of adaptive landscape management, and thematic strategies dealing with green infrastructure, cultural heritage, complementary biomass and quality production; (2 recommendations at the EU level. In discussing the significance of a landscape approach for EU policy,three dimensions of landscape are linked withimportant aspects of territorial cohesion: ‘landscape as asset’ addressing natural-cultural territorial capital as an indigenous base forsmart, sustainable, and inclusivedevelopment;‘landscape as place’ stressing the relevance of landscape for place-based policies; and ‘landscape as common ground’ highlighting its potential for horizontal, vertical, and territorial integration.

  2. LANDSCAPE PLANNING IN UKRAINE: THE FIRST LANDSCAPE-PLANNING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Rudenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.

  3. Fire management of California shrubland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2002-01-01

    Fire management of California shrublands has been heavily influenced by policies designed for coniferous forests, however, fire suppression has not effectively excluded fire from chaparral and coastal sage scrub landscapes and catastrophic wildfires are not the result of unnatural fuel accumulation. There is no evidence that prescribed burning in these shrublands provides any resource benefit and in some areas may negatively impact shrublands by increasing fire frequency. Therefore, fire hazard reduction is the primary justification for prescription burning, but it is doubtful that rotational burning to create landscape age mosaics is a cost effective method of controlling catastrophic wildfires. There are problems with prescription burning in this crown-fire ecosystem that are not shared by forests with a natural surface-fire regime. Prescription weather conditions preclude burning at rotation intervals sufficient to effect the control of fires ignited under severe weather conditions. Fire management should focus on strategic placement of prescription burns to both insure the most efficient fire hazard reduction and to minimize the amount of landscape exposed to unnaturally high fire frequency. A major contributor to increased fire suppression costs and increased loss of property and lives is the continued urban sprawl into wildlands naturally subjected to high intensity crown fires. Differences in shrubland fire history suggest there may be a need for different fire management tactics between central coastal and southern California. Much less is known about shrubland fire history in the Sierra Nevada foothills and interior North Coast Ranges, and thus it would be prudent to not transfer these ideas too broadly across the range of chaparral until we have a clearer understanding of the extent of regional variation in shrubland fire regimes.

  4. Energy landscapes in a crowded world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasqualetti, Martin; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    One of the main drivers of landscape transformation has been our demand for energy. We refer to the results of such transformations as "energy landscapes". This paper examines the definition of energy landscapes within a conceptual framework, proposes a classification of energy landscapes, and

  5. Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Pedroli, B.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as

  6. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  7. Flowscapes : Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important

  8. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  9. The evolving landscape of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and

  10. Greenhouse warming and landscape care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is one of the few truly planetary processes that influence the assessments and actions of governments and of everyday citizens. Principles and practices of ecological landscaping fit well with concern about hte effects of climate change.

  11. The Conservation of the Landscape in the Perspective of a Public Open Spaces System in Recife

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Ana Rita Sá; Duarte, Mirela; Marques, Eliábi A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between the study of public open spaces and the urban landscape in Recife, according a systemic vision. This relationship is defined with the historical analysis of the natural ecosystems in the site landscape such as rivers, coast vegetation and mangrove, and the atlantic forest, which was occupied by the time. This method was chosen to understand the morphology of open spaces, its typology and which is preserved as natural and cultural heritage. Nowadays...

  12. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  13. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  14. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  15. The Industrial Engineering publishing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Claasen, Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Looking at the Industrial Engineering publishing landscape through the window of Google Search, an interesting panorama unfolds. The view that I took is actually just a peek and therefore my description of what I saw is not meant to be comprehensive. The African landscape is empty except for the South African Journal of Industrial Engineering (SAJIE). This is an extraordinary situation if compared to the South American continent where there are Industrial Engineering journals in at least ...

  16. Influence of landscape structure on the functional groups of an aphidophagous guild: Active-searching predators, furtive predators and parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Éléonore Maisonhaute

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of studies focusing on the effect of agricultural landscapes demonstrate that many arthropod species are influenced by landscape structure. In particular, non–crop areas and landscape diversity are often associated with a higher abundance and diversity of natural enemies in fields. Numerous studies focused on the influence of landscape structure on ground beetles, spiders and ladybeetles but few on other natural enemies or different functional groups. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the influence of landscape structure on the functional groups, i.e., active-searching predators, furtive predators and parasitoids of aphidophagous guilds. Natural enemies were sampled on milkweed infested with aphids, growing along the borders of ditches adjacent to cornfields. The sampling occurred weekly from June to September in 2006 and 2007, in the region of Lanaudičre (Quebec, Canada. The landscapes within a radius 200 and 500 m around each site were analyzed. The abundance, richness and species composition (based on functional groups of natural enemies were related to landscape structure. The results indicated that landscape structure explained up to 21.6% of the variation in natural enemy assemblage and confirm the positive effects of non-crop areas and landscape diversity. A lower influence of landscape structure on species composition was observed (6.4 to 8.8% and varied greatly among the functional groups. Coccinellidae and furtive predators were the group most influenced by landscape structure. In conclusion, the influence of landscape varied greatly among the different species of the same functional group.

  17. Liquidation sales: Land speculation and landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale land-use transitions can occur with astonishing speed, and landscape stability can change with equal suddenness: for example, the catastrophic dustbowl that paralyzed the Midwestern US in the early 1930s came barely 40 years after the derby for homestead land in Oklahoma in 1889. Some human-landscape systems, like the large prehistoric settlements in the Brazilian Amazon, persisted for centuries without environmental collapse. Others quickly exhausted all of the environmental resources available, as occurred with phosphate mining on the Pacific Island of Nauru. Although abrupt shifts from resource plenty to resource scarcity are theoretically interesting for their complexity, the very real consequences of modern social and environmental boom-bust dynamics can catalyze humanitarian crises. Drawing on historical examples and investigative reporting of current events, I explore the hypothesis that land speculation drives rapid transitions in physical landscapes at large spatial scales. "Land grabs" is one of four core environmental justice and equality issues Oxfam International is targeting in its GROW campaign, citing evidence that foreign investors are buying up vast tracts of land in developing countries, and as a consequence exacerbating food scarcity and marginalization of poor families. Al Jazeera has reported extensively on land-rights disputes in Honduras and investment deals involving foreign ownership of large areas of agricultural land in New Zealand, India, Africa, and South America. Overlapping coverage has also appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the BBC News, the Guardian, and other outlets. Although land itself is only one kind of natural resource, land rights typically determine access to other natural resources (e.g. water, timber, minerals, fossil fuels). Consideration of land speculation therefore includes speculative bubbles in natural-resource markets more broadly. There are categorical commonalities in agricultural

  18. Re-animated heritage. National project Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie (New Dutch Water Defence Line as a format for landscape policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Luiten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Landscape policy has always been characterized, often supported but just as often hindered by its multiple origins in both landscape protection and landscape development. Along the recalcitrant and frequently inconsistent lines of preservation of monuments, nature conservation, land use, open-air recreation and the planting of new woods and shrubs respectively, landscape protection did not develop without difficulty. On a government level landscape protection was most extensively laid down in the Structure Plan for Nature Conservation and Protection of the Countryside. In this Plan the government introduced an extensive series of landscape categories, among which National Parks, National Landscapes, Valuable Agricultural Cultural Landscapes, Natural Heritage Valuable Areas, Large Landscape Unities and Valuable Scenic and/or Historical Views. In the Green Space Structure Plan from 1994 the differentiation of landscape policy was drastically reduced to the category of Valuable Cultural Landscapes and in addition a reference was made to the intended execution of large projects, such as the Randstad Green Structure and the National Ecological Network. In the revision of this Structural Plan in 2002 the category of National Landscapes was reintroduced. From the quarter of landscape development approximately every ten years a policy document is issued. The View on Landscape Creation (dating from the seventies, the View on Landscape (eighties and the Policy Document on Landscape (nineties are to be regarded as attempts at a synthesis of the various motives behind landscape development. The gist of these policy documents shifts from manifests for national green areas towards worked-out, integral concepts and formulas for rural-area development and closes with more and more complicatedly formulated recommendations, such as in the Development-oriented Landscape Strategy. After the Policy Document on Landscape with poorly argued maps of the so

  19. Perceptions of Post-Wildfire Landscape Change and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, C. M.; Hall, T. E.; Paveglio, T.; Carroll, M.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Considering the dynamic nature of the earth and climate systems and the increasing potential for widespread forest disturbances, it is important to understand the implications of landscape changes, and perceptions of changes, on people's responses to forest disturbances. Understanding how people perceive landscape change over time following forest disturbances helps researchers, land managers, and community leaders identify important biophysical and social characteristics that influence the vulnerability of people who experience forest disturbances, as well as their responses to those disturbances. This poster describes people's perceptions of landscape change following a significant wildfire. The lightning ignited Dahl fire burned 12 miles southeast of Roundup, MT mostly on private land in the summer of June 2012. The fire burned approximately 22,000 acres and destroyed 73 residences. We conducted interviews in the summer of 2013 with more than 40 residents, land managers, emergency personnel, and other stakeholders. While interviews covered several topics, this poster focuses on responses to questions regarding perceptions of short- and long-term landscape change after the fire, including both social and biophysical perspectives. Interviews revealed that people's understanding of the role of wildfires as a natural ecosystem process, as well as their connections with the landscape (i.e., sense of place), were important factors that influenced their perceptions of landscape change after the fire. Many respondents discussed the landscape ';recovering' to pre-fire conditions in longer-term timeframes, such as ';multiple generations.' They often referenced previous wildfires, the Hawk Creek fire (1984) and the Majeras fire (2006), by explaining how parts of the landscape affected by the Dahl fire might compare to certain areas of the previous fires. Variations in recovery expectations were often based on perceptions of the severity of the fire (especially temperature

  20. Landscape in Cinema: Images to Think Time through Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Rosário

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This text is an introduction to the special issue on ‘Landscape and Cinema’ published by Aniki. Portuguese Journal of the Moving Image. It is composed of a brief state of the art, which anchors this work within the bibliography on the subject, and a synthetic description of the discourses developed by the six papers included in the issue: the first one addresses the historical and aesthetic evolution of the background in the Russian and Soviet cinema of the first decades of the twentieth century; the second discusses the representation of the Portuguese landscape in Manuel Guimarães’ films; the third identifies a few cinematic techniques that work as conventions of psychological landscape film, such as juxtaposition and superimposition; the fourth interprets the meaning of Brazilian urban landscapes showed in the feature film A Vida Provisória (Maurício Gomes Leite, 1968; the fifth deals with the corporeal and conceptual relations between body, memory and landscape through a sensory reading of the films Ten Skies (James Benning, 2004 and Sin Peso (Cao Guimarães, 2007; and finally, the sixth undertakes a comparative analysis of three South American non-fiction works that show several waterscapes as places of memory: El botón de nácar (Patricio Guzmán, 2015, Los durmientes (Enrique Ramírez, 2015 and Las aguas del olvido (Jonathan Perel, 2013. The aim of this preliminary text is therefore to introduce the main contents of the issue and some of its conclusions. In this sense, it is necessary to emphasise the open and polysemic nature of landscape, which works, inside and outside cinema, as a palimpsest in which multiple meanings come together. For this reason, those films that depict, create and intervene in landscape allow to perceive, among other things, the overlapping of historical and subjective times that takes place in certain spaces.

  1. The Role of Anthropogenic Modifications in Landscape and Hydrological Organization of Mayma River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenets Liliya Fedorovna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The landscape and hydrological organization of the territory is a mosaic of landscapes with different modes of water yield and water balance structure. The landscape and hydrological approach becomes very important under the lack of hydrometeorological information. The factors determining the landscape and hydrological organization of the Mayma river basin, located in the Russian Altai, are considered in the present article. The classification of the landscape and hydrological complexes based on the static and dynamic indicators is performed. The set of interpretive landscape and hydrological maps has been developed. The climatic and hydrological conditions provide the excess moisture over a larger part of the basin. The lithological and hydrological background is characterized by the predominance of rocks and thin weathering products. A peculiarity of the studied area is the prevalence of transit locations that creates risks of dangerous hydrological processes in case of excessive humidity. Using the remote sensing data, the main classes of ground cover are described. A significant anthropogenic impact on the basin landscapes is observed. The analysis of soil structure shows that anthropogenically modified (mostly situated on slopes soils make up approximately 30 %. It is assumed that it leads to the deterioration of the landscape and hydrological situation in the catchment. It is concluded that the landscape and hydrological approach allows solving the problems on minimizing the hydrological objects damage and optimizing the nature management in the catchment in the context of the lack of hydrometeorological information.

  2. Landscape architecture as an entity of property development in Wilayah Persekutuan, Putrajaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nasyution bin Abdul Razak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between landscape architecture and property development. Landscape architecture emphasizes the nature of conservation, development of public parks, city parks, local parks, artificial forests, lakes, recreational areas, outdoor recreation centers, open space systems and other components of landscape architecture in providing opportunities and benefits for real estate development. Backed by ample literature review, this study reveals the significant relationship between land, real estate and landscape architecture. Landscape architecture which provides an open park and green space can be expanded to benefit the social, environment and economy through optimal used of space in property development project. Hence, this study discusses the objectives which are to determine significant factors in the development of landscape architecture, to identify the importance of landscape architecture in real estate development, and to assess the relationship between landscape architecture and property development land. This study involved 50 respondents from renowned developers; Putrajaya Holdings Sdn Bhd (PJH, Selangor State Development Corporation (PKNS, the local authority; Putrajaya Corporation (PPJ, Kajang Municipal Council (MPKj, relevant agencies; Valuation and Property Services Department-JPPH (Ministry of Finance, Department of Town and Country Planning (Peninsular Malaysia, developers registered with ReHDA and residents / property owners in the study area. To conclude, this study offers adequate benefits to policy makers, also relevant agencies such as the local authorities, landowners, property developers, the relevant professionals and communities on the positive effects and significant relationships between landscape architecture and property development.

  3. Regular Topographic Patterning of Karst Depressions Suggests Landscape Self-Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, C.; Cohen, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Thousands of wetland depressions that are commonly host to cypress domes dot the sub-tropical limestone landscape of South Florida. The origin of these depression features has been the topic of debate. Here we build upon the work of previous surveyors of this landscape to analyze the morphology and spatial distribution of depressions on the Big Cypress landscape. We took advantage of the emergence and availability of high resolution Light Direction and Ranging (LiDAR) technology and ArcMap GIS software to analyze the structure and regularity of landscape features with methods unavailable to past surveyors. Six 2.25 km2 LiDAR plots within the preserve were selected for remote analysis and one depression feature within each plot was selected for more intensive sediment and water depth surveying. Depression features on the Big Cypress landscape were found to show strong evidence of regular spatial patterning. Periodicity, a feature of regularly patterned landscapes, is apparent in both Variograms and Radial Spectrum Analyses. Size class distributions of the identified features indicate constrained feature sizes while Average Nearest Neighbor analyses support the inference of dispersed features with non-random spacing. The presence of regular patterning on this landscape strongly implies biotic reinforcement of spatial structure by way of the scale dependent feedback. In characterizing the structure of this wetland landscape we add to the growing body of work dedicated to documenting how water, life and geology may interact to shape the natural landscapes we see today.

  4. Scale-Free Relationships between Social and Landscape Factors in Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhu Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban planners and ecologists have long debated the relationship between the structure of urban landscapes and social activities. There have, however, been very few discussions as to whether any such relationships might depend on the scales of observation. This work applies a hierarchical zoning technique to data from the city of Quito, Ecuador, to examine how relationships between typical spatial landscape metrics and social indicators depend on zoning scales. Our results showed that the estimates of both landscape heterogeneity features and social indicators significantly depend on the zoning scale. The mean values of the typical landscape metrics and the social indicators all exhibited predictable responses to a changing zoning scale, suggesting a consistent and significant scaling relationship within the multiple zoning scales. Yet relationships between these pairs of variables remain notably invariant to scale. This quantitative demonstration of the scale-free nature of the relationship between landscape characteristics and social indicators furthers our understanding of the relationships between landscape structures and social aspects of urban spaces, including deprivation and public service accessibility. The relationships between social indicators and one typical landscape aggregation metric (represented as the percentage of like adjacencies were nevertheless significantly dependent on scale, suggesting the importance of zoning scale decisions for analyzing the relationships between the social indicators and the landscape characteristics related with landscape adjacency. Aside from this typical landscape aggregation metric, the general invariance to the zoning scale of relationships between landscape structures and socioeconomic indicators in Quito suggests the importance of applying these scale-free relationships in understanding complex socio-ecological systems in other cities, which are shaped by the conflated influences of both

  5. Landscape characterization integrating expert and local spatial knowledge of land and forest resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Käyhkö, Niina; Van Eetvelde, Veerle

    2013-09-01

    In many developing countries, political documentation acknowledges the crucial elements of participation and spatiality for effective land use planning. However, operative approaches to spatial data inclusion and representation in participatory land management are often lacking. In this paper, we apply and develop an integrated landscape characterization approach to enhance spatial knowledge generation about the complex human-nature interactions in landscapes in the context of Zanzibar, Tanzania. We apply an integrated landscape conceptualization as a theoretical framework where the expert and local knowledge can meet in spatial context. The characterization is based on combining multiple data sources in GIS, and involves local communities and their local spatial knowledge since the beginning into the process. Focusing on the expected information needs for community forest management, our characterization integrates physical landscape features and retrospective landscape change data with place-specific community knowledge collected through participatory GIS techniques. The characterization is established in a map form consisting of four themes and their synthesis. The characterization maps are designed to support intuitive interpretation, express the inherently uncertain nature of the data, and accompanied by photographs to enhance communication. Visual interpretation of the characterization mediates information about the character of areas and places in the studied local landscape, depicting the role of forest resources as part of the landscape entity. We conclude that landscape characterization applied in GIS is a highly potential tool for participatory land and resource management, where spatial argumentation, stakeholder communication, and empowerment are critical issues.

  6. Detectability of landscape effects on recolonization increases with regional population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Anna-Sara; Dalin, Peter; Björkman, Christer

    2015-07-01

    Variation in population size over time can influence our ability to identify landscape-moderated differences in community assembly. To date, however, most studies at the landscape scale only cover snapshots in time, thereby overlooking the temporal dynamics of populations and communities. In this paper, we present data that illustrate how temporal variation in population density at a regional scale can influence landscape-moderated variation in recolonization and population buildup in disturbed habitat patches. Four common insect species, two omnivores and two herbivores, were monitored over 8 years in 10 willow short-rotation coppice bio-energy stands with a four-year disturbance regime (coppice cycle). The population densities in these regularly disturbed stands were compared to densities in 17 undisturbed natural Salix cinerea (grey willow) stands in the same region. A time series approach was used, utilizing the natural variation between years to statistically model recolonization as a function of landscape composition under two different levels of regional density. Landscape composition, i.e. relative amount of forest vs. open agricultural habitats, largely determined the density of re-colonizing populations following willow coppicing in three of the four species. However, the impact of landscape composition was not detectable in years with low regional density. Our results illustrate that landscape-moderated recolonization can change over time and that considering the temporal dynamics of populations may be crucial when designing and evaluating studies at landscape level.

  7. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CD ROM 'Natural heritage of Slovakia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uradnikova, B.

    2005-01-01

    Centre of Environmental Education Geopark ('Centre') applied environmental education into school and out-of-school institutions. The 'Centre' is working in the fields: environmental education, eco-tourism development, presentation of the cultural landscape and world heritage. The CD ROM 'Natural heritage of Slovakia' was created with aim enhancement of environmental awareness, pedagogy, education and development of eco-tourism on the Slovakia. It abets general review about environment, its components, legislative, history and the present day of nature and landscape protection

  9. A framework to assess landscape structural capacity to provide regulating ecosystem services in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, Justice Nana; Frank, Susanne; Greve, Klaus; Fürst, Christine

    2018-03-01

    The Sudanian savanna landscapes of West Africa are amongst the world's most vulnerable areas to climate change impacts. Inappropriate land use and agriculture management practices continuously impede the capacity of agricultural landscapes to provide ecosystem services (ES). Given the absence of practical assessment techniques to evaluate the landscape's capacity to provide regulating ES in this region, the goal of this paper is to propose an integrative assessment framework which combines remote sensing, geographic information systems, expert weighting and landscape metrics-based assessment. We utilized Analytical Hierarchical Process and Likert scale for the expert weighting of landscape capacity. In total, 56 experts from several land use and landscape management related departments participated in the assessment. Further, we adapted the hemeroby concept to define areas of naturalness while landscape metrics including Patch Density, Shannon's Diversity, and Shape Index were utilized for structural assessment. Lastly, we tested the reliability of expert weighting using certainty measurement rated by experts themselves. Our study focused on four regulating ES including flood control, pest and disease control, climate control, and wind erosion control. Our assessment framework was tested on four selected sites in the Vea catchment area of Ghana. The outcome of our study revealed that highly heterogeneous landscapes have a higher capacity to provide pest and disease control, while less heterogeneous landscapes have a higher potential to provide climate control. Further, we could show that the potential capacities to provide ecosystem services are underestimated by 15% if landscape structural aspects assessed through landscape metrics are not considered. We conclude that the combination of adapted land use and an optimized land use pattern could contribute considerably to lower climate change impacts in West African agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  10. Landscape planning and management of spas in Serbia with special reference to the selected case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.

  11. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmo Vianello

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  12. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmo Vianello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes represent the stage setting of the ecosystem, the great theatre where the evolution of the environment, the changing of things and plant and animal life are played out; the diversity of landscapes derives from the combination, over time, of different environmental factors having perceptibly different roles, as in the case of climate, vegetation and human activity. Less perceptible and scarcely known is the role of soil, which has the ability not only to diversify the ecosystem’s landscapes but also to differentiate its level of productivity and liveability. The role of soil as part of the landscape is not always so evident, especially when it is covered by vegetation that precludes observation. At times, however, soils show themselves conspicuously, at least on the surface, when the colours of the epipedons invade the landscape and – in the ploughing season – dominate it. While it may be reassuring to see neatly cultivated fields and crops growing luxuriantly and homogeneously, the increasingly marked and evident signs of soil degradation or erosion are a cause for concern. In the recent past, the relationship between man and soil resources was strongly influenced by natural factors inside and outside the soil itself, socio-economic conditions and above all the labour force, i.e. the people employed in the primary sector; consequently, it was based on such factors that crop-growing choices were adapted to the different ecosystems, resulting in a diversification of rural landscapes. Starting from the second half of the twentieth century, the introduction of chemicals, mechanisation and exploitation of various forms of energy drastically transformed land use in the space of just a few years, with a logic aimed at improving the production capacity of farmland and forest land in both qualitative and quantitative terms. As a consequence, farming choices that were formerly adapted to the natural and socio-economic conditions of

  13. Epigenetic Inheritance Across the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Vaughn Whipple

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  14. Epigenetic Inheritance across the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Amy V; Holeski, Liza M

    2016-01-01

    The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here, we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  15. Changes in Landscape Pattern of Wetland around Hangzhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenpeng; Li, Yuan; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Hangzhou Bay is an important estuarial coastal wetland, which offers a large number of land and ecological resources. It plays a significant role in the sustainable development of resources, environment and economy. In this paper, based on the remote sensing images in 1996, 2005 and 2013, we extracted the coastal wetland data and analyzed the wetland landscape pattern of the Hangzhou Bay in the past 20 years. The results show that: (1) the area of coastal wetland is heading downwards in the recent decades. Paddy field and the coastal wetland diminish greatly. (2) the single dynamic degree of wetland of the Hangzhou Bay displays that paddy fields and coastal wetlands are shrinking, but lakes, reservoirs and ponds are constantly expanding. (3) the wetland landscape pattern index shows that total patch area of the coastal wetland and paddy fields have gradually diminished. The Shannon diversity index, the Shannon evenness index as well as the landscape separation index of the coastal wetlands in the Hangzhou Bay increase steadily. The landscape pattern in the study area has shown a trend of high fragmentation, dominance decreases, but some dominant landscape still exist in this region. (4) Urbanization and natural factors lead to the reduction of wetland area. Besides the pressure of population is a major threat to the wetland. The study will provide scientific basis for long-term planning for this region.

  16. From Forest Landscape to Agricultural Landscape in the Developing Tropical Country of Malaysia: Pattern, Process, and Their Significance on Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif; Hezri, Adnan A.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural expansion and deforestation are spatial processes of land transformation that impact on landscape pattern. In peninsular Malaysia, the conversion of forested areas into two major cash crops—rubber and oil palm plantations—has been identified as driving significant environmental change. To date, there has been insufficient literature studying the link between changes in landscape patterns and land-related development policies. Therefore, this paper examines: (i) the links between development policies and changes in land use/land cover and landscape pattern and (ii) the significance and implications of these links for future development policies. The objective is to generate insights on the changing process of land use/land cover and landscape pattern as a functional response to development policies and their consequences for environmental conditions. Over the last century, the development of cash crops has changed the country from one dominated by natural landscapes to one dominated by agricultural landscapes. But the last decade of the century saw urbanization beginning to impact significantly. This process aligned with the establishment of various development policies, from land development for agriculture between the mid 1950s and the 1970s to an emphasis on manufacturing from the 1980s onward. Based on a case study in Selangor, peninsular Malaysia, a model of landscape pattern change is presented. It contains three stages according to the relative importance of rubber (first stage: 1900-1950s), oil palm (second stage: 1960s-1970s), and urban (third stage: 1980s-1990s) development that influenced landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity. The environmental consequences of this change have been depicted through loss of biodiversity, geohazard incidences, and the spread of vector-borne diseases. The spatial ecological information can be useful to development policy formulation, allowing diagnosis of the country’s “health” and sustainability

  17. Modeling Coupled Landscape Evolution and Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Intensively Management Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Soil is the largest reservoir of carbon in the biosphere but in agricultural areas it is going through rapid erosion due disturbance arising from crop harvest, tillage, and tile drainage. Identifying whether the production of soil organic carbon (SOC) from the crops can compensate for the loss due to erosion is critical to ensure our food security and adapt to climate change. In the U.S. Midwest where large areas of land are intensively managed for agriculture practices, predicting soil quantity and quality are critical for maintaining crop yield and other Critical Zone services. This work focuses on modeling the coupled landscape evolutions soil organic carbon dynamics in agricultural fields. It couples landscape evolution, surface water runoff, organic matter transformation, and soil moisture dynamics to understand organic carbon gain and loss due to natural forcing and farming practices, such as fertilizer application and tillage. A distinctive feature of the model is the coupling of surface ad subsurface processes that predicts both surficial changes and transport along with the vertical transport and dynamics. Our results show that landscape evolution and farming practices play dominant roles in soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics both above- and below-ground. Contrary to the common assumption that a vertical profile of SOC concentration decreases exponentially with depth, we find that in many situations SOC concentration below-ground could be higher than that at the surface. Tillage plays a complex role in organic matter dynamics. On one hand, tillage would accelerate the erosion rate, on the other hand, it would improve carbon storage by burying surface SOC into below ground. Our model consistently reproduces the observed above- and below-ground patterns of SOC in the field sites of Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO). This model bridges the gaps between the landscape evolution, below- and above-ground hydrologic cycle, and

  18. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1995. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In promoting ecology research, the federal ministry of science and technology (BMBF) pursues the aim to enhance understanding of the natural resources indispensable to the life of man, animals and plant societies and their interrelations, and to point out existing scope for action to preserve or replenish them. Consequently, ecology research makes an essential contribution towards effective nature conservancy and environmental protection. The interactions between climate and ecosystems also form an important part of this. With regard to topical environmental issues concerning agricultural landscapes, rivers and lakes, forests and urban-industrial agglomerations, system interrelations in representative ecosystems are investigated. The results are to be embodied in directives for the protection or appropriate use of these ecosystems in order to contribute towards a sustainable development of these types of landscapes. The book also evaluates and assesses which types of nuisances, interventions and modes of use represent hazards for the respective systems. (orig./VHE) [de

  19. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  20. Riparian landscapes: Linking geodiversity with habitat and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmieleski, Jana; Danzeisen, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Oder valley, biodiversity, geodiversity River landscapes of all scales originally showed a high diversity of structures and habitats at a small spatial entity, such as the stream beds, terrasses, sand and gravel banks. This variety, with a lot of different elements, patches and patterns, represents not only a variety of geoelements or geomorhological features but also a large biodiversity, both of habitats and species. Riparian landscapes are both, a natural as well as a geoheritage, often even a cultural heritage (sustainabe land use practices). Embankments, utilization for agriculture, constructions for navigation, management measures lead to a strong loss of these structures. This impacts the value of the landscape as well ecosystem functions, not only the biodiversity and the geodiversity but also the recreation function or the aesthetic values. A case study from the National Park Lower Oder Valley in the Northeastern part of Germany, wich is also part of a Geopark („Eiszeitland am Oderrand") presents the connections of the diversity of geomorphological features with biodiversity and shows the loss of features (loss of values) due to intensive utilisation by using GIS-analysis and landscape-metrics. The Northern part of the Oder valley (National Park, transnational protection area of Germany and Poland) have been modified by man since centuries but even so remained in near-natural state that allows semi-(natural) stream dynamics. While the Oder's reparian zone is marked by the stream itself, by its bayous, reed beds, periodically flooded wet meadows and by its natural riparian forest the mineral morainic plateaus are marked by semi-natural forests and dry grasslands. Two areas of different degradation states, a) near-natural and wilderness area and b) grassland area will be compared in order to identify: quantity and extent of features, relation of measure and coverage, connectivity with other features, quantity and types of habitats (with